Skip to main content
Anatomy of Authoritarianism in the Arab Republics
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Kraidy, Marwan M. 2018. Fun against fear in the Caliphate: Islamic State’s spectacle and counter-spectacle. Critical Studies in Media Communication, Vol. 35, Issue. 1, p. 40.

  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    Anatomy of Authoritarianism in the Arab Republics
    • Online ISBN: 9781107337893
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

By examining the system of authoritarianism in eight Arab republics, Joseph Sassoon portrays life under these regimes and explores the mechanisms underpinning their resilience. How did the leadership in these countries create such enduring systems? What was the economic system that prolonged the regimes' longevity, but simultaneously led to their collapse? Why did these seemingly stable regimes begin to falter? This book seeks to answer these questions by utilizing the Iraqi archives and memoirs of those who were embedded in these republics: political leaders, ministers, generals, security agency chiefs, party members, and business people. Taking a thematic approach, the book begins in 1952 with the Egyptian Revolution and ends with the Arab uprisings of 2011. It seeks to deepen our understanding of the authoritarianism and coercive systems that prevailed in these countries and the difficult process of transition from authoritarianism that began after 2011.


'Authoritarian regimes in the Arab world have been [extensively] analyzed individually and sometimes as a group. Joseph Sassoon pursues a new way to approach studying them. He does not offer a new theoretical or analytical approach but instead explores them through a new (or rarely used) source: personal memoirs. Anatomy of Authoritarianism in the Arab Republics takes a very inductive approach: he reads the memoirs of those who participated in (and sometimes were victims of) authoritarianism in the Arab republics and explores some commonalities that he finds … Sassoon’s contribution here is not to highlight their importance but to observe their similarity…'

Nathan J. Brown Source: The Middle East Journal

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
“À la découverte de Conflit, film sur l'oppression des Islamistes en Tunisie” [In discovering Conflict, a film about the oppression of Islamists in Tunisia], La Presse, January 29, 2015.
Abboud, Samer N. and Lawson, Fred H., “Antimonies of Economic Governance in Contemporary Syria,” in Kadhim, Abbas (ed.), Governance in the Middle East and North Africa: A Handbook, London: Routledge, 2013, pp. 330–41.
'Abd al-'Aziz, Basma, Ighra’ al-sulta al-mutlaq: masar al-'unf fi 'alaqat al-shurta bil-muwatin 'abr al-tarikh [The temptation of absolute authority: the trajectory of violence in the police relationship with the citizen throughout history], Cairo: Safsafa Publishing, 2011.
'Abd al-'Aziz, Muhammad and Abu Ranat, Hashim, Asrar jihaz al-asrar: jihaz al-amn al-Sudani 1969–1985 [Secrets of the secret organization: the Sudanese security services 1969–1985], Khartoum: 'Izzat Publications, 2008.
'Abd al-Hamid, Barlanti, al-Mushir wa ana [The field marshal and I], Cairo: Madbuly Books, 1992.
'Abd al-Mut'a, 'Abd al-Basit, al-Tabaqat al-ijtima'iyya wa mustaqbal Misr: ittijahat al-taghayyur wa al-tafa'ulat 1975–2020 [Social classes and Egypt's future: trends of changes and reactions 1975–2020], Cairo: Merit Publishing, 2002.
'Abd al-Nasser, Gamal, The Philosophy of the Revolution, Cairo: n.p., 1959.
Abdelnasser, Gamal, “Egypt: Succession Politics,” in Perthes, Volker (ed.), Arab Elites: Negotiating the Politics of Change, Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2004, pp. 117–39.
Abdul Aziz, Muhammad and Hussein, Youssef, “The President, the Son, and the Military: The Question of Succession in Egypt,” Arab Studies Journal, vol. 9/10, no. 2/1 (Fall/Spring 2002), pp. 73–88.
'Abidayn, Hasan, Hayat fi al-siyasa wa al-diblumasiyya al-Sudaniyya [My life in Sudan's politics and diplomacy], Omdurman: Mirghani Cultural Center, 2013.
Aboul-Enein, Youssef, “Syrian Defense Minister General Mustafa Talas: Memoirs, Volume Two,” Military Review, vol. 85, no. 3 (May/June 2005), pp. 99–102.
Abrahamian, Ervand, Tortured Confessions: Prisons and Public Recantations in Modern Iran, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999.
Abu 'Assaf, Amin, Dhikrayati [My memoirs], Damascus: n.p., 1996.
Abu Basha, Hasan, Mudhakkirat Hasan Abu Basha fi al-amn wa al-siyasa: Yanayir 1977, Uktubir 1981, Ramadan 1987 [Memoirs of Hasan Abu Basha in security and politics: January 1977, October 1981, Ramadan 1987], Cairo: al-Hilal Publishing, 1990.
Abu 'Izz al-Din, Najib, 'Ishrun 'aman fi khidmat al-Yaman [Twenty years in the service of Yemen], Beirut: Dar al-Bahith, 1991.
Abu Lahum, Sinan, al-Yaman: haqa'iq wa watha'iq 'ayshtuha [Yemen: truths and documents I lived through], vol. II: 1962–1974, San'a’: al-'Afif Foundation, 2006.
Abu Shama, 'Abbas and al-Amin al-Bushri, Muhammad, al-Hayakil al-tanzimiyya li-ajhizat al-amn fi al-duwal al-'Arabiyya: dirasa tamhidiyya li-wad' haykil tanzimi muwahhad [Organization structures of security services in the Arab world: an initial study to create a unified organizational structure], Riyadh: Naif Arab Academy for Security Studies, 1997.
Acemoglu, Daron and Robinson, James A., Economic Origins of Dictatorships and Democracy, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
Acemoglu, Daron and Robinson, James A., Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty, New York: Crown Publishers, 2012.
Achour, Habib, Ma vie politique et syndicale: enthousiasme et déceptions, 1944–1981 [My life in politics and unions: enthusiasm and deceptions, 1944–1981], Tunis: Alif, 1989.
Aclimandos, Tewfik, “Reforming the Egyptian Security Services,” Arab Reform Initiative, June 2011, available at
Agüero, Felipe, “The New ‘Double Challenge’: Democratic Control and Efficacy of Military, Police, and Intelligence,” in Stepan, Alfred (ed.), Democracies in Danger, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009, pp. 59–74.
'Ajjaj, 'Abd al-Rahim, Fi sabil al-hurriyya: qissa bada'ha al-sayyid al-ra'is Gamal 'Abd al-Nasser wa huwa talib bil-madaris al-thanawiyya, 'an ma'rakat Rashid sanat 1807 [For freedom: a continuation of the story begun by Mr. President Gamal 'Abd al-Nasser during his high school years about the battle of Rashid in 1807], Cairo: al-Ra'id Publishing, 1970.
Albats, Yevgenia, State within a State: The KGB and its Hold on Russia – Past, Present, and Future, New York: Farrar Straus Giroux, 1994.
Albrecht, Holger, “Political Opposition and Arab Authoritarianism: Some Conceptual Remarks,” in Albrecht, Holger (ed.), Contentious Politics in the Middle East: Political Opposition under Authoritarianism, Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 2010, pp. 17–34.
Albrecht, Holger, Raging Against the Machine: Political Opposition under Authoritarianism in Egypt, Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 2013.
'Ali, Kamal Hasan, Mashawir al-'umr: asrar wa khafaya sab'in 'aman min 'umr Misr fi al-harb wa al-mukhabarat wa al-siyasa [Life's deliberations: secrets and mysteries of seventy years of Egypt's life in war, intelligence, and politics], Cairo: al-Shuruq Publishing, 1994.
al-'Ali, Muhammad Ibrahim, Hayati wa al-i'dam [My life and the execution], vol. I, Damascus: n.p., 2000.
'Allam, Fu'ad, al-Ikhwan wa ana: min al-Manshiyya ila al-minassa [The Brothers and I: from al-Manshiyya to the Podium], Cairo: al-Misri Publications, 1996.
American Embassy in Tunisia to State Department, “Finding Parallels between Ben Ali and Ceausescu,” available at, November 30, 2007.
Amin, Galal, Egypt in the Era of Hosni Mubarak, 1981–2011, Cairo: American University Press, 2011.
Amin, Magdi et al., After the Spring: Economic Transitions in the Arab World, New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.
Amnesty International, “Algeria: Torture in the ‘War on Terror’: A Memorandum to the Algerian President.” News release, April 18, 2006, available at
Amnesty International, Libya: Investigation Needed into Prison Deaths, October 10, 2006.
Anderson, Jon Lee, “Letter from Libya: The Unravelling,” New Yorker, February 23 and March 2, 2015, pp. 108–18.
Anderson, Lisa, “Authoritarian Legacies and Regime Change: Towards Understanding Political Transition in the Arab World,” in Gerges, Fawaz A. (ed.), The New Middle East: Protest and Revolution in the Arab World, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014, pp. 41–59.
Anderson, Lisa, The State and Social Transformation in Tunisia and Libya, 1830–1980, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986.
Angrist, Michele Penner, Party Building in the Modern Middle East, Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2006.
Applebaum, Anne, “How he and his Cronies Stole Russia,” New York Review of Books, December 18, 2014.
Arendt, Hannah, “On the Nature of Totalitarianism: An Essay in Understanding,” in Arendt, Hannah (ed.), Essays in Understanding, 1930–1954, New York: Harcourt, 1994, pp. 328–60.
Arendt, Hannah, The Origins of Totalitarianism, New York: Harcourt, Brace & Company, 1951.
Arendt, Hannah, “A Special Supplement: Reflections on Violence,” New York Review of Books, February 27, 1969.
Arieff, Alex and Humud, Carla E., Political Transition in Tunisia, Washington: Congressional Research Service, October 22, 2014.
Aroyan, Nubar, Diary of a Soldier in the Egyptian Military: A Peek Inside the Egyptian Army, Bloomington, IN: Westview Press, 2012.
Art, David, “What do we Know about Authoritarianism after Ten Years?” Review article, Comparative Politics, vol. 44, no. 3 (April 2012), pp. 351–73.
al-Asbahi, Ahmad Muhammad, 25 'aman min sirat za'im wa qa'id masirat al-sh'ab, 1978–2003 [25 years in the history of a leader and commander of the people's history, 1978–2003], Amman: Yemen Embassy, 2004.
al-'Ashi, Muhammad Suhail, Fajr al-istiqlal fi Suriya: mun'ataf khatir fi tarikhihi: khawatir wa dhikrayat [Dawn of independence in Syria: a dangerous detour in its history: reflections and memoirs], Beirut: Dar al-Nafa'is, 1999.
Ashour, Omar, “Islamist De-Radicalization in Algeria: Successes and Failure,” Middle East Institute Policy Brief, no. 21, November 2008.
'Ashur, Radwa, Faraj [Relief], Cairo: al-Shuruq Publications, 2008.
As'id, Muhammad Shakir, al-Barlaman al-Suri fi tatawwurihi al-tarikhi [The Syrian parliament and its historical development], Damascus: al-Mada Press, 2002.
al-Atrash, Mansur Sultan, al-Jil al-mudan: sira dhatiyya [The condemned generation: an autobiography], Beirut: Riyad al-Rayyis Books, 2008.
al-'Ayni, Muhsin, Khamsun 'aman fi al-rimal al-mutaharrika: qissati ma'a bina’ al-dawla al-haditha fi al-Yaman [Fifty years of shifting sands: my story in building the modern state in Yemen], Beirut: al-Nahar Publishing, 2000.
Baghat, Mirette, “Memoirs of an Egyptian Citizen,” in Weddady, Nasser and Ahmari, Sohrab (eds.), Arab Spring Dreams: The Next Generation Speaks Out for Freedom and Justice from North Africa to Iran, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012, pp. 53–57.
“Bahrain: How the Police Recruit Radicals,”Economist, October 13, 2012.
Bakri, Mahmud, Ayyam fi al-sijn [Days in prison], Cairo: Jazirat al-Ward, 2010.
Barak, Oren and David, Assaf, “The Arab Security Sector: A New Research Agenda for a Neglected Topic,” Armed Forces & Society, vol. 36, no. 5 (2010), pp. 804–24.
Baram, Amatzia, “Saddam Husayn, the Ba'th Regime and the Iraqi Officers Corps,” in Rubin, Barry and Keaney, Thomas A. (eds.), Armed Forces in the Middle East: Politics and Strategy, London: Frank Cass, 2002, pp. 206–30.
Barchfield, Jenny, “Brazil's Panel Details Military Regime's Brutality,” Associated Press, December 10, 2014.
Barnes, Jessica, “Managing the Waters of the Ba'th Country: The Politics of Water Scarcity in Syria,” Geopolitics, vol. 14, no. 3 (August 2009), pp. 15–30.
“Bashar al-Assad's Inner Circle,” BBC News, July 30, 2012, available at
Bayat, Asef, Life as Politics: How Ordinary People Change the Middle East, edn., Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2013.
al-Baz, Muhammad, al-'Aqrab al-sam: 'Umar Sulayman jiniral al-mukhabarat al-ghamid [The poisonous scorpion: 'Umar Sulayman the mysterious intelligence general], Cairo: Kanuz Publications, 2014.
Beeri, Eliezer, Army Officers in Arab Politics and Society, translated by Ben-Abba, Dov, New York: Praeger, 1979.
Beinin, Joel and Vairel, Frédéric (eds.), Social Movements, Mobilization, and Contestation in the Middle East and North Africa, edn., Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2013.
Belhadj, Souhaïl, La Syrie de Bashar al-Asad: anatomie d'un régime autoritaire [The Syria of Bashar al-Asad: anatomy of an authoritarian regime], Paris: Belin, 2013.
Bellin, Eva, “Reconsidering the Robustness of Authoritarianism in the Middle East: Lessons from the Arab Spring,” Comparative Politics, vol. 44, no. 2 (January 2012), pp. 127–49.
Bellin, Eva, “The Robustness of Authoritarianism in the Middle East: Exceptionalism in Comparative Perspective,” Comparative Politics, vol. 36, no. 2 (2004), pp. 139–57.
Benbahmed, Tariq, “Algeria 2014,” available at
Bengio, Ofra, Saddam's Word: Political Discourse in Iraq, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Ben Mahni, al-Sadiq, “Intiba'at masirat munadil” [Impressions from the life of an activist], in al-Tamimi, 'Abd al-Jalil (ed.), Dirasat wa shahadat hawla dahaya al-ta'dhib wa al-iztihad bi-anzimat al-hukm bi al-Maghrab al-Kabir, 1956–2010 [Studies and testimonies about victims of torture and repression in the Maghreb, 1956–2010], Tunis: al-Tamimi Foundation, 2013, pp. 117–21.
al-Biblawi, Hazim, Arba'at shuhur fi qafas al-hukuma [Four months in the government's cage], Cairo: al-Shuruq Publishing, 2012.
Bili, Ahmad, al-Safwa al-'askariyya wa al-bina’ al-siyasi fi Misr [The military elites and the political structure in Egypt], Cairo: General Egyptian Organization for the Book, 1993.
Blaydes, Lisa, Elections and Distributive Politics in Mubarak's Egypt, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011.
Blumi, Isa, Chaos in Yemen: Societal Collapse and the New Authoritarianism, New York: Routledge, 2011.
Booth, Marilyn, May her Likes be Multiplied: Biography and Gender Politics in Egypt, Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001.
Boubekeur, Amel, “Rolling Either Way? Algerian Entrepreneurs as both Agents of Change and Means of Preservation of the System,” Journal of North African Studies, vol. 18, no. 3 (2013), pp. 469–81.
Bou Nassif, Hicham, “A Military Besieged: The Armed Forces, the Police, and the Party in Bin 'Ali's Tunisia 1987–2011,” International Journal of Middle East Studies, vol. 47, no. 1 (February 2015), pp. 65–87.
Brand, Laurie A., Official Stories: Politics and National Narratives in Egypt and Algeria, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2014.
Brehony, Noel, Yemen Divided: The Story of a Failed State in South Arabia, New York: I. B. Tauris, 2013.
Bremer, Paul III, My Year in Iraq: The Struggle to Build a Future of Hope, New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006.
Brooker, L. Paul, Defiant Dictatorships: Communist and Middle-Eastern Dictatorships in a Democratic Age, New York: New York University Press, 1997.
Brown, Archie, The Myth of the Strong Leader: Political Leadership in the Modern Age, London: Random House, 2014.
Brown, Nathan J., “Bumpy Democratic Routes to Dictatorial Ends?” in Jebnoun, Noureddine, Kia, Mehrdad, and Kirk, Mimi (eds.), Modern Middle East Authoritarianism: Roots, Ramifications, and Crisis, New York: Routledge, 2014, pp. 27–39.
Brownlee, Jason, Authoritarianism in an Age of Democratization, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
Brumberg, Daniel, “Theories of Transition,” in Lynch, Marc (ed.), The Arab Uprisings Explained: New Contentious Politics in the Middle East, New York: Columbia University Press, 2014, pp. 29–54.
Brynen, Rex, Moore, Pete W., Salloukh, Bassel F., and Zahar, Marie-Joëlle, Beyond the Arab Spring: Authoritarianism and Democratization in the Arab World, Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2012.
al-Burlusi, 'Abd al-Wahhab, Kuntu waziran ma'a 'Abd al-Nasser [I was a minister with 'Abd al-Nasser], Cairo: Arab Mustaqbal Publishing, 1992.
Byman, Daniel, “Regime Change in the Middle East: Problems and Prospects,” in Byman, Daniel and Mantas, Marylena (eds.), Religion, Democracy, and Politics in the Middle East, New York: Academy of Political Science, 2012, pp. 59–80.
Cambanis, Thanassis, Once Upon a Revolution: An Egyptian Story, New York: Simon & Schuster, 2015.
Campbell, Joseph, The Hero with a Thousand Faces, edn., Novato, CA: New World Library, 2008.
Celoza, Albert F., Ferdinand Marcos and the Philippines: The Political Economy of Authoritarianism, Westport: Praeger, 1997.
de Châtel, Francesca, “The Role of Drought and Climate Change in the Syrian Uprising: Untangling the Triggers of the Revolution,” Middle Eastern Studies, vol. 50, no. 4 (July 2014), pp. 521–35.
Chayes, Sarah, Thieves of State: Why Corruption Threatens Global Security, New York: Norton, 2015.
Chirot, Daniel, Modern Tyrants: The Power and Prevalence of Evil in our Age, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994.
Chouikha, Larbi, “L'Opposition à Ben Ali et les élections de 2004,” L'Année du Maghreb, 2004, Paris: CNRS Édition, 2006, pp. 361–73.
Chrisafis, Angelique, “Libya Protests: Gunshots, Screams and Talk of Revolution,” Guardian, February 20, 2011.
Cienski, Jan, “Informant Claims from Communist Era Haunt Czech Politics,” Financial Times, November 29, 2013.
Clover, Charles and Belton, Catherine, “A Tsar is Reborn,” Financial Times, May 5/6, 2012.
Cockburn, Patrick, “Tomorrow Never Came,” New York Times Book Review, February 15, 2015.
Conflit [Conflict], directed by Barbouch, Moncef, Tunisia: Quinta distributors, 2014 [Film].
Connerton, Paul, How Societies Remember, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
Cook, Steven A., Ruling but not Governing: The Military and Political Development in Egypt, Algeria, and Turkey, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007.
Coolidge, Frederick L. and Segal, Daniel L., “Is Kim Jong-il like Saddam Hussein or Adolf Hitler? A Personality Disorder Evaluation,” Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression, vol. 1, no. 3 (September 2009), pp. 195–202.
Copnall, James, “South Sudan Economy in 'Intensive Care’ as Famine Looms,” BBC, July 9, 2014.
Cronin, Stephanie, Armies and State-Building in the Modern Middle East: Politics, Nationalism, and Military Reform, New York: I. B. Tauris, 2014.
Daoudy, Marwa, “Les Politiques de l'eau en Syrie: réalisations et obstacles” [The politics of water in Syria: achievements and obstacles], in Dupret, Baudoin, Ghazzal, Zouhair, Courbage, Youssef, and al-Dbiyat, Mohammed (eds.), La Syrie au présent: reflets d'une société [Syria today: reflections on society], Arles: Actes Sud, 2007, pp. 607–15.
Daragahi, Borzou, “In Tunisia, Ben Ali was ‘Big Brother’,” Los Angeles Times, January 15, 2011.
Darwish, Mahmud, “Shahid 'ala zaman al-tughat: khutub al-diktatur al-mawzuna” [Witness to tyranny: metric speeches of the dictator], available at
David, Roman, “Transitional Justice and Changing Memories of the Past in Central Europe,” Government and Opposition, vol. 50 (January 2015), pp. 24–44.
Dawisha, Karen, Putin's Kleptocracy: Who Owns Russia?New York: Simon & Schuster, 2014.
Deeb, Mary-Jane, Libya's Foreign Policy in North Africa, Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1991.
DeFronzo, James, Revolutions and Revolutionary Movements, th edn., Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2015.
Deletant, Dennis, Ceauşescu and the Securitate: Coercion and Dissent in Romania, 1965–1989, London: Hurst & Co., 2006.
Diamond, Larry, Squandered Victory: The American Occupation and the Bungled Effort to Bring Democracy to Iraq, New York: Times Books, 2005.
Disraeli, Benjamin, Sybil, or the Two Nations, Oxford: Oxford World's Classics, 2008.
al-Dulaymi, Khalil, Saddam Hussein min al-zinzana al-Amrikiyya: hadha ma hadatha [Saddam Hussein from his American cell: this is what happened] (Khartoum: al-Manbar Publishing, 2009).
Dunbar, Charles, “The Middle East Political Economy and the Arab Awakening: A Difficult Symbiosis?” in Kadhim, Abbas (ed.), Governance in the Middle East and North Africa: A Handbook, London: Routledge, 2013, pp. 50–62.
Egerton, George (ed.), Political Memoir: Essays on the Politics of Memory, London: Frank Cass, 1994.
Eickelman, Dale and Dennison, M. G., “Arabizing the Omani Intelligence Services: Clash of Cultures?International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence, vol. 7, no. 1 (1994), pp. 1–28.
Eisenstadt, S. N., On Charisma and Institution Building, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968.
Elgin, C. and Oztunah, O., “Shadow Economies around the World: Model Based Estimates,” Bogazici University Department of Economics Working Papers, vol. 5 (2012), pp. 1–48.
Elias, Norbert, The Court Society, translated by Jephcott, Edmund, New York: Pantheon Books, 1983.
Erdle, Steffan, Ben Ali's “New Tunisia” (1987–2009): A Case Study of Authoritarian Modernization in the Arab World, Berlin: Klaus Schwarz, 2010.
Essebsi, Béji Caïd, Habib Bourguiba: le bon grain et l'ivraie [Habib Bourguiba: the wheat and the chaff], Tunis: Sud Editions, 2009.
Essebsi, Béji Caïd, al-Habib Bourguiba: al-muhimm wa al-ahamm [Habib Bourguiba: the important and the more important], Tunis: Dar al-Junub Publications, 2011.
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Transition Report 2013, available at
Fadil, Samir, Kuntu qadiyan li-hadath al-minassa: mudhakkirat qadi min Harb al-Yaman ila ightiyal al-Sadat [I was a judge for the Podium Event: memoirs of a judge from the Yemen War until the assassination of Sadat], Cairo: Sphinx Publishing, 1993.
Fadl, Bilal, “al-Dawla al-Misriyya “al-mukhawwakha” kama ra'aha kahinaha al-a'zam” [The “peachy” Egyptian state as its grand priest perceived it], January 11, 2015, available at
Farah, Nadia Ramsis, Egypt's Political Economy: Power Relations in Development, Cairo: American University Press, 2009.
al-Faris, Nawaf, “Barnamij bila hudud” [Program without boundaries], Al-Jazeera, December 8, 2012.
Faruq, 'Abd al-Khaliq, al-Fasad fi Misr: dirasa iqtisadiyya tahliliyya [Corruption in Egypt: an analytical economic study], Cairo: al-'Arabi Publishing, 2006.
Faruq, 'Abd al-Khaliq, Judhur al-fasad al-idari fi Misr: bi'at al-'amal wa siyasat al-ajur fi Misr 1963–2002 [The roots of administrative corruption in Egypt: work environment and policies of ranks and salaries in Egypt 1963–2003], Cairo: al-Shuruq Publishing, 2008.
al-Fathi, Sa'ad Allah, Min burj al-takrir: akthar min dhikrayat wa aqall min tarikh [From the tower of a refinery: more than memories and less than history], Amman: al-Ayyam Publishing, 2014.
Fawzi, Mahmud, Asrar suqut ta'irat al-Mushir Ahmad Badawi [The secrets of the plane crash of Field Marshal Ahmad Badawi], Cairo: al-Hadaf Publishing, 1992.
Fawzi, Mahmud, al-Fariq al-Shadhili: asrar al-sidam ma'a al-Sadat [Lieutenant-General al-Shadhili: the secrets of clashes with Sadat], Cairo: al-Watan Publishing, 1993.
al-Faysal, Yusif, Dhikrayat wa mawaqif [Memories and stances], Damascus: al-Takwin Publishing, 2007.
al-Fayturi, 'Ali Salim, Mudhakkirat mudda'i 'amm: shahadat 'ala 'asr al-zalam [Memoirs of an attorney general: testimonies about the dark era], Tarablus: al-Ruwad Publishing, 2012.
al-Fayyad, Ma'ad, Zahira sakhina jiddan: al-qissa al-haqiqiyya li-qatl al-Sayyid 'Abd al-Majid al-Khu'i [A very hot afternoon: the true story of the killing of Sayyid 'Abd al-Majid al-Khu'i], Baghdad: Dar al-Huda, 2007.
Federal Commissioner for the Records of the State Security Service of the former German Democratic Republic, Stasi: The Exhibition of the GDR's State Security Exhibition, Berlin, 2011.
Ferris, Jesse, Nasser's Gamble: How Intervention in Yemen Caused the Six-Day War and the Decline of Egyptian Power, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2013.
Fikri, Amira, al-Mushir Muhammad 'Abd al-Halim Abu Ghazala: masirat hayat [Field Marshal Muhammad 'Abd al-Halim Abu Ghazala: a life journey], Cairo: al-Jumhuriyya Publishing, 2010.
Flood, Christopher G., Political Myth, New York: Routledge, 2002.
Folkenflick, Robert (ed.), The Culture of Autobiography: Constructions of Self-Representation, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1993.
Foltz, William J., “Libya's Military Power,” in Lemarchand, René (ed.), The Green and the Black: Qadhafi's Policies in Africa, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1988, pp. 52–69.
Foucault, Michel, “Méthodologie pour la connaissance du monde: comment se débarrasser du Marxisme” [Methodology for knowing the world: how to get rid of Marxism], Dits et écrits, vol. III, Paris: Gallimard, 1978.
Friedman, Thomas L., “Mubarak Trying to Penetrate Egyptian Red Tape,” New York Times, November 2, 1981.
Friedman, Thomas L., “WikiLeaks, Drought and Syria,” New York Times, January 21, 2014.
Friedrich, Carl J. and Brzezinski, Zbigniew K., Totalitarian Dictatorship and Autocracy, New York: Praeger, 1961.
Frye, Timothy, Building States and Markets after Communism: The Perils of Polarized Democracy, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010.
Fu'ad, Muhammad, “The World is Expecting al-Sisi's Speech at the United Nations,” al-Ahram, September 22, 2014.
Gaddafi, Muammar, Escape to Hell and Other Stories, with a foreword by Salinger, Pierre, London: John Blake Publishing, 1999.
Gaddafi, Muammar with Jouve, Edmond, My Vision, London: John Blake, 2005. [See also under Qaddafi]
Galbraith, Peter, The End of Iraq: How American Incompetence Created a War without End, New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006.
Gall, Carlotta, “Questions of Justice in Tunisia as Ousted Leaders are Freed,” New York Times, July 16, 2014.
Gallup, The Silatech Index: Voices of Young Arabs, January 2010, available at
Gana, Nouri, “Visions of Dissent, Voices of Discontent: Postcolonial Tunisian Film and Song,” in Gana, Nouri (ed.), The Making of the Tunisian Revolution: Contexts, Architects, Prospects, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2013, pp. 180–203.
Gandhi, Jennifer, Political Institutions under Dictatorship, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
Gandhi, Jennifer and Przeworski, Adam, “Authoritarian Institutions and the Survival of Autocrats,” Comparative Political Studies, vol. 40, no. 11 (September 2007), pp. 1279–301.
Garas, Felix, Bourguiba wa mawlad umma [Bourguiba and the birth of a nation], Tunis: Free Constitutional Party Publications, 1956.
Gaston, Erica, “Process Learned in Yemen's National Dialogue,” United States Institute of Peace Special Report 342, February 2014.
Gause, F. Gregory III, Kings for All Seasons: How the Middle East Monarchies Survived the Arab Spring, Brookings Doha Center Analysis Paper, Number 8, September 2013.
Geddes, Barbara, “Authoritarian Breakdown: Empirical Test of a Game Theoretic Argument,” Working Paper, annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, September 1999.
Ghalib, Murad, Ma'a 'Abd al-Nasser wa al-Sadat: sanawat al-intisar wa ayyam al-mihan [With 'Abd al-Nasser and al-Sadat: years of victory and days of tribulation], Cairo: Ahram Center for Publishing, 2001.
al-Ghazali, Zainab, Return of the Pharaoh: Memoir in Nasser's Prison, translated by Guezzou, Mokrane, Leicester: Islamic Foundation, 1994.
el-Ghobashy, Mona, “Governments and Oppositions,” in Angrist, Michele Penner (ed.), Politics and Society in the Contemporary Middle East, Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2010, pp. 29–47.
Gilligan, Andrew, “Interview with Bashar al-Asad,” Sunday Telegraph, October 30, 2011.
Goldschmidt, Arthur, Biographical Dictionary of Modern Egypt, Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2002.
Goldstone, Jack A., “Pathways to State Failure,” in Starr, Harvey (ed.), Dealing with Failed States: Crossing Analytic Boundaries, New York: Routledge, 2009, pp. 5–16.
Gotowicki, Stephen H., “The Military in Egyptian Society,” in Marr, Phebe (ed.), Egypt at the Crossroads: Domestic Stability and Regional Role, Washington: National Defense University Press, 1999, pp. 105–25.
Gregory, Joseph, “Ahmed Ben Bella: Revolutionary who Led Algeria after Independence, Dies at 93,” New York Times, April 11, 2012.
Gregory, Paul R., Terror by Quota: State Security from Lenin to Stalin (An Archival Study), New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009.
Gunter, Frank B., The Political Economy of Iraq: Restoring Balance in a Post-Conflict Society, Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2013.
Gupta, Akhil, “Narrating the State of Corruption,” in Haller, Dieter and Shore, Cris (eds.), Corruption: Anthropological Perspectives, London: Pluto Press, 2005, pp. 173–93.
Gusdorf, Georges, “Conditions and Limits of Autobiography,” in Olney, James (ed.), Autobiography: Essays Theoretical and Critical, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1980, pp. 28–48.
Hachemaoui, Mohammed, “La corruption politique en Algérie: l'envers de l'autoritarisme” [Political corruption in Algeria: the other side of authoritarianism], Esprit, June 2011, pp. 111–35.
Haddad, Bassam, Business Networks in Syria: The Political Economy of Authoritarian Resilience, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2012.
Haddad, Bassam, “Syria's State Bourgeoisie: An Organic Backbone for the Regime,” Middle East Critique, vol. 21, no. 3 (Fall 2012), pp. 231–57.
Hadid, Muhammad, Mudhakkirati: al-sira' min ajl al-dimuqratiyya fi al-'Iraq [My memoirs: the struggle for democracy in Iraq], Beirut: al-Saqi, 2006.
al-Hadidi, Salah, Qabdat al-huda: Husayn Jalukhan tarikh wa rihla [The guiding hand: Husayn Jalukhan's history and journey], edn., Karbala: al-Hadidi Center for Studies and Research, 2009.
al-Hadidi, Salah al-Din, Shahid 'ala Harb al-Yaman [Witness of the Yemen War], Cairo: Madbuly Publications, 1984.
Hadjadj, Djilati, “Algeria: A Future Hijacked by Corruption,” Mediterranean Politics, vol. 12, no. 2 (September 2007), pp. 263–77.
Hafiz, 'Adil, Hafiz al-Asad: qa'id wa umma [Hafiz al-Asad: a leader and a nation], Damascus: al-Markaz al-Dawli Publications, 1993.
Hajji, Ahmad, Mudhakkirat jundi Misri fi jabhat Qanat al-Suways [Memoirs of an Egyptian soldier on the Suez Canal front], Cairo: al-Fikr Publishing, 1988.
al-Hakim, Sulayman, 'Abd al-Nasser wa al-Ikhwan: bayn al-wifaq wa al-shiqaq ['Abd al-Nasser and the Brothers: between harmony and rift], Cairo: Jazirat al-Ward, 2010.
al-Hakim, Sulayman, al-Jayyar yatadhakkar: sijil dhikrayat Mahmud al-Jayyar mudir maktab Gamal 'Abd al-Nasser [al-Jayyar remembers: record of memories of Mahmud al-Jayyar, bureau chief of Gamal 'Abd al-Nasser], Damascus: Talas Publishing, 1991.
al-Hamami, Hama, “al-Ta'dhib fi 'ahday Bourguiba wa Ben 'Ali: shahada shakhsiyya” [Torture in the eras of Bourguiba and Ben 'Ali: a personal testimony], in al-Tamimi, 'Abd al-Jalil (ed.), Dirasat wa shahadat hawla dahaya al-ta'dhib wa al-iztihad bi-anzimat al-hukm bil-Maghrab al-Kabir, 1956–2010 [Studies and testimonies about victims of torture and repression in the Maghreb, 1956–2010], Tunis: al-Tamimi Foundation, 2013, pp. 123–30.
al-Hamash, Munir, “Hizb al-Ba'th al-'Arabi al-Ishtiraki fi Suriya (1953–2005)” [The Arab Socialist Ba'th Party in Syria (1953–2005)], in Barut, Muhammad Jamal (ed.), al-Ahzab wa al-harakat wa al-tanzimat al-qawmiyy fi al-watan al-'Arabi [Nationalist parties, movements, and organizations in the Arab world], Beirut: Center for Arab Unity Studies, 2012, pp. 88–175.
al-Hamdani, Ra'ad Majid, Qabla an yughadiruna al-tarikh [Before history leaves us], Beirut: Arab Scientific Publishers, 2007.
Hamdun, Walid, Dhikrayat wa ara’ [Memories and opinions], Damascus: Walid Hamdun, 2007.
Hammad, Majdi, al-'Askariyyun al-'Arab wa qadiyyat al-wahda [The Arab military and the case of unity], Beirut: Center for Arab Unity Studies, 1987.
Hammuda, 'Adil, Ightiyal ra'is: bil-watha'iq asrar ightiyal Anwar al-Sadat [Assassination of a president: documents of the secrets of the assassination of Anwar al-Sadat], Cairo: Sina Publishing, 1986.
Hamrush, Ahmad, Misr wa al-'askariyyun [Egypt and the military men], edn., vol. I, Cairo: Madbuly Library, 1983.
al-Hanashi, 'Abd al-Latif, “Mumarasat al-ta'dhib tijah al-wataniyyin al-Tunisiyyin zaman al-himaya al-Faransiyya” [The practice of torture toward Tunisian nationalists during the French protectorate], in al-Tamimi, 'Abd al-Jalil (ed.), Dirasat wa shahadat hawla dahaya al-ta'dhib wa al-iztihad bi-anzimat al-hukm bil-Maghrab al-Kabir, 1956–2010 [Studies and testimonies about victims of torture and repression in the Maghreb, 1956–2010], no. 25, Tunis: al-Tamimi Foundation, 2013, pp. 33–53.
Hanna, Sami A. and Gardner, George H., Arab Socialism: A Documentary Survey, Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1969.
“Has the Arab Spring Failed?” Economist, July 13, 2014.
Hashim, Jawad, Mudhakkirat wazir 'Iraqi ma'a al-Bakr wa Saddam: dhikrayat fi al-siyasa al-'Iraqiyya, 1967–2000 [Memoirs of an Iraqi minister with al-Bakr and Saddam: reflections on Iraqi politics, 1967–2000], Beirut: al-Saqi Publishing, 2003.
Haugbolle, Sune, “The Victim's Tale in Syria: Imprisonment, Individualism, and Liberalism,” in Khalili, Laleh and Schwedler, Jillian (eds.), Policing and Prisons in the Middle East: Formation of Coercion, London: Hurst, 2010, pp. 223–40.
Havel, Václav, “New Year's Address to the Nation,” Czechoslovakia, January 1, 1990. Czech Republic presidential website, speeches, available at
Havel, Václav et al., The Power of the Powerless: Citizens against the State in Central–Eastern Europe, New York: M. E. Sharpe, 1990.
Haykal, Muhammad Hasanayn, Uktubir 1973: al-silah wa al-siyasa [October 1973: arms and politics], Cairo: al-Ahram Institute, 1993.
Hazareesingh, Sudhir, The Legend of Napoleon, London: Granta Books, 2004.
Hellbeck, Jochen, Revolution on my Mind: Writing a Diary under Stalin, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2006.
Hennessy, Peter, Distilling the Frenzy: Writing the History of One's Own Times, London: Biteback Publishing, 2012.
Herb, Michael, All in the Family: Absolutism, Revolution, and Democracy in the Middle Eastern Monarchies, Albany: State University of New York Press, 1999.
Hess, Steve, “Sources of Authoritarian Resilience in Regional Protest Waves: The Post-Communist Colour Revolutions and 2011 Arab Uprisings,” Government and Opposition, vol. 50 (2015), pp. 1–29, doi:10.1017/gov.2014.39.
Heydemann, Steven (ed.), Networks of Privilege in the Middle East: The Politics of Economic Reform Revisited, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.
Hibou, Béatrice, The Force of Obedience: The Political Economy of Repression in Tunisia, translated by Brown, Andrew, Cambridge: Polity, 2011.
Hibou, Béatrice and Hulsey, John, “Domination and Control in Tunisia: Economic Levers for the Exercise of Authoritarian Power,” Review of African Political Economy, vol. 33, no. 108 (June 2006), pp. 185–206.
Hilsum, Lindsey, Sandstorm: Libya in the Time of Revolution, New York: Penguin Press, 2012.
Hinnebusch, Raymond A., “Party Activists in Syria and Egypt: Political Participation in Authoritarian Modernizing States,” International Political Science Review, vol. 4, no. 1 (1983), pp. 84–93.
Hinnebusch, Raymond A., Syria: Revolution from Above, New York: Routledge, 2002.
Hite, Katherine, Collins, Cath, and Joignant, Alfredo, “The Politics of Memory in Chile,” in Collins, Cath, Hite, Katherine, and Joignant, Alfredo (eds.), The Politics of Memory in Chile: From Pinochet to Bachelet, Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2013, pp. 1–29.
Hishmat, Muhammad Jamal, Mudhakkirat na'ib min Misr: sharaf al-niyaba 'an al-sha'b wa 'azmat al-tajriba [Memoirs of a representative from Egypt: the honor of representing the people and the grandeur of the experience], Cairo: al-Wafa’ Publishing, 2006.
Hizb al-Ba'th al-'Arabi al-Ishtiraki, Azmat al-iqtisad al-Sudani: asbab al-azma wa tariq al-khuruj minha [The Sudanese economic crisis: reasons for the crisis and ways to solve it], Khartoum: n.p., 1986.
Hizb al-Ba'th al-'Arabi al-Ishtiraki, al-Haraka al-Tashihiyya: min al-Mu'tamar al-Qawmi al-'Ashir al-Istithna'i ila al-Mu'tamar al-Qawmi al-Thalith 'Ashir [The Corrective Movement: from the Extraordinary National Tenth Conference to the Thirteen National Conference], Damascus: Cultural Bureau and Party Preparatory, 1983.
Hizb al-Ba'th al-'Arabi al-Ishtiraki, Hawla al-dimuqratiyya al-markaziyya [About centralized democracy], Damascus: Cultural Bureau and Party Preparatory Publications, n.d. (1970s).
Hizb al-Watani al-Dimuqrati, al-Mu'tamar al-'Amm al-Rabi', 20–22 Yuliyu 1986 [The Fourth General Conference, July 20–22, 1986], Cairo: al-Hizb al-Watani al-Dimuqrati, 1986.
Hizb al-Watani al-Dimuqrati, al-Mu'tamar al-Sanawi al-Rabi' [The Fourth Annual Conference], September 19–21, 2006, Cairo: n.p., 2006.
Hizb al-Watani al-Dimuqrati, Ru'ya li-mustaqbal Misr: watha'iq al-Mu'tamar al-'Amm al-Thamin lil-Hizb al-Watani al-Dimuqrati wa tashkilat al-hizb [A vision of the future of Egypt: documents from the Eighth General Conference of the National Democratic Party and the structures of the party], September 15–17, Cairo: al-Jumhuriyya Publishing, 2002.
Hizb al-Watani al-Dimuqrati, al-Sha'b wa al-intaj: taqrir ila al-Mu'tamar al-'Amm al-Rabi' li-Hizb al-Watan 'am 1986 [The people and production: report to the Fourth General Conference 1986], Cairo: al-Hizb al-Watani, 1986.
Hopkins, Stephen, The Politics of Memoir and the Northern Ireland Conflict, Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2013.
Howard, Marc Morjé and Walters, Meir R., “Explaining the Unexpected: Political Science and the Surprises of 1989 and 2011,” Perspectives on Politics, vol. 12 (2014), pp. 394–408.
Hubbard, Ben, “Saudi King Unleashes a Torrent as Bonuses Flow to the Masses,” New York Times, February 20, 2015.
Human Rights Watch, Behind Closed Doors: Torture and Detention in Egypt, New York: Human Rights Watch, 1992.
Huntington, Samuel P., Political Order in Changing Societies, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006.
Huntington, Samuel P., The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century, Norman: Oklahoma University Press, 1991.
Husayn, Lu'ay, al-Fiqd: hikayat min dhakira mutakhiyyala li-sajin haqiqi [The loss: stories from an imaginary memory of a real prisoner], Beirut: al-Furat, 2006.
al-Husayni, Hamdi, Mudhakkirat Shams Badran: asrar al-hayat al-khassa li-Nasser wa Su'ad, al-Sadat wa Hamat [Memoirs of Shams Badran: the secrets of the private lives of Nasser with Su'ad, Sadat with Hamat], Cairo: al-Nakhba Publishing, 2014.
Husni, Hamada, Shams Badran: al-rajul alladhi hakama Misr [Shams Badran: the man who ruled Egypt], Beirut: Beirut Library, 2008.
al-Husry, Khaldun S., Three Reformers: A Study in Modern Arab Political Thought, Beirut: Khayats, 1966.
Hussein, Saddam, al-Mukhtarat [The Collection], vol. III, Baghdad: Dar al-Shu'un al-Thaqafiyya, 1988.
Hussein, Saddam, Nazra fi al-din wa al-turath [A glimpse into religion and tradition], Baghdad: al-Hurriyya Publishing House, 1980.
Hussein, Saddam, al-Qal'a al-hasina: riwaya li-katibiha [The immune castle: a novel by its author], Baghdad: al-Huriyya Publishing House, 2001.
Hussein, Saddam, Rijal wa madina: riwaya li-katibiha [Men and a city: a novel by its author], Baghdad: Ministry of Culture, n.d.
Hussein, Saddam, Zabiba wa al-malik: riwaya li-katibiha [Zabiba and the king: a novel by its author], Baghdad: al-Bilad Publishing House, n.d.
Huwaydi, Amin Hamid, al-Furas al-da'i'a: al-qararat al-hasima fi Harbay al-Istinzaf wa Uktubir: haqa'iq tunsharu li-awwal marra ma'a thamani watha'iq sirriyya [The missed opportunities: decisive decisions in the Wars of Attrition and October: facts published for the first time with eight secret documents], Beirut: Corporation for Printing and Publishing, 1992.
Huwaydi, Amin, Ma'a 'Abd al-Nasser [With 'Abd al-Nasser], Cairo: al-Mustaqbal Publishing, 1985.
Ibrahim, Abu Hamid Ahmad, Qissat kifah wa najah [The story of struggle and success], Khartoum: 'Izzat Publishing, 2006.
Ibrahim, Hafiz Ahmad 'Abdullah, al-Nukhab al-iqtisadiyya al-jadida fi al-Sudan [The new economic elites in Sudan], Khartoum: al-Sudan Publishing, 2007.
Ibrahim, Hasanayn Tawfiq, Zahirat al-'unf al-siyasi fi al-nuzum al-'Arabiyya [The phenomenon of political violence in the Arab regimes], edn., Beirut: Center for Arab Unity Studies, 2011.
Imam, 'Abdullah, al-Fariq Muhammad Fawzi: al-naksa, al-istinzaf, al-sijin [Lieutenant General Muhammad Fawzi: the setback, the attrition, the prison], Cairo: Dar al-Khayyal Publishing, 2001.
International Crisis Group, “Failing Oversight: Iraq's Unchecked Government,” Middle East Report, no. 113, September 2011.
International Crisis Group, “Trial by Error: Justice in Post-Qadhafi Libya,” Middle East/North Africa Report, no. 140, April 17, 2013.
International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS), “Chapter Five: Middle East and North Africa,” The Military Balance, vol. 110 (2010), pp. 235–82.
International Monetary Fund, Republic of Yemen, Staff Report for the 2014 Article IV Consultation, July 3, 2014, IMF Country Report No. 14/276.
Iraq Survey Group, Regime Strategic Intent, vol. I: Comprehensive Report of the Special Advisor to the Director of Central Intelligence, September 30, 2003.
al-Iryani, 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Yahya, Mudhakkirat al-ra'is al-qadi [Memoirs of the president judge], vol. II: 1962–67, Cairo: Egyptian Association for Books, 2013.
'Isa, 'Abd al-Raziq 'Abd al-Raziq (ed.), Mudhakkirat al-sagh Salah Salim [Memoirs of the listener Salah Salim], Cairo: Egyptian Institution for the Book, 2013.
'Isa, Salah, Sha'ir takdir al-amn al-'amm [The poet who annoyed state security], edn., Cairo: al-Shuruq Publishing, 2008.
Iskander, Amir, Saddam Hussein: The Fighter, the Thinker and the Man, translated by Selim, Hassan, Paris: Hachette Réalités, 1980.
Ismael, Tareq Y., The Rise and Fall of the Communist Party of Iraq, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
Isma'il, Muhammad Hafiz, Amn Misr al-qawmi fi 'asr al-tahadiyyat [Egyptian national security in the era of challenges], Cairo: al-Ahram Center for Publishing, 1987.
Isma'il, Muhammad Sadiq, al-Fasad al-idari fi al-'alam al-'Arabi: mafhumaha wa ab'adaha al-mukhtalifa [Administrative corruption in the Arab world: its concepts and miscellaneous ramifications], Cairo: Arab Group, 2014.
Jabi, Nasr, al-Jaza'ir: al-dawla wa al-nukhab, dirasat fi al-nukhab, al-ahzab al-siyasiyya wa al-harakat al-ijtima'iyya [Algeria: the state and the elites, a study in elites, political parties, and social movements], Algiers: al-Shihab Publications, 2008.
al-Jam'ani, Dafi, Min al-hizb ila al-sijin 1948–1994: mudhakkirat [From party to prison, 1948–1994: memoirs], Beirut: Riyad al-Rayyis Books, 2007.
al-Jamasi, Muhammad 'Abd al-Ghani, Mudhakkirat al-Jamasi: Harb Uktubir 1973 [al-Jamasi's memoirs: The October 1973 War], Paris: al-Sharqiyya Publishing, 1990.
Jami', Mahmud, 'Ariftu al-Sadat: nisf qarn min khafaya al-Sadat wa al-Ikhwan [I knew al-Sadat: half a century of Sadat's secrets and the Brothers], Cairo: al-Maktab al-Misri, 1998.
al-Janzuri, Kamal, Misr wa al-tanmiya [Egypt and development], Cairo: Dar al-Shuruq, 2013.
al-Janzuri, Kamal, Tariqi: sanawat al-hilm, wa al-sidam, wa al-'uzla: min al-qarya ila ria'sat majlis al-wuzara’ [My path: years of dreams, confrontation, and isolation: from the village to head of the cabinet], Cairo: Dar al-Shuruq, 2013.
al-Jawadi, Muhammad Muhammad, Mudhakkirat qadat al-mukhabarat wa al-mabahith: al-amn al-qawmi li-Misr [Memoirs of the leaders of intelligence and security: the national security of Egypt], Cairo: Dar al-Khayyal Publishing, 1999.
al-Jawadi, Muhammad Muhammad, Qadat al-shurta fi al-siyasa al-Misriyya 1952–2002: dirasa tahliliyya wa mawsu'at shakhsiyyat [Police commanders in Egyptian polities 1952–2002: an analytical study and a biographical dictionary], Cairo: Madbuly Publishing, 2003.
al-Jawadi, Muhammad Muhammad, al-Shahid 'Abd al-Mun'im Riyad: sima’ al-'askariyya al-Misriyya [The martyr 'Abd al-Mun'im Riyad: the finest of the Egyptian military], Cairo: al-Atibba’ Publishing, 1984.
al-Jawhari, Las'ad, “Torture in Ben 'Ali's Era,” in al-Tamimi, 'Abd al-Jalil (ed.), Dirasat wa shahadat hawla dahaya al-ta'dhib wa al-iztihad bi-anzimat al-hukm bil-Maghrab al-Kabir, 1956–2010 [Studies and testimonies about victims of torture and repression in the Maghreb, 1956–2010], no. 25, Tunis: al-Tamimi Foundation, 2013, pp. 205–10.
al-Jayyar, Sawsan, Fathi Sarur wa al-barlaman: asrar wa i'tirafat [Fathi Sarur and the parliament: secrets and confessions], Cairo: Arab Press and Publications, 2002.
al-Jayyar, Sawsan, Majlis nuss al-layl: ru'ya suhufiyya jari'a: barlaman 1995–2000 [The midnight council: a brave journalistic insight: the parliament of 1995–2000], Cairo: Arab Agency for Media and Publications, 2000.
Jebnoun, Noureddine, “Ben Ali's Tunisia: The Authoritarian Path of a Dystopian State,” in Jebnoun, Noureddine, Kia, Mehrdad, and Kirk, Mimi (eds.), Modern Middle East Authoritarianism, New York: Routledge, 2014, pp. 101–22.
al-Jilad, Majdi, Mushir al-nasr: mudhakkirat Ahmad Isma'il wazir al-harbiyya fi Ma'rakat Uktubir 1973 [The marshal of victory: memoirs of Ahmad Ismail, minister of war in the October 1973 War], Cairo: Nahdat Misr Publishing, 2013.
Jin-sung, Jang, Dear Leader: My Escape from North Korea, translated by Lee, Shirley, New York: Random House, 2014.
Joffé, George, “Political Dynamics in North Africa,” International Affairs, vol. 85, no. 5 (2009), pp. 931–49.
Juneau, Thomas, “Yemen and the Arab Spring,” in Kamrava, Mehran (ed.), Beyond the Arab Spring: The Evolving Ruling Bargain in the Middle East, New York: Oxford University Press, 2014, pp. 373–96.
Juwayli, Salim Salama, Taqyim al-kifaya al-idariyya wa al-mihniyya li-umana’ al-shurta [An appraisal of the administrative and technical capabilities of deputy inspectors], Cairo: Institute for Higher Studies for Police Officers, n.d.
al-Ka'bi, al-Munji, Mudakhalat 'udu bil-Lajna al-Markaziyya [Interjections of a member of the Central Committee], Tunis: al-Kitab Publishing, 1986.
Kadri, Ali, “A Depressive Pre-Arab Uprisings Economic Performance,” in Gerges, Fawaz A. (ed.), The New Middle East: Protest and Revolution in the Arab World, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014, pp. 80–106.
Kandil, Hazem, Soldiers, Spies, and Statesmen: Egypt's Road to Revolt, New York: Verso, 2014.
Karshenas, Massoud and Moghadam, Valentine M. (eds.), Social Policy in the Middle East: Economic, Political, and Gender Dynamics, United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD), New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.
Kassab, Suzanne, Contemporary Arab Thought: Cultural Critique in Comparative Perspective, New York: Columbia University Press, 2010.
Kassem, Maye, Egyptian Politics: The Dynamics of Authoritarian Rule, Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2004.
Katz, Kimberly, A Young Palestinian's Diary, 1941–1945: The Life of Sami 'Amr, Austin: University of Texas Press, 2009.
al-Kawakibi, 'Abd al-Rahman, Taba'i' al-istibdad wa masari' al-isti'bad [The nature of tyranny and struggle against enslavement], Cairo: Iqra’ Foundation, 2013.
Kedourie, Elie, Arabic Political Memoirs and Other Studies, London: Frank Cass, 1974.
Kéfi, Ridha, “Les Habits neufs de l'armée” [The new clothes of the army], Jeune Afrique, July 13–20, 1999, pp. 24–26.
Kennedy, Mark C. (ed.), Twenty Years of Development in Egypt (1977–1997), Part I: Economy, Politics, Regional Relations, Cairo Papers 20th Anniversary Symposium, vol. 21, monograph 3, Cairo: American University Press, 1998.
Kermanach, Laure and Guichard, Guillaume, “La Pieuvre Ben Ali disséquée” [The octopus Ben Ali dissected], Le Figaro, January 21, 2011.
al-Khafaji, Isam, “State Terror and the Degradation of Politics in Iraq,” Middle East Report, no. 176, May–June 1992, pp. 15–21.
al-Khafaji, Isam, “War as a Vehicle for the Rise and Demise of a State-Controlled Society: The Case of Ba'thist Iraq,” in Heydemann, Steven (ed.), War, Institutions, and Social Change in the Middle East, Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000, pp. 258–91.
Khalifa, Mustafa, al-Qawqa'a: yawmiyyat mutalassis [The shell: the diary of a voyeur], edn., Beirut: Dar al-Adab, 2010.
Khalil, Khalil Hasan, al-Wasya: 'an qissat hayat al-jundi alladhi asbaha ustadhan lil-iqtisad al-siyasi bi al-jami'a [al-Wasya: the life story of the soldier who became a professor of political economy at the university], Cairo: Egyptian Association for the Book, 1983.
Khalil, Mahmud, “al-Amn al-qawmi: ittijahat al-tahdid wa ab'ad al-muwajaha” [The national security: trends of threats and dimensions of confrontation], al-Nasr, no. 583 (January 1988), pp. 22–23.
Khalili, Laleh and Schwedler, Jillian (eds.), “Introduction,” in Policing and Prisons in the Middle East: Formation of Coercion, London: Hurst, 2010, pp. 1–40.
al-Khujli, 'Abd al-Rahman, al-Jaysh wa al-siyasa [The army and politics], Omdurman: Mirghani Cultural Center, 2012.
Kienle, Eberhard, Ba'th v. Ba'th: The Conflict between Syria and Iraq 1968–1989, London: I. B. Tauris, 1991.
Kienle, Eberhard, “More than a Response to Islamism: The Political Deliberalization of Egypt in the 1990s,” Middle East Journal, vol. 52, no. 2 (1998), pp. 219–35.
Kifaya, “Corruption in Egypt: A Dark Cloud that Does Not Vanish,” 2006, available at
el-Kikhia, Mansour O., Libya's Qaddafi: The Politics of Contradiction, Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1997.
Kirkpatrick, David D., “Egypt's New Autocrat, Sisi Knows Best,” New York Times, May 25 2014.
Korany, Baghat, “Restricted Democratization from Above: Egypt,” in Korany, Baghat, Brynen, Rex, and Noble, Paul (eds.), Political Liberalization and Democratization in the Arab World, vol. II: Comparative Experiences, Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 1998, pp. 39–69.
Korsch, Boris, The Brezhnev Personality Cult – Continuity: The Librarian's Point of View, Research Paper No. 65, Jerusalem: The Hebrew University, 1987.
Kupferberg, Feiwel, The Break-up of Communism in East Germany and Eastern Europe, London: Macmillan, 1999.
Kuran, Timur, “Sparks and Prairie Fires: A Theory of Unanticipated Political Revolution,” Public Choice, vol. 61, no. 1 (1989), pp. 41–74.
Lacouture, Jean, The Demigods: Charismatic Leadership in the Third World, New York: Alfred Knopf, 1970.
al-Lamushi, 'Abd al-Mun'im Yusif, Fi 'ahd Mu'ammar al-Qaddafi: kuntu mutahaddithan rasmiyyan [In the era of Mu'ammar al-Qaddafi: I was an official spokesman], Tripoli: al-Hadath Publishing, 2012.
Laribi, Lyes, L'Algérie des généraux [The generals’ Algeria], Paris: Max Milo, 2007.
Laribi, Lyes, Dans les geôles de Nezzar [In the dungeons of Nezzar], Paris: Paris–Méditerranée, 2002.
Lesch, Ann M., “Democratization in a Fragmented Society: Sudan,” in Korany, Baghat, Brynen, Rex, and Noble, Paul (eds.), Political Liberalization and Democratization in the Arab World, vol. II: Comparative Experiences, Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 1998, pp. 203–22.
Levinson, Charles and Coker, Margaret, “Inside a Flawed Spy Machine as Gadhafi's Rule Crumbled,” Wall Street Journal, September 2, 2011.
Levitsky, Steven and Way, Lucan A., Competitive Authoritarianism: Hybrid Regimes after the Cold War, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010.
Lewis, Aidan, “Tracking down Ben Ali's Fortune,” BBC News, January 31, 2011, available at
“Lieutenant General Salih Halbi Meets with Members of the Armed Forces,” al-Nasr, no. 643, January 1993.
Limam, Mohammed Halim, “Detailed Analysis of the Phenomenon of Political Corruption in Algeria: Causes, Repercussions and Reform,” Contemporary Arab Affairs, vol. 5, no. 2 (2012), pp. 252–78.
Limam, Mohammed Halim, Zahirat al-fasad al-siyasi fi al-Jaza'ir: al-asbab wa al-athar wa al-islah [The political corruption phenomenon in Algeria: causes, effects, and reform], Beirut: Markaz Dirasat al-Wihda al-'Arabiyya, 2011.
Linz, Juan J., “The Religious Use of Politics and/or the Political Use of Religion: Ersatz Ideology versus Ersatz Religion,” in Maier, Hans (ed.), Totalitarianism and Political Religions, vol. I: Concepts for the Comparison of Dictatorships, translated by Bruhn, Jodi, New York: Routledge, 2004, pp. 102–20.
Linz, Juan J. and Stepan, Alfred, Problems of Democratic Transition and Consolidation: Southern Europe, South America, and Post-Communist Europe, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.
al-Lishani, Sa'id 'Isa, Min al-dhakira: qissat kifah [From memory: the story of a struggle], Beirut: Bissan Publishing, 2012.
Lockman, Zachary (ed.), Workers and Working Classes in the Middle East: Struggles, History, Historiographies, Albany: State University of New York Press, 1994.
Looney, R., “Economic Consequences of Conflict: The Rise of Iraq's Informal Economy,” Journal of Economic Issues, vol. 4 (2006), pp. 1–17.
Lübbe, Hermann, “The Historicity of Totalitarianism: George Orwell's Evidence,” in Maier, Hans (ed.), Totalitarianism and Political Religions, vol. I: Concepts for the Comparison of Dictatorships, New York: Routledge, 2004, pp. 247–52.
Luciani, Giacomo, “Linking Economic and Political Reform in the Middle East: The Role of the Bourgeoisie,” in Schlumberger, Oliver (ed.), Debating Authoritarianism: Dynamics and Durability in Nondemocratic Regimes, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2007, pp. 161–76.
Lust, Ellen, “Elections,” in Lynch, Marc (ed.), The Arab Uprisings Explained: New Contentious Politics in the Middle East, New York: Columbia University Press, 2014, pp. 218–45.
Lust-Okar, Ellen, Structuring Conflict in the Arab World: Incumbents, Opponents, and Institutions, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
Lutterbeck, Derek, “After the Fall: Security Sector Reform in post-Ben Ali Tunisia,” Arab Reform Initiative, 2012, available at
Lutterbeck, Derek, “Arab Uprisings, Armed Forces, and Civil–Military Relations,” Armed Forces and Society, vol. 39, no. 1 (April 2012), pp. 28–52.
Lyon, Alistair, “Analysis – Egyptian Army could hold Key to Mubarak's Fate,” Reuters, January 28, 2011.
al-Madini, Tawfiq, Suqut al-dawla al-bulisiyya fi Tunis [The collapse of the police state in Tunisia], Beirut: Arab Scientific Publishers, 2011.
Magaloni, Beatriz, Voting for Autocracy: Hegemonic Party Survival and its Demise in Mexico, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
el-Mahdi, Rabab, “The Democracy Movement: Cycles of Protest,” in el-Mahdi, Rabab and Marfleet, Philip (eds.), Egypt: The Moment of Change, New York: Zed Books, 2009, pp. 87–102.
De Maio, Paola, “From Soldiers to Policemen: Qadhafi's Army in the New Century,” Journal of Middle Eastern Geopolitics, vol. 2, no. 3 (2006), pp. 17–26.
al-Majdub, Taha, “al-Jaysh al-Misri ba'd Yunyu 1967” [The Egyptian army after June 1967], in al-Khuli, Lutfi (ed.), Harb Yunyu 1967: ba'd 30 sana [The June 1967 War: 30 years later], Cairo: al-Ahram Publishing, 1997, pp. 115–42.
Makhal, Rihab, “Tarikh al-mu'tamarat al-qawmiyya” [History of the regional conferences], in Barut, Muhammad Jamal (ed.), al-Ahzab wa al-harakat wa al-tanzimat al-qawmiyy fi al-watan al-'Arabi [Nationalist parties, movements, and organizations in the Arab world], Beirut: Center for Arab Unity Studies, 2012, pp. 898–922.
Makiya, Kanan, Republic of Fear: The Politics of Modern Iraq, Berkeley: University of California, 1998.
Malik, Adeel and Awadallah, Bassem, “The Economics of the Arab Spring,” World Development, vol. 45 (May 2013), pp. 296–313.
Mana'i, Ahmad, al-Ta'dhib al-Tunisi fi al-hadiqa al-sirriyya lil-Jiniral Ben 'Ali [The Tunisian torture in the secret garden of General Ben 'Ali], Cairo: Madbuly Bookshop, n.d.
el-Manawy, Abdel-Latif, Tahrir: The Last 18 Days of Mubarak: An Insider's Account of the Uprising in Egypt, London: Gilgamesh, 2012.
Mandel, Barrett J., “Full of Life Now,” in Olney, James (ed.), Autobiography: Essays Theoretical and Critical, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1980, pp. 49–72.
Manguel, Alberto, The Library at Night, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006.
Mansur, Anis, Intaha zaman al-furas al-da'i'a [The era of missed chances is over], Cairo: al-Nahda Publishing, 1998.
Mansur, Fawzi (ed.), al-Haraka al-'ummaliyya fi ma'rakat al-tahawwal: dirasat fi al-intikhabat al-naqabiyya 1991 [The labor movement in the battle of change: studies in the union elections of 1991], Cairo: Markaz al-Buhuth al-'Arabiyya, 1994.
al-Marashi, Ibrahim, “Iraq's Security and Intelligence Network: A Guide and an Analysis,” Middle East Review of International Affairs, vol. 6, no. 3 (September 2002), pp. 1–13.
al-Marashi, Ibrahim and Salama, Sammy, Iraq's Armed Forces: An Analytical History, New York: Routledge, 2008.
Mar'i, Sayyid, Awraq siyasiyya [Political papers], 3 vols., Cairo: al-Maktab al-Misri al-Hadith, 1978: vol. I, Min al-qarya ila al-islah [From the village to reform]; vol. II, Min azmat Mars ila al-naksa [From the March crisis until the defeat]; vol. III, Ma'a al-ra'is al-Sadat [With President Sadat].
Martin, Ian, “The United Nations’ Role in the First Year of the Transition,” in Cole, Peter and McQuinn, Brian (eds.), The Libyan Revolution and its Aftermath, New York: Oxford University Press, 2015, pp. 127–52.
al-Mashshat, Muhammad, Kuntu safiran lil-'Iraq fi Washintun: hikayati ma'a Saddam fi ghazu al-Kuwait [I was Iraq's ambassador in Washington: my story with Saddam during the invasion of Kuwait], Beirut: Arab Institute for Research and Publishing, 2008.
Matar, Hisham, Anatomy of a Disappearance: A Novel, New York: Dial Press, 2012.
Matar, Hisham, In the Country of Men, New York: Dial Press, 2006.
Matar, Hisham, “The Return: A Father's Disappearance, a Journey Home,” New Yorker, April 8, 2013.
Mattes, Hanspeter, “Challenges to Security Sector Governance in the Middle East: The Libyan Case,” conference paper, Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF), July 12–13, 2004.
Mattes, Hanspeter, “Formal and Informal Authority in Libya since 1969,” in Vandewalle, Dirk (ed.), Libya Since 1969: Qaddafi's Revolution Revisited, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008, pp. 55–81.
al-Mawardi, Abu al-Hasan, The Ordinances of Government: A Translation of al-Ahkam al-Sultaniyya wa al-Wilayat al-Diniyya, translated by Wahba, Wafaa H., Reading: Garnet Publishing, 1996.
McDermott, Kevin and Stibbe, Matthew, “Stalinist Terror in Eastern Europe: Problems, Perspectives and Interpretations,” in McDermott, Kevin and Stibbe, Matthew (eds.), Stalinist Terror in Eastern Europe: Elite Purges and Mass Repression, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2010, pp. 1–18.
McQuinn, Brian, “Assessing (In)Security after the Arab Spring,” Political Science and Politics, vol. 46 (October 2013), pp. 709–39.
de Mesquita, Bruce Bueno and Smith, Alastair, The Dictator's Handbook: Why Bad Behavior is Almost Always Good Politics, New York: Public Affairs, 2011.
de Mesquita, Bruce Bueno and Smith, Alastair, “How Tyrants Endure,” New York Times, June 9, 2011.
Mestiri, Ahmed, Shahada lil-tarikh: dhikrayat wa ta'mmulat wa ta'aliq hawla fatra min al-tarikh al-mu'asir li-Tunis wa al-Maghrab al-Kabir (1940–1990) wa thawrat 2010–2011 [Testimony to history: reminiscences, reflections, and commentaries about a period in the contemporary history of Tunisia and the Greater Maghreb (1940–1990) and the revolution 2010–2011], Tunis: al-Junub Publishing, 2011.
al-Mestiri, Ahmed, Témoignage pour l'histoire [Testimony for history], Tunis: Sud Editions, 2011.
Middle East Watch, Syria Unmasked: The Suppression of Human Rights by the Asad Regime, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991.
el-Mikawy, Noha, The Building of Consensus in Egypt's Transition Process, Cairo: American University Press, 1999.
Miller, Barbara, Narratives of Guilt and Compliance in Unified Germany: Stasi Informers and their Impact on Society, New York: Routledge, 1999.
Mirak-Weissbach, Muriel, Madmen at the Helm: Pathology and Politics in the Arab Spring, Reading: Ithaca Press, 2012.
Mitchell, Timothy, Rule of Experts: Egypt, Techno-Politics, Modernity, Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.
Mohi el-Din, Khaled, Memories of a Revolution: Egypt 1952, Cairo: American University of Cairo Press, 1992. (For his Arabic publications, see Muhyi al-Din, Khalid.)
de Montaigne, Michel, Montaigne's Essays in Three Books, vol. II: Religion and Philosophy, London: n.p., 1743.
Montefiore, Simon Sebag, “Dictators Get the Deaths they Deserve,” New York Times, October 27, 2011.
Moore, Clement H., “The Single Party as a Source of Legitimacy,” in Huntington, Samuel P. and Moore, Clement H. (eds.), Authoritarian Politics in Modern Society: The Dynamics of Established One-Party Systems, New York: Basic Books, 1970, pp. 48–72.
“More than 1,200 Bodies Found in Tripoli Mass Grave,” BBC News, September 25, 2011.
Mu'alla, 'Abd al-Amir, al-Ayyam al-tawila [The long days], Baghdad: Wizarat al-I'lam, 1978.
Muasher, Marwan, The Second Arab Awakening and the Battle for Pluralism, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2014.
Mubarak, Zuhair Farid, Usul al-istibdad al-'Arabi [The origins of Arab despotism], Beirut: al-Intishar, 2010.
Muhyi al-Din, Khalid, Wa al-'an atakallam [Now I speak], Cairo: Ahram Center for Translations and Publications, 1992. (For his English publications, see Mohi el-Din, Khaled.)
Munif, 'Abd al-Rahman, Sharq al-Mutawassit [East of the Mediterranean], Beirut: al-Tali'a Publishing, 1975.
Muqayyid, Muhammad As'ad, Masira fi al-hayat: tarikh ma lam yu'arrikh lahu al-akharun [Journey in life: a history that was not documented by others], Damascus: al-Dhakira Publishing, 2005.
Murphy, Emma C., Economic and Political Change in Tunisia: from Bourguiba to Ben Ali, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1999.
Muru, Muhammad, Sulayman Khatir, “Batal Sina’”: al-jundi al-Muslim alladhi dafa' 'an karamat Misr wa jayshiha [Sulayman Khatir, “Hero of the Sinai”: the Muslim soldier who defended Egypt's honor and its army], Cairo: Digest Books, 1986.
Mustafa, Hala, “Mu'asharat wa nata'ij intikhabat 1995” [Indicators and results of the 1995 elections], in Mustafa, Hala (ed.), al-Intikhabat al-barlamaniyya fi Misr, 1995 [The parliamentary elections in Egypt, 1995], Cairo: al-Ahram Political and Strategic Studies Center, 1997, pp. 35–51.
Mustafa, Muhammad, Kuntu waziran lil-dakhiliyya [I was a minister of the interior], Cairo: Akhbar al-Yawm, 1992.
al-Muzzafir, Zuhair, Min al-hizb al-wahid ila hizb al-aghlabiyya [From the single party to the majority party], Tunisia: Sanbakit, 2004.
Mzali, Mohamed, Hadith al-fi'l [The talk of action], Tunis: Tunisian Society for Publications, 1985.
Mzali, Muhammad, La Parole de l'action: conversation avec Xavière Ulysse [The talk of action: conversation with Xavière Ulysse], Paris: Publisud, 1984.
Mzali, Muhammad, Un premier ministre de Bourguiba témoigne [A prime minister of Bourguiba testifies], Paris: Jean Picollec, 2004.
al-Nabulsi, Shakir, Su'ud al-mujtami' al-'askari al-'Arabi fi Misr wa al-Sham, 1948–2000 [The rise of the Arab military society in Egypt and Syria, 1948–2000], Beirut: Arab Institute for Research and Publishing, 2003.
el-Naggar, Mona, “Egypt to End the Ubiquity of Mubarak,” New York Times, April 22, 2011.
Nasif, 'Imad, Buyut min al-zujaj: al-malaffat al-sirriyya li-fasad al-kibar [Glasshouses: the secret files of the corruption of the powerful], Cairo: Arab Media, 1999.
Nasir, Shihab, 'Amru Musa: al-malaffat al-sirriyya ['Amru Musa: the secret files], Cairo: Center for Arabic Civilization, 2001.
Nasr, Salah, Mudhakkirat Salah Nasr: thawrat 23 Yuliyu bayn al-masir wa al-masir [The memoirs of Salah Nasr: the July 23 revolution between the journey and the destiny], vol. I, Abu Dhabi: Ittihad Publishing, 1986.
Nezzar, Khalid, Bouteflika: al-rajul wa al-hasila [Bouteflika: the man and the outcome], Algiers: APIC, 2003.
Nezzar, Khalid, Mudhakkirat al-Liwa’ Khalid Nezzar [Memoirs of Major-General Khalid Nezzar], Algiers: al-Shihab Publishing, 1999.
Nordlinger, Eric, Soldiers in Politics: Military Coups and Governments, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1977.
Norton, Augustus Richard (ed.), Civil Society in the Middle East, vol. I, Leiden: Brill, 2005.
Nur, Ayman, Sajin al-huriyya: Ayman Nur yaktubu min khalf al-aswar [The prisoner of freedom: Ayman Nur writes from behind walls], Cairo: n.p., 2006.
Nur, Ayman and Shindi, Majdi, al-'Askari al-aswad, Zaki Badr [The black policeman, Zaki Badr], Cairo: Arab International Publishing Company, 1990.
O'Donnell, Guillermo and Schmitter, Philippe C., Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Tentative Conclusions about Uncertain Democracies, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2013.
Orzoff, Andrea, “The Husbandman: Tomáš Masaryk's Leader Cult in Interwar Czechoslovakia,” Austrian History Yearbook, vol. 39 (2008), pp. 121–37.
Overy, Richard, The Dictators: Hitler's Germany and Stalin's Russia, London: Penguin, 2008.
Owen, Roger, The Rise and Fall of Arab Presidents for Life, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2012.
Owen, Roger, State, Power, and Politics in the Making of the Modern Middle East, edn., New York: Routledge, 2008.
Packer, George, The Assassin's Gate, New York: Farrar, Straus, & Giroux, 2005.
Pargeter, Alison, Libya: The Rise and Fall of Qaddafi, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012.
Peel, Michael, “Iraq: Singular Ambition,” Financial Times, May 7, 2012.
Pepinsky, Thomas B., Economic Crises and the Breakdown of Authoritarian Regimes: Indonesia and Malaysia in Comparative Perspectives, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Persak, Krzystof and Kamiński, Łukasz (eds.), A Handbook of the Communist Security Apparatus in East Central Europe 1944–1989, Warsaw: Institute of National Remembrance, 2005.
Perthes, Volker, The Political Economy of Syria under Asad, London: I. B. Tauris, 1997.
Perthes, Volker, “Syria: Difficult Inheritance,” in Perthes, Volker (ed.), Arab Elites: Negotiating the Politics of Change, Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2004, pp. 87–114.
Peterson, John, “Yemen on the Precipice: Governing the Ungovernable,” in Kadhim, Abbas (ed.), Governance in the Middle East and North Africa: A Handbook, London: Routledge, 2013, pp. 306–18.
“Petrobras Scandal: Brazilian Oil Executives among 35 Charged,” Guardian, December 11, 2014.
Phillips, David L., Losing Iraq: Inside the Postwar Reconstruction Fiasco, New York: Basic Books, 2005.
Picard, Elizabeth, “Arab Military in Politics: From Revolutionary Plot to Authoritarian State,” in Luciani, Giacomo (ed.), The Arab State, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990, pp. 189–220.
Pierret, Thomas, Religion and State in Syria: The Sunni Ulama from Coup to Revolution, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013.
Pop-Eleches, Grigore, “Romania Twenty Years after 1989: The Bizarre Echoes of a Contested Revolution,” in Berhard, Michael and Kubik, Jan (eds.), Twenty Years after Communism: The Politics of Memory and Commemoration, New York: Oxford University Press, 2014, pp. 85–103.
Post, Jerrold M., “Saddam Hussein of Iraq: A Political Psychology Profile,” in Post, Jerrold M. (ed.), The Psychological Assessment of Political Leaders: With Profiles of Saddam Hussein and Bill Clinton, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2005, pp. 335–66.
Povoledo, Elisabetta, “A Dead Dictator who Draws Tens of Thousands in Italy,” New York Times, November 2, 2011.
al-Qaddafi, Mu'ammar, The Green Book, Tripoli: Public Establishment for Publishing, n.d.
al-Qaddafi, Mu'ammar, al-Qarya … al-qarya, al-ard … al-ard wa intihar ra'id al-fada’ ma'a qisas ukhra [The village … the village, the land … the land and the suicide of an astronaut with other stories], Cairo: Egyptian Organization for Books, 1996. [See also under Gaddafi]
Qadduri, Fakhri, Hakadha 'ariftu al-Bakr wa Saddam: rihlat 35 'aman fi Hizb al-Ba'th [This was the way I knew al-Bakr and Saddam: a journey of 35 years in the Ba'th Party], London: Dar al-Hikma, 2006.
Qadri, Husayn, 'Abd al-Nasser wa alladhin kanu ma'ahu ['Abd al-Nasser and those who were with him], Cairo: al-Jumhuriyya Publishing, 2007.
Qarm, George, “al-Iqtisad al-siyasi lil-intiqal al-dimuqrati fi al-watan al-'Arabi” [The political economy of the democratic transition in the Arab world], al-Mustaqbal al-'Arabi [The Arab Future], no. 426 (August 2014), pp. 19–40.
al-Qayzani, Tariq, al-Hizb al-Dimuqrati al-Taqaddumi [The Progressive Democratic Party], Tunis: Dar Muhammad for Publishing, 2011.
al-Qiyada al-Qawmiyya, Nidal al-Ba'th: watha'iq Hizb al-Ba'th al-'Arabi al-Ishtiraki [The struggle of the Ba'th: documents of the Arab Socialist Ba'th Party], vol. IV: 1955–1961, Beirut: al-Tali'a Publishing, 1964.
Quinlivan, James T., “Coup-proofing: Its Practice and Consequences in the Middle East,” International Security, vol. 24, no. 2 (Fall 1999), pp. 131–65.
al-Qulaybi, al-Shadhili, Adwa’ min al-dhakira: al-Habib Bourguiba [Lights from memory: Habib Bourguiba], Tunis: Dimitir, 2014.
Qutb, Shiyam 'Abd al-Hamid, Mustaqbal al-sahafa al-hizbiyya fi Misr [The future of the party press in Egypt], Cairo: Dar al-'Alam al-'Arabi, 2010.
Ra'fat, Muhammad 'Abd al-Rahman. Dhikrayat dabit bahri [Memories of a navy officer], Cairo: Egyptian Organization for the Book, 2003.
Ra'if, Ahmad, al-Bawwaba al-sawda’: safahat min tarikh al-Ikhwan al-Muslimin [The black gate: pages from the history of the Muslim Brotherhood], Cairo: al-Zahra’ Publishing, 1989.
Radwan, Fathi, Fathi Radwan yarwi li-Dhia’ al-Din Bibars asrar hukumat Yuliyu [Fathi Radwan recounts to Dhia’ al-Din Bibars the secrets of the July government], Cairo: al-Ma'rifa Publishing, 1976.
Ramadan, 'Abd al-'Azim, Mudhakkirat al-siyasiyyin wa al-zu'ama’ fi Misr, 1891–1981 [Memoirs of politicians and leaders in Egypt, 1891–1981], Cairo: al-Watan al-'Arabi, 1985.
Ramadan, 'Abd al-'Azim, al-Sira' al-ijtima'i wa al-siyasi fi 'asr Mubarak [The social and political clash in Mubarak's era], vol. VII, Cairo: al-Hay'a al-Misriyya lil-Kitab, 1995.
Rashid, Nura, Rijal hawla al-ra'is: hiwar ma'a shakhsiyyat hamma [Men around the president: dialogue with important personalities], vol. I, Cairo: Egyptian Institution for the Book, 1997.
al-Razzaz, Munif, al-'Amal al-fikriyya wa al-siyasiyya [Intellectual and political works], 3 vols., Beirut: Dar al-Mutawassit, 1985.
Reda, Adel, A Reading in Assad Thinking, Cairo: Akhbar al-Yawm, n.d.
Rees, E. A., “Leader Cults: Varieties, Preconditions and Functions,” in Apor, Balázas, Behrends, Jan C., Jones, Polly, and Rees, E. A. (eds.), The Leader Cult in Communist Dictatorships: Stalin and the Eastern Bloc, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004, pp. 3–28.
Reynolds, Dwight F. (ed.), Interpreting the Self: Autobiography in the Arabic Literary Tradition, Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001.
Richards, Alan and Waterbury, John, A Political Economy of the Middle East, edn., Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2008.
Richardson, Catherine (ed.), Clothing and Culture, 1350–1650, Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Co., 2004.
Ricoeur, Paul, Memory, History, Forgetting, translated by Blamey, Kathleen and Pellauer, David, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004.
Roberts, Hugh, The Battlefield Algeria, 1988–2002: Studies in a Broken Polity, New York: Verso, 2003.
Roberts, Hugh, “Who Said Gaddafi Had to Go?London Review of Books, vol. 33, no. 22, November 17, 2011, pp. 8–18.
Rogg, Margaret L., “Egyptian Policemen Fight Troops in Revolt Set off near Pyramids,” New York Times, February 27, 1986.
Rotberg, Robert I., “How Corruption Compromises World Peace and Stability,” in Rotberg, Robert I. (ed.), Corruption, Global Security, and World Order, Baltimore: Brookings Institution Press, 2009, pp. 1–26.
Rotberg, Robert I., “Leadership Alters Corrupt Behavior,” in Rotberg, Robert I. (ed.), Corruption, Global Security, and World Order, Baltimore: Brookings Institution Press, 2009, pp. 341–58
Rubin, Barry, “The Military in Contemporary Arab Politics,” in Rubin, Barry and Keaney, Thomas A. (eds.), Armed Forces in the Middle East, London: Frank Cass, 2002, pp. 1–22.
Ryan, Curtis R., “Jordan and the Arab Spring,” in Haas, Mark L. and Lesch, Mark W. (eds.), The Arab Spring: Change and Resistance in the Middle East, Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2013, pp. 116–30.
el-Saadany, Salah, Egypt and Libya from Inside, 1969–1976: The Qaddafi Revolution and the Eventual Break in Relations, translated by el-Behairy, Mohammad, London: McFarland & Co., 1994.
el-Saadawi, Nawal, al-Insan: ithnay 'ashr imra'a fi zinzana [The human: twelve women in a cell], Cairo: Madbuly Publishing, 2005.
al-Sa'dawi, Nawal, Memoirs from the Women's Prison, translated by Booth, Marilyn, London: Women's Press, 1986.
Sachs, Jonah, Winning the Story Wars, Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business Review Press, 2012.
Sa'd al-Din, 'Adnan, al-Ikhwan al-Muslimun fi Suriya, mudhakkirat wa dhikrayat: sanawat al-majazir al-mur'iba min 'am 1977 wa hatta 'am 1983 [The Muslim Brothers in Syria, memoirs and memories: the years of the terrifying massacres from 1977 until 1983], Cairo: Madbuly Bookshop, 2010.
el-Sadat, Anwar, In Search of Identity: An Autobiography, London: Collins, 1978.
Sadowski, Yahya M., Political Vegetables? Businessman and Bureaucrat in the Development of Egyptian Agriculture, Washington: Brookings Institution, 1991.
Saffar, Muhammad Bashir, “al-Nukhba al-siyasiyya fi al-Jaza'ir” [The political elites in Algeria], in al-Nukhba al-siyasiyya fi al-'alam al-'Arabi [The political elites in the Arab world], Papers for the Third Conference for Young Researchers, Cairo, November 11–13, 1995, Cairo: Center for Political Research and Studies, 1996, pp. 99–164.
Sa'id, 'Abd al-Mun'im, Islah al-sasa: al-Hizb al-Watani wa al-Ikhwan wa al-libraliyyun [Reform of governance: the National Party and the Brothers and liberals], Cairo: Nahdat Misr Publications, 2010.
Said, Mohamed Kadry and Bakr, Noha, “Egypt Security Sector Reforms,” Arab Reform Initiative, 2011, available at
Sa'id, al-Safi, Kharif al-'Arab: al-bi'r wa al-sawma'a wa al-jiniral – al-harb al-damiyya bayn al-'Aruba wa al-Islam [The Arab autumn: the well, the hermitage, and the general – the bloody war between Arabism and Islam], Tunis: 'Urabia Publishing, 2012.
Saine, Abdoulaye, “The Gambia's ‘Elected Autocrat Poverty, Peripherality, and Political Instability,’ 1994–2006,” Armed Forces & Society, vol. 34, no. 3 (April 2008), pp. 450–73.
Sakinjo, Hatim al-Sirr, al-Sudan: ra'is ma'a iqaf al-tanfidh: tajribati ma'a intikhabat 2010 [Sudan: president with no implementation: my experience with the 2010 elections], Cairo: al-Ward Library, 2011.
al-Sakri, Fathi bin Hasan, “Dirasa hawla usas wa asalib muqawamat al-fasad al-idari” [A study of the basics and means of combating administrative corruption], in Arab Organization for Administrative Development, al-Fasad al-idari wa al-mali fi al-watan al-'Arabi [Administrative and financial corruption in the Arab world], Cairo: Arab Organization for Administrative Development, 2008, pp. 149–67.
Saleh, Heba, “Egyptian Academics Strike in Fight of Campus Democracy,” Financial Times, October 4, 2011.
Salih, Yasin al-Hajj, Bilkhalas, ya shabab: 16 'aman fi al-sujun al-Suriyya [Salvation, young men: sixteen years in the Syrian prisons], Beirut: Dar al-Saqi, 2012.
al-Salihi, Najib, al-Zilzal: madha hadatha fi al-'Iraq ba'd al-insihab min al-Kuwait? Khafaya al-ayyam al-damiyya [The earthquake: what happened in Iraq after the retreat from Kuwait? Mysteries of the bloody days], London: al-Rafid Publications, 1998.
al-Samarra'i, Wafiq, Hutam al-bawwaba al-sharqiyya [Ruins of the eastern gate], Kuwait: al-Qabas Publishing, 1997.
Samraoui, Mohammed, Chronique des années de sang: Algérie: comment les services secrets ont manipulé les groupes islamistes [Chronicle of the years of blood: Algeria: how the secret services manipulated the Islamist groups], Paris: Denoël Impacts, 2003.
Sarotte, Mary Elise, The Collapse: The Accidental Opening of the Berlin Wall, New York: Basic Books, 2014.
Sassoon, Joseph, “Comment les tyrans prennent leur décisions” [How tyrants reach their decisions], Le Monde Diplomatique, no. 695 (February 2012), pp. 1 and 16.
Sassoon, Joseph, “The Competence of the Tyrants,” Le Monde Diplomatique, English edn., no. 1202 (February 2012).
Sassoon, Joseph, “The East German Ministry of State Security and Iraq, 1968–1989,” Journal of Cold War Studies, vol. 16, no. 1 (Winter 2014), pp. 4–23.
Sassoon, Joseph, “The Iraqi Ba'th Party Preparatory School and the ‘Cultural’ Courses of the Branches,” Middle Eastern Studies, vol. 50, no. 1 (2014), pp. 27–42.
Sassoon, Joseph, Saddam Hussein's Ba'th Party: Inside an Authoritarian Regime, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.
Saydawi, Riyad, Sira'at al-nukhab al-siyasiyya wa al-'askariyya fi al-Jaza'ir: al-hizb, al-jaysh, al-dawla [Political and military clashes of the elites in Algeria: the party, the army, the state], Beirut: Arab Institute, 1999.
Sayigh, Yezid, “Agencies of Coercion: Armies and Internal Security Forces,” International Journal of Middle East Studies, vol. 43, no. 3 (August 2011), pp. 403–05.
Sayigh, Yezid, Arab Military Industry: Capability, Performance, and Impact, London: Brassey's, 1992.
al-Sayyid, Jalal, Tajribati al-barlamaniyya [My parliamentary experience], Egypt: n.p., n.d.
Schatzberg, Michael G., The Dialectics of Oppression in Zaire, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1988.
Schrift, Melissa, Biography of a Chairman Mao Badge: The Creation and Mass Consumption of a Personality Cult, New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2001.
Scott, James C., “Patron–Client Politics and Political Change in Southeast Asia,” American Political Science Review, vol. 66, no. 1 (March 1972), pp. 91–113.
Seitz, Adam C., “Ties that Bind and Divide: The 'Arab Spring’ and Yemeni Civil–Military Relations,” in Lackner, Helen (ed.), Why Yemen Matters: A Society in Transition, London: Middle East Institute, SOAS, 2014, pp. 50–68.
“La Semaine financière,” La Presse de Tunisie, December 17, 2014.
Sengupta, Somini, “Soldiers from Sudan Raped Hundreds in Darfur, Human Rights Group Finds,” New York Times, February 11, 2015.
Sghiri, Malek, “Greetings to the Dawn: Living through the Bittersweet Revolution (Tunisia),” in al-Zubaidi, Layla, Cassel, Matthew, and Roderick, Nemonie Craven (eds.), Diaries of an Unfinished Revolution: Voices from Tunis to Damascus, New York: Penguin Books, 2013, pp. 9–47.
al-Shahawi, Qadri 'Abd al-Fattah, Jara'im al-sulta al-shurtiyya [Crimes of the police authority], Cairo: al-Nahda Publishing, 1977.
Sharbal, Ghassan, Fi khaymat al-Qaddafi: rifaq al-'aqid yakshufun khabaya 'ahdihi [In Qaddafi's tent: the colonel's comrades expose the mysteries of his era], Beirut: Riyad al-Rayyis Publishing, 2013.
al-Sharif, Mahir and al-Zarli, Qays, al-Siyar al-dhatiyya fi Bilad al-Sham [Autobiographies in the Levant countries], Damascus: Dar al-Mada, 2009.
Shaw, George Bernard, “The Sanity of Art,” in Major Critical Essays, introduction by Holroyd, Michael, Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1986, pp. 309–60.
Shore, Marci, The Taste of Ashes: The Afterlife of Totalitarianism in Eastern Europe, New York: Broadway Books, 2013.
Shu'aybi, Fawzi, Shahid min al-mukhabarat al-Suriyya, 1955–1968 [Witness from the Syrian intelligence, 1955–1968], Beirut: Riyad al-Rayyis, 2008.
Singerman, Diane, “Networks, Jobs, and Everyday Life in Cairo,” in Bowen, Donna Lee and Early, Evelyn A. (eds.), Everyday Life in the Muslim Middle East, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2002, pp. 199–208.
Sirrs, Owen L., A History of the Egyptian Intelligence Service: A History of the Mukhabarat, 1910–2009, New York: Routledge, 2010.
“Sisi Reviews New Projects in Suez Canal Region,” Egyptian State Information Service, November 17, 2014, available at
Skocpol, Theda, “Rentier State and Shi'a Islam in the Iranian Revolution,” Theory and Society, vol. 11, no. 3 (May 1982), pp. 265–83.
Skocpol, Theda, States and Social Revolutions: A Comparative Analysis of France, Russia, and China, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1979.
Slackman, Michael and el-Naggar, Mona, “Embattled Arab Leaders Decide it's Better to Fight than Quit,” New York Times, April 28, 2011.
Smith, Sidonie and Watson, Julia, A Guide for Interpreting Life Narratives: Reading Autobiography, edn., Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2010.
Smith, William C., Authoritarianism and the Crisis of the Argentine Political Economy, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1991.
Snow, Shane, “Those Who Tell Stories Rule the World,” TEDx Talk, August 11, 2014, available at
Soliman, Samer, The Autumn of Dictatorship: Fiscal Crisis and Political Change in Egypt under Mubarak, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2011.
Sorkin, Jerry, “The Tunisian Model,” Middle East Quarterly (Fall 2001), pp. 25–29.
Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction (SIGIR), October 30, 2005 Quarterly Report to Congress.
Spengemann, William C., The Forms of Autobiography: Episodes in the History of a Literary Genre, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1980.
Springborg, Robert, “Arab Militaries,” in Lynch, Marc (ed.), The Arab Uprisings Explained: New Contentious Politics in the Middle East, New York: Columbia University Press, 2014, pp. 142–59.
Springborg, Robert, “Economic Involvement of Militaries,” International Journal of Middle East Studies, vol. 43, no. 3 (2011), pp. 397–99.
Springborg, Robert, Family, Power, and Politics in Egypt: Sayed Bey Marei – his Clan, Clients, and Cohorts, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1982.
Springborg, Robert, Mubarak's Egypt: Fragmentation of the Political Order, Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1989.
Springborg, Robert, “The Role of Militaries in the Arab Thermidor,” Paper presented to workshop at the London School of Economics and Political Science: The Arab Thermidor: The Resurgence of the Security State, October 10, 2014.
John, Ronald Bruce, “Libya's Authoritarian Tradition,” in Jebnoun, Noureddine, Kia, Mehrdad, and Kirk, Mimi (eds.), Modern Middle East Authoritarianism: Roots, Ramifications, and Crisis, New York: Routledge, 2014, pp. 123–41.
Stacher, Joshua A., “Conditioned Participation: The Mubarak State and Egypt's Muslim Brothers,” in Jebnoun, Noureddine, Kia, Mehrdad, and Kirk, Mimi (eds.), Modern Middle East Authoritarianism: Roots, Ramifications, and Crisis, New York: Routledge, 2014, pp. 183–98.
Stacher, Joshua A., “Parties Over: The Demise of Egypt's Opposition Parties,” British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, vol. 31, no. 2 (November 2004), pp. 215–33.
Stepan, Alfred, “Introduction: Undertheorized Political Problems in the Founding Democratization Literature,” in Stepan, Alfred (ed.), Democracies in Danger, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009, pp. 1–16.
Stepan, Alfred, The Military in Politics: Changing Patterns in Brazil, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1971.
Stone, Martin, The Agony of Algeria, New York: Columbia University Press, 1997.
Storm, Lise, Party Politics and the Prospects for Democracy in North Africa, Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2013.
“Students and the Party: Rushing to Join,” Economist, February 22, 2014.
Subh, Ahmad Isma'il, 'Ubur al-mihna: mushahadat 'ayaniyya wa dirasa nafsiyya lil-insan al-Misri fi Harb Uktubir [The tribulation of the crossing: eye-witness accounts and a psychological study of the Egyptian individual during the October War], Cairo: Egyptian Association for the Book, 1976.
al-Suwaydi, Tawfiq, My Memoirs: Half a Century of the History of Iraq and the Arab Cause, translated by Roberts, Nancy, Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2013.
Svolik, Milan W., The Politics of Authoritarian Rule, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012.
Tait, Robert, “28 Hours in the Dark Heart of Egypt's Torture Machine,” Guardian, February 9, 2011.
Talabani, Qubad, “Saving Iraq in the Post-Maliki Era,” Wall Street Journal, December 8, 2014.
Talas, Mustafa, Mir'at hayati [Reflections of my Life], Damascus: Talas Publishing, 1991.
Talas, Mustafa, Tarikh al-jaysh al-'Arabi al-Suri [History of the Arab Syrian army], 3 vols., vol. II: 1949–70, Damascus: Markaz al-Dirasat al-'Askariyya, 2002.
Tal'at, Hasan, Fi khidmat al-amn al-siyasi, Mayu 1939–Mayu 1971 [In the service of political security, May 1939–May 1971], Cairo: al-Watan al-'Arabi, 1983.
al-Talmasani, 'Umar, Dhikrayat la mudhakkirat [Memories not memoirs], Cairo: Islamic Press and Publications, 1985.
al-Tamimi, 'Abd al-Jalil (ed.), Dawr al-qasr al-ri'asi fi al-nizam al-Nufimbiri [The role of the presidential palace in the November regime], no. 41, Tunis: al-Tamimi Foundation for Scientific Research and Information, 2014.
al-Tamimi, 'Abd al-Jalilal-Mu'aridun al-siyasiyyun tahta al-ta'dhib fi Tunis: 'abr sijillat al-dhakira [The political opponents under torture in Tunisia: through records of memory], no. 29, Tunis: al-Tamimi Foundation for Scientific Research and Information, 2013.
al-Tannir, Samir, al-Faqr wa al-fasad fi al-'alam al-'Arabi [Poverty and corruption in the Arab world], Beirut: al-Saqi, 2009.
Tantawi, Mahmud, Makasib al-jundi al-ishtirakiyya [The socialist achievements of the soldier], Cairo: n.p., 1961.
al-Taqrir al-istratiji al-'Arabi, 1996 [The Arabic strategic report, 1996], Cairo: al-Ahram Center for Political and Strategic Studies, 1996.
Tawafan fi bilad al-Ba'th [Flood in the Country of the Ba'th], directed by Omar Amiralay, Syria and France, 2003 [Film].
al-Tawil, Muhammad, al-Mar'a wa al-barlaman: taqyim al-tajriba al-barlamaniyya lil-mar'a al-Misriyya [Woman and parliament: an assessment of the parliamentary experience for the Egyptian woman], Cairo: al-Nada Publishing, 2001.
al-Tikriti, Barazan, Muhawalat ightiyal al-ra'is Saddam Hussein [Attempts to assassinate President Saddam Hussein], Baghdad: Arab Publishing House, 1982.
Tomasky, Michael, “How to Become Eminent in Washington,” New York Review of Books, December 4, 2014, pp. 26–28.
Tomuschat, Christian, “Foreword,” in Rothenberg, Daniel (ed.), Memory of Silence: The Guatemalan Truth Commission Report, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012, pp. xv–xviii.
de Tocqueville, Alexis, L'Ancien régime et la révolution [The ancien régime and the French Revolution], translated by Goldhammer, Arthur with an introduction by Elster, Jon, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011.
Transparency International, “Corruption Perceptions Index 2010,” available at
Transparency International, “Corruption Perceptions Index 2012,” available at
“The Tripoli Files,” Globus and Mail, September 17, 2011, pp. F6–F7.
Tucker, Judith, “Biography as History: The Exemplary Life of Khayr al-Din al-Ramli,” in Fay, Mary Ann (ed.), Auto/Biography and the Construction of Identity and Community in the Middle East, New York: Palgrave, 2001, pp. 9–17.
“Tunisia after the Revolution: Spring is Still in the Air,” Economist, October 25, 2014.
al-'Ujayli, 'Abd al-Salam, Dhikrayat ayyam al-siyasa: al-juz’ al-thani min kitab lam uktab juz'uhu al-awwal ba'd [Memories of the days of politics: the second volume of a book whose first volume has not yet been written], Beirut: Riyad al-Rayyis, 2000.
'Ukasha, Tharwat, Mudhakkirati fi al-siyasa wa al-thaqafa [My memoirs in politics and culture], vol. II, Cairo: al-Hilal Publishing House, 1990.
'Umar, Nabil, Dhi'b al-mukhabarat al-asmar: al-bab al-sirri li-Gamal 'Abd al-Nasser [The brown wolf of the intelligence: the secret door to Gamal 'Abd al-Nasser], Cairo: Dar al-Fursan, 2000.
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Corruption and Integrity: Challenges in the Public Sector in Iraq, January 2013.
'Uthman, Hashim, al-Muhakamat al-siyasiyya fi Suriya [Political trials in Syria], Beirut: Riyad al-Rayyis Publishing, 2004.
'Uthman, 'Uthman Ahmad, Safahat min tajribati [Pages from my experience], Cairo: al-Maktab al-Misri al-Hadith, 1981.
Van Dam, Nikolaos, The Struggle for Power in Syria: Politics and Society under Asad and the Ba'th Party, revised th edn., London: I. B. Tauris, 2011.
Vandewalle, Dirk, A History of Modern Libya, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
Vandewalle, Dirk, “Libya's Uncertain Revolution,” in Cole, Peter and McQuinn, Brian (eds.), The Libyan Revolution and its Aftermath, New York: Oxford University Press, 2015, pp. 17–30.
von Clausewitz, Carl, On War, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1976.
Wahid, Latif, Military Expenditure and Economic Growth in the Middle East, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.
Way, Lucan, “Resistance to Contagion: Sources of Authoritarian Stability in the Former Soviet Union,” in Bunce, Valerie, McFaul, Michael, and Stoner-Weiss, Kathryn (eds.), Democracy and Authoritarianism in the Postcommunist World, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010, pp. 229–52.
Wedeen, Lisa, Ambiguities of Domination: Politics, Rhetoric, and Symbols in Contemporary Syria, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.
Wedeen, Lisa, Peripheral Visions: Publics, Power, and Performance in Yemen, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008.
Weeks, Jessica L., Dictators at War and Peace, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2014.
Weeks, Jessica L., “Strongmen and Straw Men: Authoritarian Regimes and the Initiation of International Conflict,” American Political Science Review, vol. 106, no. 2 (May 2012), pp. 326–47.
Weinberg, Carroll A., “Saddam: A Psychiatric Opinion,” Middle East Council Seminar Paper, Foreign Policy Research Institute, Philadelphia, February 19, 1991.
Werenfels, Isabelle, “Algeria: System Continuity through Elite Change,” in Perthes, Volker (ed.), Arab Elites: Negotiating the Politics of Change, Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2004, pp. 173–205.
Werenfels, Isabelle, Managing Instability in Algeria: Elites and Political Change since 1995, London: Routledge, 2007.
“What they Said about al-Sisi's Speech at the United Nations,” al-Masrawy, 2014, available at
Wierda, Marieke, “Confronting Qadhafi's Legacy: Transitional Justice in Libya,” in Cole, Peter and McQuinn, Brian (eds.), The Libyan Revolution and its Aftermath, New York: Oxford University Press, 2015, pp. 153–74.
Williams, Colin C., “The Hidden Economy in East–Central Europe: Lessons from a Ten-Nation Survey,” Problems of Post-Communism, vol. 56, no. 4 (July/August 2009), pp. 15–28.
Willis, Michael J., “Political Parties in the Maghrib: Ideology and Identification, a Suggested Typology,” Journal of North African Studies, vol. 7, no. 3 (2002), pp. 1–28.
Willis, Michael J., “Political Parties in the Maghrib: The Illusion of Significance?Journal of North African Studies, vol. 7, no. 2 (2002), pp. 1–22.
Willis, Michael J., Politics and Power in the Maghreb: Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco from Independence to the Arab Spring, New York: Columbia University Press, 2012.
Wintrobe, Ronald, The Political Economy of Dictatorship, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
Wizarat al-Maliyya wa al-Iqtisad al-Watani [Ministry of Finance and National Economy], Khitab wazir al-maliyya wa al-iqtisad al-watani, mashru' al-muwazana al-'amma li-'am 1998 [Speech of the minister of finance and national economy, budget proposal 1998], Khartoum: n.p., n.d.
Woods, Kevin M. and Lacey, James, Iraqi Perspectives Project: Saddam and Terrorism, Emerging Insights from Captured Iraqi Documents, vol. V, Alexandria, VA: Institute for Defense Analysis, 2007.
Worth, Robert F., “Even Out of Office, a Wielder of Great Power in Yemen,” New York Times, February 1, 2014.
Worth, Robert F., “Obstacles Mar Quest for Arab Dictators’ Assets,” New York Times, June 7, 2012.
Yardley, Jim, “Facing his Torturer as Spain Confronts its Past,” New York Times, April 7, 2014.
“Yemen: Time Running Out for Solution to Water Crisis,” Integrated Regional Information Network (IRIN), August 13, 2012.
Yetiv, Steve A., “Oil, Saudi Arabia, and the Spring that Has Not Come,” in Haas, Mark L. and Lesch, David W. (eds.), The Arab Spring: Change and Resistance in the Middle East, Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2013, pp. 97–115.
York, Peter, Dictator Style: Lifestyles of the World's Most Colorful Despots, San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 2005.
Zemni, Sami, “From Socio-Economic Protest to National Revolt: The Labor Origins of the Tunisian Revolution,” in Gana, Nouri (ed.), The Making of the Tunisian Revolution: Contexts, Architects, Prospects, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2013, pp. 127–46.
Zisser, Eyal, “The Syrian Army on the Domestic and External Fronts,” in Rubin, Barry and Keaney, Thomas A. (eds.), Armed Forces in the Middle East, London: Frank Cass, 2002, pp. 113–29.
Žižek, Slavoj, Did Somebody say Totalitarianism: Five Interventions in the (Mis)Use of a Notion, New York: Verso, 2001.