Books and Articles
The Washington Race War of July, 1919.” Maryland Historical Magazine 58, no. 4 (December 1963): 309–24. “
Race, Space, and Riots in Chicago, New York, and Los Angeles. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.
Young J. Edgar: Hoover, the Red Scare, and the Assault on Civil Liberties. New York: Carroll and Graf, 2007.
Black Working-Class Political Activism and Biracial Unionism: Galveston Longshoremen in Jim Crow Texas, 1919–1921.” Journal of Southern History 74, no. 3 (August 2008): 627–68.. “
Black Protest and the Great Migration: A Brief History with Documents. The Bedford Series in History and Culture.Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2003..
The Black Worker: Race, Labor, and Civil Rights since Emancipation. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2007., ed.
Gendered Domains: Rethinking Public and Private in Women’s History, edited by and , 154–66. Essays from the Seventh Berkshire Conference on the History of Women. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1992.. “True Women, Real Men: Gender, Ideology, and Social Roles in the Garvey Movement.” In
Chicago’s New Negroes: Modernity, the Great Migration, and Black Urban Life. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2007.
The Unknown Soldiers: Black American Troops in World War I. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1974. and ,
Negrophobia: A Race Riot in Atlanta, 1906. San Francisco, Calif.: Encounter Books, 2001..
Newton D. Baker and the American War Effort, 1917–1919. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1966.
Manliness and Civilization: A Cultural History of Gender and Race in the United States, 1880–1917. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.
Docile Children and Dangerous Revolutionaries: The Racial Hierarchy of Manliness and the Bisbee Deportation of 1917.” Frontiers 24, nos. 2 and 3 (2003): 30–50.. “
Borderline Americans: Racial Division and Labor War in the Arizona Borderlands. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2009..
The Evolution of Racism in an Industrial City, 1906–1940: A Case Study of Gary, Indiana.” Journal of Negro History 59, no. 1 (January 1974): 51–64. and . “
Legacy of Resistance: Uncovering the History of Collective Action by Black Agricultural Workers in Central East Arkansas from the 1860s to the 1930s.” Journal of Social History 32, no. 1 (Fall 1998): 73–99.. “
Labor in Crisis: The Steel Strike of 1919. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1965; reprint, Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1982..
The Role of Employers in Split Labor Markets: An Event-Structure Analysis of Racial Conflict and AFL Organizing, 1917–1919.” Social Forces 79, no. 2 (December 2000): 653–81.. “
African American Women and the Vote, 1837–1965, edited by et al., 66–99. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1997.. “To Catch the Vision of Freedom: Reconstructing Southern Black Women’s Political History, 1865–1880.” In
Strain of Violence: Historical Studies of American Violence and Vigilantism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1975..
Violence and Culture in the Antebellum South. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1979.
Lynching in the New South: Georgia and Virginia, 1880–1930. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1993..
Josephine: The Washington Diary of a War Worker, 1918–1919.” Washington History 10, no. 2 (Fall/Winter 1998–1999): 4–23., ed. “
An Undergrowth of Folly: Public Order, Race Anxiety, and the 1903 Evansville, Indiana, Riot. New York: Garland, 2000..
Reckoning with Violence: W.E.B. Du Bois and the 1906 Atlanta Race Riot.” Journal of Southern History 62, no. 4 (November 1996): 727–66., and . “
Uncle Sam Wants You: World War I and the Making of the Modern American Citizen. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008..
Making Peace with Jim Crow: Religious Leaders and the Chicago Race Riot of 1919.” Journal of Illinois History 11, no. 4 (Winter 2008): 261–76. “
Democracy Betrayed: The Wilmington Race Riot of 1898 and Its Legacy. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998. and , eds.
The Negro in Chicago: A Study of Race Relations and a Race Riot. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1922..
American Pharaoh: Mayor Richard J. Daley: His Battle for Chicago and the Nation. Boston: Little, Brown, 2000. and .
Our Changed Attitude’: Armed Defense and the New Negro in the 1919 Chicago Race Riot.” Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era 11, no. 2 (April 2012): 225–56. “‘
All Hell Broke Loose: American Race Riots from the Progressive Era through World War II. Praeger Series on American Political Culture. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Praeger, 2012.
Report on the Steel Strike of 1919. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Howe, 1920., the Interchurch World Movement.
Du Bois, the NAACP, and the Pan-African Congress of 1919.” Journal of Negro History 57, no. 1 (January 1972): 13–28. “
A Mob Intent on Death: The NAACP and the Arkansas Riot Cases. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 1988.
The Shadow of Slavery: Peonage in the South, 1901–1969. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1972..
The Gray Wolf: Tom Dennison of Omaha.” Nebraska History 58, no. 1 (Spring 1977): 25–52.. “
Scipio A. Jones.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 31, no. 3 (Autumn 1972): 201–19.. “
From News to History: Robert Abbott and Carl Sandburg Read the 1919 Chicago Riot.” African American Review 26, no. 4 (Winter 1992): 637–50. “
No Crooked Death: Coatesville, Pennsylvania, and the Lynching of Zachariah Walker. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1991. and .
Black Metropolis: A Study of Negro Life in a Northern City. Revised and Enlarged Edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993. and .
At the Hands of Persons Unknown: The Lynching of Black America. New York: Modern Library, 2003..
We Shall Be All: A History of the Industrial Workers of the World. Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1969..
Crusade for Justice: The Autobiography of Ida B. Wells. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970., ed.
A Case of Prejudice: Maurice Mays and the Knoxville Race Riot of 1919.” Southern Exposure 11 (July/August 1983): 56–65.. “
J. Edgar Hoover and the ‘Red Summer’ of 1919.” Journal of American Studies 28, no. 1 (April 1994): 39–59.. “
W. E. B. Du Bois and the Formation of Black Opinion in World War I: A Commentary on ‘The Damnable Dilemma.’”Journal of American History 81, no. 4 (March 1995): 1584–90.. “
Race, War, and Surveillance: African Americans and the United States Government during World War I. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2001..
What is Agency?” American Journal of Sociology 103, no. 4 (January 1998): 962–1023. and . “
“Filling the Gaps: The Need for Additional Research – A Panel Discussion.” Arkansas Review: A Journal of Delta Studies 32, no. 2 (August 2001): 155ff.
A Great Agitation for Business’: Black Economic Development in Shaw.” Washington History 2, no. 2 (Fall/Winter 1990–91): 48–73.. “‘
Spectres of 1919: Class and Nation in the Making of the New Negro. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2003..
The Great Steel Strike and Its Lessons. New York: B. W. Huebsch, 1920.
The Guardian of Boston: William Monroe Trotter. Studies in American Negro Life. New York: Atheneum, 1970.
The Militant South: 1800–1861. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1956..
White Supremacy: A Comparative Study in American and South African History. New York: Oxford University Press, 1981.
Uplifting the Race: Black Leadership, Politics, and Culture in the Twentieth Century. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.
Rioting in America. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1996.
Gender and Jim Crow: Women and the Politics of White Supremacy in North Carolina, 1896–1920. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996..
The History of the Tenth Cavalry, 1866–1921. Acme Printing Co., 1921; reprint, Fort Collins, Co.: Old Army Press, 1972., compiler.
Veiled Visions: The 1906 Atlanta Race Riot and the Reshaping of American Race Relations. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005..
The Anti-Lynching Movement: 1882–1932. San Francisco, Calif.: R and E Research Associates, 1975.
Protectors or Perpetrators? White Leadership in the Elaine Race Riots.” Arkansas Review: A Journal of Delta Studies 32, no. 2 (August 2001): 130ff.. “
The Encyclopedia of Chicago. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004. et al., eds.
Land of Hope: Chicago, Black Southerners, and the Great Migration. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989.
The Assassination of Fred Hampton: How the FBI and the Chicago Police Murdered a Black Panther. Chicago: Lawrence Hill Books, 2010..
A Nation Under Our Feet: Black Political Struggles in the Rural South from Slavery to the Great Migration. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003..
Making Whiteness: The Culture of Segregation in the South, 1890–1940. New York: Pantheon Books, 1998..
The Tulsa Race War of 1921. San Francisco, Calif.: R and E Research Associates, 1975.
Down on the Killing Floor: Black and White Workers in Chicago’s Packinghouses, 1904–54. The Working Class in American History. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1997..
A Hubert Harrison Reader, edited with introduction and notes by . Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 2001.
Another Way Home: The Tangled Roots of Race in One Chicago Family. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004..
A Night of Violence: The Houston Riot of 1917. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1976.
Black Bolshevik: Autobiography of an Afro-American Communist. Chicago: Liberator Press, 1978..
Prelude to Change: Black Carolinians in the War Years, 1914–1920.” Journal of Negro History 65, no. 3 (Summer 1980): 212–27.. “
The Deacons for Defense: Armed Resistance and the Civil Rights Movement. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.
Marcus Garvey, Life and Lessons: A Centennial Companion to the Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association Papers. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987. and , eds.
Riot and Remembrance: The Tulsa Race War and Its Legacy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2002.
Chicago, a Historical Guide to the Neighborhoods: The Loop and South Side. Chicago: Chicago Historical Society, 1979. and .
Race War! White Supremacy and the Japanese Attack on the British Empire. New York: New York University Press, 2004..
The Negro in Chicago’: Harmony in Conflict, 1919–22.” European Journal of American Culture 29, no. 1 (2010): 53–68.. “‘
Whiteness of a Different Color: European Immigrants and the Alchemy of Race. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1998..
Bloody Lowndes: Civil Rights and Black Power in Alabama’s Black Belt. New York: New York University Press, 2009..
The Price of Vigilance. Chicago: Rand McNally and Co., 1968.
Along This Way: The Autobiography of James Weldon Johnson. New York: Viking Press, 1933..
On Agency.” Journal of Social History 37, no. 1 (Fall 2003): 113–24.. “
Black American Radicalism and the First World War: The Secret Files of the Military Intelligence Division.” Armed Forces and Society 26, no. 1 (Fall 1999): 27–54. “
The Damnable Dilemma’: African-American Accommodation and Protest during World War I.” Journal of American History 81, no. 4 (March 1995): 1562–83. “‘
Black Newspapers and America’s War for Democracy, 1914–1920. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001..
The Black Power Movement: Rethinking the Civil Rights – Black Power Era. New York: Routledge, 2006, 1–25. “Introduction: Toward a Historiography of the Black Power Movement.” In , ed.
The Black Power Movement: A State of the Field.” Journal of American History 96, no. 3 (December 2009): 751–76.. “
Rethinking the Black Power Era.” Journal of Southern History 75, no. 3 (August 2009): 707–16.. “
Neighborhood Rebels: Black Power at the Local Level. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010., ed.
Get the Pageant Habit: E. Azalia Hackley’s Festivals and Pageants during the First World War Years, 1914–1918.” Popular Music and Society 34, no. 5 (December 2011): 517–56.. “
Rich Man’s War, Poor Man’s Fight: Race, Class, and Power in the Rural South during the First World War. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004..
We Are Not What We Seem’: Rethinking Black Working-Class Opposition in the Jim Crow South.” Journal of American History 80, no. 1 (June 1993): 75–112. “‘
The Voice of the Negro 1919. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1920; reprint, New York: Arno Press, 1968.
A. Philip Randolph: A Life in the Vanguard. Lanham, Md.:Rowman and Littlefield, 2007..
To End All Wars: Woodrow Wilson and the Quest for a New World Order. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1995.
No Crystal Stair: Black Life and the Messenger, 1917–1928. Contributions in Afro-American and African Studies, Number 20. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1975..
“Seeing Red”: Federal Campaigns Against Black Militancy, 1919–1925. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1998..
“Investigate Everything”: Federal Efforts to Compel Black Loyalty During World War I. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2002..
A Dark Night’; The Knoxville Race Riot of 1919.” Journal of East Tennessee History 72 (2000): 1–29.. “‘
Tennessee Race Relations and the Knoxville Riot of 1919.” East Tennessee Historical Society’s Publications 41 (1969): 67–85. “
The Gate City: A History of Omaha. Boulder, Co.: Pruett Publishing Co., 1982; reprint, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997. and .
The U.S. Army and the Omaha Race Riot of 1919.” Nebraska History 72, no. 3 (Fall 1991): 135–43. “
The Role of Federal Military Forces in Domestic Disorders, 1877–1945. Washington, D.C.:Center of Military History, United States Army, 1997. and .
Omaha, a City in Ferment: Summer of 1919.” Nebraska History 58, no. 3 (Fall 1977): 395–417. “
Redemption: The Last Battle of the Civil War. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2006..
Freedom Struggles: African Americans and World War I. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2009..
The Papers of Woodrow Wilson. Vol. 49: July 18-September 13, 1918. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1985. et al., eds.
American Pogrom: The East St. Louis Race Riot and Black Politics. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2008.
The Wilsonian Moment: Self-Determination and the International Origins of Anticolonial Nationalism. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007..
Farewell – We’re Good and Gone: The Great Black Migration. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989..
New Negro, Old Left: African-American Writing and Communism Between the Wars. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999.
The Black Press in the Middle West, 1865–1985, edited by , 325-48. Contributions in Afro-American and African Studies, Number 177. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1996. “The Progress of ‘Race Men’ and ‘Colored Women’ in the Black Press in Wisconsin, 1892–1985.” In
Union, Reaction, and Riot: A Biography of a Rural Race Riot. Memphis, Tenn.: Bureau of Social Research, Division of Urban and Regional Studies, Memphis State University, 1970..
At the Dark End of the Street: Black Women, Rape, and Resistance – A New History of the Civil Rights Movement from Rosa Parks to the Rise of Black Power. New York: Knopf, 2010..
Power, Community, and Racial Killing in East St. Louis. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005..
Ghetto Formation and Armed Resistance in East St. Louis, Illinois.” Journal of American Studies 41, no. 2 (August 2007): 435–67.. “
Red Summer: The Summer of 1919 and the Awakening of Black America. New York: Henry Holt, 2011..
Literally Devoured’: Washington, D.C., 1919.” Studies in the Literary Imagination 40, no. 2 (Fall 2007): 1–24.. “‘
Tom Dennison, the Omaha Bee, and the 1919 Omaha Race Riot.” Nebraska History 68, no. 4 (Winter 1987): 152–65. “
Lest We Forget: The Lynching of Will Brown, Omaha’s 1919 Race Riot.” Nebraska History 91, nos. 3 and 4 (Fall/Winter 2010): 152–65.. “
Fighting for Sergeant Caldwell: The NAACP Campaign against ‘Legal’ Lynching after World War I.” Journal of African American History 94, no. 4 (Fall 2009): 464–86. “
The Atlanta Riot: Race, Class, and Violence in a New South City. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2005..
Loyalty in Time of Trial: The African American Experience during World War I. The African American History Series. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2011..
The Great Steel Strike of 1919 in Gary, Indiana: Working-Class Radicalism or Trade Union Militancy?” Mid-America 63, no. 1 (January 1981): 36–52. “
Ethnic Adjustment in the Industrial City: The International Institute of Gary, 1919–1940.” International Migration Review 6, no. 4 (Winter 1972): 361–76. and . “
Charleston in World War I; Seeds of Change.” South Carolina Historical Magazine 86, no. 1 (1985): 39–49.. “
Red Scare: A Study in National Hysteria, 1919–1920. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1955; reprint, New York: McGraw Hill, 1964.
Black Carolinians: A History of Blacks in South Carolina from 1895 to 1968. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1973.
Bogalusa Burning: The War Against Biracial Unionism in the Deep South, 1919.” Journal of Southern History 63, no. 3 (August 1997): 591–628. “
Gary, the Most American of All American Cities. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2011..
Omaha’s Riot in Story and Picture. Omaha, Neb.: Omaha Educational Publishing Company, 1919.
The New Negro of the Pacific: How African Americans Forged Cross-Racial Solidarity with Japan, 1917–1922.” Journal of African American History 92, no. 2 (Spring 2007): 191–213.. “
Polish Immigrants and Industrial Chicago: Workers on the South Side, 1880–1922. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1991.
Fighting For Democracy: Black Veterans and the Struggle Against White Supremacy in the Postwar South. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2009.
Black Nurses in the Great War: Fighting for and with the American Military in the Struggle for Civil Rights.” Canadian Journal of History 47, no. 3 (Winter 2012): 545–66.. “
Rough Justice: Lynching and American Society, 1874–1947. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2004.
The Roots of Rough Justice: Origins of American Lynching. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2011..
, . “We Have Taken a City: A Centennial Essay,” in Cecelski and Tyson, Democracy, 15–41.
Soldiers of Democracy: Black Texans and the Fight for Citizenship, 1917–1921.” Journal of American History 82, no. 4 (March 1996): 1478–1504. “
The Black Worker: Race, Labor, and Civil Rights since Emancipation, edited by , 147–77. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2007.. “The Great War, Black Workers, and the Rise and Fall of the NAACP in the South.” In
“Gentlemen of Property and Standing”: Anti-Abolition Mobs in Jacksonian America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1970.
The Wages of Whiteness: Race and the Making of the American Working Class. New York: Verso Press, 1991.
The Elaine Race Riots of 1919.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 19 (1960): 142–50.. “
The Black Press in the Middle West, 1865–1985, edited by , 246–51. Contributions in Afro-American and African Studies, Number 177. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1996.. “Democracy’s Textbook: A History of the Black Press in Ohio, 1865–1985.” In
Manning the Race: Reforming Black Men in the Jim Crow Era. New York: New York University Press, 2004.
Southern Horrors and Other Writings: The Anti-Lynching Campaign of Ida B. Wells, 1892–1900. The Bedford Series in History and Culture. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 1997., ed.
Race Riot at East St. Louis, July 2, 1917. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1964.
“We Return Fighting”: The Civil Rights Movement in the Jazz Age. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 2002..
Scott’s Official History of the American Negro in the World War. Chicago: Homewood Press, 1919.
Seize the Time: The Story of the Black Panther Party and Huey P. Newton. New York: Random House, 1970; reprint, Baltimore, Md.: Black Classic Press, 1991..
The Sociogenesis of a Race Riot: Springfield, Illinois, in 1908. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1990..
White Violence and Black Response: From Reconstruction to Montgomery. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988..
Black Officer in a Buffalo Soldier Regiment: The Military Career of Charles Young. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2010.
Racial Militancy and Interracial Violence in the Second World War.” Journal of American History 58, no. 3 (December 1971): 661–81.. “
The 1917 Race Riot in Chester, Pennsylvania.” Pennsylvania History 75, no. 2 (Spring 2008): 171–96.. “
Managing White Supremacy: Race, Politics, and Citizenship in Jim Crow Virginia. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002..
Blood in Their Eyes: The Elaine Race Massacres of 1919. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 2001..
Pure Fire: Self-Defense as Activism in the Civil Rights Era. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2005.
Manliness and Its Discontents: The Black Middle Class and the Transformation of Masculinity, 1900–1930. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004..
The Bisbee Deportation.” Labor History 13, no. 1 (Winter 1972): 3–40.. “
We have just begun’: Black Organizing and White Response in the Arkansas Delta, 1919.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 58, no. 3 (Autumn 1999): 264–84.. “‘
A Festival of Violence: An Analysis of Southern Lynchings, 1882–1930. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1995. and .
The Great Migration in Historical Perspective: New Dimensions of Race, Class, and Gender. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991., .
Race Riot: Chicago in the Red Summer of 1919. New York: Atheneum, 1970.
Violence in a ‘Heathen’ Land: The Longview Race Riot of 1919.” Phylon 33, no. 4 (Fourth Quarter 1972): 324–33.. “
Womanist Propaganda, African-American Great War Experience, and Cultural Strategies of the Harlem Renaissance: Plays by Alice Dunbar-Nelson and Mary P. Burrill.” Women’s Studies International Forum 20, no. 1 (1997): 153–63. “
Radio Free Dixie: Robert F. Williams and the Roots of Black Power. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999.
We Will Shoot Back: Armed Resistance in the Mississippi Freedom Movement. New York: New York University Press, 2013..
Holding Fast the Inner Lines: Democracy, Nationalism, and the Committee on Public Information. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1980..
Race Riots and Resistance: The Red Summer of 1919. New York: Peter Lang, 2008..
The Black Press in the Middle West, 1865–1985, edited by , 21–33. Contributions in Afro-American and African Studies, Number 177. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1996. “The Promised Land: The Chicago Defender and the Black Press in Illinois, 1862–1970.” In
From Race Riot to Sit-In, 1919 and the 1960s: A Study in the Connections between Conflict and Violence. Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Books, 1967.
Still on Strike: Recollections of a Bisbee Deportee.” Journal of Arizona History 18, no. 2 (Summer 1977): 171–84.. “
The Arkansas Race Riot. Chicago: Hume Job Print, 1920.
The Black Power Movement: Rethinking the Civil Rights – Black Power Era, edited by , 145–65. New York: Routledge, 2006.. “The Roots of Black Power? Armed Resistance and the Radicalization of the Civil Rights Movement.” In
The Spirit and the Shotgun: Armed Resistance and the Struggle for Civil Rights. New Perspectives on the History of the South. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2007..
The Great War and the Culture of the New Negro. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2008..
On the Laps of Gods: The Red Summer of 1919 and the Struggle for Justice That Remade a Nation. New York: Three Rivers Press, 2008..
A Man Called White: The Autobiography of Walter White. New York: Viking Press, 1948; reprint, New York: Arno Press, 1969..
Who’s Who in Chicago. Chicago: A. N. Marquis Co., 1931.
Vanguards of the New Negro: African American Veterans and Post-World War I Racial Militancy.” Journal of African American History 92, no. 3 (Summer 2007): 347–70. “
Torchbearers of Democracy: African American Soldiers in the World War I Era. The John Hope Franklin Series in African American History and Culture. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2010..
They Left Great Marks on Me: African American Testimonies of Racial Violence from Emancipation to World War I. New York: New York University Press, 2012.
Remaking Respectability: African American Women in Interwar Detroit. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001.
African-American Struggles for Citizenship in the Arkansas and Mississippi Deltas in the Age of Jim Crow.” Radical History Review 55 (Winter 1993): 33–51.. “
American Congo: The African American Freedom Struggle in the Delta. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003..
The Negro in Our History. Fifth ed. Washington, D.C.: Associated Publishers, 1928.
Their Life’s Blood: The Tenth Cavalry in Arizona, 1914–1921.” Journal of Arizona History 46 (Winter 2005): 349–374.. “
Racial Violence in Kentucky, 1865–1940: Lynchings, Mob Rule, and “Legal Lynchings.”Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1990.
‘It Was Still No South to Us’: African American Civil Servants at the Fin de Siècle.” Washington History 21 (2009): 22–47. “
Racism in the Nation’s Service: Government Workers and the Color Line in Woodrow Wilson’s America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2013..
The NAACP Crusade Against Lynching, 1909–1950. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1980.