Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-768dbb666b-v9bzm Total loading time: 2.31 Render date: 2023-02-07T05:17:05.188Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

58 - Quaternary Sediments and Soils of Jordan

Palaeoclimatic and Geoarchaeological Implications

from Part V: - Quaternary Geomorphology

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  04 May 2017

Yehouda Enzel
Affiliation:
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Ofer Bar-Yosef
Affiliation:
Harvard University, Massachusetts
Get access

Summary

There is a great variety of geomorphic features and Quaternary sedimentary deposits in the territory of Jordan; many of these features and deposits have not been researched or dated in extensive detail. Recently, a surge of research has provided valuable information on the evolution of the Jordanian Quaternary landscape. This chapter presents an overview of the country’s physiographic and geological context, with particular focus on the nomenclature of the Quaternary stratigraphy, and an overview of information on alluvial, aeolian, lacustrine, palustrine, cave and rock-shelter, and volcanic depositional environments and their associated soils. The chapter includes a discussion of the most important aspects of Jordan’s Quaternary stratigraphy for understanding the country’s archaeology since Palaeolithic times. In doing so, a short summary of the relationship between physiographic features and geoarchaeological research is provided, as are some brief comments on palaeoclimatic correlations with the broader Levant and southwest Asia.
Type
Chapter
Information
Quaternary of the Levant
Environments, Climate Change, and Humans
, pp. 531 - 538
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2017

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Abed, A. 2009. Geology of Jordan and its Environment and Waters. Amman: Jordanian Geologists Association (Arabic).Google Scholar
Abed, A.M. & Yaghan, R. 2000. On the paleoclimate of Jordan during the Last Glacial Maximum. Palaeogreography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 160: 2333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Abed, A.M., Yasin, S., Sadaqa, R. & Al-Hawari, Z. 2008. The paleoclimate of the eastern desert of Jordan during marine isotope stage 9. Quaternary Research 69: 458–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Allison, R.J., Grove, J.R., Higgitt, D.L. et al. 2000. Geomorphology of the Eastern Badia Basalt Plateau, Jordan. Geographical Journal 166: 352–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Al-Malabeh, A. 1994. Geochemistry of two volcanic cones from the intracontinental plateau basalt of Harra El-Jabban, NE-Jordan. Geochemical Journal 28: 517–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ames, C.J.H. & Cordova, C.E. 2015. Middle and Late Pleistocene landscape evolution at the Druze Marsh site in northeast Jordan: implications for population continuity and hominin dispersal. Geoarchaeology 30: 307–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ames, C.J.H., Nowell, A., Cordova, C.E., Pokines, J.T. & Bisson, M.S. 2014. Paleoenvironmental change and settlement dynamics in the Druze Marsh: Results of recent excavation at an open-air Paleolithic site. Quaternary International 331: 6073.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barker, G.W., Adams, R., Creighton, O.H. et al. 1998. Environment and land use in the Wadi Faynan, southern Jordan: The second season of geoarchaeology and landscape archaeology (1997). Levant 30: 525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bender, F. 1974. Geology of Jordan. Berlin: Gebrüder Borntraeger.Google Scholar
Besançon, J. & Hours, F. 1985. Prehistory and geomorphology in northern Jordan: A preliminary outline. In Studies in the History and Archaeology of Jordan, Vol. 2, ed. Hadidi, A.. Amman: Department of Antiquities of Jordan, pp. 5966.Google Scholar
Clark, G.A., Schuldenrein, J., Donaldson, M.L. et al. 1997. Chronostratigraphic contexts of Middle Paleolithic horizons at the ‘Ain Difla rockshelter (WHS 634), west-central Jordan. In The Prehistory of Jordan II: Perspectives from 1997, ed. Gebel, H.G.K., Kafafi, Z. & Rollefson, G.O.. Berlin: Ex-Oriente, pp. 77100.Google Scholar
Copeland, L. & Vita-Finzi, C. 1978. Archaeological dating of geological deposits in Jordan. Levant 10: 1025.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cordova, C.E. 2007. Millennial Landscape Change in Jordan: Geoarchaeology and Cultural Ecology. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.Google Scholar
Cordova, C.E. 2008. Floodplain degradation and settlement history in Wadi al-Wala and Wadi ash-Shallalah, Jordan. Geomorphology 101: 443–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cordova, C.E., Foley, C., Nowell, A. & Bisson, M. 2005. Landforms, sediments, soil development and prehistoric site settings in the Madaba-Dhiban Plateau, Jordan. Geoarchaeology 20: 2956.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cordova, C.E., Nowell, A., Bisson, M., Ames, C. & Kalchgruber, R. 2011. Geomorphological and soil stratigraphic patterns associated with the Middle Paleolithic on the Madaba Plateau, Jordan: The case of the Ma'in site complex. Journal of the Israel Prehistoric Society – Mitekufat Haeven 41: 536.Google Scholar
Cordova, C.E., Nowell, A., Bisson, M. et al. 2013. Interglacial and glacial desert refugia and the Middle Paleolithic of the Azraq oasis, Jordan. Quaternary International 300: 94110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cordova, C.E., DeWitt, R. & Winsborough, B. 2014. Geology, landforms, and sediments in Wadi Rum. In The Sands of Time: The Desert Neolithic Settlement at Ayn Abu Nukhayla, ed. Henry, D. & Beaver, J.. Berlin: ex-oriente, pp. 1328.Google Scholar
Davies, C.P. 2000. Reconstruction of Paleoenvironments from Lacustrine Deposits of the Jordan Plateau. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Arizona State University.Google Scholar
Davies, C.P. 2005. Quaternary paleoenvironments and potential for human exploitation of the Jordan Plateau desert interior. Geoarcheology 20: 379400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Donahue, J. 1985. Hydrologic and topographic change during and after Early Bronze occupation at Bab edh-Dhra and Numeira. In Studies in the History and Archaeology of Jordan, Vol. 2, ed. Hadidi, A.. Amman: Department of Antiquities of Jordan, pp. 131–40.Google Scholar
Frumkin, A., Bar-Matthews, M. & Vaks, A. 2008. Paleoenvironment of Jawa Basalt Plateau, Jordan, inferred from calcite speleothems from a lava tube. Quaternary Research 70: 358–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Garrard, A.N., Betts, A., Byrd, B., Colledge, S. & Hunt, C. 1988. A summary of paleoenvironmental and prehistoric investigation in the Azraq Basin. In The Prehistory of Jordan. The State of Research in 1986, ed. Garrard, A.N. & Gebel, H.G., BAR International Series 396. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, pp. 311–37.Google Scholar
Gebel, H.G.K. 2009. The intricacy of Neolithic rubble layers. The Ba'ja, Basta, and 'Ain Hahub evidence. Neo-Lithics 01/09: 3348.Google Scholar
Goudie, A.S., Migon, P., Allison, J. & Rosser, N. 2002. Sandstone geo-morphology of the Al-Quwayra area of south Jordan. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie 46: 365–90.Google Scholar
Henry, D.O. 1997. Cultural and geologic successions of Middle and Upper Paleolithic deposits in the Jebel Qalkha area of southern Jordan. In The Prehistory of Jordan II. Perspectives from 1997, ed. Gebel, H.G.K., Kafafi, Z. & Rollefson, G.O.. Berlin: ex oriente, pp. 6976.Google Scholar
Huckeriede, R. & Wiesemann, G. 1968. Der jungpleistozäne Pluvial-See von El Jafr und weitere Daten zum Quartär Jordaniens. Geologica et Palaeontologica 2: 7395.Google Scholar
Ibrahim, K.M. 1996. The Regional Geology of Al-Azraq Area. Map Sheet No. 35531. Bulletin, Geological Mapping Division, Geology Direct-orate, Natural Resources Authority, Amman.Google Scholar
Jones, M.D. & Richter, T. 2011. Paleoclimatic and archeological implications of Pleistocene and Holocene environments in Azraq, Jordan. Quaternary Research 76: 363–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Landmann, G., Abu Qudaira, G.M., Shawabkeh, K., Wrede, K. & Kempe, S. 2002. Geochemistry of the Lisan and Damya Formations in Jordan and implications for paleoclimate. Quaternary International 89: 4557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lucke, B., Kemnitz, H., Baumler, R. & Schmidt, M. 2013. Red Mediterranean soils in Jordan – new insights in their origin, genesis, and role in environmental archives. Catena 112: 20–4.Google Scholar
Mabry, J. 1992. Alluvial Cycles and Early Agricultural Settlement Phases in the Jordan Valley. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Arizona.Google Scholar
Macumber, P.G. 2001. Evolving landscape and environment in Jordan. In The Archaeology of Jordan, ed. MacDonald, B., Adams, R. & Bienkowski, P.. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, pp. 130.Google Scholar
Macumber, P.G. & Head, M.J. 1991. Implications of the Wadi al-Hammeh sequences for the terminal drying of Lake Lisan, Jordan. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 84: 163–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maher, L.A. 2011. Reconstructing paleolandscapes and prehistoric occupation of Wadi Ziqlab, northern Jordan. Geoarchaeology 26: 649–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mandel, R.D. & Simmons, A.H. 1988. A preliminary assessment of the geomorphology of ‘Ain Ghazal. In The Prehistory of Jordan. The State of Research in 1986, ed. Garrard, A.N. & Gebel, H.G.. BAR Inter-national Series 396. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, pp. 431–36.Google Scholar
Moumani, K., Alexander, J. & Bateman, M.D. 2003. Sedimentology of the Late Quaternary Wadi Hasa Marl Formation of central Jordan: A record of climate variability. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 191: 221–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Petit-Maire, N., Carbonel, P., Reyss, J.L. et al. 2010. A vast Eemian paleolake in southern Jordan (29° N). Global and Planetary Change 72: 368–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pokines, J.T. & Ames, C.J.H. 2015. Test excavations at Wadi Zarqa Ma'in 1, a natural sinkhole faunal trap site, Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 273: 121–37.Google Scholar
Rohling, E.J., Mayewski, P.A., Abu-Zied, R.H., Casford, J.S.L. & Hayes, A. 2002. Holocene atmosphere–ocean interactions: Records from Greenland and the Aegean Sea. Climate Dynamics 18: 587–93.Google Scholar
Rollefson, G. 2009. Slippery slope: the Late Neolithic rubble layer in the southern Levant. Neo-Lithics 01/09: 1218.Google Scholar
Schuldenrein, J. 2007. A reassessment of the Holocene stratigraphy of the Wadi Hasa Terrace and Hasa Formation, Jordan. Geoarchaeology 22: 559–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schuldenrein, J. & Clark, G.A. 2001. Prehistoric landscapes and settlement geography along the Wadi Hasa, west-central Jordan. Part I: Geoarchaeology, human palaeoecology and ethnographic modelling. Environmental Archaeology 6: 2338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Steinitz, G. & Bartov, Y. 1992. The Miocene–Pleistocene history of the Dead Sea segment of the rift in light of K–Ar ages of basalts. Israel Journal of Earth Sciences 40: 199208.Google Scholar
Turner, B.R. & Makhlouf, I. 2005. Quaternary sandstones, northeast Jordan: Age, depositional environments and climatic implications. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 229: 230–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zielhofer, C., Clare, L., Rollefson, G. et al. 2012. The decline of the early Neolithic population center of 'Ain Ghazal and corresponding earth-surface processes, Jordan Rift Valley. Quaternary Research 78: 427441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×