Skip to main content
Anarchy Unbound
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 25
  • Cited by
    This (lowercase (translateProductType product.productType)) has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Oxnevad, Ian 2018. Spying on chaos: the Somali model of intelligence on failed states. Intelligence and National Security, p. 1.

    Daudelin, Jean and Ratton, José Luiz 2018. Illegal Markets, Violence, and Inequality. p. 1.

    Daudelin, Jean and Ratton, José Luiz 2018. Illegal Markets, Violence, and Inequality. p. 37.

    Boettke, Peter 2018. Economics and Public Administration . Southern Economic Journal, Vol. 84, Issue. 4, p. 938.

    Potts, Jason and Thomas, Stuart 2018. Toward a new (evolutionary) economics of sports. Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, Vol. 8, Issue. 1, p. 82.

    Brennan, Jason 2018. Private Governance and the three biases of political philosophy. The Review of Austrian Economics, Vol. 31, Issue. 2, p. 235.

    Havercroft, Jonathan and Prichard, Alex 2017. Anarchy and International Relations theory: A reconsideration. Journal of International Political Theory, Vol. 13, Issue. 3, p. 252.

    Crettez, Bertrand 2017. On Hobbes’s state of nature and game theory. Theory and Decision, Vol. 83, Issue. 4, p. 499.

    D'Amico, Daniel J. 2017. The Social Provision of Punishment and Incarceration. American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Vol. 76, Issue. 5, p. 1107.

    Martin, Christopher S. and Wenzel, Nikolai G. 2017. Misjudging the character of the welfare state: Hayek, generality, and the knowledge problem. The Review of Austrian Economics,

    Wang, Peng 2016. The Social Order of the Underworld: How Prison Gangs Govern the American Penal System. By David Skarbek (Oxford University Press, 2014, 240pp. $27.95). British Journal of Criminology, Vol. 56, Issue. 2, p. 413.

    Murtazashvili, Ilia and Murtazashvili, Jennifer 2016. When does the emergence of a stationary bandit lead to property insecurity?. Rationality and Society, Vol. 28, Issue. 3, p. 335.

    Hidalgo, Javier 2016. The ethics of people smuggling. Journal of Global Ethics, Vol. 12, Issue. 3, p. 311.

    Boettke, Peter J. Coyne, Christopher J. and Newman, Patrick 2016. Research in the History of Economic Thought and Methodology. Vol. 34, Issue. , p. 199.

    Romaniuc, Rustam Farrow, Katherine Ibanez, Lisette and Marciano, Alain 2016. The perils of government enforcement. Public Choice, Vol. 166, Issue. 1-2, p. 161.

    Murtazashvili, Ilia and Murtazashvili, Jennifer 2016. Does the sequence of land reform and political reform matter? Evidence from state-building in Afghanistan. Conflict, Security & Development, Vol. 16, Issue. 2, p. 145.

    Leeson, Peter T. 2016. Encyclopedia of Law and Economics. p. 1.

    Murtazashvili, Ilia and Murtazashvili, Jennifer 2015. Anarchy, self-governance, and legal titling. Public Choice, Vol. 162, Issue. 3-4, p. 287.

    Williamson, Claudia R. 2015. William Easterly, The Tyranny of Experts: Economists, Dictators, and the Forgotten Rights of the Poor. Public Choice, Vol. 163, Issue. 3-4, p. 405.

    Skarbek, David and Wang, Peng 2015. Criminal rituals. Global Crime, Vol. 16, Issue. 4, p. 288.

  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    Anarchy Unbound
    • Online ISBN: 9781139198813
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

In Anarchy Unbound, Peter T. Leeson uses rational choice theory to explore the benefits of self-governance. Relying on experience from the past and present, Professor Leeson provides evidence of anarchy 'working' where it is least expected to do so and explains how this is possible. Provocatively, Leeson argues that in some cases anarchy may even outperform government as a system of social organization, and demonstrates where this may occur. Anarchy Unbound challenges the conventional self-governance wisdom. It showcases the incredible ingenuity of private individuals to secure social cooperation without government and how their surprising means of doing so can be superior to reliance on the state.


'In the best tradition of Coase, Peter Leeson shows how, in the most surprising times and places, individuals managed to organize their lives and affairs cooperatively without any help from government. The history in this book is fascinating; the economics is powerful; and the writing is beautiful.'

Andrei Shleifer - Harvard University, Massachusetts

'With compelling arguments and examples from many different times and societies, Leeson shows how bottom-up institutions of governance work and why their results are often better than what governments achieve. The book is fascinating reading for all economists, and will be an eye-opener to many.'

Avinash Dixit - Princeton University, author of Lawlessness and Economics

'A lively, insightful, and masterly work. In taking aim at Thomas Hobbes’ view that governments are invariably essential, Leeson invokes historical examples such as the institution of Caribbean pirates and sociological concepts such as social distance. It is rare for an economist to offer riches to social scientists of every stripe.'

Robert C. Ellickson - Meyer Professor of Property Law, Yale Law School

'Persuasive arguments for a state of anarchy.'

Source: Morning Star

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
Africa Watch Committee. 1990. Somalia: A Government at War with Its Own People. New York: Africa Watch Committee.
Afzerlius, Adam. 1967. Sierra Leone Journal 1795–1796. Uppsala, Sweden: Studia Ethnographica Upsaliensa.
Ahmed, Ismail. 2000. “Remittances and Their Economic Impact in Post-War Somaliland.” Disasters 24: 380–389.
Akerlof, George. 1997. “Social Distance and Social Decisions.” Econometrica 65: 1005–1028.
Akerlof, George, and Kranton, Rachel. 2000. “Economics and Identity.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 115: 715–753.
Alesina, Alberto, Baqir, Reza, and Easterly, William. 1999. “Public Goods and Ethnic Divisions.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 114: 1234–1284.
Alesina, Alberto, Devleeschauwer, Arnaud, Easterly, William, Kurlat, Sergio, and Wacziarg, Romain. 2003. “Fractionalization.” Journal of Economic Growth 8: 155–194.
Alesina, Alberto, and La Ferrara, Eliana. 2002. “Who Trusts Others?Journal of Public Economics 85: 207–234.
Alesina, Alberto, and Spolaore, Enrico. 2003. The Size of Nations. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Anderson, Annelise. 1979. The Business of Organized Crime: A Cosa Nostra Family. Palo Alto: The Hoover Institution.
Anderson, David A. 1999. “The Aggregate Burden of Crime.” Journal of Law and Economics 42: 611–642.
Anderson, Gary M., and Gifford, Jr Adam. 1991. “Privateering and the Private Production of Naval Power.” Cato Journal 11: 99–122.
Anderson, Gary M., and Gifford, Jr Adam. 1995. “Order Out of Anarchy: The International Law of War.” Cato Journal 15: 25–38.
Anderson, Terry L., Benson, Bruce L., and Flanagan, Thomas E.. 2006. Self-Determination: The Other Path for Native Americans. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Anderson, Terry L., and Hill, Peter J.. 2004. The Not So Wild, Wild West: Property Rights on the Frontier. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Anderson, Terry L., and McChesney, Fred S.. 2002. Property Rights: Cooperation, Conflict and Law. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Arlacchi, Pino. 1988. Mafia Business: The Mafia Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Armstrong, Robert. 1883. The History of Liddesdale, Eskdale, Ewesdale, Wauchopdale, and the Debateable Land. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Arnot, Frederick S. 1889. Garenganze; or, Seven Years’ Pioneer Mission Work in Central Africa. London: James E. Hawkins.
Arnot, Frederick S. 1893. Bihe and Garenganze; or Four Years Further Work and Travel in Central Africa. London: James E. Hawkins.
Ashworth, Tony. 1980. Trench Warfare, 1914–1918: The Live and Let Live System. New York: Holmes and Meier.
Auty, Richard M. 2001. “The Political Economy of Resource-Driven Growth.” European Economic Review 46: 839–846.
Axelrod, Robert. 1984. The Evolution of Cooperation. New York: Basic Books.
Baland, Jean-Marie, and Francois, Patrick. 2000. “Rent-Seeking and Resource Booms.” Journal of Development Economics 61: 527–542.
Balfour, James. 1754. Practicks: Or a System of the More Ancient Law of Scotland. Edinburgh: Printed by Thomas and Walter Ruddimans, for A. Kincaid and A. Donaldson.
Baptista, P.J. 1873. “Journey of the ‘Pombeiros.’” In: The Lands of Cazembe: Lacerda's Journey to Cazembe, and Journey of Pombeiros, etc., edited by Burton, Richard F., pp. 167–244. London: John Murray.
Barclay, Harold. 1990. People without Government: An Anthropology of Anarchy. London: Kahn and Averill.
Barton, R.F. 1967. “Procedure among the Ifugao.” In: Law and Warfare, edited by Bohannan, Paul, pp. 161–182. Garden City: The Natural History Press.
Bates, Robert H. 1983. Essays on the Political Economy of Central Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bates, Robert H., Greif, Avner, and Singh, Smita. 2002. “Organizing Violence.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 46: 599–628.
Bauer, Peter T. 1954. West African Trade. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Becker, Gary S. 1968. “Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach.” Journal of Political Economy 76: 169–217.
Becker, Gary S., and Stigler, George J.. 1974. “Law Enforcement, Malfeasance, and Compensation of Enforcers.” Journal of Legal Studies 3: 1–18.
Beito, David, Gordon, Peter, and Tabbarok, Alexander, editors. 2002. The Voluntary City: Choice, Community and Civil Society. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Bell, Richard. 1605. Bell Manuscript.
Benson, Bruce L. 1989a. “Enforcement of Private Property Rights in Primitive Societies: Law without Government.” Journal of Libertarian Studies 9: 1–26.
Benson, Bruce L. 1989b. “The Spontaneous Evolution of Commercial Law.” Southern Economic Journal 55: 644–661.
Benson, Bruce L. 1990. The Enterprise of Law: Justice without the State. San Francisco: Pacific Research Institute for Public Policy.
Benson, Bruce L. 1998. To Serve and Protect: Privatization and Community in Criminal Justice. New York: NYU Press.
Benson, Bruce L. 1999. “An Economic Theory of the Evolution of Governance and the Emergence of the State.” Review of Austrian Economics 12: 131–160.
Berman, Harold. 1983. Law and Revolution. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Bernstein, Lisa. 1992. “Opting Out of the Legal System: Extralegal Contractual Relations in the Diamond Industry.” Journal of Legal Studies 21: 115–157.
Betagh, William. 1728. A Voyage Round the World…London: Printed for T. Combes.
Bishop, Matthew. 1744. The Life and Adventures of Matthew Bishop…London: Printed for J. Bridley.
Bisson, T.N. 1994. “Feudal Revolution.” Past and Present 142: 6–42.
Bliege Bird, Rebecca. 1999. “Cooperation and Conflict: The Behavioral Ecology of the Sexual Division of Labor.” Evolutionary Anthropology 8: 65–75.
Böckstiegal, K.-H. 1984. Arbitration and State Enterprises: A Survey of the National and International State of Law and Practice. Deventer, Netherlands: Kluwer Law and Taxation Publishers.
Boettke, Peter J. 1990. The Political Economy of Soviet Socialism: The Formative Years, 1918–1928. Boston: Kluwer.
Boettke, Peter J. 2012a. “Anarchism and Austrian Economics.” New Perspectives on Political Economy 7: 125–140.
Boettke, Peter J. 2012b. “An Anarchist's Reflection on the Political Economy of Everyday Life.” Review of Austrian Economics 25: 1–7.
Bohannan, Paul. 1968. “Stateless Societies.” In: Problems in African History, edited by Collins, Robert, pp. 170–172. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.
Botelho de Vasconcellos, Alexandre Jose. 1844 [1873]. “Annaes Maritimos e Coloniais.” In: Lacerda's Journey to Cazembe, and Journey of Pombeiros, etc., edited by Burton, Richard F., pp. 24–25. London: John Murray.
Bowes, Robert. 1551. Manuscript of Sir Robert Bowes.
Bromley, J.S. 1987. Corsairs and Navies 1660–1760. London: The Hambledon Press.
Buchanan, James M. 1975. The Limits of Liberty: Between Anarchy and Leviathan. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Buchanan, James M., and Tullock, Gordon. 1962. The Calculus of Consent: Logical Foundations of Constitutional Democracy. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Buchner, Max. 1883. “Das Reich des Mwata Yamvo und seine Nachbarlander.” Deutsche Geographische Blatter 1: 56–67.
Bucquoy, Jacobus de. 1744. Zestien Jaarige Reis nass de Inidien gedan door Jacob de Bucquoy. Harlem: Bosch.
Burnett, John S. 2002. Dangerous Waters: Modern Piracy and Terror on the High Seas. New York: Plume.
Bush, Winston C., and Mayer, Lawrence S.. 1974. “Some Implications of Anarchy for the Distribution of Property Rights.” Journal of Economic Theory 8: 401–412.
California Department of Justice. 2003. Organized Crime in California: Annual Report to the California Legislature 2003. Available at: .
Cameron, Verney Lovett. 1877. Across Africa. New York: Harper and Brothers Publishers.
Capello, Hermengildo, and Ivens, Roberto. 1969. From Benguella to the Territory of Yacca, translated by Elwes, Alfred. New York: Negro Universities Press.
Casella, Alessandra. 1996. “On Market Integration and the Development of Institutions: The Case of International Commercial Arbitration.” European Economic Review 40: 155–186.
Chang, Juin-Jen, Lu, Huei-Chung, and Chen, Mingshen. 2005. “Organized Crime or Individual Crime: Endogenous Size of a Criminal Organization and the Optimal Law Enforcement.” Economic Inquiry 43: 661–675.
CIA World Factbook. 2006. Somalia. Available at: .
CIA World Factbook. 2007. Somalia. Available at: .
Clay, Karen. 1997. “Trade without Law: Private-Order Institutions in Mexican California.” Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization 13: 202–231.
Coase, Ronald H. 1960. “The Problem of Social Cost.” Journal of Law and Economics 3: 1–44.
Coggeshall, George. 1856. A History of American Privateers and Letters of Marque. New York: By and for the author.
Coggins, Jack. 2002. Ships and Seamen of the American Revolution. New York: Dover.
Cohen, Abner. 1969. Custom and Politics in Urban Africa: A Study of Hausa Migrants in Yoruba Towns. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Coillard, Francois. 1897. On the Threshold of Central Africa, translated by Mackintosh, Catherine. London: Hodder and Stoughton.
Colson, Elizabeth. 1969. “African Society at the Time of the Scramble.” In: Colonialism in Africa 1870–1960: The History and Politics of Colonialism 1870–1914, Vol. 1, edited by Gann, L.H. and Duignan, Peter, pp. 27–65. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cordingly, David, editor. 1996. Pirates: Terror on the High Seas – From the Caribbean to the South China Sea. Atlanta: Turner Publishing.
Cordingly, David. 2006. Under the Black Flag. New York: Random House.
Cotrugli, Benedetto. 1573. Della mercatura et del mercante perfetto. Venice.
Coyne, Christopher J. 2006. “Reconstructing Weak and Failed States: Foreign Intervention and the Nirvana Fallacy.” Foreign Policy Analysis 2: 343–361.
Craig, W. Laurence, Park, William, and Paulsson, Ian. 2000. International Chamber of Commerce Arbitration. New York: Oceana Publications.
Crawford, David. 1914. Thinking Black: 22 Years without a Break in the Long Grass of Central Africa. London: Morgan and Scott.
Crowhurst, Patrick. 1977. The Defence of British Trade 1689–1815. Chatham: Dawson.
Crowhurst, Patrick. 1989. The French War on Trade: Privateering 1793–1815. Aldershot: Scolar Press.
Crowhurst, Patrick. 1997. “Experience, Skill and Luck: French Privateering Expeditions, 1792–1815.” In: Pirates and Privateers: New Perspectives on the War on Trade in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries, edited by Starkey, David J., van Eyck van Heslinga, E.S., and de Moor, J.A., pp. 155–170. Exeter: University of Exeter Press.
Curraoin, Tomás Ó. 1963. “The Maledictions in the Psalms.” Furrow 14: 421–429.
Curtin, Philp, Feierman, Steven, Thompson, Leonard, and Vansina, Jan. 1995. African History: From Earliest Times to Independence. New York: Longman.
Dampier, William. 1697–1707 [2005]. Buccaneer Explorer: William Dampier's Voyages, edited by Norris, Gerald. Woodbridge: Boydell Press.
David, Rene. 1985. Arbitration in International Trade. Deventer, The Netherlands: Kluwer Law and Taxation Publishers.
Davies, Louise Sarah. 1973. The Sasswood Ordeal of the West Atlantic Tribes of Sierra Leone and Liberia: An Ethnohistoriographic Survey. MA Thesis, Portland State University.
Davis, Ralph. 1962. The Rise of the English Shipping Industry in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. London: Macmillan.
De Long, Bradford, and Shleifer, Andrei. 1993. “Princes and Merchants: European City Growth before the Industrial Revolution. Journal of Law and Economics 36: 671–702.
Demsetz, Harold. 1969. “Information and Efficiency: Another Viewpoint.” Journal of Law and Economics 10: 1–21.
Dias de Carvalho, Henrique Augusto. 1890. Ethnographia e historia tradicional dos povos da Lunda (Expedicao portugueza ao Muatianvua, vol. 5). Lisboa: Imprensa Nacional.
Dick, Andrew R. 1995. “When Does Organized Crime Pay? A Transaction Cost Analysis.” International Review of Law and Economics 15: 25–45.
DiIulio, Jr., John J. 1996. “Help Wanted: Economists, Crime and Public Policy.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 10: 3–24.
Dixit, Avinash K. 2004. Lawlessness and Economics: Alternative Modes of Governance. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Dixit, Avinash K. 2003. “Trade Expansion and Contract Enforcement.” Journal of Political Economy 111: 1293–1317.
Dole, Gertrude. 1966. “Anarchy without Chaos: Alternatives to Political Authority among the Kuikuru.” In: Political Anthropology, edited by Swartz, Marc, Turner, Victor, and Tuden, Arthur, pp. 73–87. Chicago: Aldine.
Downing, Clement. 1737 [1924]. A History of the Indian Wars, edited by Foster, William. London: Oxford University Press.
Duby, Georges. 1977. The Chivalrous Society. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Dunbabin, Jean. 1985. France in the Making, 843–1180. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Easterly, William. 2001. “Can Institutions Resolve Ethnic Conflict?Economic Development and Cultural Change 49: 687–706.
Easterly, William, and Levine, Ross. 1997. “Africa's Growth Tragedy: Policies and Ethnic Divisions.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 112: 1203–1250.
Evans-Pritchard, E.E. 1937. Witchcraft, Oracles and Magic among the Azande. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Evans-Pritchard, E.E. 1940 [1980]. The Nuer: A Description of the Modes of Livelihood and Political Institutions of a Nilotic People. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Exquemelin, Alexander O. 1678 [2000]. The Buccaneers of America, translated by Brown, Alexis. Mineola: Dover.
Fanning, Nathaniel. 1912. Fanning's Narrative, Being the Memoirs of Nathaniel Fanning, an Officer of the Revolutionary Navy, 1778–1783, edited by Barnes, John S.. New York: Naval History Society.
Fearon, James, and Laitin, David. 1996. “Explaining Interethnic Cooperation.” American Political Science Review 90: 715–735.
Federal Bureau of Investigation. 2008. Freedom of Information and Privacy Acts Subject File: La Nuestra Familia. Available at: .
Foreign Policy/Fund for Peace. 2007. Failed States Index 2007. Available at: .
Fraser, George MacDonald. 1995. The Steel Bonnets: The Story of the Anglo-Scottish Border Reivers. London: Harper Collins.
Friedman, David. 1973. The Machinery of Freedom: Guide to a Radical Capitalism. Chicago: Open Court Publishing.
Friedman, David. 1979. “Private Creation and Enforcement of Law: A Historical Case.” Journal of Legal Studies 8: 399–415.
Fuentes, Nina. 2006. The Rise and Fall of the Nuestra Familia. Jefferson, WI: Know Gangs Publishing.
Furbank, Philip N., and Owens, W.R.. 1988. The Canonisation of Daniel Defoe. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Gambetta, Diego. 1993. The Sicilian Mafia: The Business of Private Protection. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Gambetta, Diego. 1994. “Inscrutable Markets.” Rationality and Society 6: 353–368.
Gambetta, Deigo. 2009. Codes of the Underworld: How Criminals Communicate. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Garitee, Jerome R. 1977. The Republic's Private Navy. Middletown: Mystic Seaport/Wesleyan University Press.
Garoupa, Nuno. 2000. “The Economics of Organized Crime and Optimal Law Enforcement.” Economic Inquiry 38: 278–288.
Geary, Patrick J. 1991. Furta Sacra: Thefts of Relics in the Central Middle Ages. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Geary, Patrick J. 1995. Living with the Dead in the Middle Ages. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Gettleman, Jeffery, and Mazzetti, Mark. 2006. “Somalia's Islamists and Ethiopia Gird for War.” New York Times, December 14.
Gibbons, Alfred St. Hill. 1904. Africa from South to North through Marotseland. 2 vols. London: John Lane.
Gifford, Adam. 1993. “The Economic Organization of 17th- through Mid-19th Century Whaling and Shipping.” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 20: 137–150.
Glaeser, Edward L., Sacerdote, Bruce, and Scheinkman, Jose A.. 1996. “Crime and Social Interactions.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 111: 507–548.
Goeje, M.J. de. 1909. “International Handelsverkeer in de Middeleeuwen.” Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappan, Afdeeling Letter-kunde 9: 245–269.
Gosse, Philip. 1946. The History of Piracy. New York: Tudor Publishing Company.
Graca, Joaquim. 1890. “Expedicao ao Muatayanvua. Diario de Joaquim Rodrigues Graca.” Boletim da Sociedade de Geographia de Lisboa 9a ser: 365–468.
Greif, Avner, Milgrom, Paul, and Barry, R. Weingast. 1994. “Coordination, Commitment, and Enforcement: The Case of the Merchant Guild.” Journal of Political Economy 102: 745–776.
Grossman, Herschel. 1998. “Producers and Predators.” Pacific Economic Review 3: 169–187.
Grossman, Herschel, and Kim, Minseong. 2002. “Predation, Efficiency and Inequality.” Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics 127: 393–407.
Haddock, David. 2002. “Force, Threat, Negotiation: The Private Enforcement of Rights.” In: Property Rights: Cooperation, Conflict, and Law, edited by Anderson, Terry L. and McChesney, Fred S., pp. 168–194. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Hale, Sarah J. 1853. Liberia; or, Mr. Peyton's Experiments. New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers.
Harding, Colin. 1905. In Remotest Barotseland. London: Hurst and Blackett, Ltd.
Harley, George Way. 1970. Native African Medicine: With Special Reference to Its Practice in the Mano Tribe of Liberia. London: Frank Cass.
Hart, Oliver, and Moore, John. 1988. “Incomplete Contracts and Renegotiation.” Econometrica 56: 755–785.
Hashim, Alice. 1997. The Fallen State: Dissonance, Dictatorship and Death in Somalia. Lanham: University Press of America.
Hassan, Mohamed Olad. 2007. “UNICEF: Somali Kids Urgently Need Food.” Associated Press, September 12.
Hausken, Kjell. 2004. “Mutual Raiding of Production and the Emergence of Exchange.” Economic Inquiry 42: 572–586.
Hayek, Friedrich A. 1944. The Road to Serfdom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Hayward, Aurthur L., editor. 1735 [1874]. Lives of the Most Remarkable Criminals…Collected from Original Papers and Authentic Memoirs. 2 vols. London: Reeves and Turner.
Hening, E.F. 1850. History of the African Mission of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States with Memoirs of Deceased Missionaries, and Notices of Native Customs. New York: Stanford and Swords.
Hirshleifer, Jack. 1988. “The Analytics of Continuing Conflict.” Synthese 76: 201–233.
Hirshleifer, Jack. 1994. “The Dark Side of the Force.” Economic Inquiry 32: 1–10.
Hirshleifer, Jack. 1995. “Anarchy and its Breakdown.” Journal of Political Economy 103: 26–52.
Hirshleifer, Jack. 2001. The Dark Side of the Force: Economic Foundations of Conflict Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hobbes, Thomas. 1651 [1955]. Leviathan. Oxford: Blackwell.
Hoebel, E. Adamson. 1954. The Law of Primitive Man. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Holcombe, Randall G. 2004. “Government: Unnecessary but Inevitable.” Independent Review 8: 325–342.
Howell, Paul. 1968. “Nuer Society.” In: Problems in African History, edited by Collins, Robert, pp. 190–210. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.
Hughes, Jonathan, and Cain, Louis P.. 1994. American Economic History, 4th edition. New York: Harper Collins.
Iannaccone, Laurence. 1992. “Sacrifice and Stigma: Reducing Free-Riding in Cults, Communes, and Other Collectives.” Journal of Political Economy 100: 271–291.
ICC. 2002. International Court of Arbitration Bulletin, Spring 13(1).
ICC. 2001. International Court of Arbitration Bulletin, Spring 12(1).
ICDR. 2002. Press Release.
IMF. 2006. International Financial Statistics Online. Available at: .
Isser, Deborah H., Lubkemann, Stephen C., and N’Tow, Saah. 2009. Looking for Justice: Liberian Experiences With and Perceptions of Local Justice Options. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace.
Jameson, J. Franklin, editor. 1923. Privateering and Piracy in the Colonial Period. New York: Augustus M. Kelley.
Jankowski, Martin Sanchez. 1991. Islands in the Streets: Gangs and American Urban Society. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Jennings, William. 1984. “A Note on the Economics of Organized Crime.” Eastern Economic Journal 10: 315–321.
Johnson, Charles. 1726–1728 [1999]. A General History of the Pyrates: From Their First Rise and Settlement in the Islands…to which is Added a Short Abstract of Statue and Civil Law, in Relation to Pyracy, edited by Schonhorn, Manuel. New York: Dover.
Johnston, James. 1893. Reality versus Romance in South Central Africa. London: Hodder and Stoughton.
Kaminski, Marek. 2004. Games Prisoners Play: The Tragicomic Worlds of Polish Prison. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Kinkor, Kenneth J. 2001. “Black Men under the Black Flag.” In: Bandits at Sea: A Pirates Reader, edited by Pennell, C.R., pp. 195–210. New York: New York University Press.
Kirk-Greene, A.H.M. 1955. “On Swearing: An Account of Some Judicial Oaths in Northern Nigeria.” Africa: Journal of the International African Institute 25: 43–53.
Klein, Benjamin, Crawford, Robert, and Alchian, Armen. 1978. “Vertical Integration, Appropriable Rents, and the Competitive Contracting Process.” Journal of Law and Economics 21: 297–326.
Knox, George W. 2004. “The Melanics: A Gang Profile Analysis.” In: Gang Profiles: An Anthology, edited by Knox, George W. and Robinson, Curtis, pp. 205–280. Peotone: New Chicago School Press.
Knox, George W. 2006. An Introduction to Gangs. Peotone: New Chicago School Press.
Konrad, Kai A., and Skaperdas, Stergios. 1997. “Credible Threats in Extortion.” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 33: 23–39.
Konrad, Kai A., and Skaperdas, Stergios. 1998. “Extortion.” Economica 65: 461–477.
Konstam, Angus. 2002. The History of Pirates. Guilford: The Lyons Press.
Konstam, Angus. 2007. Scourge of the Seas: Buccaneers, Pirates and Privateers. New York: Osprey.
Landa, Janet T. 1981. “A Theory of the Ethnically Homogeneous Middleman Group: An Institutional Alternative to Contract Law.” Journal of Legal Studies 10: 349–362.
Landa, Janet T. 1994. Trust, Ethnicity, and Identity: Beyond the New Institutional Economics of Ethnic Trading Networks, Contract law, and Gift-Exchange. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Landes, William M., and Posner, Richard A.. 1975. “The Private Enforcement of Law.” Journal of Legal Studies 4: 1–46.
Lansdowne Manuscript. Appox. 1450–1500.
Lapsley, Gaillard Thomas. 1900. “A Study in English Border History.” American Historical Review 5: 440–466.
Lazear, Edward P. 1999. “Culture and Language.” Journal of Political Economy 107: S95–S126.
Leeson, Peter T. 2005. “Endogenizing Fractionalization.” Journal of Institutional Economics 1: 75–98.
Leeson, Peter T. 2008. “How Important is State Enforcement for Trade?American Law and Economics Review 10(1): 61–89.
Leeson, Peter T. 2010a. “Rational Choice, Round Robin, and Rebellion: An Institutional Solution to the Problems of Revolution.” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 73: 297–307.
Leeson, Peter T. 2010b. “Pirational Choice: The Economics of Infamous Pirate Practices.” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 76: 497–510.
Leeson, Peter T. 2010c. “Rationality, Pirates, and the Law: A Retrospective.” American University Law Review 59: 1219–1230.
Leeson, Peter T. 2011. “Trial by Battle.” Journal of Legal Analysis 3: 341–375.
Leeson, Peter T. 2012a. “Poking Hobbes in the Eye: A Plea for Mechanism in Anarchist History.” Common Knowledge 8: 541–546.
Leeson, Peter T. 2012b. “Oracles.” Mimeo. Available at: .
Leeson, Peter T. 2012c. “Ordeals.” Journal of Law and Economics 55: 691–714.
Leeson, Peter T. 2013. “Gypsy Law.” Public Choice 155: 273–292.
Leeson, Peter T., and Rogers, Douglas B.. 2012. “Organizing Crime.” Supreme Court Economic Review 20: 89–123.
Leslie, John, Bishop of Ross. 1888–1895. The Historie of Scotland Wrytten First in Latin by the Most Reverend and Worthy Jhone Leslie Bishop of Rosse and Translated by Father James Dalrymple, edited by Cody, E.G.. 2 vols. Edinburgh: Blackwood and Sons.
Levitt, Steven D. 1998. “Juvenile Crime and Punishment.” Journal of Political Economy 106: 1156–1185.
Levitt, Steven D. 2004. “Understanding Why Crime Fell in the 1990s: Four Factors that Explain the Decline and Six That Do Not.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 18: 163–190.
Lewis, George. 1980. “Social Groupings in Organized Crime: The Case of La Nuestra Familia.” Deviant Behavior 1: 129–143.
Libecap, Gary D. 2002. “Contracting for Property Rights.” In: Property Rights: Cooperation, Conflict, and Law, edited by Anderson, Terry L. and McChesney, Fred S., pp. 142–167. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Lipsey, R.G., and Lancaster, Kevin. 1956–1957. “The General Theory of Second Best.” Review of Economic Studies 24: 11–32.
Little, Lester K. 1993. Benedictine Maledictions: Liturgical Cursing in Romanesque France. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Little, Peter D. 2001. “The Global Dimension of Cross-Border Trade in the Somalia Borderlands.” In: Globalization, Democracy and Development in Africa: Challenges and Prospects, edited by Assefa, Taye, Rugumamu, Severine M., and Ahmed, Abdel Ghaffar M., pp. 179–200. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: OSSREA.
Little, Peter D. 2003. Somalia: Economy without State. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Livingstone, David. 1857. Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa. London: John Murray.
Livingstone, David. 1874. The Last Journals of David Livingstone in Central Africa, edited by Waller, Horace. 2 vols. London: John Murray.
Livingstone, David. 1960. Livingstone's Private Journals 1851–1853, edited by Schapera, Isaac. London: Chatto & Windus.
Livingstone, David. 1963. Livingstone's African Journal 1853–1856, edited by Schapera, Isaac. 2 vols. London: Chatto & Windus.
Lopez, Robert S. 1976. The Commercial Revolution of the Middle Ages, 950–1350. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lopez, Robert S., and Raymond, Irving W.. 1990. Medieval Trade in the Mediterranean World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lubrano, Alfred. 2007. “Unconventional Wisdom: Get Real Rules for American Mobsters.” The Philadelphia Inquirer, November 17, E1.
Lydon, James G. 1970. Pirates, Privateers, and Profits. Upper Saddle River: Gregg Press.
Maclay, Edgar Stanton. 1900. A History of American Privateers. London: Sampson Low, Marsten & Co.
Marsden, R.G., editor. 1915–1916 [1999]. Law and Custom of the Sea. 2 vols. Union: Lawbook Exchange.
Martens, Georg Friedrich von, and Horne, Thomas Hartwell. 1801. An Essay on Privateers, Captures, and Particularly on Recaptures, According to the Laws, Treaties, and Usages of the Maritime Powers of Europe. London: Printed for E. and R. Brooke.
Marx, Jenifer G. 1996a. “The Brethren of the Coast.” In: Pirates: Terror on the High Seas – From the Caribbean to the South China Sea, edited by Cordingly, David, pp. 37–57. Atlanta: Turner Publishing, Inc.
Marx, Jenifer G. 1996b. “The Golden Age of Piracy.” In: Pirates: Terror on the High Seas – From the Caribbean to the South China Sea, edited by Cordingly, David, pp. 101–123. Atlanta: Turner Publishing, Inc.
Marx, Jenifer G. 1996c. “The Pirate Round.” In: Pirates: Terror on the High Seas – From the Caribbean to the South China Sea, edited by Cordingly, David, pp. 141–163. Atlanta: Turner Publishing, Inc.
Mattli, Walter. 2001. “Private Justice in a Global Economy: From Litigation to Arbitration.” International Organization 55: 919–947.
McGuire, Martin, and Olson, Mancur. 1996. “The Economics of Autocracy and Majority Rule: The Invisible Hand and the Use of Force.” Journal of Economic Literature 34: 72–96.
Mehlum, Halvor, Moene, Karl, and Torvik, Ragnar. 2006. “Institutions and the Resource Curse.” Economic Journal 116: 1–20.
Menkhaus, Ken. 1998. “Somalia: Political Order in a Stateless Society.” Current History 97: 220–224.
Menkhaus, Ken. 2004. Somalia: State Collapse and the Threat of Global Terrorism. New York: Oxford University Press.
Menkhaus, Ken, and Craven, Kathryn. 1996. “Land Alienation and the Imposition of State Farms in the Lower Jubba Valley.” In: The Struggle for Land in Southern Somalia: The War Behind the War, edited by Besteman, Catherine and Cassanelli, Lee V., pp. 155–178. Boulder: Westview Press.
Middleton, John. 1971. “Some Effects of Colonial Rule among the Lugbara of Uganda.” In: Colonialism in Africa 1870–1960, Profiles of Change: African Society and Colonial Rule, Vol. 3, edited by Victor Turner, pp. 6–48. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Milgrom, Paul, North, Douglas C., and Weingast, Barry R.. 1990. “The Role of Institutions in the Revival of Trade: The Medieval Law Merchant, Private Judges, and the Champagne Fairs.” Economics and Politics 1: 1–23.
Mill, John Stuart. 1848. Principles of Political Economy. London: John W. Parker.
Miller, Joseph. 1970. “Cokwe Trade and Conquest in the Nineteenth Century.” In: Pre-Colonial African Trade, edited by Gray, Richard and Birmingham, David, pp. 175–201. London: Oxford University Press.
Miller, Joseph. 1988. Way of Death. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
Miron, Jeffrey A., and Zweibel, Jeffrey. 1995. “The Economic Case against Drug Prohibition.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 9: 175–192.
Mises, Ludwig von. 1949. Human Action: A Treatise on Economics. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Morales, Gabriel C. 2008. La Familia – The Family: Prison Gangs in America. San Antonio: Mungia Printers.
Morgan, Kenneth. 1989. “Shipping Patterns and the Atlantic Trade of Bristol, 1749–1770.” William and Mary Quarterly 46: 506–538.
Morris, Richard B. 1965. Government and Labor in Early America. New York: Harper and Row.
Moselle, Boaz, and Polak, Benjamin. 2001. “A Model of a Predatory State.” Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization 17: 1–33.
Mubarak, Jamil. 1996. From Bad Policy to Chaos: How an Economy Fell Apart. Westport: Praeger.
Mubarak, Jamil. 1997. “The ‘Hidden Hand’ Behind the Resilience of the Stateless Economy in Somalia.” World Development 25: 2027–2041.
Neary, Hugh. 1997. “Equilibrium Structure in an Economic Model of Conflict.” Economic Inquiry 35: 480–494.
Nenova, Tatiana. 2004. Private Sector Response to the Absence of Government Institutions in Somalia. Washington, DC: The World Bank.
Nenova, Tatiana, and Harford, Tim. 2004. “Anarchy and Invention: How Does Somalia Cope without Government?Public Policy for the Private Sector 280: 1–4.
Neville, Cynthia. 1998. Violence, Custom and Law: The Anglo-Scottish Border Lands in the Later Middle Ages. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Nicolson, Joseph, and Burn, Richard. 1777. The History and Antiquities of the Counties of Westmorland and Cumberland. 2 vols. London: Printed for W. Strahan.
Nicolson, William, Lord Bishop of Carlisle. 1747. Leges Marchiarum. London: Printed for Mess. Hamilton and Balfour, Booksellers in Edinburgh.
North, Douglass C. 1981. Structure and Change in Economic History. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.
North, Douglass C. 1990. Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Notten, Michael van. 2005. The Law of the Somalis: A Stable Foundation for Economic Development in the Horn of Africa. Trenton: Red Sea Press.
Olson, Mancur. 1993. “Dictatorship, Democracy, and Development.” American Political Science Review 87: 567–576.
Oppen, Achim von. 1994. Terms of Trade and Terms of Trust. Hamburg: Lit Verlag.
Petrie, Donald A. 1999. The Prize Game: Lawful Looting on the High Seas in the Days of Fighting Sail. New York: Berkley Books.
Pinkerton v. United States. 1946. 328 U.S. 640.
Pogge, Paul. 1880. Im Reich des Muata-Jamvo. Berlin: Reimer.
Posner, Eric A. 1996. “Law, Economics, and Inefficient Norms.” University of Pennsylvania Law Review 144: 1697–1744.
Pospisil, Leopold. 1963. The Kapauku Papuans of West New Guinea. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.
Powell, Benjamin, Ford, Ryan, and Nowrasteh, Alex. 2008. “Somalia after State Collapse: Chaos or Improvement?Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 67: 657–670.
Prendergast, John. 1997. Crisis Response: Humanitarian Band-Aids in Sudan and Somalia. London: Pluto Press.
Pringle, Patrick. 1953. Jolly Roger: The Story of the Great Age of Piracy. New York: W.W. Norton.
Rafaeli, Anat, and Pratt, Michael. 1993. “Tailored Meanings: On the Meaning and Impact of Organizational Dress.” Academy of Management Review 18: 32–55.
Rajan, Raghuram G., and Zingales, Luigi. 1998. “Power in a Theory of the Firm.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 113: 387–432.
Ranger, Terence. 1985. “The Invention of Tradition in Colonial Africa.” In: The Invention of Tradition, edited by Hobsbawm, Eric and Ranger, Terence, pp. 211–262. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rankin, Hugh F. 1969. The Golden Age of Piracy. Williamsburg: Colonial Williamsburg.
Rediker, Marcus. 1981. “Under the Banner of King Death: The Social World of Anglo-America Pirates, 1716–1726.” William and Mary Quarterly 38: 203–227.
Rediker, Marcus. 2004. Villains of All Nations: Atlantic Pirates in the Golden Age. Boston: Beacon Press.
Rediker, Marcus. 2006. Between the Devil and the Deep Blue Sea: Merchant Seamen, Pirates and the Anglo-American Maritime World, 1700–1750. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Reporters Sans Frontieres. 2003. Freedom of the Press throughout the World: 2003 Africa Annual Report. Available at: .
Reuter, Peter. 1985. Disorganized Crime: The Economics of the Visible Hand. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Reynolds, Julia. 2008. “Gang Leader Took Unusual Route to the Top.” Monterey County Herald, February 10.
Richman, Barak D. 2006. “How Communities Create Economic Advantage: Jewish Diamond Merchants in New York.” Law and Social Inquiry 31: 383–420.
Ritchie, Robert C. 1986. Captain Kidd and the War against the Pirates. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Robinson, James A., Torvik, Ragner, and Verdier, Thierry. 2006. “Political Foundations of the Resource Curse.” Journal of Development Economics 79: 447–468.
Rogozinski, Jan. 2000. Honor among Thieves: Captain Kiss, Henry Every, and the Pirate Democracy in the Indian Ocean. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books.
Roscoe, E.S., editor. 1905. Reports of Prize Cases Determined in the High Court of Admiralty. London: Stevens and Sons.
Rosenwein, Barbara H., Head, Thomas, and Farmer, Sharon. 1991. “Monks and Their Enemies.” Speculum 66: 764–796.
Rothbard, Murray N. 1977. Power and Market: Government and the Economy. New York: Columbia University Press.
Rymer, Thomas. 1739–1745. Foedera…fideliter exscripta. 10 vols. Hagae Comitis, Apud Joannem Nuelme.
Sadler, Ralph. 1809. The State Papers of Sir Ralph Sadler, edited by Clifford, Arthur. Edinburgh: Printed for A. Constable and Co.
Samatar, Abdi. 1987. “Merchant Capital, International Livestock Trade and Pastoral Development in Somalia.” Canadian Journal of African Studies 21: 355–374.
Schelling, Thomas. 1960. The Strategy of Conflict. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Schwartz, Warren F., Baxter, Keith, and Ryan, David. 1984. “The Duel: Can These Gentlemen be Acting Efficiently?Journal of Legal Studies 13: 321–355.
Scott, Walter. 1802–1803 [1873]. The Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border. Edinburgh: A & C Black.
Scott, Walter. 1814–1817. The Border Antiquities of England and Scotland. 2 vols. London: Longman.
Sechrest, Larry J. 2004. “Public Goods and Private Solutions in Maritime History.” Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics 7: 3–27.
Senior, W. 1918. “Ransom Bills.” Law Quarterly Review 34: 49–62.
Serpa Pinto, Alexandre de. 1881. How I Crossed Africa, translated by Alwes, Alfred. 2 vols. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippencott & Co.
Shleifer, Andrei, and Treisman, Daniel. 2004. “A Normal Country: Russia after Communism.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 19: 151–174.
Silva Porto, Antonio Francisco Ferreira da. 1885. “Novas jornadas de Silva Porto nos sertoes africanos.” Boletim da Sociedade de Geographia e da Historia de Lisboa 5a serie, nos. 1, 3, 9, and 10: 3–36, 145–172, 569–586, 603–642.
Skaperdas, Stergios. 1992. “Cooperation, Conflict, and Power in the Absence of Property Rights.” American Economic Review 82: 720–739.
Skaperdas, Stergios. 2001. “The Political Economy of Organized Crime: Providing Protection when the State Does Not.” Economics of Governance 2: 173–202.
Stergios, Skaperdas. 2003. “Restraining the Genuine Homo Economicus: Why the Economy Cannot be Divorced from its Governance.” Economics and Politics 15: 135–162.
Skaperdas, Stergios, and Syropoulos, Constantinos. 1997. “The Distribution of Income in the Presence of Appropriative Activities.” Economica 64: 101–117.
Slush, Barnaby. 1709. The Navy Royal: or a Sea-Cook Turn'd Projector. London.
Smith, Adam. 1776 [1965]. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, edited by Cannan, Edwin. New York: The Modern Library.
Smith, Alastair, and Varese, Federico. 2001. “Payment, Protection, and Punishment: The Role of Information and Reputation in the Mafia.” Rationality and Society 13: 349–393.
Smith, Eric, and Bliege Bird, Rebecca. 2000. “Turtle Hunting and Tombstone Opening: Public Generosity as Costly Signaling.” Evolution and Human Behavior 21: 245–261.
Smith, Eric, Bowles, Samuel, and Gintis, Herbert. 2001. “Costly Signaling and Cooperation.” Journal of Theoretical Biology 213: 103–119.
Snelgrave, William. 1734 [1971]. A New Account of some Parts of Guinea, and the Slave Trade. London: F. Cass.
Soremekun, Fola. 1977. “Trade and Dependency in Central Angola: The Ovimbundu in the Nineteenth Century.” In: The Roots of Rural Poverty in Central and Southern Africa, edited by Palmer, Robin and Parsons, Neil, pp. 82–95. London: Heinemann.
Spotswood, Alexander. 1882. The Official Letters of Alexander Spotswood. 2 vols. Richmond: Virginia Historical Society.
Starkey, David J. 1990. British Privateering Enterprise in the Eighteenth Century. Exeter: University of Exeter Press.
Starkey, David J. 1997. “A Restless Spirit: British Privateering Enterprise, 1739–1815.” In: Pirates and Privateers: New Perspectives on the War on Trade in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries, edited by Starkey, David J., van Eyck van Heslinga, E.S., and de Moor, J.A., pp. 126–140. Exeter: University of Exeter Press.
Starkey, David J. 2001. “The Origins and Regulation of Eighteenth-Century British Privateering.” In: Bandits at Sea: A Pirates Reader, edited by Pennell, C.R., pp. 69–81. New York: New York University Press.
Stopford, J.G.B. 1901. “Glimpses of Native Law in West Africa.” Journal of the Royal African Society 1: 80–97.
Swanson, Carl E. 1991. Predators and Prizes: American Privateering and Imperial Warfare, 1739–1748. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press.
Tabarrok, Alexander. 2007. “The Rise, Fall, and Rise Again of Privateers.” Independent Review 11: 565–577.
Tabuteau, Emily Zack. 1988. Transfers of Property in Eleventh-Century Norman Law. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Tek, Nathan. 2006. “The Profits of Islam.” Yale Globalist 2: 31.
The Border Papers: Calendar of Letters and Papers Relating to the Affairs of the Borders of England and Scotland Preserved in Her Majesty's Public Record Office, London, edited by Bain, Joseph. 1560–1603 [1894–1896]. 2 vols. Edinburgh: Her Majesty's General Register House.
The Economist. 2005. “Somalia Calling: An Unlikely Success Story.” December 20.
Tonkin, Elizabeth. 2000. “Autonomous Judges: African Ordeals as Dramas of Power.” Ethnos 65: 366–386.
Torvik, Ragnar. 2002. “Natural Resources, Rent Seeking, and Welfare.” Journal of Development Economics 67: 455–470.
Tough, Douglas. 1928. Last Years of a Frontier: A History of the Borders During the Reign of Elizabeth I. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Trakman, Leon E. 1983. The Law Merchant: The Evolution of Commercial Law. Littleton: Fred B. Rothman & Co.
Tullock, Gordon. 1967. “The Welfare Costs of Monopolies, Tariffs, and Theft.” Western Economic Journal 5: 224–232.
Turnbull, Colin. 1961. The Forest People. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Umbeck, John. 1981. “Might Makes Rights: A Theory of the Formation and Initial Distribution of Property Rights.” Economic Inquiry 19: 38–59.
United Nations. 1992. Resolution 751 1992. Available at: .
United Nation. 2006. Somali Reconstruction and Development Framework. 4 vols. Available at: .
United Nations Children's Fund. 2005a. “Education.” Available at: .
United Nations Children's Fund. 2005b. “Communities Unite Around Education in Somalia.” Available at: .
United Nations Development Programme. 1999. Human Development Report 1999. New York: Oxford University Press.
United Nations Development Programme. 2001. Human Development Report 2001 – Somalia. New York: UNDP.
United Nations Development Programme. 2004. Human Development Report 2004. New York: Oxford University Press.
United Nations Development Programme. 2005. Human Development Report 2005. New York: UNDP.
United Nations Development Programme. 2006. Human Development Report 2006. New York: UNDP.
United Nations Security Council. 2013. “Report of the Monitoring Group on Somalia and Eritrea Pursuant to Security Council Resolution 2060 (2012): Somalia.” Available at: .
Upton, Francis H. 1863. The Law of Nations Affecting Commerce during War: With a Review of the Jurisdiction, Practice and Proceedings of Prize Courts. New York: John S. Voorhies.
Uring, Nathaniel. 1726 [1928]. The Voyages and Travels of Captain Nathaniel Uring. London: Cassell and Company Ltd.
U.S. Library of Congress. 2006. “Country Studies: Somalia.” Available at: .
Varese, Federico. 2006a. “How Mafias Migrate: The Case of the ‘Ndrangheta in Northern Italy.” Law and Society Review 40: 411–444.
Varese, Federico. 2006b. “The Secret History of Japanese Cinema: The Yakuza Movies.” Global Crime 7: 105–124.
Vellut, Jean-Luc. 1979. “Diversification de l'economie de cueillette miel et cire dans les societes de la foret Claire d’Afrique centrale (c. 1750–1950).” African Economic History 7: 93–112.
Vodola, Elizabeth. 1986. Excommunication in the Middle Ages. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Weber, Max. 1919 [1958]. “Politics as a Vocation.” In: From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, edited and translated by Gerth, H.H. and Mills, C. Wright, pp. 77–128. New York: Oxford University Press.
Wheaton, Henry. 1815. A Digest of the Law of Maritime Captures and Prizes. New York: Forbes & Co.
Wick, Katharina, and Bulte, Erwin. 2006. “Contesting Resources – Rent-Seeking, Conflict and the Natural Resource Curse.” Public Choice 128: 457–476.
Williamson, Oliver E. 1975. Markets and Hierarchies: Analysis and Antitrust Implications. New York: The Free Press.
Williamson, Oliver E. 1983. “Credible Commitments: Using Hostages to Support Exchange.” American Economic Review 73: 519–540.
Williamson, Oliver E. 1985. The Economic Institutions of Capitalism. New York: The Free Press.
Wilson, John Leighton. 1856. Western Africa: Its History, Condition and Prospects. New York: Harper & Brothers.
Wolfe, Adam. 2005. “Intelligence Brief: Somalia.” World Security Network, July 18. Available at: .
Woodard, Colin. 2007. The Republic of Pirates. New York: Harcourt.
World Bank. 2005. World Development Indicators. Washington, DC: World Bank.
World Bank and United Nations Development Programme. 2003. Socio-Economic Survey 2002 – Somalia. Washington, DC and New York: UNDP and World Bank.
World Health Organization. 2004. WHO Somalia Annual Report 2003. Somalia: WHO.
World Health Organization. 2006. WHO Mortality Database. Available at: ,mort.
World Trade Organization. 2004. Recent Trends in International Trade Policy Developments. Geneva: World Trade Organization.
Wright, Charles, and Fayle, C. Ernest. 1928. A History of Lloyd's. London: Macmillan.


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 638 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 939 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 18th June 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.