The effects of W, Re, Cr, and Mo on microstructural stability, such as the morphology of γ′ phase and the topologically close-packed (TCP) phase precipitation are systematically investigated in eleven kinds of Ni-based single crystal superalloys containing certain amounts of Co, Al, and Ta. After heat treatment, all the designed alloys show different sizes of γ′ phases with typical cuboidal morphology occupying 75% of the total volume. With increasing Re content, the size of γ′ decreases obviously, while the size of γ′ decreases slightly with increasing Cr and Mo contents. Increasing W does not affect the size of γ′. As a result of thermal exposure at 1000 °C for 1000 h, some acicular, rod-like, and blocky TCP phases are precipitated in most alloys. It is noted that Mo and Re can strongly promote the precipitation of TCP phase, but W has no obvious effect on TCP phase precipitation. In addition, transmission electron microscope analysis indicates that these TCP phases are σ phase, μ phase, and R phase.