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Three-dimensional graphene (3D-GN)/Cu/Fe3O4 composite support materials were synthesized by a modified chemical reduction method using graphene oxide precursor. A 3D-GN/Cu/Fe3O4 biosensor was prepared by coating the electrode with laccase. The electrochemical properties of the biosensor were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry using potassium ferricyanide, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution, and bisphenol A (BPA) solution. The current response of 3D-GN/Cu/Fe3O4 biosensors presents a remarkable sensitivity based on CV. The linear range of BPA is 7.2–18 μM using differential pulse voltammetry in PBS solution (pH = 4.0). A linear fitting equation of the laccase biosensor was observed for the current response as a function of BPA concentration. The detection limit was decreased to 1.7 μM. The detection approach herein turns out to be highly sensitive, has a wide linear range, and exhibits excellent stability.
Wire-shaped supercapacitors (WSSCs) hold great promise in portable and wearable electronics. Herein, a novel kind of high-performance coaxial WSSCs has been demonstrated and realized by scrolling porous carbon dodecahedrons/Al foil film electrode on vertical FeOOH nanosheets wrapping carbon fiber tows (FeOOH NSs/CFTs) yarn electrode. Remarkably, ionogel is utilized as solid-state electrolyte and exhibits a high thermal/electrochemical stability, which effectively ensures the great reliability and high operating voltage of coaxial WSSCs. Benefiting from the intriguing configuration, the coaxial WSSCs with superior flexibility act as efficient energy storage devices and exhibit low resistance, high volumetric energy density (3.2 mW h/cm3), and strong durability (82% after 10,000 cycles). Importantly, the coaxial WSSCs can be effectively recharged by harvesting sustainable wind source and repeatedly supply power to the lamp without a decline of electrochemical performance. Considering the facile fabrication technology with an outstanding performance, this work has paved the way for the integration of sustainable energy harvesting and wearable energy storage units.
The effect of maternal folate intake on small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births remains inconclusive. The present study aimed to investigate the associations of maternal folate intake from diet and supplements with the risk of SGA births using data from a cross-sectional study in Shaanxi Province of Northwest China. A total of 7307 women who were within 12 months (median 3; 10th–90th percentile 0–7) after delivery were included. Two-level models were adopted to examine the associations of folate (dietary folate, supplemental folic acid and total folate) intake with the risk of SGA births and birth weight Z score, controlling for a minimum set of confounders that were identified in a directed acyclic graph. Results showed that a higher supplemental folic acid intake during the first trimester was negatively associated with the risk of SGA births (≤60 d v. non-use: OR 0·80; 95 % CI 0·66, 0·96; >60 d v. non-use: OR 0·78; 95 % CI 0·65, 0·94; Ptrend = 0·010; per 10-d increase: OR 0·97; 95 % CI 0·95, 0·99). A higher total folate intake during pregnancy was associated with a reduced risk of SGA births (highest tertile v. lowest tertile: OR 0·77; 95 % CI 0·64, 0·94; Ptrend = 0·010; per one-unit increase in the log-transformed value: OR 0·81; 95 % CI 0·69, 0·95). A similar pattern was observed for the birth weight Z score. Our study suggested that folic acid supplementation during the first trimester and a higher total folate intake during pregnancy were associated with a reduced risk of SGA births.
Deep learning methods have been applied to randomly generate images, such as in fashion, furniture design. To date, consideration of human aspects which play a vital role in a design process has not been given significant attention in deep learning approaches. In this paper, results are reported from a human- in-the-loop design method where brain EEG signals are used to capture preferable design features. In the framework developed, an encoder extracting EEG features from raw signals recorded from subjects when viewing images from ImageNet are learned. Secondly, a GAN model is trained conditioned on the encoded EEG features to generate design images. Thirdly, the trained model is used to generate design images from a person's EEG measured brain activity in the cognitive process of thinking about a design. To verify the proposed method, a case study is presented following the proposed approach. The results indicate that the method can generate preferred designs styles guided by the preference related brain signals. In addition, this method could also help improve communication between designers and clients where clients might not be able to express design requests clearly.
Maternal exposure to major stressors during pregnancy has been found to increase the risk of neurodevelopmental, cognitive and psychiatric disorders in the offspring. However, the association between prenatal exposure to earthquake and the risk of adult schizophrenia has yet to be examined.
To explore the potential long-term effects of prenatal exposure to maternal stress on the risk of schizophrenia in adulthood, using the Great Tangshan Earthquake in 1976 as a natural experiment.
We obtained data from the Second China National Sample Survey on Disability, and analysed 94 410 Chinese individuals born between 1975 and 1979. We obtained difference-in-differences estimates of the earthquake effects on schizophrenia by exploiting temporal variation in the timing of earthquake exposure across four birth cohorts born between 1975 and 1979, along with geographical variation in earthquake severity at the prefecture level. Schizophrenia was ascertained by psychiatrists using the ICD-10 classification. Earthquake severity was measured by seismic intensity.
Earthquake cohort who experienced prenatal exposure to felt earthquake had higher risk of schizophrenia (odds ratio, 3.38; 95% CI 1.43–8.00) compared with the unexposed reference cohort. After specifying the timing of exposure by the trimester of pregnancy, prenatal exposure to felt earthquake during the first trimester of pregnancy increased the risk of adulthood schizophrenia significantly (odds ratio, 7.45; 95% CI 2.83–19.59).
Prenatal (particularly early pregnancy) exposure to maternal stress after a major disaster substantially affects the mental health of Chinese adults.
Kaolinite can be used for many applications, including the underground storage of gases. Density functional theory was employed to investigate the adsorption of hydrogen molecules on the kaolinite (001) surface. The coverage dependence of the adsorption sites and energetics was studied systematically for a wide range of coverage, Θ (from 1/16 to 1 monolayer). The three-fold hollow site is the most stable, followed by the bridge, top-z and top sites. The adsorption energy of H2 decreased with increasing coverage, thus indicating the lower stability of surface adsorption due to the repulsion of neighbouring H2 molecules. The coverage has obvious effects on hydrogen adsorption. Other properties of the H2/kaolinite (001) system, including the lattice relaxation and changes of electronic density of states, were also studied and are discussed in detail.
The current measures of cognitive functioning in adulthood do not indicate a long-term association with prenatal exposure to the Dutch famine. However, whether such association emerges in China is poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the potential effect of prenatal exposure to the 1959–1961 Chinese famine on adult cognitive impairment. We obtained data from the Second National Sample Survey on Disability implemented in thirty-one provinces in 2006, and restricted our analysis to 387 093 individuals born in 1956–1965. Cognitive impairment was defined as intelligence quotient (IQ) score under 70 and IQ of adults was evaluated by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – China Revision. Famine severity was defined as excess death rate. The famine impact on adult cognitive impairment was estimated by difference-in-difference models, established by examining the variations of famine exposure across birth cohorts. Results show that compared with adults born in 1956–1958, those who were exposed to Chinese famine during gestation (born in 1959–1961) were at greater risk of cognitive impairment in the total sample. Stratified analyses showed that this effect was evident in males and females, but only in rural, not in urban areas. In conclusion, prenatal exposure to famine had an enduring deleterious effect on risk of cognitive impairment in rural adults.
In this paper, an orthogonal crossover artificial bee colony (OCABC) algorithm based on orthogonal experimental design is presented and applied to infer the marine atmospheric duct using the refractivity from clutter technique, and the radar sea clutter power is simulated by the commonly used parabolic equation method. In order to test the accuracy of the OCABC algorithm, the measured data and the simulated clutter power with different noise levels are, respectively, utilized to estimate the evaporation duct and surface duct. The estimation results obtained by the proposed algorithm are also compared with those of the comprehensive learning particle swarm optimizer and the artificial bee colony algorithm combined with opposition-based learning and global best search equation. The comparison results demonstrate that the performance of proposed algorithm is better than those of the compared algorithms for the marine atmospheric duct estimation.
As the operating temperature of disk service was elevated from 650 °C to 700 °C, the creep properties urged to be paid attention. To investigate the creep properties of spray-formed low solvus, high refractory (LSHR) superalloy at about 700 °C, creep tests were conducted under seven different stress ranging from 690 MPa to 897 MPa. By means of creep curves and fracture microstructure observation, the creep behaviors and fracture mechanisms of spray-formed LSHR were analyzed. Stress exponent of the alloy was comparable to other disk superalloys such as Waspaloy and Inconel 718. It was interesting to find a transition in the creep behavior in two stress regimes. The contribution of grain boundary sliding in the low stress regime was greater than that in the higher stress. Under higher stress microcracks initiated along the intragranular slip bands because of strain concentration. The spray-forming LSHR exhibited a good creep resistance at low stress compared with other two superalloys by using Larson–Miller parameter, which was consistent with the transition of fracture behaviors.
Cryomilling combined with laser induction hybrid cladding (LIHC) was adopted to produce NiCrAlY coatings on Ni-based superalloy. The characteristics, oxidation resistance, and mechanical properties of the cryomilled NiCrAlY coatings by LIHC were investigated. By increasing the cryomilling time, the as-received spherical powder experienced a transition from flake-shaped to polygonal structure. The particle size increased firstly and then decreased. Moreover, increasing the cryomilling time induced the columnar growth in the NiCrAlY coatings. This in turn improved the oxidation resistance and the mechanical properties of the coatings. Especially, when the cryomilling time was increased to 15 h, the oxidation resistance of the coating at 1423 K was approximately nine times than that of GH4169 superalloy. The tensile strength of the cryomilled (15 h) coating increased to 1085 MPa and the ductility was 20.7%.
A magnetoelectric theoretical model combing piezoelectric and piezomagnetic parts about the longitudinal vibration was proposed for the laminate composite based on equivalent circuit. The model shows that the magnetoelectric voltage is relative to the thickness ratio, total thickness, frequency and loss. A simple laminate magnetoelectric composite was prepared by bonding a nickel plate and a multilayer piezoelectric vibrator together for the experimental research. The multilayer vibrator enjoys high capacitance, large effective area and low thickness, leading to a high magnetic field sensitivity of 1 mOe at the magnetoelectric field coefficient of 2.58 V/cmOe in the simple composite with nickel thickness of 0.2 mm. The model fits the resonance frequency well with the experimental results. Numerical calculation well predicates the magnetoelectric experimental behaviors, presenting a magnetoelectric maximum at about the thickness ratio 0.3 between the nickel plate and multilayer vibrators. This approach provides a method for the magnetoelectric application.
In this paper, we propose the Laguerre spectral method for high order problems with mixed inhomogeneous boundary conditions. It is also available for approximated solutions growing fast at infinity. The spectral accuracy is proved. Numerical results demonstrate its high effectiveness.
In this paper, the mechanical properties of plasma-sprayed coatings are evaluated using
the technology of nanoindentation. According to the indentation curve (load versus
indenter’s displacement), which is recorded in an indentation experiment, the mechanical
behaviour of the plasma-sprayed coating is investigated via inverse analysis using
numerical optimization algorithms. The tip rounding of imperfect indenter is investigated
in parameter identification. Subsequently, the hardness on the top surface and on the
vertical cross section of the plasma-sprayed coating are investigated. The results show
that the hardness on the top surface of the coating depends on the indentation depth.
Moreover, the results show that the hardness on the cross section of the coating is
significantly affected by the substrate if the indentation impression is too close to the
The mouse sperm genome is resistant to in vitro heat treatment, and embryos derived from heated sperm can support full-term embryonic development, but the blastocyst rate and implantation rate are lower compared to embryos derived from fresh sperm. In the present study, the patterns of DNA methylation, histone H4K12 (ACH4K12) acetylation, H3K9 trimethylation (H3K9-TriM), and H3K27 trimethylation (H3K27-TriM) in preimplantation embryos derived from 65°C-heated sperm were investigated. Although no evident changes in global DNA methyaltion, histone H4K12 (ACH4K12) acetylation, and H3K9 trimethylation (H3K9-TriM) were found, significantly lower levels of H3K27-TriM, which was thought to be one of the reasons for low efficiency of mouse cloning, were found in the inner cell mass of heated-sperm derived blastocysts. Thus, defective modification of H3K27-TriM might contribute to compromised development of embryos derived from heated sperm.
Under the COMPASS (condensed-phase optimized molecular potentials for atomistic simulation studies) force field, the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was applied to first-to-third generation nanosize amine-based and butanediamine-based graphite/dendrimers composites. In this paper, we briefly introduced the constructive process of the composite system by means of MD simulation. The stability and mechanism of six intercalation composites were studied with microcosmic figure and variational energy under the invariable NVT ensemble. The energy variety was analyzed using the radial distribution function. The results indicate that the bulk of the dendrimer is small, the graphite layer is easy to bend and its systematic total energy is higher, which lead to the instability of the composite system. Therefore, the 3G dendrimer is the most stable system.
The microstructure and the mechanical properties at room and high temperatures of monocrystalline Ni3Al containing 0, 0.52, 1.37, 2.22 and 3.00 at%B have been studied. The results show that the ultimate and yield strengths at 20°C and 800° C of monocrystalline Ni3Al obviously increase with the increase of B content, and reach maxima when B content is 1.37 and 0.52 at% respectively. With further increasing the B content to 2.22 at%, they slowly drop. The tensile ductilities at 20°C and 800°C of monocrystalline Ni3Al when the B content is 0 and 0.52 at% respectively are the best in five kinds of Ni3Al studied, then they continuously decrease with the increase of B content due to the precipitation of boride eutectic. The rupture life and elongation at 850°C and 100 MPa markedly drop as the B content is raised in the monocrystalline Ni3Al, but they are still higher by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude as compared with those of polycrystalline Ni3Al with the same compositions. When B content exceeds 1.37 at%, the eutectic structure of Ni20Al3B6 and Ni3Al is formed, which is enhanced by the B content and is harmful to the strength and the ductility.
The isothermal oxidation behavior of Ni3A1 + 8Cr + 0.1B alloy containing zirconium addition was studied over a temperature range 850 to 1150°C and for periods up to 100 h. The results show that isothermal oxidation kinetics of the alloys at various temperatures obey a parabolic law. The addition of zirconium to Ni3A1-8Cr-0.1B alloy improves oxidation resistance at 850 to 950°C. However, the additive results in a considerable weight gain at 1050 to 1150°C. The structure of scale and phase transformation of the surface zone beneath the scale have been investigated. The addition of zirconium leads to the formation of adherent scale at all temperatures, since the internal oxides, like “tree roots” between the oxide scale and the substrate, are developed during oxidation.
To identify the disease-causing gene for a large multi-generational Chinese family affected by familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHCM), genome-wide screening was carried out in a Chinese family with FHCM using micro-satellite markers, and linkage analysis was performed using the MLINK program. The disease locus was mapped to 1q32 in this family. Screening for a mutation in the cardiac troponin T (cTnT) gene was performed by a PCR and sequencing was done with an ABI Prism 3700 sequencer. A novel C→G transition located in the ninth exon of the cTnT gene, leading to a predicted amino acid residue change from Ile to Met at codon 90, was identified in all individuals with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). The results presented here strongly suggest that Ile90Met, a novel mutation in the cTnT gene, is causative agent of HCM in this family.