Skip to main content
×
×
Home
The Allocation of Regulatory Competence in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 2
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Viñuales, Jorge E. 2018. The Organisation of the Anthropocene. Brill Research Perspectives in International Legal Theory and Practice, Vol. 1, Issue. 1, p. 1.

    Silva Rodríguez de San Miguel, Jorge Alejandro 2018. Climate change initiatives in Mexico: a review. Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal,

    ×
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    The Allocation of Regulatory Competence in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme
    • Online ISBN: 9781107325388
    • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107325388
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to *
    ×
  • Buy the print book

Book description

The European Union's Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) is the world's largest carbon trading market. This book offers a new perspective on the EU ETS as a multi-level governance regime, in which the regulatory process is composed of three distinct 'competences' - norm setting, implementation, and enforcement. Are these competences best combined in a single regulator at one level of government or would they be better allocated among a variety of regulators at different levels of government? The combined legal, economic, and political analysis in this book reveals that the actual allocation of competences within the EU ETS diverges from a hypothetical ideal allocation in important ways, and provides a political economy explanation for the existing allocation of norm setting, implementation and enforcement competences among various levels of European government.

Reviews

'This book is destined to stun lawyers with an interest in regulation as a means to solve problems, due to its extra-legal dimension and the wealth of insights the author thus provides … this book offers a precise analysis of the implications of competence allocation in an optimal and a real-life setting.'

Andrea Keessen Source: Common Market Law Review

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send
    ×

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
×

Bibliography

Aaken, A. vanEffectuating Public International Law Through Market Mechanisms?’ (2009) 165 Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics33–57
Abate, R.Kyoto or Not, Here We Come: The Promise and Perils of the Piecemeal Approach to Climate Change Regulation in the United States’ (2006) 15 Cornell Journal of Law and Public Policy369–401
Abbot, C.Enforcing Pollution Control Regulation – Strengthening Sanctions and Improving Deterrence (Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2009)
Ackerman, B. and Hassler, W.Clean Coal/Dirty Air or How the Clean Air Act Became a Multibillion-Dollar Bail-Out for High-Sulfur Coal Producers and What Should Be Done About It (Binghamton, NY: Vail-Ballou Press, 1981)
Ackerman, B. and Stewart, R.Reforming Environmental Law’ (1985) 37 Stanford Law Review1333–1366
Ackerman, F. and Stanton, E. A. (eds.) The Cost of Climate Change: What We’ll Pay if Global Warming Continues Unchecked (New York: Natural Resources Defense Council, 2008)
Adger, W. N., Paavola, J., Huq, S. and Mace, M. J. (eds.) Fairness in Adaptation to Climate Change (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2006)
Adler, J. H.Jurisdictional Mismatch in Environmental Federalism’ (2005) 14 New York University Environmental Law Journal131–178
Adler, J. H.When Is Two a Crowd? The Impact of Federal Action on State Environmental Regulation’ (2007) 31 Harvard Environmental Law Review67–114
Aidt, T. S.Political Internalization of Economic Externalities and Environmental Policy’ (1998) 69 Journal of Public Economics1–16
Alesina, A., Angeloni, I. and Etro, F.International Unions’ (2005) 95(3) American Economic Review602–615
Alesina, A., Angeloni, I. and Schuknecht, L.What Does the European Union Do?’ (2005) 123 Public Choice275–319
Alesina, A. and Wacziarg, R.Is Europe Going Too Far?’ (1999) 51(1) Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy1–42
Alonso, R., Dessein, W. and Matouschek, N.When does Coordination Require Centralization?’ (2008) 98(1) American Economic Review, 145–179
Amundsen, E. S., Bjorndal, T. and Conrad, J. M.Open Access Harvesting of the Northeast Atlantic Minke Whale’ (1995) 6(2) Environmental and Resource Economics167–185
Andres, R. J., Fielding, D. J., Marland, G., Boden, T. A., Kumar, N. and Kearney, A. T.Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Use, 1751–1950’ (1999) 51B Tellus759–765
Anger, N., Bohringer, C. and Oberndorfer, U. ‘Public Interest vs. Interest Groups: Allowance Allocation in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme’, ZEW – Centre for European Economic Research Discussion Paper No. 08–023 (2008)
Anuradha, R. V. ‘Unilateral Carbon Border Measures: Key Legal Issues’, ICRIER Policy Series, No. 2 (2011)
Arcuri, A. and Dari-Mattiacci, G.Centralization versus Decentralization as a Risk-Return Trade-off’ (2010) 53 Journal of Law and Economics, 359–378
Arrhenius, S.On the Influence of Carbonic Acid in the Air upon the Temperature of the Ground’ (1896) 41(5) Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science237–276
Arrow, K. ‘The Organization of Economic Activity: Issues Pertinent to the Choice of Market Versus Non-Market Allocation’, in Joint Economic Committee, The Analysis and Evaluation of Public Expenditures: The PPB System, vol. I (Washington, DC: U.S. GPO, 1970)
Arrow, K.Social Choice and Individual Values (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1951)
Attina, F.The Voting Behavior of the European Parliament Members and the Problem of the Europarties’ (1990) 18 European Journal of Political Research557–579
Azoulai, L.The “Retained Powers” Formula in the Case Law of the European Court of Justice: EU Law as Total Law?’ (2011) 4(2) European Journal of Legal Studies192–219
Badrinath, S. G. and Bolster, P. J.The Role of Market Forces in EPA Enforcement Activity’ (1996) 10 Journal of Regulatory Economics165–181
Bailey, E. M. ‘Allowances Trading Activity and State Regulatory Rulings: Evidence from the U.S. Acid Rain Program’ 4 MIT Working Paper No. MIT-CEEPR 96–002 (1996)
Baldwin, R. and Cave, M.Understanding Regulation: Theory, Strategy and Practice (Oxford University Press, 1999)
Bator, F. M.The Simple Analytics of Welfare Maximization’ (1957) 47(1) The American Economic Review22–59
Baumol, W. J. and Oates, W. E.The Use of Standards and Prices for Protection of the Environment’ (1971) 73(1) The Swedish Journal of Economics42–45
Becker, G. S.A Theory of Competition among Pressure Groups for Political Influence’ (1983) 98 The Quarterly Journal of Economics371–400
Becker, G. S. and Stigler, G. J.Law Enforcement, Malfeasance, and Compensation of Enforcers’ (1974) 3 Journal of Legal Studies1–18
Bega, N., Morlota, J. C., Davidson, O., Afrane-Okesseb, Y., Tyanib, L., Dentonc, F., Sokonac, Y., Thomasc, J. P., Lèbre La Rovered, E., Parikhe, J. K., Parikhe, K. and Atiq Rahmanf, A.Linkages between Climate Change and Sustainable Development’ (2002) 2(2) Climate Policy129–144
Ben-Shahar, O. and Bradford, A. ‘The Economics of Climate Enforcement’, John M. Olin Law and Economics Working Paper No. 512 (2010)
Benedick, R. E.Ozone Diplomacy: New Directions in Safeguarding the Planet (Boston, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998)
Benson, D. and Jordan, A.Understanding Task Allocation in the European Union: Exploring the Value of Federal Theory’ (2008) 15 Journal of European Public Policy78–97
Benvenisti, A.Sharing Transboundary Resources: International Law and Optimal Resource Use (Cambridge University Press, 2002)
Bergh, R. van den, Faure, M. and Lefevere, J. ‘The Subsidiarity Principle in European Environmental Law: An Economic Analysis’, in E. Eide and R. van den Bergh (eds.) Law and Economics of the Environment (Oslo: Juridisk Forlag, 1996) 121–166
Bergmann, M., Schmitz, A., Hayden, M. and Kosonen, K.Imposing a Unilateral Carbon Constraint on Energy-intensive Industries and its Impact on their International Competitiveness: Data and Analysis’, European Economy Economic Papers 298 (2007)
Bergstrom, T.When does Majority Rule Supply Public Goods Efficiently?’ (1979) 8 Scandinavian Journal of Economics216–227
Bermann, G.Taking Subsidiarity Seriously: Federalism in the European Community and the United States’ (1994) 94 Columbia Law Review331–456
Bernheim, B. D. and Whinston, M. D.Common Agency’ (1986) 54 Econometrica923–942
Besley, T. and Coate, S.Centralized Versus Decentralized Provision of Local Public Goods: A Political Economy Approach’ (2003) 87 Journal of Public Economics2611–2637
Biermann, F. and Boas, I.Preparing for a Warmer World: Towards a Global Governance System to Protect Climate Refugees’ (2010) 10 Global Environmental Politics60–88
Bird, R. M.Threading the Fiscal Labyrinth: Some Issues in Fiscal Decentralization’ (1993) 46 National Tax Journal207–227
Black, D.On the Rationale of Group Decision-making’ (1948) 56 Journal of Political Economy23–34
Boardman, B.Fixing Fuel Poverty: Challenges and Solutions (Oxford: Earthscan, 2013)
Boardman, B., Fuel Poverty: From Cold Homes to Affordable Warmth (London: Belhaven Press, 1991)
Bodansky, D.The Copenhagen Climate Change Conference: A Postmortem’ (2010) 104 The American Journal of International Law230–240
Bodansky, D. ‘The International Climate Change Regime: The Road from Copenhagen’, Viewpoints Series, Harvard Project on International Climate Agreements (2010)
Bogojević, S.Emissions Trading Schemes: Markets, States and Law (Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2013)
Borgerson, S. G.Artic Meltdown: The Economic and Security Implications of Global Warming’ (2008) 87 Foreign Affairs63–77
Börzel, T. A. and Risse, T. ‘Who is Afraid of a European Federation? How to Constitutionalise a Multi-Level Governance System’, Harvard Jean Monnet Working Paper (Symposium), No. 7/00 (2000)
Bowman, A. O’M.Horizontal Federalism: Exploring Interstate Interactions’ (2004) 14 Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory535–546
Braithwaite, J., Coglianese, C. and Levi-Faur, D.Can Regulation and Governance Make a Difference’ (2007) 1 Regulation and Governance1–7
Bray, M.Centralization/Decentralization and Privatization/Publicization: Conceptual Issues and the Need for More Research’ (1994) 21 International Journal of Educational Research817–824
Brennan, G. and Buchanan, J.The Power to Tax: Analytical Foundations of a Fiscal Constitution (Cambridge University Press, 1980)
Brenton, T.The Greening of Machiavelli: The Evolution of International Environmental Politics (London: Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1994)
Bruce, J. P., Lee, H. and Haites, E. F. (eds.) Economic and Social Dimensions of Climate Change: Contribution of Working Group III to the Second Assessment Report of the IPCC (Cambridge University Press, 1995)
Brus, M. T. A., Raimond, R. R. and Drupsteen, T. G.Balancing National and European Competence in Environmental Law’ (1994) 9 Connecticut Journal of International Law633–674
Buchanan, J. M. and Tullock, G.Polluters’ Profits and Political Response: Direct Controls Versus Taxes’ (1975) 65 The American Economic Review139–147
Buchanan, J. M. and Tullock, G. ‘Polluters’ Profits and Political Response: Direct Controls versus Taxes’ in R. D. Congleton (ed.) The Political Economy of Environmental Protection: Analysis and Evidence (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1996)
Búrca, G. de ‘Reappraising Subsidiarity’s Significance after Amsterdam’, Harvard Jean Monnet Working Papers, No. 7/99 (1999)
Burniaux, J-M., Chateau, J., Dellink, R., Duval, R. and Jamet, S. ‘The Economics of Climate Change Mitigation: How to Build the Necessary Global Action in a Cost-Effective Manner’, Economics Department Working Papers No. 701 (2009)
Burris, S., Kempa, M. and Shearing, C.Changes in Governance: A Cross-Disciplinary Review of Current Scholarship’ (2008) 41 Akron Law Review1–66
Butler, H. N. and Macey, J. R.Externalities and the Matching Principle: The Case for Reallocating Environmental Regulatory Authority’ (1996) 14 Yale Law & Policy Review24–66
Buzbee, W. B. ‘Climate as an Innovation Imperative: Federalism, Institutional Pluralism and Incentive Effects’, Public Law & Legal Theory Research Paper Series, No. 10–125, Emory University School of Law (2010)
Buzbee, W. B.Recognizing the Regulatory Commons: A Theory of Regulatory Gaps’ (2003) 89 Iowa Law Review1–64
Calabresi, G. and Melamed, A. D.Property Rules, Liability Rules and Inalienability: One View of the Cathedral’ (1972) 85 Harvard Law Review1089–1128
Camerer, C. F.Behavioral Game Theory: Experiments in Strategic Interaction (Princeton, NJ: Cloth, 2003)
Campos, J. E. L.Legislative Institutions, Lobbying, and the Endogenous Choice of Regulatory Instruments: A Political Economy Approach to Instrument Choice’ (1989) 5 Journal of Law, Economics, & Organization333–353
Carbon TrustCutting Carbon in Europe – The 2020 Plans and the Future of the EU ETS (London: Carbon Trust Publication, CTC 734, June 2009)
Carbonara, E., Luppi, B. and Parisi, F. ‘Optimal Territorial Scope of Laws’, University of Minnesota Law School, Legal Studies Research Paper No. 08–44 (2008)
Carlton, D. W. and Loury, G. C.The Limitations of Pigouvian Taxes as a Long-Run Remedy for Externalities’ (1980) 97 The Quarterly Journal of Economics559–566
Chang, H.Breaking the Mould: An Institutionalist Political Economy Alternative to the Neo-liberal Theory of the Market and the State’ (2002) 26 (5) Cambridge Journal of Economics539–559
Chang, H., Sigman, H. and Traub, L. ‘Endogenous Decentralization in Federal Environmental Policies’, U. of Penn, Inst. for Law and Economics Research Paper No. 12–25 (2012)
Chinn, L. N.Can the Market be Fair and Efficient? An Environmental Justice Critique of Emissions Trading’ (1999) 26(1) Ecology Law Quarterly80–125
Chowdhury, N. and Wessel, R. A.Conceptualising Multilevel Regulation in the EU: A Legal Translation of Multilevel Governance?’ (2012) 18 European Law Journal335–357
Clausen, N. J. and Sørensen, K. E. ‘Reforming the Regulation of Trading Venues in the EU Under the Proposed (MiFID II) – Leveling the Playing Field and Overcoming Market Fragmentation?’ Nordic & European Company Law Working Paper No. 10–23 (2012)
Clò, S. ‘Assessing the European Emissions Trading Scheme Effectiveness in Reaching the Kyoto Target: An Analysis of the Cap Stringency’, Rotterdam Institute of Law and Economics Working Paper Series, No.14 (2008)
Clò, S.The Effectiveness of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme’ (2009) 9 Climate Policy227–241
Close, G.Harmonisation of Laws: Use or Abuse of the Powers under the EEC Treaty?’ (1978) 3 European Law Review461–481
Coase, R. H.The Problem of Social Cost’ (1960) 3 The Journal of Law and Economics1–44
Coase, R. H.The Regulated Industries’, in ‘Papers and Proceedings of the Seventy-sixth Annual Meeting of the American Economic Association’ (1964) 54 American Economic Review192–197
Cohen, J. M. and Peterson, S. B., Administrative Decentralization: Strategies for Developing Countries (West Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press, 1999)
Cohen, M. ‘Monitoring and Enforcement of Environmental Policy’, in T. Tietenberg and H. Folmer (eds.) International Yearbook of Environmental and Resource Economics (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishers, 1998/1999) 44–106
Cole, D. H.Climate Change and Collective Action’ (2008) 61(1) Current Legal Problems229–264
Cole, D. H.From Global to Polycentric Climate Governance’ (2011) 2 Climate Law395–413
Cole, D. H. ‘A Glimmer of Hope: The EU’s Emissions Trading Scheme’, unpublished manuscript on file with author (2009)
Cole, D. H.Pollution and Property: Comparing Ownership Institutions for Environmental Protection (Cambridge University Press, 2002)
Cole, D. H. and Grossman, P. Z.Toward a total-cost approach to environmental instrument choice’ (2002) 20 Research in Law and Economics223–241
Cole, D. H. and Grossman, P. Z.When is Command-and-Control Efficient? Institutions, Technology, and the Comparative Efficiency of Alternative Regulatory Regimes for Environmental Protection’ (1999) Wisconsin Law Review887–938
Collier, U.The European Union’s Climate Change Policy: Limiting Emissions or Limiting Powers?’ (1996) 3 Journal of European Public Policy122–138
Condorcet, J. M.Essay on the Application of Analysis to the Probability of Majority Decisions (Paris, 1785)
Congleton, R. D. ‘Ethnic Clubs, Ethnic Conflict, and the Rise of Ethnic Nationalism’ in A. Breton and J.-L. Galeotti (eds.) Nationalism and Rationality (Cambridge University Press, 1995) 71–97
Congleton, R. D. (ed.) The Political Economy of Environmental Protection: Analysis and Evidence (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1996)
Congressional Budget OfficeFederalism and Environmental Protection: Case Studies for Drinking Water and Ground-level Ozone (Washingtom, DC: Congress of the United States, 1997)
Conrad, K. and Schroder, M.Choosing Environmental Policy Instruments Using General Equilibrium Models’ (1993) 15 Journal of Policy Modeling521–544
Cooter, R. D.Three Effects of Social Norms on Law: Expression, Deterrence, and Internalization’ (2000) 79 Oregon Law Review1–22
Corwin, E. S.The Passing of Dual Federalism’ (1950) 36 Virginia Law Review1–24
Costello, C., Gaines, S. D. and Lynham, J.Can Catch Shares Prevent Fisheries Collapse?’ (2008) 321 Science1678–1681
Crook, R. and Manor, J. ‘Democratic Decentralization’, OED Working Paper Series (2000)
Dal Bo, E.Regulatory Capture: A Review’ (2006) 22 Oxford Review of Economic Policy203–225
Dales, J. H.Land, Water and Ownership’ (1968) 1 Canadian Journal of Economics791–804
Dewees, D. N.Pollution, Property, and Prices (University of Toronto Press, 1968)
Dari-Mattiacci, G., Hendriks, E. S. and Havinga, M. ‘A Generalized Jury Theorem’, Amsterdam Law School Research Paper No. 2011–39, University of Amsterdam (2011)
Dari-Mattiacci, G. and van Zeben, J. A. W.Legal Uncertainty and Market Uncertainty in Market-Based Instruments: The Case of the EU ETS’ (2012) 19(2) New York University Environmental Law Journal101–139
Dasgupta, P.The Control of Resources (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1982)
Daugbjerg, C. and Svendsen, G.Green Taxation in Question: Politics and Economic Efficiency in Environmental Regulation (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2001)
Dawes, R. M.The Commons Dilemma Game13 ORI Research Bulletin (1973) 1–12
Dekkers, C. and Oudenes, M. ‘EU ETS in the Post-2012 Regime: Lessons Learned’, in W. Th. Douma, L. Massai and M. Montini (eds.) The Kyoto Protocol and Beyond: Legal and Policy Challenges of Climate Change (The Hague: TMC Asser Press, 2007) 185
Demailly, D., Grubb, M., Hourcade, J.-C., Neuhoff, K. and Sato, M. ‘Differentiation and Dynamics of EU ETS Competitiveness Impacts’, Climate Strategies, Research Theme 1.3 Interim Report (2007)
Demailly, D. and Quirion, P.European Emission Trading Scheme and Competitiveness: A Case Study on the Iron and Steel Industry’ (2008) 30 Energy Economics2009–2027
Dewatripont, M., Jewitt, I. and Tirole, J.The Economics of Career Concerns, Part II: Application to Missions and Accountability of Government Agencies’ (1999) 66 Review of Economic Studies199–217
Dewees, D. N.Instrument Choice in Environmental Policy’ (1983) 21 Economic Inquiry53–71
Dewees, D. N. ‘Tradable Pollution Permits’, in P. Newman (ed.) The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics and the Law, vol. III (London: MacMillan, 1998) 596–601
Dhar, B. and Das, K. ‘The European Union’s Proposed Carbon Equalization System: Can it be WTO Compatible?’ Research and Information System for Developing Countries, Discussion Paper 15 (2009)
Dhondt, N., Integration of Environmental Protection into other EC Policies: Legal Theory and Practice (Groningen: Europa Law Publishing, 2003)
Dijkstra, B.The Political Economy of Environmental Policy: A Public Choice Approach to Market Instruments (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 1999)
Dimitrov, R. S.Inside Copenhagen: The State of Climate Governance’ (2010) 2 Global Environmental Politics18–24
Dixit, A. K.The Making of Economic Policy: A Transaction Cost Politics Perspective (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1998)
Downs, A.An Economic Theory of Democracy (New York: Harper Collins, 1957)
Driesen, D.Is Emissions Trading an Economic Incentive Program?: Replacing the Command and Control/Economic Incentive Dichotomy’ (1998) 55 Washington and Lee Law Review289–350
Driesen, D. M.Choosing Environmental Instruments in a Transnational Context’ (2000) 27 Ecology Law Quarterly1–52
Dwyer, J.The Practice of Federalism under the Clean Air Act’ (1995) 54 Maryland Law Review1183–1225
Dyke, B. VanEmissions Trading to Reduce Acid Deposition’ (1991) 100 Yale Law Journal2707–2726
Egenhofer, C., Alessi, M., Georgiev, A. and Fujiwara, N. ‘The EU Emissions Trading System and Climate Policy towards 2050: Real Incentives to Reduce Emissions and Drive Innovation?’ CEPS Special Report (2010)
Eggleston, S., Buendia, L., Miwa, K., Ngara, T. and Tanabe, K. (eds.) ‘2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories’, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2006)
Eising, R. and Kohler-Koch, B. (eds.), The Transformation of Governance in the European Union (London: Routledge, 2004)
Elazar, D. J.The American Partnership: Intergovernmental Co-operation in the Nineteenth-Century United States (University of Chicago Press, 1962)
Dewees, D. N.Exploring Federalism (Tuscaloosa: The University of Alabama Press, 1987)
Ellerman, A. D. and Buchner, B.The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme: Origins, Allocation, and Early Results’ (2007) 1 Review of Environmental Economics and Policy66–87
Dewees, D. N.Over-allocation or Abatement? A Preliminary Analysis of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme Based on the 2006 Emissions Data’ (2008) 41 Environmental and Resource Economics267–287
Ellerman, A. D., Joskow, P. L., Schmalensee, R., Montero, J.-P. and Bailey, E. M.Markets for Clean Air: The U.S. Acid Rain Program (Cambridge University Press, 2000)
Elliott, E. D.Goal Analysis versus Institutional Analysis of Toxic Compensation Systems’ (1985) 73 Georgetown Law Journal1357–1376
Elliott, E. D., Ackerman, B. A. and Millian, J. C.Toward a Theory of Statutory Evolution: The Federalization of Environmental Law’ (1985) 1 Journal of Law, Economics & Organization313–340
Endres, A. and Finus, M.Quotas may Beat Taxes in a Global Emissions Game’ (2000) 9(6) International Tax and Public Finance687–707
Engel, K. H.Harnessing the Benefits of Dynamic Federalism in Environmental Law’ (2006) 56 Emory Law Journal159–188
Environment Agency, ‘EU Emissions Trading Scheme: Guidance to Operators on the application of Civil Penalties’ (2009)
Estache, A. and Sinha, S. ‘Does Decentralization Increase Spending on Public Infrastructure?’ World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 1457 (1995)
Esty, D.Revitalizing Environmental Federalism’ (1996) 95 Michigan Law Review570–653
Esty, D. and Geradin, D. (eds.) Regulatory Competition and Economic Integration, Comparative Perspectives (Oxford University Press, 2001)
European Commission, ‘Community Guidelines on state aid for environmental protection’, OJ 2008 No. C82, 1 April 2008
European Commission, ‘Impact Assessment Guidelines’, SEC(2009)
European Commission, ‘Impact Assessment of 8 February 2010 accompanying the Commission Regulation on the timing, administration and other aspects of auctioning of greenhouse gas emission allowances pursuant to Article 10(4) of Directive 2003/87/EC’, SEC(2010)
European Commission, ‘Report of the 3rd meeting of the ECCP working group on emissions trading on the review of the EU ETS on further harmonization and increased predictability’, 070521–22 final report M3 (21–22 May 2007)
Falkner, R., Stephan, H. and Vogler, J.International Climate Policy after Copenhagen: Towards a “Building Blocks” Approach’ (2010) 1 Global Policy252–262
Faure, M. and Nollkaemper, A.International Liability as an Instrument to Prevent and Compensate for Climate Change’ (2007) 26 Stanford Environmental Law Journal123–179
Fiorina, M. P.Legislative Choice of Regulatory Forms: Legal Process or Administrative Process?’ (1982) 39 Public Choice33–61
Fisher, C. and Fox, A. ‘Comparing Policies to Combat Emissions Leakage’, Resources for the Future Discussion Paper 09–0 (2009)
Fiske, E.Decentralization of Education: Politics and Consensus (Washington, DC: World Bank, 1996)
Fleurke, F.Effecten van Decentralisatie’ (1995) 49(2) Bestuurswetenschap101–137
Fourier, J.Mémoire sur les Températures du Globe Terrestre et des Espaces Planétaires’ (1827) 7 Mémoires de l’Académie Royale des Sciences569–604
Freeman, J. and Rossi, J.Agency Coordination in Shared Regulatory Space’ (2012) 125(5) Harvard Law Review1131–1211
Frey, B. and Eichenberger, R.FOCJ: Competitive Governments for Europe’ (1996) 16 International Review of Law and Economics315–327
Friedman, R. M., Downing, D. and Gunn, E. M.Environmental Policy Instrument Choice: The Challenge of Competing Goals’ (2000) 10 Duke Environmental Law & Policy Forum327–387
Gilbert, A., BodeJ. W. and Phylipsen, D.Analysis of the National Allocation Plans for the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (London: Ecofys, 2004)
Gilpin, R., Global Political Economy: Understanding the International Economic Order (Princeton University Press, 2001)
Golub, J.Sovereignty and Subsidiarity in EU Environmental Policy’ (1996) 44 Political Studies686–703
Goulder, L. H.The Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative Instruments for Environmental Protection in a Second-Best Setting’ (1999) 72 Journal of Public Economics329–360
Goulder, L. H. and Parry, I. W. H.Instrument Choice in Environmental Policy’ (2008) 2 Review of Environmental Economics and Policy152–174
Grande, E.The State and Interest Groups in a Framework of Multi-level Decision-making: The Case of the European Union’ (1996) 3 Journal of European Public Policy365–390
Griffin, K.Economic Development in a Changing World’ (1981) 9 World Development221–320
Grodzins, M.The American System: A New View of the Government of the United States (New York: Rand McNally, 1966)
Dewees, D. N. ‘The Federal System’, in The Goals for Americans: Report of President’s Commission on National Goals (New York: Prentice Hall, 1960) 256–282
Grossman, G. and Helpman, E.Endogenous Innovation in the Theory of Growth8 (1994) Journal of Economic Perspectives22–44
Grubb, M. and Neuhoff, K.Allocation and Competitiveness in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme: Policy Overview’ (2006) 6 Climate Policy7–30
Grzeszczak, R. ‘Executuve Power in the European Union’ in R. Grzeszczak and I. Karolewski (eds.) The Multi-Level and Polycentric European Union: Legal and Political Studies (Zurich: Lit Verlag, 2012) 77–102
Gunningham, N. and Sinclair, D.Policy Instrument Choice and Diffuse Source Pollution’ (2005) 17 Journal of Environmental Law51–81
Haagsma, A.The European Community’s Environmental Policy: A Case-Study in Federalism’ (1989) 12 Fordham International Law Journal311–359
Hahn, R. W.Economic Prescriptions for Environmental Problems: How the Patient Followed the Doctor’s Orders’ (1989) 3 The Journal of Economic Perspectives95–114
Hahn, R. W.The Political Economy of Environmental Regulation: Towards a Unifying Framework’ (1990) 65 Public Choice21–47
Hahn, R. W. and McGartland, A. M.The Political Economy of Instrument Choice: An Examination of the U.S. Role in Implementing the Montreal Protocol’ (1989) 83 Northwestern University Law Review203–229
Hahn, R. W. and Noll, R. ‘Designing a Market for Tradable Emissions Permits’, in W. Maget (ed.) Reform of Environmental Regulation (Cambridge:Ballinger, 1982) 119–146
Dewees, D. N.Environmental Markets in the Year 2000’ (1990) 3 Journal of Risk and Uncertainty347–363
Hahn, R. W. and Stavins, R. N.Economic Incentives for Environmental Protection: Integrating Theory and Practice’ (1992) 82(2) The American Economic Review464–468
Hardin, G.The Tragedy of the Commons’ (1968) 162 Science, 1243–1248
Hayward, T.Human Rights versus Emissions Rights: Climate Justice and the Equitable Distribution of Ecological Space’ (2007) 21(4) Ethics & International Affairs431–450
Hendriks, E. S. ‘Modelling Subsidiarity Applying a Continuous CJT to Determine the Optimal Level of Decision Making for Standard Setting’, PhD thesis, University of Amsterdam (2010)
Hepburn, C.Regulation by Prices, Quantities, or Both: a Review of Instrument Choice’ (2006) 22 Oxford Review of Economic Policy226–247
Hillman, A. L. and Ursprung, H. W.Domestic Politics, Foreign Interests, and International Trade Policy: Reply’ (1994) 84(5) American Economic Review1476–1478
Hirschman, A., Exit, Voice, and Loyalty: Responses to Decline in Firms, Organizations, and States (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1970)
Hix, S., Noury, A. and Roland, G.Power to the Parties: Cohesion and Competition in the European Parliament, 1979–2001’ (2005) 35 British Journal of Political Science209–234
Holder, J. and Lee, M.Environmental Protection, Law and Policy: Texts and Materials (Cambridge University Press, 2007)
Holland, K. M., Morton, F. L. and Galligan, B. (eds.) Federalism and the Environment: Environmental Policymaking in Australia, Canada, and the United States (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1996)
Holt, C. A.Markets, Games, and Strategic Behavior (Boston, MA: Pearson-Addison Wesley, 2007)
Holtkamp, J.Dealing with Climate Change in the United States: The Non-Federal Response’ (2007) 27 Journal of Land, Resources & Environmental Law79–86
Homans, R. F. and Wilen, J. E.A Model of Regulated Open Access Resource Use’ (1997) 32(1) Journal of Environmental Economics and Management1–21
Homeyer, I. von ‘The Evolution of EU Environmental Governance’, in J. Scott (ed.) Environmental Protection: European Law and Governance (Oxford University Press, 2009)
Hooghe, L. and Marks, G. ‘Types of Multi-level Governance’, in H. Enderlein, S. Wälti and M. Zürn, Handbook on Multi-Level Governance (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2010) 17–31
Hoogzaad, J. and Streck, C. ‘A Mechanism with a Bright Future: Joint Implementation’, in D. Freestone and C. Streck (eds.) Legal Aspects of Carbon Trading: Kyoto, Copenhagen, and Beyond (Oxford University Press, 2009) 176–194
Houtven, G. Van ‘Bureaucratic Discretion in Environmental Regulations: The Air Toxics and Asbestos Ban Cases’, in R. D. Congleton (ed.) The Political Economy of Environmental Protection: Analysis and Evidence (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1996)
Huffman, J. L.Making Environmental Regulation more Adoptive through Decentralization: The Case for Subsidiarity’ (2005) 52 University of Kansas Law Review1377–1400
Hutchcroft, P. D.Centralization and Decentralization in Administration and Politics: Assessing Territorial Dimensions of Authority and Power’ (2001) 14 Governance23–53
Hutchinson, E. and Kennedy, P. W.State Enforcement of Federal Standards: Implications for Interstate Pollution’ (2008) 30 Resource and Energy Economics316–344
Hutter, B.Compliance: Regulation and Environment (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997)
Inman, R. ‘Transfers and Bailouts: Enforcing Local Fiscal Discipline with Lessons from U.S. Federalism’ in J. Rodden (ed.) Enforcing the Hard Budget Constraint (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2003) 35–83
Inman, R. and Rubinfeld, D.Rethinking Federalism’ (1997) 11(4) The Journal of Economic Perspectives43–64
Inman, R. and Rubinfeld, D. L. ‘Federalism’, in B. Bouckaert and G. De Geest (eds.) Encyclopedia of Law and Economics (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2000), 661–691
Jaffe, J., Ranson, M. and Stavins, R. N.Linking Tradable Permit Systems: A Key Element of Emerging International Climate Policy Architecture’ (2009) 36 Ecology Law Quarterly789–808
Jans, J. and Vedder, H.European Environmental Law (Groningen: Europa Law Publishing, 3rd revised edn, 2008)
Joskow, P. L., Schmalensee, R. and Bailey, E. M. ‘Auction Design and the Market for Sulfur Dioxide Emissions’, National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 5745 (1996)
Dewees, D. N.The Market for Sulfur Dioxide Emissions’ (1998) 88 American Economic Review669–685
Kaplow, L. ‘Taxes, Permits, and Climate Change’, NBER Working Papers 16268, National Bureau of Economic Research (2010)
Kefer, J. V.Warming up to an International Greenhouse Gas Market: Lessons from the U.S. Acid Rain Experience’ (2001) 20 Stanford Environmental Law Journal221–300
Keohane, N. and Olmstead, S. M.Markets and the Environment (Washington, DC: Island Press, 2007)
Keohane, N., Revesz, R. L. and Stavins, R. N.The Choice of Regulatory Instruments in Environmental Policy’ (1998) 22 Harvard Environmental Law Review313–367
Kersbergen, K. van and Verbeek, B.The Politics of Subsidiarity in the European Union’ (1994) 32 Journal of Common Market Studies215–236
Kimber, C. J. M.A Comparison of Environmental Federalism in the United States and the European Union’ (1995) 54 Maryland Law Review1658–1690
Kingsbury, B., Krisch, N. and Stewart, R. B.The Emergence of Global Administrative Law’ (2005) 68 Law and Contemporary Problems15–61
Kirchgässner, G. and Schneider, F.On the Political Economy of Environmental Policy’ (2003) 115 Public Choice369–396
Klepper, G. and Peterson, S. M. ‘The EU Emissions Trading Scheme. Allowance Prices, Trade Flows, Competitiveness Effects’, FEEM Working Paper No. 49.04 (2004)
Knight, F. H.Risk, Uncertainty, and Profit (Boston, MA: Hart Schaffner and Marx, 1921)
Kohler-Koch, B.Catching up with Change: The Transformation of Governance in the European Union’ (1996) 3 Journal of European Public Policy359–380
Kohler-Koch, B. and Eising, R. (eds.) The Transformation of Governance in the European Union (London: Routledge, 2004)
Komesar, N. K.Imperfect Alternatives: Choosing Institutions in Law, Economics, and Public Policy (University of Chicago Press, 1994)
Konstadinides, T.Division of Powers in European Union Law: The Delimitation of Internal Competence between the EU and the Member States (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2009)
Kosolapova, E. ‘Liability for Climate Change-Related Damage in Domestic Courts: Claims for Compensation in the USA’, in M. Faure and M. Peeters (eds.) Climate Change Liability (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2011) 189–205
Krämer, L.EC Environmental Law (London: Sweet & Maxwell, 6th edn, 2007)
Krey, M. and Santen, H. ‘Trying to Catch up with the Executive Board: Regulatory Decision-making and its Impact on CDM Performance’, in D. Freestone and C. Streck (eds.) Legal Aspects of Carbon Trading: Kyoto, Copenhagen, and Beyond (Oxford University Press, 2009) 231–247
Krueger, A.The Political Economy of the Rent-seeking Society’ (1974) 64 American Economic Review291–303
Kumar Sharma, C.Decentralization Dilemma: Measuring the Degree and Evaluating the Outcomes’ (2006) 1 The Indian Journal of Political Science49–64
Lacasta, N., Oberthür, S., Santos, E. and Barata, P. ‘From Sharing the Burden to Sharing the Effort: Decision 406/2009/EC on Member State Emission Targets for Non-ETS Sectors’, in M. Pallemaerts and S. Oberthür (eds.) The New Climate Policies of the European Union (Brussels: VUB Press, 2011) 93–116
Lederer, M.Market Making via Regulation: The Role of the State in Carbon Markets’ (2012) 6 Regulation & Governance1–21
Lee, M.From Private to Public: The Multiple Roles of Environmental Liability’ (2001) 7 European Public Law375–397
Lefeber, R.An Inconvenient Responsibility (Amsterdam: Eleven International Publishing, 2009)
Leidy, M. P. and Hoekman, B. M. ‘Pollution Abatement, Interest Groups, and Contingent Trade Policies’, in R. D. Congleton (ed.) The Political Economy of Environmental Protection: Analysis and Evidence (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1996)
Lenaerts, K.Constitutionalism and the Many Faces of Federalism’ (1990) 38 American Journal of Comparative Law205–264
Lenaerts, K.The Principle of Subsidiarity and the Environment in the European Union: Keeping the Balance of Federalism’ (1994) 17 Fordham International Law Journal846–895
Lin, C.How Should Standards Be Set and Met?: An Incomplete Contracting Approach to Delegation in Regulation’ (2010) 10 The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy1–17
Lomas, O.Environmental Protection, Economic Conflict and the European Community’ (1988) 3(3) McGill Law Journal506–539
Loprieno, M. ‘Data Consistency between National GHG Inventories and Reporting under the EU ETS: Differences and Similarities, Outlook to Changes’, Second Workshop, Copenhagen (13 September 2007)
Macey, J. R.Federal Deference to Local Regulators and the Economic Theory of Regulation: Toward a Public-Choice Explanation of Federalism’ (1990) 76 Virginia Law Review265–291
Maddick, H.Democracy, Decentralisation and Development (London: Asia Publishing House, 1963)
Maher, I. ‘Legislative Review by the EC Commission: Revision without Radicalism’, in J. Shaw and G. More (eds.) New Legal Dynamics of European Union (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995) 235–253
Magat, W. A., Krnpnick, A. J. and Harrington, W.Rules in the Making: A Statistical Analysis of Regulatory Agency Behavior (Washington, DC: Resources for the Future, 1986)
Marchant, G. E.Global Warming: Freezing Carbon Dioxide Emissions: An Offset Policy for Slowing Global Warming’ (1992) 22 Environmental Law623–684
Marklund, P. and Samakovlis, E.What is Driving the EU Burden-sharing Agreement: Efficiency or Equity?’ (2007) 85 Journal of Environmental Management317–329
Marks, G.An Actor-centred Approach to Multi-level Governance’ (1996) 6 Regional & Federal Studies20–38
Marks, G. ‘Structural Policy and Multilevel Governance in the EC: The State of the European Community’, in A. Cafruny and G. Rosenthal (eds.) The State of the European Community: The Maastricht Debate and Beyond (Boulder, CO:L. Rienner Publishers, 1993) 391–411
Marks, G., Hooghe, L. and Blank, K.European Integration from the 1980s: State-centric v. Multi-level Governance’ (1996) 34 Journal of Common Market Studies341–378
Markussen, P. and Svendsen, G. T.Industry Lobbying and the Political Economy of GHG Trade in the European Union’ (2005) 33 Energy Policy245–255
Massai, L.The Kyoto Protocol in the EU: European Community and Member States under International and European Law (The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Press, 2011)
Matthes, F. C. and Schafhausen, F. ‘Germany’, in A. Ellerman, B. Buchner and C. Carraro (eds.) Allocation in the European Emissions Trading Scheme: Rights, Rents and Fairness (Cambridge University Press, 2007) 72–105
Mayer, B.Case C-366/10, Air Transport Association of America and Others v. Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change, Judgment of the Court of Justice (Grand Chamber) of 21 December 2011’ (2012) 49 Common Market Law Review1113–1140
McGartland, A. and Oates, W. E.Marketable Permits for the Prevention of Environmental Deterioration’ (1985) 12 Journal of Environmental Economics and Management207–228
McGinnis, M. and Hanisch, M. ‘Analyzing Problems of Polycentric Governance in the Growing EU’, Paper presented at the Transcoop Workshop on Problems of Polycentric Governance in the Growing EU, Humboldt University, Berlin (on file with the author) (2005)
McGinnis, M. and Ostrom, E.Reflections on Vincent Ostrom, Public Administration, and Polycentricity’ (2012) 72 Public Administration Review15–25
Metcalf, G. ‘Reacting to Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Carbon Tax to Meet Emission Targets’, Discussion Paper Series, Department of Economics 0731, Tufts University (2009)
Michaelowa, A.Impact of Interest Groups on EU Climate Policy’ (1998) 8(5) European Environment152–160
Montesquieu, C. deThe Spirit of the Laws, trans. T. Nugent (New York: MacMillan, 1949)
Montgomery, W. D.Markets in Licenses and Efficient Pollution Control Programs’ (1972) 5(3) Journal of Economic Theory395–418
Moore, S. ‘If the Cap Fits: Reform of European Climate Policy and the EU Emissions Trading System’, Policy Exchange (2013), available at www.policyexchange.org.uk/publications/category/item/if-the-cap-fits-reform-of-european-climate-policy-and-the-eu-emissions-trading-system
Mueller, D. C.Public Choice II (Cambridge University Press, 1989)
Mueller, D. C.Public Choice III (Cambridge University Press, 2003)
Musgrave, R.The Theory of Public Finance (New York: McGraw Hill, 1959)
Musgrave, R.The Voluntary Exchange Theory of Public Economy’ (1939) 53 Quarterly Journal of Economics213–237
Nash, J.Too much Market? Conflict between Tradable Pollution Allowances and the “Polluter Pays” Principle’ (2000) 24 Harvard Environmental Law Review465–535
Netto, M. and Schmidt, K. U. B. ‘The CDM Project Cycle and the Role of the UNFCCC Secretariat’, in D. Freestone and C. Streck (eds.) Legal Aspects of Carbon Trading: Kyoto, Copenhagen, and Beyond (Oxford University Press, 2009) 213–230
Neuhoff, K., Åhman, M., Betz, R., Cludius, J., Ferrario, F., Holmgren, K., Pal, G., Grubb, M., Matthes, F., Rogge, K., Sato, M., Schleich, J., Sijm, J., Tuerk, A., Kettner, C. and Walker, N.Implications of Announced Phase II National Allocation Plans for the EU ETS’ (2006) 6 Climate Policy411–422
Neuhoff, K., Ferrario, F., Grubb, M., Gabel, E. and Keats, K.Emission Projections 2008–2012 versus National Allocation Plans II’ (2006) 6 Climate Policy395–410
Newell, R. G. and Pizer, W. A.Uncertain Discount Rates in Climate Policy Analysis’ (2004) 32(4) Energy Policy519–529
Newell, R. G. and Stavins, R. N.Cost Heterogeneity and the Potential Savings from Market-Based Policies’ (2003) 23(1) Journal of Regulatory Economics43–59
Nicolaisen, J., Dean, A. and Hoeller, P. ‘Economics and the Environment: A Survey of Issues and Policy Options’, OECD Economics Studies No. 16 (1991)
Niskanen, W. A.Bureaucracy and Representative Government (Chicago:Aldine Atherton, 1971)
Niskanen, W. A.Nonmarket Decision Making: The Peculiar Economics of Bureaucracy’ (1968) 58 The American Economic Review293–305
Nollkaemper, A. and Jacobs, D. ‘Shared Responsibility in International Law: A Concept Paper’, ACIL Research Paper No 2011–07 (SHARES Series) (2011)
Nordhaus, R. R. and Danish, K. W.Assessing the Options for Designing a Mandatory U.S. Greenhouse Gas Reduction Program’ (2005) 32 Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review97–164
Oates, W. E.On Environmental Federalism’ (1997) 83(7) Virginia Law Review1321–1329
Oates, W. E.An Essay on Fiscal Federalism’ (1999) 37 Journal of Economic Literature1120–1149
Oates, W. E.Fiscal Federalism (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1972).
Oates, W. E. ‘A Reconsideration of Environmental Federalism’, Resources for the Future, Discussion Paper No. 01–54 (2001)
Oates, W. E. ‘A Reconsideration of Environmental Federalism’, in J. List and A. de Zeeuw (eds.) Recent Advances in Environmental Economics (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2002)
Oates, W. E.Searching for Leviathan: An Empirical Study’ (1985) 75 The American Economic Review748–757
Oates, W. E.Toward a Second-Generation Theory of Fiscal Federalism’ (2005) 12 International Tax and Public Finance349–373
Oates, W. E. and Portney, P. R. ‘The Political Economy of Environmental Policy’, in K.-G. Maler and J. R. Vincent (eds.) Handbook of Environmental Economics (Amsterdam: Elsevier Science B.V., 2003)
Oates, W. E. and Schwab, R. M.Economic Competition Among Jurisdictions: Efficiency Enhancing or Distortion Inducing?’ (1988) 35 Journal of Public Economics333–354
Oberndorfer, U. and Rennings, K.Costs and Competitiveness Effects of the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme’ (2007) 17 European Environment1–17
OberthürS. and Pallemaerts, M. ‘The EU’s Internal and External Climate Policies: An Historical Overview’, in M. Pallemaerts and S. Oberthür (eds.) The New Climate Policies of the European Union (Brussels: VUB Press, 2010) 27–64
Olson, M.The Logic of Collective Action: Public Goods and the Theory of Groups (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1965)
Olson, M.The Principle of “Fiscal Equivalence”: The Division of Responsibilities among Different Levels of Government’ (1969) 59 American Economic Review, Papers and Proceedings479–487
Osofsky, H. M. ‘The Intersection of Scale, Science, and Law in Massachusetts v. EPA’, in W. G. Burns and H. M. Osofsky (eds.) Adjudicating Climate Change: State, National, and International Approaches (Cambridge University Press, 2009) 129–144
Osofsky, H. M.Is Climate Change “International”?: Litigation’s Diagonal Regulatory Role’ (2009) 49 Virginia Journal of International Law585–650
Osofsky, H. M.Multiscalar Governance and Climate Change: Reflections on the Role of States and Cities at Copenhagen’ (2010) 25 Maryland Journal of International Law64–85
Ostrom, E.Analysing Collective Action’ (2010) 41(s1) Agricultural Economics155–166
Ostrom, E.Governing the Commons (Cambridge University Press, 1990)
Ostrom, E. ‘A Polycentric Approach for Coping with Climate Change’, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper Series, No. 5095 (2008)
Ostrom, E.Reflections on “Some Unsettled Problems of Irrigation”’ (2011) 101(1) American Economic Review49–63
Ostrom, V.The Intellectual Crisis in American Public Administration (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1974)
Ostrom, V. and Bish, R.Comparing Urban Service Delivery Systems: Structure and Performance (Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1977)
Ostrom, V. and Ostrom, E. ‘Public Good and Public Choices’, in M. McGinnis and E. Ostrom (eds.) Polycentricity and Local Public Economies (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1999) 75–103
Ostrom, V., Tiebout, C. and Warren, R.The Organization of Government in Metropolitan Areas: A Theoretical Inquiry’ (1961) 55 American Political Science Review831–842
Ott, H. E., Sterk, W. and Watanabe, R.The Bali Roadmap: New Horizons for Global Climate Policy’ (2008) 8 Climate Policy91–95
Paavola, J. ‘Climate Change: The Ultimate “Tragedy of the Commons”?’ in D. Cole and E. Ostrom (eds.) Property in Land and Other Resources (Cambridge, MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, 2011) 417–433
Pachauri, R. K. and Reisinger, A. (eds.) Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Geneva: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2008)
Pallemaerts, M. and Oberthür, S. (eds.) The New Climate Policies of the European Union (Brussels: VUB Press, 2010)
Parisi, F. and Ghei, N.The Role of Reciprocity in International Law’ (2003) 36 Cornell International Law Journal93–123
Parisi, F., Schulz, N. and Klick, J.Two Dimensions of Regulatory Competition’ (2006) 26 International Review of Law and Economics56–66
Parker, A. ‘Decentralization: The Way Forward for Rural Development?’ The World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 1475 (1995)
Pashigian, P.Environmental Regulation: Whose Self-interests are being Protected?’ (1985) 23 Economic Inquiry551–584
Paulsson, E.A Review of the CDM Literature: from Fine-tuning to Critical Scrutiny?’ (2009) 9(1) International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics63–80
Pedersen, W. F.Using Federal Environmental Regulations to Bargain for Private Land Use Control’ (2004) 21 Yale Journal On Regulation1–66
Peeters, M.Inspection and Market-based Regulation through Emissions Trading: The Striking Reliance on Self-monitoring, Self-reporting and Verification’ (2006) 2(1) Utrecht Law Review177–195
Peltzman, S.Towards a More General Theory of Regulation’ (1976) 19 Journal of Law and Economics211–240
Peterson, S. ‘Monitoring, Accounting and Enforcement in Emissions Trading Regimes’, OECD Global Forum on Sustainable Development: Emissions Trading, Concerted Action on Tradable Emissions Permits Country Forum CCNM/GF/SD/ENV(2003)5/FINAL (2008)
Pigou, A. C.The Economics of Welfare (London: Macmillan, 4th edn, 1932)
Pigou, A. C.The Laws of Diminishing and Decreasing Costs’ (1927) 37 The Economic Journal188–197
Porter, G.Trade Competition and Pollution Standards: “Race to the Bottom” or “Stuck at the Bottom”’ (1998) 8 Journal of Environment and Development133–151
Posner, R.Theories of Economic Regulation’ (1974) 5 Bell Journal of Economics and Management Science335358
Poteete, A. R., Janssen, M. A. and Ostrom, E. (eds.) Working Together: Collective Action, the Commons, and Multiple Methods in Practice (Princeton University Press, 2010)
Prins, G., Galiana, I., Green, C., Grundmann, R., Hulme, M., Korhola, A., Laird, F., Nordhaus, T., Pielke Jnr, R., Rayner, S., Sarewitz, D., Shellenberger, M., Stehr, N. and Tezuka, H. ‘The Hartwell Paper: A New Direction for Climate Policy after the Crash of 2009’ (May 2010) available at http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/27939/1/HartwellPaper_English_version.pdf
Prud’homme, R.The Dangers of Decentralization’ (1995) 10 The World Bank Research Observer201–220
Putnam, R. D.Diplomacy and Domestic Politics: The Logic of Two-Level Games’ (1988) 42(3) International Organization427–460
Qian, Y. and Weinga, B. R.Federalism as a Commitment to Preserving Market Incentives’ (1997) 11 Journal of Economic Perspectives83–92
Raustiala, K.Compliance and Effectiveness in International Regulatory Cooperation’ (2000) 32 Case Western Reserve Journal International Law387–440
Reh, C.De-constitutionalizing the European Union?’ (2009) 47 Journal of Common Market Studies625–650
Revesz, R.Environmental Law and Policy (New York: Foundation Press, 2008)
Revesz, R.The Race to the Bottom and Federal Environmental Regulation: A Response to Critics’ (1997) 82 Minnesota Law Review535–564
Revesz, R. and Engel, K.State Environmental Standard-Setting: Is there a “Race” and is it “To the Bottom”?’ (1997) 48 Hastings Law Journal271–398
Revesz, R. and Stavins, R. N. ‘Environmental Law’, in A. M. Polinsky and S. Shavell (eds.) The Handbook of Law and Economics (Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, 2007), 499–589
Richards, K. R.Framing Environmental Policy Instrument Choice’ (2000) 10 Duke Environmental Law and Policy Forum221–286
Riedel, R. ‘Silesian Representations in Brussels: How the Sub-national Authorities Utilise Opportunity Structures in the Multi-level Governance of the EU’, in R. Grzeszczak and I. Karolewski (eds.) The Multi-level and Polycentric European Union: Legal and Political Studies (Zurich: Lit Verlag, 2012) 57–76
Roche Kelly, C., Oberthür, C. and Pallemaerts, M. ‘Introduction, The EU’s Internal and External Climate Policies: an Historical Overview’, in M. Pallemaerts and S. Oberthür (eds.) The New Climate Policies of the European Union (Brussels: VUB Press, 2010) 11–26
Rogelj, J., Chen, C., Nabel, J., Macey, K., Hare, W., Schaeffer, M., Markmann, K., Höhne, N., Andersen, K. K. and Meinshausen, M.Analysis of the Copenhagen Accord Pledges and its Global Climatic Impacts – A Snapshot of Dissonant Ambitions’ (2010) 5 Environmental Research Letters1–9
Rolph, E.Government Allocation of Property Rights: Who Gets What?’ (1983) 3(1) Journal of Policy Analysis and Management45–61
Rondinelli, D. A.Government Decentralization in Comparative Perspective: Theory and Practice in Developing Countries’ (1981) 47 International Review of Administrative Sciences133–145
Rondinelli, D. A. and Nellis, J. R.Assessing Decentralization Policies in Developing Countries: The Case for Cautious Optimism’ (1986) 4 Development Policy Review3–23
Rooij, B. vanRegulating Land and Pollution in China: Lawmaking, Compliance, and Enforcement; Theory and Cases (Leiden University Press, 2006)
Rose-Ackerman, S.Does Federalism Matter? Political Choice in a Federal Republic’ (1981) 89 Journal of Political Economy152–165
Ross, S. A.The Economic Theory of Agency: The Principal’s Problem’ (1973) 63 American Economic Review134–139
Rowley, C. K. (ed.) Public Choice Theory (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 1993)
Sadeleer, N. dePrinciple of Subsidiarity and the EU Environmental Policy’ (2012) 9 Journal for European Environmental & Planning Law63–70
Samuelson, P. A.Diagrammatic Exposition of a Theory of Public Expenditure’ (1955) 37 Review of Economics and Statistics350–356
Samuelson, P. A.Foundations of Economic Analysis (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1947)
Samuelson, P. A.The Pure Theory of Public Expenditures’ (1954) 4 Review of Economics and Statistics387–389
Sanchez, P. A.Linking Climate Change Research with Food Security and Poverty Reduction in the Tropics’ (2000) 82(1) Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment371–383
Sandbag, ‘ETS S.O.S.: Why the flagship “EU Emissions Trading Policy” needs rescuing’ (2009), available at www.sandbag.org.uk/site_media/pdfs/reports/Sandbag_ETS_SOS_Report.pdf
Scalop, S. C. and Scheffman, D. T.Raising Rivals’ Costs’ (1983) 73 American Economic Review267–271
Schemmel, M. L. and de Regt, B.The European Court of Justice and the Environmental Protection Policy of the European Community’ (1994) 17 Boston College International & Comparative Law Review53–84
Scott, J.EC Environmental Law (New York: Longman Publishing Group, 1998)
Scott, J.In Legal Limbo: Post-Legislative Guidance as a Challenge for European Administrative Law’ (2011) 48 Common Market Law Review329–355
Scott, J. ‘The Multi-Level Governance of Climate Change’, in P. Craig and G. de Búrca (eds.) The Evolution of EU Law (Oxford University Press, 2011) 805–835
Seabright, P.Accountability and Decentralisation in Government: An Incomplete Contracts Model’ (1996) 40 European Economic Review61–89
Seabright, P. ‘Centralised and Decentralised Regulation in the European Union’, in P. Newman (ed.) The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics and the Law (London: Macmillan, 1998) 214
Selin, H. and VanDeveer, S. D.Changing Climates in North American Politics: Institutions, Policymaking and Multilevel Governance (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2009)
Sen, A. K.Choice, Welfare and Measurement (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1982)
Dewees, D. N.Distribution, Transitivity and Little’s Welfare Criteria’ (1963) 73 Economic Journal771–778
Shapiro, S. A. and Glicksman, R. L.Goals, Instruments, and Environmental Policy Choice’ (2000) 10 Duke Environmental Law and Policy Forum297–325
Shapiro, S. A. and McGarity, T.Not so Paradoxical: The Rationale for Technology-based Regulation’ (1991) 40 Duke Law Journal729–752
Shavell, S.Liability for Harm versus Regulation of Safety’ (1984) 13 Journal of Legal Studies357–374
Sigman, H. ‘Decentralization and Environmental Quality: An International Analysis of Water Pollution’, National Bureau of Economic Research Working Papers 13098 (2007)
Sigman, H.Transboundary Spillovers and Decentralization of Environmental Policies’ (2005) 50 Journal of Environmental Economics and Management82–101
Sijm, J. P. M., Hers, S. J., Lise, W. and Wetzelaer, B. J. H. W. ‘The Impact of the EU ETS on Electricity Prices’, Final report to DG Environment of the European Commission, ECN-E – 08–007 (2008), 12–13
Simonetti, S. ‘Access to Justice for the Private Sector in Joint Implementation Projects under the Kyoto Protocol: A Brief Study of Possible Disputes and Remedies Available to Private Participants in International Carbon Emission Reduction Projects’, Robert Schuman Center for Advanced Studies Florence School of Regulation 2010/08, EUI (2010)
Skjærseth, J. B.The Climate Policy of the EC: Too Hot to Handle?’ (1994) 32 Journal of Common Market Studies25–45
Skjærseth, J. B. and Wettestad, J.EU Emissions Trading: Initiation, Decision-making and Implementation, (Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2008)
Skjærseth, J. B. and Wettestad, J. ‘The EU Emissions Trading System Revised (Directive 2009/29/EC)’, in M. Pallemaerts and S. Oberthür (eds.) The New Climate Policies of the European Union: Internal Legislation and Climate Diplomacy (Brussels: VUB Press, 2010) 65–93
Skjærseth, J. B. and Wettestad, J.Implementing EU Emissions Trading: Success or Failure?’ (2008) 8 International Environmental Agreements275–290
Slaughter, A.A New World Order (Princeton University Press, 2004)
Smale, R., Hartley, M., Hepburn, C., Ward, J. and Grubb, M.The Impact of CO2 Emissions Trading on Firm Profits and Market Prices’ (2006) 6 Climate Policy29–46
Smith, D. M. and Wilen, J. E.Economic Impacts of Marine Reserves: The Importance of Spatial Behavior’ (2003) 46(2) Journal of Environmental Economics and Management183–206
Smith, V. L.Rationality in Economics: Constructivist and Ecological Forms (Cambridge University Press, 2008)
Solomon, B. D. and Lee, R.Emissions Trading Systems and Environmental Justice’ (2000) 42(8) Environmental Justice32–45
Spagnolo, G. ‘Divede et Impera: Optimal Leniency Programmes’, CEPR Discussion Papers 4840, C.E.P.R. (2004)
Spulber, D. E.Effluent Regulation and Long-Run Optimality’ (1985) 12 Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 103–116
Stavins, R. N. ‘Experience with Market-Based Environmental Policy Instruments’, Resources for the Future Discussion Paper 01–58 (2001)
Stavins, R. N. ‘Market-Based Environmental Policies’, Resources for the Future Discussion Paper 98–26 (1998)
Stavins, R. N. ‘Policy Instruments for Climate Change: How Can National Governments Address a Global Problem?’ Resources for the Future Discussion Paper 97–11 (1997)
Stavins, R. N.The Problem of the Commons: Still Unsettled after 100 Years’ (2011) 101 American Economic Review81–108
Stern, D. and Jotzo, F.How Ambitious are China and India’s Emissions Intensity Targets?’ (2010) 38 Energy Policy6776–6783
Stern, N.The Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change (Cambridge University Press, 2006)
Stewart, R. B.Economics, Environment, and the Limits of Legal Control’ (1985) 9 Harvard Environmental Law Review1–22
Stewart, R. B. ‘Enforcement of Transnational Public Regulation’, EUI Working Papers, Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, Private Regulation Series-06 no. 2011/49 (2011)
Stewart, R. B. ‘Enforcement of Transnational Public Regulation’, in F. Cafaggi (ed.) Enforcement of Transnational Regulation: Ensuring Compliance in a Global World (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2012) 41–74
Stewart, R. B.Environmental Law in the United States and the European Community: Spillovers, Cooperation, Rivalry, Institutions’ (1992) 39 University of Chicago Legal Forum44–46
Stewart, R. B.Environmental Quality as a National Good in a Federal State’ (1997) University of Chicago Legal Forum199–230
Stewart, R. B.Environmental Regulation and International Competitiveness’ (1993) 102 The Yale Law Journal41–75
Stewart, R. B.Pyramids of Sacrifice? Federalism Problems in Mandating State Implementation of Federal Environmental Controls’ (1977) 86 Yale Law Journal1196–1272
Stewart, R. B., Oppenheimer, M. and Rudyk, B. ‘Building Blocks for Global Climate Protection’ NYU Law and Economics Research Paper No. 12–43 (2012)
Stewart, R. B. and Wiener, J. B.Reconstructing Climate Policy: Beyond Kyoto (Washington, DC: Aei Press, 2007)
Stigler, G. J. ‘The Tenable Range of Functions of Local Government’, in Joint Economic Committee, Subcommitee on Fiscal Policy, U.S. Congress (ed.) Federal Expenditure Policy for Economic Growth and Stability (Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1957) 213–219
Stigler, G. J.The Theory of Economic Regulation’ (1971) 2 The Bell Journal of Economics and Management Science3–21
Stranlund, J. K., Chavez, C. A. and Field, B.Enforcing Emissions Trading Programs: Theory, Practice and Performance’ (2002) 30(3) Policy Studies Journal343–361
Streck, C.The Governance of the Clean Development Mechanism: The Case for Strength and Stability’ (2007) 2 Environmental Liability91–100
Strumpf, K. and Oberholzer-Gee, F.Endogenous Policy Decentralization: Testing the Central Tenet of Economic Federalism’ (2002) 110 Journal of Political Economy1–36
Sunstein, C. R.Political Equality and Unintended Consequences’ (1994) 94 Columbia Law Review1390–1414
Svendsen, G. T.Public Choice and Environmental Regulation (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 1998)
Swenson, K. M.A Stitch in Time: The Continental Shelf, Environmental Ethics, and Federalism’ (1987) 60 Southern California Law Review851–896
Sykes, A. O.Regulatory Competition or Regulatory Harmonization? A Silly Question?’ (2000) 3(2) Journal of International Economic Law257–264
Tabau, A-S.La mise en œuvre du Protocole de Kyoto en Europe (Paris: Bruylant, 2011)
Tiebout, C.A Pure Theory of Local Expenditures’ (1956) 64 The Journal of Political Economy416–424
Tiersman, D. ‘Decentralization and the Quality of Government’, UCLA Political Science Working Paper (2002)
Tietenberg, T.Emissions Trading: An Exercise in Reforming Pollution Policy (Washington, DC: Resources for the Future, 1985)
Tietenberg, T.Tradable Permits in Principle and Practice’ (2006) 14 Pennsylvania State Environmental Law Review251–281
Tietenberg, T.The Tradable-Permits Approach to Protecting the Commons: Lessons for Climate Change’ (2003) 19(3) Oxford Review of Economic Policy400–419
Tocqueville, A. deDemocracy in America, vol. I, ed. J. P. Mayer, trans. G. Lawrence (London: Fontana Press, 1994)
Tol, R. S. J.The Economic Effects of Climate Change’ (2009) 23 Journal of Economic Perspectives29–51
Tol, R. S. J., Downing, T. E., Kuik, O. J. and Smith, J. B.Distributional Aspects of Climate Change Impacts’ (2004) 14 Global Environmental Change259–272
Tomassi, M., Spiller, P. T. and Stein, E. ‘Political Institutions, Policymaking Processes, and Policy Outcomes: An Intertemporal Transactions Framework’, Leitner Program in International and Comparative Political Economy Working Paper 2003–03, Yale University (2003)
Toth, L. ‘Agency Issues within Public Agencies: Performance Effects of External Budget Assignment’, University of Amsterdam (2012)
Trachtman, J. P.Regulatory Competition and Regulatory Jurisdiction’ (2000) 3(2) Journal of International Economic Law331–348
Tullock, G.The Welfare Costs of Tariffs, Monopolies, and Theft’ (1967) 5 Western Economic Journal224–232
Turner, G. ‘Value of the Global Carbon Market Increases by 5% in 2010 but Volumes Decline’, Bloomberg New Energy Memo (6 January 2011)
Unger, M. von and Streck, C.An Appellate Body for the Clean Development Mechanism: A Due Process Requirement’ (2009) 1 Carbon and Climate Law Review31–44
Vasa, A. and Michaelowa, A. ‘Uncertainty in Climate Policy – Impacts on Market Mechanisms’, in G. Gramelsberger and J. Feichter (eds.) Climate Change and Policy (Heidelberg: Springer, 2011) 127–144
Vedder, H.The Treaty of Lisbon and European Environmental Law and Policy’ (2010) 22 Journal of Environmental Law285–299
Verchick, R. R. M.Feathers or Gold? A Civic Economics for Environmental Law’ (2001) 25 Harvard Environmental Law Review95–150
Victor, D.The Collapse of the Kyoto Protocol and the Struggle to Slow Global Warming (Princeton University Press, 2001)
Victor, D. ‘Fragmented Carbon Markets and Reluctant Nations: Implications for the Design of Effective Architectures’, in J. E. Aldy and R. N. Stavins (eds.) Architectures for Agreement: Addressing Global Climate Change in a Post-Kyoto World (Cambridge University Press, 2007) 133–160
Vinuales, J. E.Legal Techniques for Dealing with Scientific Uncertainty in Environmental Law’ (2010) 43 Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law437–503
Wallart, N.The Political Economy of Environmental Taxes (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 1999)
Wennerås, P. E.State Liability for Decisions of Courts of Last Instance in Environmental Cases’ (2004) 16(3) Journal of Environmental Law329–340
Watts, R. L. ‘The Theoretical and Practical Implications of Asymmetrical Federalism’, in R. Agranoff (ed.) Accommodating Diversity: Asymmetry in Federal States (Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, 1999)
Weiler, J. H. H.The Reformation of European Constitutionalism’ (1997) 35 Journal of Common Market Studies97–131
Weishaar, S. and Woerdman, E.Auctioning EU ETS Allowances: An Assessment of Market Manipulation from the Perspective of Law and Economics’ (2012) 3 Climate Law247–263
Weitzman, M. L.Prices vs. Quantities’ (1974) 41 Review of Economic Studies477–491
Werlin, H.Linking Decentralization and Centralization: A Critique of the New Development Administration’ (1992) 12(3) Public Administration and Development: An International Journal of Training, Research, and Practice223–236
Wettestad, J.European Climate Policy: Toward Centralized Governance?’ (2009) 26 Review of Policy Research311–328
Wheare, K. C.Federal Government (London: Oxford University Press, 1953)
Wiener, J.Global Environmental Regulation: Instrument Choice in Legal Context’ (1999) 108 The Yale Law Journal677–800
Zeben, J. A. W. vanOn the Political Economy of Global Environmental Regulation’ (1999) 87 Georgetown Law Journal749–794
Woerdman, E., Arcuri, A. and Cló, S.Emissions Trading and the Polluter-Pays Principle: Do Polluters Pay under Grandfathering?’ (2008) 4(2) Review of Law and Economics565–590
Woerdman, E., Couwenberg, O. and Nentjes, A.Energy Prices and Emissions Trading: Windfall Profits from Grandfathering?’ (2009) 28 European Journal of Law and Economics185–202
Woll, C.Lobbying in the European Union: From sui generis to a Comparative Perspective’ (2006) 13 Journal of European Public Policy456–469
Yandle, B.Creative Destruction and Environmental Law’ (2002) 10 Penn State Environmental Law Review155–174
Yang, T.International Treaty Enforcement as a Public Good: Institutional Deterrent Sanctions in International Environmental Agreements’ (2006) 27 Michigan Journal of International Law1131–1184
Ylvisaker, P. ‘Some Criteria for a “Proper” Areal Division of Governmental Powers’, in A. Maass (ed.) Area and Power: A Theory of Local Government (Glencoe, IL: Free Press, 1959)
Yoshida, O.Soft Enforcement of Treaties: The Montreal Protocol’s Noncompliance Procedure and the Functions of Internal International Institutions’ (1999) 10 Colombia Journal of International Environmental Law & Policy95–142
Zeben, J. A. W. vanCases C-504/09 P, Commission v Poland, and C-505/09 P, Commission v Estonia, Judgment of the European Court of Justice (Second Chamber) of 29 March 2012 (Annotation)’ (2013) 50 Common Market Law Review231–246
Zeben, J. A. W. van(De)Centralized Law-making in the EU ETS’ (2009) 3 Carbon & Climate Law Review340–356
Zeben, J. A. W. vanThe European Emissions Trading Scheme Case Law’ (2009) 18 Review of European Community & International Environmental Law119–128
Zeben, J. A. W. van ‘A Polycentric European Union’ (on file with author)
Zeben, J. A. W. van ‘Research Agenda for a Polycentric European Union’, The Vincent and Elinor Ostrom Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis Working Paper Series, W13–13 (2013)
Zeben, J. A. W. vanThe Untapped Potential of Horizontal Private Enforcement within EC Environmental Law’ (2010) 5 The Georgetown International Environmental Law Review241–269
Zimmerman, J. F.Nation-State Relations: Cooperative Federalism in the Twentieth Century’ (2001) 31 Publius15–30
Zwingmann, K. ‘Ökonomische Analyse der EU-Emissionshandelsreichtlinie, Bedeutung und Funktionsweisen der Primärallokation von Zertifikaten’, in Ökonomische Analyse des Rechts (Wiesbaden: DUV Gabler Edition Wissenschaft, 2007)