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The Cambridge History of Philosophy in Late Antiquity
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  • 32 - From Constantine to Justinian
    pp 585-607
  • View abstract
    The Theodosian Code is a monumental endeavour which collected, organized and published all laws issued by the Roman emperors after and including Constantine I. This chapter talks about the heirs of Theodosius I, Zeno and the disappearance of the western emperor, and the age of Justinian. The interplay of the centrifugal factors that Theodosius' policies set in motion can first be seen clearly during the early days of Arcadius' and Honorius' reigns. The turbulence that beset the courts in Ravenna and Constantinople after 450 was ironically of great benefit to what might be called renegade populations. When Justinian inherited the throne, his goals and projects showed him to be a typical late-antique sovereign; nevertheless, he planted the seeds of change that would help bring about the end of the era. The era of late antiquity quietly came to an end when the Mediterranean became a frontier zone separating the people ruled by the Islamic, Byzantine and Frankish Empires.
  • 33 - Plutarch of Athens
    pp 608-615
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    Plutarch of Athens was the philosophy teacher of Hierocles of Alexandria, Syrianus and the young Proclus. The three also lived in the same house in Athens, which was close to the temple of Asclepius and that of Dionysus, near the theatre. Based on the current state of ancient evidence, the greatest contribution of Plutarch of Athens in the context of Platonic exegesis is his interpretation of the structure of the Parmenides. Both Plutarch and Syrianus made substantial and respectful use of the exegetic texts of Alexander of Aphrodisias. They provided a structural and comprehensive reading of the Parmenides, whose methodological principle is that of a correspondence between the phases of the arguments in the dialogue and the hierarchical levels of reality; this principle was also adopted and developed by Proclus. Both show the influence of Iamblichus' teachings in their treatment of theurgy, the theological reading of the Parmenides, and psychology, and in their close comparison between Plato and Aristotle.
  • 34 - Syrianus
    pp 616-629
  • View abstract
    Information about the life of Syrianus is limited to what can be deduced from what we know about the life of Proclus, Syrianus' disciple. Syrianus' interpretation of Plato's Parmenides certainly went on to have an important influence on the theology of his disciple, Proclus and, through him, on much later metaphysical philosophy. Although there has been no direct transmission of Syrianus' theological teaching, most of it can be read in Proclus' Commentary on the Parmenides and his Platonic Theology. In his commentary on Aristotle's Metaphysics, Syrianus formulates his doctrine of the three levels of substance: intelligible substances, dianoetic substances, and sensible substances. Syrianus maintained that human souls had an eternal vehicle, a pneumatic vehicle, and a sensible body. It is seen in Syrianus, an attachment to the doctrine of independent Ideas and a related critique of abstraction as a method of generating axioms, and the influence of Iamblichus can be recognized.
  • 35 - Proclus
    pp 630-653
  • View abstract
    Proclus was born in 412 in Byzantium in a Lycian family, still faithful to the old Hellenic religion in a society already dominated by Christianity. After Syrianus' death, he became the head of the school and thus 'successor of Plato', a position he held for almost fifty years until his death in 485. This chapter focuses on his theological metaphysics. It follows, as it main inspiration, the Elements, this superb monument of theological metaphysics, wherein Proclus himself is surprisingly sober and rational, and never introduces proper names of gods. Besides his commentaries Proclus owes his reputation mainly to his two great systematic works, the Elements of Theology and the Platonic Theology. Proclus contributed much more to the formation of the Platonic tradition in the Middle Ages than Plotinus. Proclus' speculations on the triadic circle of remaining, procession and return fascinated Hegel.
  • 36 - Ammonius Hermeiou and his school
    pp 654-666
  • View abstract
    Ammonius was pagan teacher of pagan philosophy in Alexandria from the late fifth into the early sixth century. He was also the founder of an 'Alexandrian' school of Aristotelian interpretation. Ammonius is the first to provide us with a version of the ten preliminary points which Proclus thought necessary to begin the study of Aristotle. Aristotle, he says, is always doing natural philosophy when he does theology, while Plato is always doing theology when he does natural philosophy. An example of such different approaches may be found in Ammonius' conception of the Aristotelian God. It is clear that Ammonius was felt to be first and foremost an interpreter of Aristotle, and that his view was that such an interpreter had a duty to show the underlying agreement of Aristotle with Plato. He in fact founded a particularly Alexandrian form of late Platonism.
  • 37 - Damascius
    pp 667-696
  • View abstract
    The chronology of the Platonic Academy in later ancient times is well known, owing to the description Damascius furnishes in his Vita Isidori. The book presented a general historical survey of the Athenian Academy from the early fourth century CE onwards. Damascius' main purpose is to bring rational analysis to its own limits, by climbing up the ladder of reasoned arguments in order to detect a reality that is beyond reach. This chapter, through examples, discusses the emphasis on the ineffability of the first principles. The aporetic and ever searching nature of Damascius' thought is the result of a constant uneasiness with the very fundamental principles of Late Platonic doctrine, and with its systematization offered by Proclus, even though Damascius seems to conceal this dissidence by a commentary on Proclus. The last schoolmaster of the Academy really was up to giving the school a new dynamic, renewing the original inspiration of Plato's philosophical quest.
  • 38 - Olympiodorus
    pp 696-710
  • View abstract
    Olympiodorus' surviving commentaries are all apo phones, i.e. lecture notes by students. There are commentaries on two works of Aristotle and three Platonic dialogues. The Vaticanus Urbinas graecus 35 has preserved excerpts from a commentary on Aristotle's De interpretatione in the form of scholia. Scholars in the past have often belittled Olympiodorus' philosophical acumen and exegetical skills. There are commentaries on two works of Aristotle and three Platonic dialogues. Olympiodorus follows Ammonius in emphasizing the harmony between Aristotle and his master. Olympiodorus' Alcibiades shows that people are rational souls making use of the body as an instrument. It draws on a commentary by Damascius and, probably through the latter, on Proclus. Olympiodorus' Commentary on the Gorgias is the only surviving commentary on this work. It often refers to Ammonius' interpretations. The Gorgias commentary contains an interesting criticism of astrology, which, however, does not amount to an outright rejection.
  • 39 - Simplicius of Cilicia
    pp 711-732
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    This chapter discusses Simplicius' life, works, and methodology of output. He came from Cilicia (south-eastern Anatolia), and was was educated by Ammonius in Alexandria. Of the seven major works written by Simplicius, four or five are commentaries on Aristotle. Simplicius' philosophical views are woven into his commentaries, which serve several agendas, explicating Aristotle being the most important one. Simplicius combines instruction in physics and cosmology with a keen interest in moulding the spiritual outlook of aspiring Platonists. Until recently, Simplicius' views were hardly studied and understood by few. The late nineteenth century cast him in the role of intermediary, a 'source' for Greek philosophy. Simplicius aimed to offer an apologia and protreptic in combining philosophical analysis and historical survey of encyclopaedic proportions. The volume and style of his works make them difficult to categorize. He is neither a Plato or Aristotle, nor a Plotinus or Proclus, but sui generis.
  • 40 - John Philoponus
    pp 733-755
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    This chapter discusses John Philoponus' life and work, the philosophy of the early Philoponus, and the philosophy of the later Philoponus. It presents a survey of the extant philosophical writings attributed to Philoponus, and mentions the most important other extant or partly preserved works. These include In Categorias, In Meteorologica I, and In Physica. The chapter outlines two systems that focus on exegetical policy, metaphysics, psychology and cosmology as a whole. The first prominent characteristic of the philosophy of Philoponus I is its attempt to harmonize Aristotle with Plato on the basis of Platonic metaphysics. The chapter also discusses those views of the later Philoponus which contrast with corresponding views of his Platonic period. The early Philoponus gave a non-literal interpretation of Plato's cosmogony and psychogony, and of Aristotle's criticism of them, in order to harmonize Aristotle with Plato as much as possible. The beginning and end of Philoponus' work, including Proclus' first Argument, are lost.
  • 41 - Priscian of Lydia and Pseudo-Simplicius on the soul
    pp 756-764
  • View abstract
    Priscian of Lydia is one of the six philosophers listed by Agathias Histories to have accompanied Damascius on his journey to the Sassanian king Chosroes I. He is credited with a work apparently written for King Chosroes, and known in Latin translation under the title Solutiones eorum de quibus dubitavit Chosroes Persarum rex. The Solutiones discusses a number of issues, including what is the nature of the human soul, the nature of sleep, how vision relates to dreams and prophecy in dreams, the solar year cause the four seasons and different climatic, and how lunar phases and lunar activity affect tidal variations zones. An undisputed work on psychology by Priscian is his so-called Metaphrasis on Theophrastus. Priscian provides a thoroughly late-Platonic interpretation of the Peripatetic material, prompted by the critical questions of Theophrastus. The doctrinal content of the Metaphrasis is best discussed in connection with a commentary on Aristotle's De anima which all manuscripts attribute to Simplicius.
  • 42 - Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite
    pp 767-787
  • View abstract
    In the late fifth or early sixth century, a Christian writer, composed a body of works in which the philosophy of Plotinus, Proclus and other thinkers in the Platonic tradition is united with Christian belief. The works appeared under the name of Dionysius the Areopagite, and author is now referred to as 'Pseudo-Dionysius'. The surviving works of Dionysius include four treatises and ten letters. In On Divine Names, Dionysius sets out to explain how the unknowable, hidden, 'nameless' God is hymned by many names in the Christian Scriptures and traditions. Dionysius interprets God's making of the world in terms of the distinctively Platonic kind of causation. He uses the term 'symbol' to refer to the sensible expressions of God and of angels found in Scripture and liturgy. Dionysius thus becomes one of the main representatives of Platonic philosophy within Christian thought and one of the principal sources for its continued presence.
  • 43 - Boethius
    pp 788-812
  • View abstract
    Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius, descended from an established Roman elite, had gained a reputation for his scientific and philosophical scholarship by c. 507, when he appears already to have received the title of Patrician. He was named Magister Officiorum, becoming the highest ranking official in the court of the Ostrogothic King Theoderic. Boethius' corpus is divisible into the three broad categories: mathematical, theological and philosophical writings. Of Boethius' translations, there are those of Porphyry's Isagoge and of Aristotle's Categories, Peri Hermeneias, Prior Analytics, Topics and Sophistical Fallacies. Of his commentaries, there are those on the Isagoge, Categories and Peri Hermeneias. Boethius was a Platonist. His close adherence to Plato's writings has been mentioned as one of the main characteristics of his Platonism. Itur in antiquam silvam perhaps best expresses the general spirit of the work, which reaches back to those authorities whose hold on Boethius' imagination appears to have been especially strong: Augustine, Aristotle, the Bible, and above all Plato.
  • 44 - Maximus the Confessor
    pp 813-828
  • View abstract
    The work of Maximus the Confessor presents the philosophical world view of the Greek-speaking Christian tradition in its most fully developed form. Maximus writes as a theologian rather than a philosopher, and many of his most interesting ideas are presented through elaborate allegorical interpretations of Scripture. He was a friend and disciple of Sophronius, and wrote numerous letters and short treatises arguing that Christ had two energies, one human and one divine, and likewise two natural wills. These works are important sources for Maximus' analysis of the will. Maximus sees humanity as capable of uniting within itself the two poles of each of the five divisions of being: uncreated versus created, intelligible versus sensible, heavenly versus earthly, paradisiacal versus worldly, and male versus female. His ontology and his understanding of deification come together in his teaching about time and eternity. Maximus also distinguishes from the natural will what he calls the 'gnomic will'.
  • 45 - John Scotus Eriugena
    pp 829-840
  • View abstract
    John Scotus Eriugena was a master of the liberal arts, translator, philologue, poet, philosopher and theologian. He developed the most systematic and radical form of Platonism. After Boethius, he was the first to draw together the Greek and Latin Platonisms and the resulting system enabled his reconciliation of Latin and Greek Christian theology. Eriugena wrote his Treatise on Divine Predestination. Eriugena taught both the three linguistic (grammar, logic and rhetoric) and the four mathematical (arithmetic, geometry, astronomy and music) arts at the court. There are two printed forms: his Annotations and his incomplete Gloss on the Marriage of Philology and Mercury, by the fifth-century pagan Platonist Martianus Capella. The Periphyseon is a systematic philosophical theology explicating the structure of the universe in the form of a dialogue between a master or 'Nutritor' and his 'Alumnus' or disciple. From two fundamental notions: God creates himself, and God is nothing, Eriugena concludes that the nothing from which God creates is himself.
  • 46 - Early Byzantine philosophy
    pp 843-868
  • View abstract
    It is only sixty years ago, that Byzantine philosophy emerged as a subject matter worth investigating in the history of philosophy. Nowadays, discussion on the question about the existence of Byzantine philosophy mainly revolves around the criteria which should be adopted in order to assess this period of philosophical thought without imposing on it on the basis of an anachronistic approach. There were six definitions of philosophy that were used by the Byzantines, which clearly suggest that the characteristics which they themselves attributed to philosophy were diverse. Talking of the philosophical production of the early Byzantine period, this chapter first presents the main authors who engaged themselves in a philosophical discourse, and then focuses on certain philosophical topics which were central at the time. Metaphysics, world, and anthropology are the topics of this period. Early Byzantine philosophy was characterized by the absence of a doctrinal system and of a well-defined philosophical community.
  • 47 - The origins of Islamic philosophy
    pp 869-893
  • View abstract
    The origins of Arabic-Islamic philosophy are found in the transmission of a great amount of texts both from classical Greece and post-classical Greek thought, from Hellenism to late antiquity. This chapter shows that post-classical thought has been of momentous importance in the Arab interpretation of Plato's and Aristotle's doctrines. Scientist and philosopher al-Kindi echoes Aristotle's Metaphysics in his treatise that intermingles genuine Aristotelian tenets and a great amount of late Platonic elements, mostly derived from Plotinus and Proclus as well as from Philoponus' anti-eternalist works. Aristotle's universe, in Arabic-Islamic philosophy, embraces two worlds, the intelligible and the visible, both transcended by a unique First Principle supremely simple. What Arabic-Islamic philosophy owes to late antiquity is the same that Medieval Latin philosophy owes to it: a powerful rethinking of the Greek classical heritage, through the readings of Aristotle and Plato, by Alexander of Aphrodisias and Plotinus.
  • 48 - Ancient philosophy becomes medieval philosophy
    pp 894-914
  • View abstract
    In dealing with the transformation of ancient philosophy into medieval philosophy, it is important to remember that medieval thinkers always read their secular, post-classical and Platonic sources in combination with certain Christian, post-classical and Platonic sources. This chapter is divided into three main sections dealing with the influence of the late-ancient writers, Calcidius, Boethius and Proclus, on medieval philosophy. The chapter deals with translations into Latin produced in late antiquity or during the eleventh and twelfth centuries. The Commentarius in Somnium Scipionis by Macrobius exercised a considerable and indeed unparalleled influence upon medieval philosophy through its summary of the famous doctrine concerning the One (or Good), Intellect, and Soul. Among the writings which began to influence philosophical thought from the early twelfth century onwards was Nemesius of Emesa's De natura hominis. The chapter concludes with a discussion on the influence of various late-ancient writers whose influence on medieval philosophy is still worthy of note.
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Blank’s translation (slightly revised by Seel, G. and Schneider, J.-P.) is also found in Seel (2000) Ammonius and the Seabattle: Texts, Commentary and Essays (Peripatoi 18). Berlin–New York.
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,Anonymous (c. 700), Philosophical excerpts: in Kotter, B. P., Die Schriften des Johannes von Damaskos, 1 [PTS 7] (1969). Berlin. 151–73.
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,Anonymus Heiberg / Gregory Aneponymous, Anonymi Logica et Quadrivium cum scholiis antiquis, ed. Heiberg, J. L. (1929). Copenhagen.
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Anton, J. (1997) ‘Neoplatonic Elements in Arethas’ Scholia on Aristotle and Porphyry’, in Benakis, L. G. (ed.), Néoplatonisme et Philosophie Médiévale, Actes du Colloque international, Société International pour L’ étude de la Philosophie Médiéval (Octobre 1995). Brepols, 291–306.
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