Delayed senescence, or stay-green, contributes to a longer grain-filling period and has been regarded as a desirable characteristic for the production of a number of crops including wheat. In the present study, in order to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for traits related to the progression of wheat flag leaf senescence, green leaf area duration (GLAD) of a doubled haploid (DH) population, derived from two winter wheat varieties Hanxuan10 and Lumai14, was visually estimated under two water conditions and was recorded at 3-day intervals from 10 days after anthesis to physiological maturity using a 0–9 scale. According to GLAD, parameters related to the progression of senescence of DH lines and their parents were estimated by the Gompertz statistical model. Based on the model parameters, DH lines were categorized into three groups under drought stress and four groups under well-watered conditions. A total of 24 additive QTLs and 23 pairs of epistatic QTLs for parameters related to the progression of senescence were identified on 18 chromosomes, except for 3B, 1D and 6D. Of the QTLs detected, 14 and 10 additive QTLs were associated with the investigated traits under drought stress and well-watered conditions, respectively. Furthermore, 4, 7, 6, 2 and 2 additive QTLs for traits related to progression of senescence were clustered around the same or similar regions of chromosomes 1A, 1B, 5A, 5B and 7A, respectively. The present data provided the genetic basis for high phenotypic correlations among traits related to the progression of wheat flag leaf senescence. In addition, 17 loci were co-located or linked with previously reported QTLs regulating chlorophyll fluorescence, high-light-induced photo-oxidation, or heat stress and dark-induced senescence. The marker Xwmc336 on chromosome 1A, responsible for the onset and end times of leaf senescence, the time to maximum rate of senescence, the time to reach 75% senescence and chlorophyll content under drought stress may be helpful for marker-assisted selection breeding of wheat.