Skip to main content
Anxious Politics
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 48
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Aldama, Abraham Vásquez-Cortés, Mateo and Young, Lauren Elyssa 2019. Fear and citizen coordination against dictatorship. Journal of Theoretical Politics, Vol. 31, Issue. 1, p. 103.

    Christensen, Dag Arne and Aars, Jacob 2019. Societal Security and Crisis Management. p. 323.

    Christensen, Dag Arne and Aars, Jacob 2019. Societal Security and Crisis Management. p. 285.

    Citrin, Jack and Stoker, Laura 2018. Political Trust in a Cynical Age. Annual Review of Political Science, Vol. 21, Issue. 1, p. 49.

    Vergani, Matteo 2018. How Is Terrorism Changing Us?. p. 21.

    Mutz, Diana C. 2018. Status threat, not economic hardship, explains the 2016 presidential vote. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 115, Issue. 19, p. E4330.

    Vergani, Matteo 2018. How Is Terrorism Changing Us?. p. 45.

    Gadarian, Shana Kushner and van der Vort, Eric 2018. The Gag Reflex: Disgust Rhetoric and Gay Rights in American Politics. Political Behavior, Vol. 40, Issue. 2, p. 521.

    Clifford, Scott 2018. How Emotional Frames Moralize and Polarize Political Attitudes. Political Psychology,

    Erisen, Cengiz 2018. Political Behavior and the Emotional Citizen. p. 47.

    Grossmann, Matt and Thaler, Daniel 2018. Mass–Elite Divides in Aversion to Social Change and Support for Donald Trump. American Politics Research, Vol. 46, Issue. 5, p. 753.

    Tucker, Ericka 2018. Trump and Political Philosophy. p. 131.

    Maxwell, Rahsaan and House, Lucie 2018. Evaluating the Character of People Who Insult the Nation: Implications for Immigrant Integration. Political Psychology, Vol. 39, Issue. 2, p. 325.

    Intawan, Chanita and Nicholson, Stephen P. 2018. My Trust in Government Is Implicit: Automatic Trust in Government and System Support. The Journal of Politics, Vol. 80, Issue. 2, p. 601.

    Udani, Adriano and Kimball, David C. 2018. Immigrant Resentment and Voter Fraud Beliefs in the U.S. Electorate. American Politics Research, Vol. 46, Issue. 3, p. 402.

    Vergani, Matteo 2018. How Is Terrorism Changing Us?. p. 151.

    Marietta, Morgan Cote, Tyler Farley, Tyler and Murphy, Paul 2018. The Role of Twitter in the 2016 US Election. p. 7.

    Vasilopoulos, Pavlos Marcus, George E. Valentino, Nicholas A. and Foucault, Martial 2018. Fear, Anger, and Voting for the Far Right: Evidence From the November 13, 2015 Paris Terror Attacks. Political Psychology,

    Clifford, Scott and Jerit, Jennifer 2018. Disgust, Anxiety, and Political Learning in the Face of Threat. American Journal of Political Science, Vol. 62, Issue. 2, p. 266.

    Huff, Connor and Kertzer, Joshua D. 2018. How the Public Defines Terrorism. American Journal of Political Science, Vol. 62, Issue. 1, p. 55.


Book description

Emotions matter in politics - enthusiastic supporters return politicians to office, angry citizens march in the streets, a fearful public demands protection from the government. Anxious Politics explores the emotional life of politics, with particular emphasis on how political anxieties affect public life. When the world is scary, when politics is passionate, when the citizenry is anxious, does this politics resemble politics under more serene conditions? If politicians use threatening appeals to persuade citizens, how does the public respond? Anxious Politics argues that political anxiety triggers engagement in politics in ways that are potentially both promising and damaging for democracy. Using four substantive policy areas (public health, immigration, terrorism, and climate change), the book seeks to demonstrate that anxiety affects how we consume political news, who we trust, and what politics we support. Anxiety about politics triggers coping strategies in the political world, where these strategies are often shaped by partisan agendas.


'This is a monumental contribution that is a must-read for anyone interested in contemporary American politics. The authors not only fundamentally advance academic knowledge about anxiety and public opinion but also offer critical insights into issues of the utmost importance (e.g., immigration, climate change, terrorism, etc.). The book will clearly shape future research agendas and ongoing policy discussions.'

James N. Druckman - Payson S. Wild Professor of Political Science, Northwestern University, Illinois

'Albertson and Gadarian marshal an impressive array of evidence to demonstrate how anxiety shapes the behavior of citizens for both better and worse, how it can transcend and yet bend to partisan politics. Anxious Politics offers the most in-depth investigation into the political effects of anxiety to date and advances critical amendments to earlier scientific accounts. This is essential reading for understanding why attempts to stir up political fears can by turns promote democratic citizenship, subvert it, and fall on deaf ears.'

Ted Brader - University of Michigan

'How do political communications that foster feelings of threat and insecurity influence citizens - how and what they learn, who they trust, and what policies they advocate? Anxious Politics offers a compelling set of answers to these important questions through experimental analyses that range widely across issues, context, and message form. Anyone with an interest in public opinion should read this book.'

Laura Stoker - Charles and Louise Travers Department of Political Science, University of California, Berkeley

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
Abelson, Robert. 1963. “Computer Simulation of ‘Hot Cognition.’” In Computer Simulation of Personality, edited by Tomkins, S. and Messick, D.. New York: Wiley, 277–298.
Abelson, Robert, Kinder, Donald, Peters, Mark D., and Fiske, Susan. 1982. “Affective and Semantic Components in Political Person Perception.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 42 (4): 619–630.
Achen, Christopher, and Bartels, Larry. 2002. Blind Retrospection: Electoral Responses to Droughts, Flu, and Shark Attacks. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Boston Marriott Copley Place, Sheraton Boston & Hynes Convention Center, Boston, Massachusetts.
Achen, Christopher, and Bartels, Larry. 2005. “Partisan Hearts and Gallbladders: Retrospection and Realignment in the Wake of the Great Depression.” Paper presented at the Midwest Political Science Association Annual Meeting, April 9, Chicago, Illinois.
Ackerman, Bruce A., and Fishkin, James S.. 2004. Deliberation Day. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Adorno, T. W., Frenkel-Brunswik, E., Levinson, D. J., and Sanford, R. N.. 1950. The Authoritarian Personality. New York: Harper & Row.
Albertson, Bethany, and Gadarian, Shana Kushner. 2012. Who's Afraid of Immigration? The Effects of Pro- and Anti-Immigrant Threatening Ads among Latinos, African Americans and Whites, in Immigration and Public Opinion in the Liberal Democracies. Freeman, Gary, Hansen, Randall, and Leal, David, editors. New York: Routledge.
Allan, Nicole. 2010. “Immigration Politics a Boon for Jan Brewer and John McCain.” The Atlantic, August 23.
Althaus, Scott L. 2002. “American News Consumption during Times of National Crisis.” PS: Political Science and Politics 35 (3): 517–521.
Alvarez, Michael R., and Butterfield, Tara L.. 2000. “The Resurgence of Nativism in California? The Case of Proposition 187 and Illegal Immigration.” Social Science Quarterly 81: 167–179.
Arceneaux, Kevin, and Johnson, Martin. 2013. Changing Minds or Changing Channels? Media Effects in the Era of Expanded Choice. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Archibold, Randal C. 2010. “Arizona Enacts Stringent Law on Immigration.” The New York Times, April 23, sec. U.S./Politics.
Arnold, Magda. 1960. Emotion and Personality: Vol 1. Psychological Aspects. New York: Columbia University Press.
Associated Press/GfK Poll. 2010. Associated Press/GfK Poll. iPOLL Databank, The Roper Center for Public Opinion Research. Gfk Roper Public Affairs & Corporate Communications. Storrs, CT: Roper Center for Public Opinion Research.
Banks, Antoine J. 2014. Anger and Racial Politics: The Emotional Foundation of Racial Attitudes in America. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Bar-Ilan, Judit, and Echerman, Ana. 2005. “The Anthrax Scare and the Web: A Content Analysis of Web Pages Linking to Resources on Anthrax.” Scientometrics 63 (3): 443–462.
Bar-Tal, Daniel, Halperin, Eran, and Rivera, Joseph De. 2007. “Collective Emotions in Conflict Situations: Societal Implications.” Journal of Social Issues 63 (2): 441–460.
Barber, Benjamin. 1983. The Logic and Limits of Trust. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Bargh, John A., Chaiken, Shelly, Raymond, Paula, and Hymes, Charles. 1996. “The Automatic Evaluation Effect: Unconditional Automatic Attitude Activation with a Pronunciation Task.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 32 (1): 104–128.
Baron, R, and Kenny, David. 1986. “The Moderator-Mediator Variable Distinction in Social Psychological Research: Conceptual, Strategic, and Statistical Considerations.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 51: 1173–1182.
Bartels, Larry. 2002. “Beyond the Running Tally: Partisan Bias in Political Perceptions.” Political Behavior 24 (2): 117–150.
Baum, Matthew, and Groeling, Tim. 2010. War Stories: The Causes and Consequences of Public Views of War. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Bennett, W. Lance. 2012. News: The Politics of Illusion. Vol. 9. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Longman.
Bennett, W. Lance, Lawrence, Regina G., and Livingston, Steven. 2007. When the Press Fails: Political Power and the News Media from Iraq to Katrina. Studies in Communication, Media, and Public Opinion. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Berelson, Bernard, Lazarsfeld, Paul, and McPhee, William. 1954. Voting: A Study of Opinion Formation in a Presidential Campaign. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Berinsky, Adam. 2009. In Time of War: Understanding American Public Opinion from World War II to Iraq. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Berrebi, Claude, and Klor, Esteban F.. 2007. “The Impact of Terrorism on Voters’ Preferences.” Working Paper. Santa Monica: RAND.–1.html.
Bianco, William. 1994. Trust: Representatives and Constituents. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Blendon, Robert, Benson, John M., Caroline DesRoches, C. Pollard, Parvanta, W., and Hermann, Melissa. 2002. “The Impact of Anthrax Attacks on the American Public.” Medscape General Medicine 4(2): 1.
Blendon, Robert, DesRoches, Catherine M., Benson, John M., Herrmann, Melissa J., Taylor-Clark, Kalahn, and Weldon, Kathleen J.. 2003. “The Public and the Smallpox Threat.” New England Journal of Medicine 348 (5): 426–432.
Blendon, Robert, SteelFisher, Gillian K., Benson, John M., Weldon, Kathleen, and Herrmann, Melissa. 2009. “Survey Finds That Just 40% Absolutely Certain They Will Get H1N1 Vaccine.” Harvard School of Public Health.
Bloch-Elkon, Yaeli. 2011. “The Polls – Trends: Public Perceptions and the Threat of International Terrorism After 9/11.” Public Opinion Quarterly 75 (2) (June 20): 366–392.
Bonanno, George A., and Jost, John T.. 2006. “Conservative Shift among High-Exposure Survivors of the September 11th Terrorist Attacks.” Basic and Applied Social Psychology 28 (4): 311–323.
Borjas, George J. 1999. Heaven's Door: Immigration Policy and the American Economy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Boydstun, Amber, and Glazier, Rebecca. 2012. “The President, the Press, and the War: A Tale of Two Framing Agendas.” Political Communication 29 (4): 428–446.
Boyle, Michael, Schmierbach, Mike, Armstrong, Cory, McLeod, Douglas, Shah, Dhavan, and Pan, Zhongdang. 2004. “Information Seeking and Emotional Reactions to the September 11 Terrorist Attacks.” Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 81 (1): 155–167.
Brader, Ted. 2002. “Citizen Responses to Threat and Fear: New Developments and Future Directions.” The Political Psychologist 7 (2): 3–8.
Brader, Ted. 2005. “Striking a Responsive Chord: How Political Ads Motivate and Persuade Voters by Appealing to Emotions.” American Journal of Political Science 49 (2): 388–405.
Brader, Ted. 2006. Campaigning for Hearts and Minds: How Emotional Appeals in Political Ads Work. Studies in Communication, Media, and Public Opinion. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Brader, Ted. 2011. “Emotional Foundations of Democratic Citizenship.” In New Directions in American Politics, edited by Berinsky, Adam. New York: Routledge, 193–216.
Brader, Ted, Valentino, Nicholas, Jardina, Ashley, and Ryan, Timothy. 2010. “The Racial Divide on Immigration Opinion. Why Blacks Are Less Threatened by Immigrants?” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association. Washington, D.C.
Brader, Ted, Valentino, Nicholas A., and Suhay, Elizabeth. 2008. “What Triggers Public Opposition to Immigration? Anxiety, Group Cues, and Immigration Threat.” American Journal of Political Science 52 (4): 959–978.
Bradley, Margaret M., and Lang, Peter J.. 2000. “Affective Reactions to Acoustic Stimuli.” Psychophysiology 37 (2): 204–215.
Brehm, Jack Williams. 1966. A Theory of Psychological Reactance. New York: Academic Press.
Brehm, Sharon, and Brehm, Jack Williams. 1981. Psychological Reactance: A Theory of Freedom and Control. New York: Academic Press.
Broad, William. 2002. “U.S. to Vaccinate 500,000 Workers against Smallpox.” New York Times. July 7.
Brody, Richard A. 1991. Assessing the President: The Media, Elite Opinion, and Public Support. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Brooks, Clem, and Manza, Jeff. 2013. Whose Rights? Counterterrorism and the Dark Side of American Public Opinion. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Budge, I., and Farlie, D. J.. 1983. Explaining and Predicting Elections: Issue Effects and Party Strategies in Twenty-three Democracies. Boston: G. Allen and Unwin.
Burke, Edmund. 2013. A Philosophical Inquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful. (Oxford World's Classics). New York: Oxford University Press.
Busby, Joshua W. 2008. “Who Cares about the Weather?: Climate Change and US National Security.” Security Studies 17 (3): 468–504.
Bushman, Brad. 1998. “Effects of Warning and Information Labels on Consumption of Full-fat, Reduced-fat and No-fat Products.” Journal of Applied Psychology 83: 97–101.
Cacioppo, John T., and Berntson, Gary G.. 1994. “Relationship between Attitudes and Evaluative Space: A Critical Review, with Emphasis on the Separability of Positive and Negative Substrates.” Psychological Bulletin 115 (3): 401–423.
Campbell, Angus, Converse, Philip, Miller, Warren E., and Stokes, Donald. 1960. The American Voter. Midway Reprints. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Cassino, Dan, and Lodge, Milton. 2007. “The Primacy of Affect in Political Evaluations.” In The Affect Effect, edited by Neuman, W. Russell, Marcus, George, Crigler, Ann, and MacKuen, Michael. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 101–123.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2003. Executive Summary: Smallpox Response Plan. Vol. 2012. April 27.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Harvard School of Public Health. 2009. “Travelers Taking Significantly More Precautions against H1N1 and Seasonal Flu on Trips This Year, Citing Public Health Advice on Sneezing and Hand Sanitizing.”
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2014. “CDC Media Statement on Newly Discovered Smallpox Specimens.”
Chanley, Virginia. 2002. “Trust in Government in the Aftermath of 9/11: Determinants and Consequences.” Political Psychology 23 (3): 469–483.
Chanley, Virginia, Rudolph, Thomas J., and Rahn, Wendy M.. 2000. “The Origins and Consequences of Public Trust in Government: A Time Series Analysis.” The Public Opinion Quarterly 64 (3): 239–256.
Citrin, Jack. 1974. “Comment: The Political Relevance of Trust in Government.” American Political Science Review 68 (3): 973–988.
Citrin, Jack, Green, Donald, Muste, Christopher, and Wong, Cara. 1997. “Public Opinion toward Immigration Reform: The Role of Economic Motivations.” Journal of Politics 59 (3): 858–881.
Citrin, Jack, and Muste, Christopher. 1999. “Trust in Government.” In Measure of Political Attitudes, edited by Robinson, John, Shaver, Phillip, and Wrightsman, Lawrence. New York: Academic Press, 465–532.
Civettini, Andrew J. W., and Redlawsk, David P.. 2009. “Voters, Emotions, and Memory.” Political Psychology 30 (1): 125–151.
Cleary, Matthew, and Stokes, Susan. 2006. Democracy and the Culture of Skepticism: Political Trust in Argentina and Mexico. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Clinton, William Jefferson. 1995. “State of the Union Address (as Prepared),” January 24.
Clore, Gerald L., and Isbell, Linda. 2001. “Emotion as Virtue and Vice.” In Citizens and Politics: Perspectives from Political Psychology, edited by Kuklinski, James. New York: Cambridge University Press, 103–126.
Clore, Gerald L., Schwarz, Norbert, and Conway, Michael. 1994. “Affective Causes and Consequences of Social Information Processing.” In Handbook of Social Cognition, nd edition, edited by Wyer, Robert S. Jr., and Srull, Thomas. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 323–417.
CNN. 2011. “CNN/Opinion Research Corporation Poll – March 18–20 – Nuclear Power.” March 22.–20-nuclear-power/.
Cohen, Florette, Ogilvie, Daniel M., Solomon, Sheldon, Greenberg, Jeff, and Pyszczynski, Tom. 2005. “American Roulette: The Effect of Reminders of Death on Support for George W. Bush in the 2004 Presidential Election.” Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy 5 (1): 177–187.
Cohen, Micah. 2013. “Polls Show Growing Resolve to Live with Terror Threat.” FiveThirtyEight. 23.
Conover, P. J., and Feldman, S. (1986). “Emotional Reactions to the Economy: I'm Mad as Hell and I'm Not Going to Take It Anymore.” American Journal of Political Science, 50–78.
Converse, Philip. 1964. “Nature of Belief Systems in Mass Publics.” In Ideology and Discontent, edited by Apter, David. London: Free Press of Glencoe, 75–169.
Damasio, Antonio R. 1994. Descartes’ Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain. New York: Putnam.
Davis, Darren W. 2007. Negative Liberty: Public Opinion and the Terrorist Attacks on America. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Dawood, Fatima, Iuliano, Danielle, Reed, Carrie, Meltzer, Martin, Shay, David, Cheng, Po-Yung, and Bandaranayake, Don. 2012. “Estimated Global Mortality Associated with the First 12 Months of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A H1N1 Virus Circulation: A Modelling Study.” The Lancet 12 (9): 687–695.
Delli Carpini, Michael X., and Keeter, Scott. 1996. What Americans Know about Politics and Why It Matters. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Democratic National Committee. 2012. “Issues: Environment.”
Dentzer, Susan. 2005. “Story of Polio Fight Wins Pulitzer Prize | PBS NewsHour.” April 12.–24.html.
De Tocqueville, Alexis. 1945. Democracy in America. 2 vols. New York: Vintage.
Dillard, James Price, Plotnick, Courtney, Godbold, Linda, Freimuth, Vicki, and Edgar, Timothy. 1996. “The Multiple Affective Outcomes of AIDS PSAs: Fear Appeals Do More Than Scare People.” Communication Research 23 (1): 44–72.
Dillard, James Price, and Shen, Lijiang. 2005. “On the Nature of Reactance and Its Role in Persuasive Health Communication.” Communication Monographs 72: 144–168.
Downs, Anthony. 1957. An Economic Theory of Democracy. New York: Harper.
Druckman, James, and McDermott, Rose. 2008. “Emotion and the Framing of Risky Choice.” Political Behavior 30 (3): 297–321.
Dunlap, Riley E. 2008. “Climate-Change Views: Republican-Democratic Gaps Expand.” Gallup.
Dunn, J. R., and Schweitzer, M. E.. 2005. “Feeling and Believing: The Influence of Emotion on Trust.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 88 (5): 736.
Edelman, Murray J. 1985. The Symbolic Uses of Politics. Champaign: University of Illinois Press.
Egan, Patrick. 2013. Partisan Priorities: How Issue Ownership Drives and Distorts American Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Entman, Robert M. 2003. “Cascading Activation: Contesting the White House's Frame After 9/11.” Political Communication 20: 415–432.
Entman, Robert M. 2004. Projections of Power: Framing News, Public Opinion, and U.S. Foreign Policy. Studies in Communication, Media, and Public Opinion. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Erikson, Robert, and Stoker, Laura. 2011. “Caught in the Draft: The Effects of Vietnam Draft Lottery Status on Political Attitudes.” American Political Science Review 105 (2): 221–237.
Eysenck, Michael W. 1992. Anxiety: The Cognitive Perspective. Essays in Cognitive Psychology. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Feldman, Lauren, Maibach, Edward, Roser-Renouf, Connie, and Leiserowitz, Anthony. 2012. “Climate on Cable: The Nature and Impact of Global Warming Coverage on Fox News, CNN, and MSNBC.” International Journal of Press/Politics 17: 3–31.
Feldman, Stanley, and Huddy, Leonie. Unpublished manuscript. “The Paradoxical Effects of Anxiety on Political Knowledge.” New York: SUNY, Stony Brook.
Ferejohn, J. 1999. “Accountability and Authority: Toward a Theory of Political Accountability.” Democracy, Accountability, and Representation 131: 137.
Fernandez, Manny, and Shear, Michael D.. 2014. “Texas Governor Bolsters Border, and His Profile.” The New York Times, July 21.
Fessy, Thomas. 2014. “Ebola: Fear and Denial in West Africa.” Newshour. BBC World Service.
Fiorina, Morris P. 1981. Retrospective Voting in American National Elections. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Fischhoff, Baruch, Gonzalez, Roxana M., Small, Deborah A., and Lerner, Jennifer S.. 2003. “Judged Terror Risk and Proximity to the World Trade Center.” Journal of Risk and Uncertainty 26 (2/3): 137–151.
Fishkin, James S. 1995. The Voice of the People: Public Opinion and Democracy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Forgas, Joseph P. 1995. “Mood and Judgment: The Affect Infusion Model (AIM).” Psychological Bulletin 117 (1): 39–66.
Frenkel‐Brunswik, E. 1949. “Intolerance of Ambiguity as an Emotional and Perceptual Personality Variable.” Journal of Personality 18 (1): 108–143.
Frey, William, Liaw, Kao-Lee, Xie, Yu, and Carlson, Marcia. 1996. “Interstate Migration of the US Poverty Population: Immigration ‘pushes’ and Welfare Magnet ‘pulls.’Population & Environment 17 (6): 491–533.
Frijda, Nico. 1988. “The Laws of Emotion.” American Psychologist 43 (5): 349–358.
Frijda, Nico, Kuipers, Peter, and Schure, Elisabeth ter. 1989. “Relations among Emotion, Appraisal, and Emotional Action Readiness.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57 (2): 212–228.
Gadarian, Shana Kushner. 2008. “The Politics of Threat: Terrorism, Media, and Foreign Policy Opinion.” Ph.D., Princeton, NJ: Princeton University.
Gadarian, Shana Kushner. 2013. “Beyond the Water's Edge: Threat, Partisanship, and the Media.” In The Political Psychology of Terrorism Fears, edited by Sinclair, Samuel Justin and Antonius, Daniel. New York: Oxford University Press, 67–84.
Garrett, Laurie. 2009. “The Path of a Pandemic.” Newsweek, May 18.
Garsten, Bryan. 2006. Saving Persuasion: A Defense of Rhetoric and Judgment. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Geer, John. 2012. “The News Media and the Rise of Negativity in Presidential Campaigns.” In Can We Talk?, edited by Shea, Dan and Fiorina, Morris. New York: Pearson.
Getmansky, Anna, and Zeitzoff, Thomas. 2014. “Terrorism and Voting: The Effect of Rocket Threat on Voting in Israeli Elections.” American Political Science Review 108 (3): 588–604.
Gilens, Martin, and Murakawa, Naomi. 2002. “Elite Cues and Political Decision-Making.” In Research in Micropolitics, edited by Delli Carpini, Michael X., Huddy, Leonie, and Shapiro, Robert Y.. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 15–50.
Gilliam, F. D., Valentino, N. A., and Beckmann, M. N. (2002). “Where You Live and What You Watch: The Impact of Racial Proximity and Local Television News on Attitudes about Race and Crime.” Political Research Quarterly 55 (4): 755–780.
Ginsberg, Jeremy, Mohebbi, Matthew, Patel, Rajan, Brammer, Lynnette, Smolinski, Mark, and Brilliant, Larry. 2008. “Detecting Influenza Epidemics Using Search Engine Query Data.” Nature (457): 1012–1014.
Goble, Hannah, and Holm, Peter M.. 2009. “Breaking Bonds? The Iraq War and the Loss of Republican Dominance in National Security.” Political Research Quarterly 62 (2): 215–229.
Godlee, F., Smith, J., and Marcovitch, H.. 2011. “Wakefield's Article Linking MMR Vaccine and Autism Was Fraudulent.” BMJ 342 (January 5): c7452–c7452. doi:10.1136/bmj.c7452.
Goldsteen, Raymond L., Goldsteen, Karen, and Schorr, John K.. 1992. “Trust and Its Relationship to Psychological Distress: The Case of Three Mile Island.” Political Psychology 13 (4): 693–707.
Gore, Al. 2006. An Inconvenient Truth: The Planetary Emergency of Global Warming and What We Can Do about It. nd edition. New York: Rodale Books.
Gravatt, Steven, and Brown, Michael J.. 2011. “Health Anxiety and Internet Use.” Working Paper. New York: Brooklyn College–City University of New York.
Gray, Elizabeth, and Watson, David. 2007. “Assessing Positive and Negative Affect via Self-Report.” In Handbook of Emotion Elicitation and Assessment, edited by Coan, James and Allen, John. New York: Oxford University Press, 171–183.
Green, D. P., and Gerber, A. S. (2002). “The Downstream Benefits of Experimentation.” Political Analysis 10 (4): 394–402.
Green, Edward, and Witte, Kim. 2003. “Can Fear Arousal in Public Health Campaigns Contribute to the Decline of Health Prevalence?Journal of Health Communication 11 (3): 245–259.
Green, Emily. 1999. “Britain Details the Start of Its ‘Mad Cow’ Outbreak – New York Times.” New York Times, January 26.
Greenberg, Jeff, Martens, Andy, Jonas, Eva, Eisenstadt, Donna, Pyszczynski, Tom, and Sheldon, Solomon. 2003. “Psychological Defense in Anticipation of Anxiety: Eliminating the Potential for Anxiety Eliminates the Effect of Mortality Salience on Worldview Defense.” Psychological Science 14 (5): 516–519.
Greenberg, Jeff, Pyszczynski, Tom, Solomon, Sheldon, Rosenblatt, Abram, Veeder, Mitchell, Kirkland, Shari, and Lyon, Deborah. 1990. “Evidence for Terror Management Theory II: The Effects of Mortality Salience on Reactions to Those Who Threaten or Bolster the Cultural Worldview.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 58 (2): 308–318.
Groenendyk, Eric, Brader, Ted, and Valentino, Nicholas. 2011. “Appraising Political Emotions: Appraisals, Emotions, and Behavior in Response to Threatening News.” University of Memphis, unpublished paper.
Gross, James. 2009. Handbook of Emotion Regulation. New York: Guilford Press.
Gross, James, and Levenson, Robert. 1995. “Emotion Elicitation Using Films.” Cognition and Emotion 9 (1): 87–108.
Gross, James, and Thompson, Ross. 2009. “Emotion Regulation: Conceptual Foundations.” In Handbook of Emotion Regulation, edited by Gross, James. New York: Guilford Press, 3–26.
Ha, Shang E. 2010. “The Consequences of Multiracial Contexts on Public Attitudes toward Immigration.” Political Research Quarterly 63 (1): 29–42.
Haber, Gillian, Malow, Robert M., and Zimet, Gregory D.. 2007. “The HPV Vaccine Mandate Controversy.” Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology 20 (6) (December): 325–331. doi:10.1016/j.jpag.2007.03.101.
Habermas, Jurgen. 1989. The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society. Studies in Contemporary German Social Thought. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Halperin, Eran, Canetti-Nisim, Daphna, and Hirsch-Hoefler, Sivan. 2009. “The Central Role of Group-Based Hatred as an Emotional Antecedent of Political Intolerance: Evidence from Israel.” Political Psychology 30 (1): 93–123.
Halperin, Eran, Sharvit, Keren, and Gross, James. 2011. “Emotion and Emotion Regulation in Intergroup Conflict: An Appraisal Based Framework.” In Intergroup Conflicts and Their Resolution: Social Psychological Perspective, edited by Bar-Tal, Daniel. New York: Psychology Press, 83–104.
Hamilton, Alexander, Jay, John, and Madison, James. 1961. The Federalist Papers. Vol. 558. New York: New American Library.
Hansen, James E. 1988. The Greenhouse Effect: Impacts on Current Global Temperature and Regional Heat Waves. (Congressional testimony.) Washington, DC: Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee.
Hayes, Danny. 2011. “Media Frames and the Immigration Debate.” George Washington University, unpublished manuscript.
Hendrickx, L., Vlek, C., and Oppewal, H.. 1989. “Relative Importance of Scenario Information and Frequency Information in the Judgment of Risk.” Acta Psychologica 72 (1): 41–63.
Hetherington, Marc. 1998. “The Political Relevance of Political Trust.” American Political Science Review 92 (4): 791–808.
Hetherington, Marc. 2005. Why Trust Matters: Declining Political Trust and the Demise of American Liberalism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Hetherington, Marc, and Rudolph, Thomas. 2008. “Priming, Performance, and the Dynamics of Political Trust.” Journal of Politics 70 (2): 498–512.
Hicks, Raymond, and Tingley, Dustin. 2011. Mediation: STATA Package for Causal Mediation Analysis.
Hill, Seth, Lo, James, Vavreck, Lynn, and Zaller, John. 2007. “The Opt-in Internet Panel: Survey Mode, Sampling Methodology and the Implications for Political Research.” UCLA, unpublished manuscript.
Hobbes, Thomas. 2008. Leviathan: Or the Matter, Forme, and Power of a Commonwealth Ecclesiasticall and Civil. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Hopkins, Daniel. July 2014. “One Language, Two Meanings: Partisanship and Responses to Spanish.” Political Communication 31 (3): 421–445.
Huddy, Leonie, Feldman, Stanley, and Cassese, Erin. 2007. “On the Distinct Political Effects of Anxiety and Anger.” In The Affect Effect: Dyanmics of Emotion in Political Thinking and Behavior, edited by Neuman, W. Russell, Marcus, George E., Crigler, Ann N., and MacKuen, Michael. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 202–230.
Huddy, Leonie, Feldman, Stanley, Lahav, Gallya, and Taber, Charles S.. 2003. “Fear and Terrorism: Psychological Reactions to 9/11.” In Framing Terrorism: The News Media, the Government, and the Public, edited by Norris, Pippa, Kern, Montague, and Just, Marion R.. New York: Routledge.
Huddy, Leonie, Feldman, Stanley, Taber, Charles, and Lahav, Gallya. 2005a. “Threat, Anxiety, and Support of Antiterrorism Policies.” American Journal of Political Science 49 (3): 593–608.
Huddy, Leonie, Feldman, Stanley, Taber, Charles S., and Lahav, Gallya. 2005b. “The Politics of Threat: Cognitive and Affective Reactions to 9/11.” American Journal of Political Science 49 (3): 610–625.
Huddy, Leonie, and Gunnthorsdottir, Anna. 2000. “The Persuasive Effects of Emotive Visual Imagery: Superficial Manipulation or the Product of Passionate Reason?Political Psychology 21 (4): 745–778.
Huntington, Samuel P. 2004. “The Hispanic Challenge.” Foreign Policy (141): 30–45.
Imai, Kosuke, Keele, Luke, and Tingley, Dustin. 2010. “A General Approach to Causal Mediation Analysis.” Psychological Methods 15 (4): 309–334.
Imai, Kosuke, Keele, Luke, Tingley, Dustin, and Yamamoto, Teppei. 2011. “Unpacking the Black Box of Causality: Learning about Causal Mechanisms from Experimental and Observational Studies.” American Political Science Review 105 (4): 765–789.
Isbell, Linda, and Ottati, Victor. 2002. “The Emotional Voter: Effects of Episodic Affective Reactions on Candidate Evaluation.” In The Social Psychology of Politics. Social Psychological Application to Social Issues, edited by Ottati, Emil Posavac et al. New York: Kluwer Academic-Plenum Publishers, chap. 5:55–74.
Iyengar, Shanto. 1991. Is Anyone Responsible?: How Television Frames Political Issues. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Iyengar, Shanto, and Kinder, Donald. 1987. News That Matters: Television and American Opinion. American Politics and Political Economy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
James, William. 1884. “What Is an Emotion?Mind 34: 188–205.
Jarymowicz, Mary, and Bar-Tal, Daniel. 2006. “The Dominance of Fear over Hope in the Life of Individuals and Collectives.” European Journal of Social Psychology 36: 367–392.
Jones, Bryan D. 1994. Reconceiving Decision-Making in Democratic Politics: Attention, Choice, and Public Policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Jones, Jeffrey. 2001. “Americans Now Less Concerned about Being Terrorism Victim.” Gallup. November 7.
Jones, Jeffrey, and Saad, Lydia. 2013. “Gallup Poll Social Series: Environment.” 13-03-003.
Jost, John T., and Banaji, Mahzarin R.. 1994. “The Role of Stereotyping in System-justification and the Production of False Consciousness.” British Journal of Social Psychology 33: 1–27.
Jost, John T., Banaji, Mahzarin R., and Nosek, Brian. 2004. “A Decade of System Justification Theory: Accumulated Evidence of Conscious and Unconscious Bolstering of the Status Quo.” Political Psychology 25 (6): 881–919.
Jost, John T., Glaser, Jack, Kruglanski, Arie, and Sulloway, Frank. 2003. “Political Conservatism as Motivated Social Cognition.” Psychological Bulletin 129 (3): 339–375.
Jost, John T., Pietrzak, Janina, Liviatan, Ido, Mandisodza, Anesu, and Napier, Jaime. 2008. “System Justification as Conscious and Nonconscious Goal Pursuit.” In Handbook of Motivation Science, edited by Shah, James and Gardner, Wendi L.. New York: Guilford Press, 591–606.
Jost, John T., and van der Toorn, J.. 2011. “System Justification Theory.” In Handbook of Theories of Social Psychology: Volume Two, edited by Van Lange, Paul A. M., Kruglanski, Arie W., and Higgins, E. Tory. London: Sage, 313.
Kahan, Dan, Braman, Donald, Cohen, Geoffrey, Gastil, John, and Slovic, Paul. 2010. “Who Fears the HPV Vaccine, Who Doesn't and Why? An Experiment in the Study of Mechanisms of Cultural Cognition.” Law and Human Behavior 34 (6): 501–516.
Kahneman, Daniel, and Tversky, Amos. 1979. “Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision Under Risk.” Econometrica 47 (2): 263–292.
Karl, Thomas R., Melillo, Jerry M., Peterson, Thomas C., and Hassol, Susan J., eds. 2009. Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States. st ed. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Keith, Bruce, Magleby, David, Nelson, Candice, Orr, Elizabeth, Westlye, Mark, and Wolfinger, Raymond. 1992. The Myth of the Independent Voter. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Kern, Montague. 1989. 30-Second Politics: Political Advertising in the Eighties. New York: Praeger Publishers.
Key, V. O. 1966. The Responsible Electorate: Rationality in Presidential Voting, 1936–1960. New York: Vintage Books.
Kiely, K. 2006. “Immigration Issue Takes Flight: Campaign Topic Even in States Far from Border.” USA Today, July 20, 4A.
Kinder, Donald. 1994. “Reason and Emotion in American Political Life.” In Beliefs, Reasoning, and Decision Making: Psycho-Logic in Honor of Bob Abelson, edited by Schank, Robert and Langer, Ellen. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 277–314.
Kinder, Donald, Abelson, Robert, and Fiske, Susan T.. 1979. “Developmental Research on Candidate Instrumentation: Results and Recommendations.” Center for Political Studies, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan.
Klapper, Joseph. 1960. The Effects of Mass Communication. New York: Free Press.
Knoll, Benjamin, Redlawsk, David P., and Sanborn, Howard. 2011. “Framing Labels and Immigration Policy Attitudes in the Iowa Caucuses: ‘Trying to Out-Tancredo Tancredo.’Political Behavior 33 (3): 433–454.
Kubey, Robert, and Peluso, Thea. 1990. “Emotional Response as a Cause of Interpersonal News Diffusion: The Case of the Space Shuttle Tragedy.” Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media 34: 69–76.
Kuhnhenn, Jim. 2014. “Immigration Debate Upended by a Flood of Children.” ABC News. July 21.
Kuklinski, James H., Riggle, Ellen, Ottati, Victor, Schwarz, Norbert, and Wyer, Robert S. Jr. 1991. “The Cognitive and Affective Bases of Political Tolerance Judgments.” American Journal of Political Science 35 (1): 1–27.
Kunda, Ziva. 1987. “Motivated Inference: Self-serving Generation and Evaluation of Causal Theories.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 53 (4): 636–647.
Lake, David A., and Rothchild, Donald. 1996. “Containing Fear: The Origins and Management of Ethnic Conflict.” International Security 21 (2): 41. doi:10.2307/2539070.
Lambert, A. J., Scherer, L. D., Schott, J. P., Olson, K. R., Andrews, R. K., O'Brien, T. C., and Zisser, A. R.. 2010. “Rally Effects, Threat, and Attitude Change: An Integrative Approach to Understanding the Role of Emotion.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 98 (6): 886.
Landau, Mark J., Solomon, Sheldon, Greenberg, Jeff, Cohen, Florette, Pyszczynski, Tom, Arndt, Jamie, Miller, Claude H., Ogilvie, Daniel M., and Cook, Alison. 2004. “Deliver Us from Evil: The Effects of Mortality Salience and Reminders of 9/11 on Support for President George W. Bush.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 30 (9): 1136–1150.
Lane, Robert. 1962. Political Ideology: Why the American Common Man Believes What He Does. Oxford: Free Press of Glencoe.
Langer, Gary. 2009. “Swine Flu Poll: Vaccine Supply and Safety.” ABC News. November 18.
Lapinski, John, Peltola, P. I. A., Shaw, Greg, and Yang, Alan. 1997. “Trends: Immigrants and Immigration.” Public Opinion Quarterly 61 (2): 356–383.
Lasswell, Harold. 1927. “The Theory of Political Propaganda.” The American Political Science Review 21 (3): 627–631.
Lau, Richard. 1982. “Negativity in Political Perspective.” Political Behavior 4 (4): 353–378.
Lau, Richard, and Redlawsk, David P.. 2001. “An Experimental Study of Information Search, Memory, and Decision-Making in a Political Campaign.” In Citizens and Politics: Perspectives from Political Psychology, edited by Kuklinski, James H.. New York: Cambridge University Press, 136–159.
Lau, Richard, and Redlawsk, David P.. 2006. How Voters Decide: Information Processing During Election Campaigns. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Lazarus, Richard S. 1991. “Cognition and Motivation in Emotion.” American Psychologist 46 (4): 352–367.
Leavitt, J. W. 2003. “Public Resistance or Cooperation? A Tale of Smallpox in Two Cities.” Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science 1 (3): 185–192.
LeDoux, Joseph. 2000. “Emotion Circuits in the Brain.” Annual Review of Neuroscience 23: 155–184.
Lee, Yueh-Ting, and Ottati, Victor C.. 2002. “Attitudes toward U.S. Immigration Policy: The Roles of In-group-out-group Bias, Economic Concern, and Obedience to Law.” The Journal of Social Psychology 142 (5): 617–634.
Lerner, Jennifer S., and Keltner, Dacher. 2000. “Beyond Valence: Toward a Model of Emotion-specific Influences on Judgement and Choice.” Cognition and Emotion 14: 473–494.
Lerner, Jennifer S., and Keltner, Dacher. 2001. “Personality Processes and Individual Differences – Fear, Anger, and Risk.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 81 (1): 146.
Levendusky, Matthew. 2009. The Partisan Sort: How Liberals Became Democrats and Conservatives Became Republicans. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Levi, Margaret. 1988. “A State of Trust.” In Trust & Governance, edited by Braithwaite, Valerie and Levi, Margaret. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 77–101.
Levi, Margaret, and Stoker, Laura. 2000. “Political Trust and Trustworthiness.” Annual Review of Political Science 3 (1): 475–507.
Lichtenstein, S., Slovic, P., Fischoff, B., Layman, M., and Combs, B.. 1978. “Judged Frequency of Lethal Events.” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory 4: 551–578.
Lippmann, Walter. 1946. Public Opinion. New York: Transaction.
Locke, John. 1950. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. New York: Dover.
Lodge, Milton, and Taber, Charles S.. 2005. “The Automaticity of Affect for Political Leaders, Groups, and Issues: An Experimental Test of the Hot Cognition Hypothesis.” Political Psychology 26 (3): 455–482.
Loewenstein, George, Weber, Elke, Hsee, Christopher, and Welch, Ned. 2001. “Risk as Feelings.” Psychological Bulletin 127 (2): 267.
Lord, C. G., Ross, L., & Lepper, M. R. 1979. “Biased Assimilation and Attitude Polarization: The Effects of Prior Theories on Subsequently Considered Evidence.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 37(11): 2098–2109.
Los Angeles Times. 1996. “Dole's California Campaign Plays the Fear Card.” October 30.
Lupia, Arthur. 1994. “Shortcuts Versus Encyclopedias: Information and Voting Behavior in California Insurance Reform Elections.” The American Political Science Review 88 (1): 63–76.
Lupia, Arthur, McCubbins, Mathew D., and Popkin, Samuel L.. 2000. Elements of Reason: Cognition, Choice, and the Bounds of Rationality. Cambridge Studies in Political Psychology and Public Opinion. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Lupia, Arthur, and Menning, Jesse. 2009. “When Can Politicians Scare Citizens into Supporting Bad Policies?American Journal of Political Science 53 (1): 90–106.
Lyall, Sarah. 1996. “Tories Lose Local Elections, But Major Sees a Comeback – New York Times.” New York Times, May 4.
Machiaveli, Niccolo. 1997. The Prince. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
MacKuen, Michael, Wolak, Jennifer, Keele, Luke, and Marcus, George. 2010. “Civic Engagements: Resolute Partisanship or Reflective Deliberation.” American Journal of Political Science 54 (2): 440–458.
Malhotra, Neil, and Kuo, Alexander G.. 2008. “Attributing Blame: The Public's Response to Hurricane Katrina.” The Journal of Politics 70 (1): 120–135.
Malka, Ariel, Krosnick, Jon A., and Langer, Gary. 2009. “The Association of Knowledge with Concern about Global Warming: Trusted Information Sources Shape Public Thinking.” Risk Analysis 29 (5): 633–647.
Malnick, Edward. January 1, 2012. “Hundreds of Frontline Health Workers Vaccinated against Smallpox.” The Telegraph.
Mansbridge, J. 1997. “Social and Cultural Causes of Dissatisfaction with US Government.” In Why People Don't Trust Government, edited by Nye, J., Joseph, S., Zelikow, P., and King, D.. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 133–153.
Marcus, George. 2002. The Sentimental Citizen: Emotion in Democratic Politics. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Marcus, George, and MacKuen, Michael B.. 1993. “Anxiety, Enthusiasm, and the Vote: The Emotional Underpinnings of Learning and Involvement During Presidential Campaigns.” American Political Science Review 87 (3): 672–685.
Marcus, George, Neuman, W. Russell, and MacKuen, Michael. 2000. Affective Intelligence and Political Judgment. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Marcus, George, Sullivan, John L., Theiss-Morse, Elizabeth, Wood, Sandra L., and Gibson, James L.. 1996. “With Malice toward Some: How People Make Civil Liberties Judgments.” The American Political Science Review 90 (4): 916.
Maslow, Abraham H. 1963. “The Need to Know and the Fear of Knowing.” The Journal of General Psychology 68 (1): 111–125.
Mathews, Andrew. 1990. “Why Worry? The Cognitive Function of Anxiety.” Behaviour Research and Therapy 31: 57–62.
Mathews, Andrew, and MacLeod, Colin. 1986. “Discrimination of Threat Cues Without Awareness in Anxiety States.” Journal of Abnormal Psychology 95 (2): 131–138.
McAdams, E. S., Sokhey, Anand, and Weisberg, Herbert. 2008. “Group Labels, Group Affect and Immigration: What's in a Name?” Paper presented at annual meeting of Midwest Political Science Association. April 3–5, 2008. Chicago, Illinois.
McDermott, Rose. 2004. “The Feeling of Rationality: The Meaning of Neuroscientific Advances for Political Science.” Perspectives on Politics 2 (4): 691–706.
McDermott, Rose, Fowler, James H., and Smirnov, Oleg. 2008. “On the Evolutionary Origin of Prospect Theory Preferences.” The Journal of Politics 70 (2): 335–350.
McRae, Kateri, Misra, Supriya, Prassad, Aditya, Pereira, Sean, and Gross, James. 2011. “Bottom-up and Top-down Emotion Generation: Implications for Emotion Regulation.” Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 7 (3): 1–10.
Meijnders, Anneloes L., Midden, Cees J. H., and Wilke, Henk A. M.. 2001. “Communications about Environmental Risks and Risk-Reducing Behavior: The Impact of Fear on Information Processing.” Journal of Applied Social Psychology 31 (4): 754–777.
Meinhardt, Theodore, Pollard, William, Blendon, Robert, DesRoches, Catherine, and Cetron, Martin. 2006. “Attitudes toward the Use of Quarantine in a Public Health Emergency.” Health Affairs 25 (2): 15–25.
Merolla, Jennifer, Montalvo, J. Daniel, and Zechmeister, Elizabeth. 2012. “Terrorism and Democracy in Latin America and the Caribbean.” Claremont Graduate University, unpublished manuscript.
Merolla, Jennifer, Ramos, Jennifer, and Zechmeister, Elizabeth. 2007. “Crisis, Charisma, and Consequences: Evidence from the 2004 U.S. Presidential Election.” The Journal of Politics 69 (1): 30–42.
Merolla, Jennifer, and Zechmeister, Elizabeth. 2009. Democracy at Risk: How Terrorist Threats Affect the Public. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Miller, Arthur. 1974. “Political Issues and Trust in Government: 1964–1970.” American Political Science Review 68 (3): 951–972.
Miller, Joanne M. 2007. “Examining the Mediators of Agenda Setting: A New Experimental Paradigm Reveals the Role of Emotions.” Political Psychology 28 (6): 689–717.
Mintz, Alex. 2004. “How Do Leaders Make Decisions?: A Poliheuristic Perspective.” The Journal of Conflict Resolution 48 (1): 3–13.
Mintz, Alex, Geva, Nehemia, Redd, Steven B., and Carnes, Amy. 1997. “The Effect of Dynamic and Static Choice Sets on Political Decision Making: An Analysis Using the Decision Board Platform.” The American Political Science Review 91 (3): 553–566.
Mogg, Karin, and Bradley, Brendan P.. 2002. “Selective Orienting of Attention to Masked Threat Faces in Social Anxiety.” Behaviour Research and Therapy 40 (12): 1403.
Mogg, Karin, Mathews, Andrew, Bird, Carol, and Macgregor-Morris, Rosanne. 1990. “Effects of Stress and Anxiety on the Processing of Threat Stimuli.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 59 (6): 1230–1237.
Mondak, Jeffery J., and Hurwitz, Jon. 2012. “Examining the Terror Exception.” Public Opinion Quarterly 76 (2): 193–213.
Mueller, John E. 1973. War, Presidents, and Public Opinion. New York: Wiley.
Mueller, John E. 2006. Overblown: How Politicians and the Terrorism Industry Inflate National Security Threats, and Why We Believe Them. New York: Free Press.
Myers, C. Daniel, and Tingley, Dustin. 2011. “The Influence of Emotion on Trust.” Princeton University, unpublished paper.
Nabi, Robin. 1999. “A Cognitive-Functional Model for the Effects of Discrete Negative Emotions on Information Processing, Attitude Change, and Recall.” Communication Theory 9 (3): 292–320.
Nacos, Brigitte Lebens. 1990. The Press, Presidents, and Crises. New York: Columbia University Press.
Nacos, Brigitte Lebens, Bloch-Elkon, Yaeli, and Shapiro, Robert. 2011. Selling Fear: Counterterrorism, The Media, and Public Opinion. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. 2004. The 9/11 Commission Report: Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. New York: Norton.
Neblo, Michael. 2007. “Philosophical Psychology with Political Intent.” In The Affect Effect, edited by Neuman, W. Russell, Marcus, George, Crigler, Ann, and MacKuen, Michael. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 25–47.
Neiman, Max, Johnson, Martin, and Bowler, Shaun. 2006. “Partisanship and Views about Immigration in Southern California: Just How Partisan Is the Issue of Immigration?International Migration 44 (2): 35–56.
Nelson, Thomas, and Kinder, Donald. 1996. “Issue Frames and Group-Centrism in American Public Opinion.” The Journal of Politics 58 (4): 1055–1078.
Neuman, W. Russell, Marcus, George, Crigler, Ann N., and MacKuen, Michael. 2007. The Affect Effect: Dynamics of Emotion in Political Thinking and Behavior. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
New York Times. 2000. “British Wrongly Lulled People on ‘Mad Cow,’ Report Finds.” The New York Times, October 27, sec. World.
Newport, Frank. 2012. “Americans’ Worries about Global Warming Up Slightly.” Gallup. March 30.
Nisbet, Matthew C., and Myers, Teresa. 2007. “The Polls – Trends Twenty Years of Public Opinion about Global Warming.” Public Opinion Quarterly 71 (3) (September 21): 444–470.
NPR. 2010. “A Reagan Legacy: Amnesty for Illegal Immigrants: NPR.” July 4.
Ortony, Anthony, Clore, Gerald L., and Collins, Allan. 1990. The Cognitive Structure of Emotions. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Osgood, Charles Egerton, Suci, George, and Tannenbaum, Percy. 1957. The Measurement of Meaning. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Oshinsky, David M. 2006. Polio: An American Story. Second printing. New York: Oxford University Press.
Ottati, Victor. 1997. “When the Survey Question Directs Retrieval: Implications for Assessing the Cognitive and Affective Predictors of Global Evaluation.” European Journal of Social Psychology 27 (1): 1–21.
Ottati, Victor, and Wyer, Robert S. Jr. 1993. “Affect and Political Judgment.” In Explorations in Political Psychology, edited by Iyengar, Shanto and McGuire, William. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 296–315.
Page, Benjamin, and Shapiro, Robert. 1992. The Rational Public: Fifty Years of Trends in Americans’ Policy Preferences. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Pantoja, Adrian, and Segura, Gary. 2003. “Fear and Loathing in California: Contextual Threat and Political Sophistication among Latino Voters.” Political Behavior 25 (3): 265–286.
Petrocik, John R. 1996. “Issue Ownership in Presidential Elections, with a 1980 Case Study.” American Journal of Political Science 40 (3): 825–850.
Petrocik, John R., Benoit, William L., and Hansen, Glenn J.. 2003. “Issue Ownership and Presidential Campaigning, 1952–2000.” Political Science Quarterly 118 (4): 599–626.
Petty, Richard, Baker, Sarah, and Gleicher, Faith. 1991. “Attitudes and Drug Abuse Prevention: Implications of the Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion.” In Persuasive Communication and Drug Abuse Prevention, edited by Donohew, Lewis, Sypher, Howard, and Bukoski, William. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 71–90.
Petty, Richard E., and Cacioppo, John T.. 1986. Communication and Persuasion: Central and Peripheral Routes to Attitude Change. Springer Series in Social Psychology. New York: Springer.–1-4612–4964-1_1.
Pew Research Center for the People and the Press. 2006a. “America's Immigration Quandary.” March 30.
Pew Research Center for the People and the Press. 2006b. “Little Consensus on Global Warming.” Pew Research Center for the People and the Press. July 12.
Pew Research Center for the People and the Press. 2006c. “Baker-Hamilton Report Evokes Modest Public Interest: Growing Number Sees Iraq Becoming ‘Another Vietnam’: News Interest Index.” December.
Pew Research Center for the People and the Press. 2010a. “Broad Approval for New Arizona Immigration Law.” May 12.
Pew Research Center for the People and the Press. 2010b. “Little Change in Opinions about Global Warming.” Pew Research Center for the People and the Press. October 27.
Pew Research Center for the People and the Press. 2010c. “Despite Years of Terror Scares, Public's Concerns Remain Fairly Steady.” December 2.
Pew Research Center for the People and the Press. 2011. “Partisan Divide Over Alternative Energy Widens.” November 10.
Pollard, William E. 2003. “Public Perceptions of Information Sources Concerning Bioterrorism Before and After Anthrax Attacks: An Analysis of National Survey Data.” Journal of Health Communication 8 (1): 148–151.
Pratto, Felicia, and John, Oliver P.. 1991. “Automatic Vigilance: The Attention-grabbing Power of Negative Social Information.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 61 (3): 380–391.
Prior, Markus. 2007. Post-broadcast Democracy: How Media Choice Increases Inequality in Political Involvement and Polarizes Elections. Cambridge Studies in Public Opinion and Political Psychology. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Prior, Markus. 2009. “The Immensely Inflated News Audience: Assessing Bias in Self-Reported News Exposure.” Journal of Politics 73 (1): 130–143.
Putnam, Robert. 1994. Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Quick, Brian, and Stephenson, Michael. 2008. “Examining the Role of Trait Reactance and Sensation Seeking on Perceived Threat, State Reactance, and Reactance Restoration.” Human Communication Research 34: 448–476.
Rabinowitz, George, and Macdonald, Stuart Elaine. 1989. “A Directional Theory of Issue Voting.” The American Political Science Review 83 (1): 93–121.
Redlawsk, David P., Civinetti, Andrew J. W., and Lau, Richard R.. 2007. “Affective Intelligence and Voting: Information Processing and Learning in a Campaign.” In The Affect Effect: Dynamics of Emotion in Political Thinking and Behavior, edited by Neuman, W. Russell, Marcus, George E., Crigler, Ann N., and MacKuen, Michael. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 152–179.
Renshon, Jonathan, Lee, Jooa Julia, and Tingley, Dustin. 2014. “Physiological Arousal and Political Beliefs.” Political Psychology. Article first published online February 12, 2014. doi: 10.1111/pops.12173.
Renshon, Jonathan, and Lerner, Jennifer. 2012. “The Role of Emotion in Foreign Policy Decision Making.” In The Encyclopedia of Peace Psychology, edited by Christie, Daniel J.. West Sussex: Blackwell Publishing, 313–317.
Republican Party, The. 2012. “2012 Republican Platform.”
Ridout, Travis N., and Searles, Kathleen. 2011. “It's My Campaign I'll Cry If I Want To: How and When Campaigns Use Emotional Appeals.” Political Psychology 32 (3): 439–458.
Robin, Corey. 2006. Fear: The History of a Political Idea. New York: Oxford University Press.
Rogers, Ronald W. 1975. “A Protection Motivation Theory of Fear Appeals and Attitude Change.” The Journal of Psychology 91 (1): 93–114.
Rokeach, M. 1960. The Open and Closed Mind: Investigations into the Nature of Belief Systems and Personality Systems. New York: Basic Books.
Rose, William, Murphy, Rysia, and Abrahms, Max. 2007. “Does Terrorism Ever Work? The 2004 Madrid Train Bombings.” International Security 32 (1): 185–192.
Roseman, Ira. 1984. “Cognitive Determinants of Emotions: A Structural Theory.” In Review of Personality and Social Psychology, edited by Shaver, Phillip. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, chap. 5: 11–36.
Roseman, Ira, and Evdokas, A.. 2004. “Appraisals Cause Experienced Emotions: Experimental Evidence.” Cognition and Emotion 18: 1–18.
Roseman, Ira, Spindel, Martin, and Jose, Paul. 1990. “Appraisals of Emotion-eliciting Events: Testing a Theory of Discrete Emotions.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 59 (5): 899–915.
Rough, Ginger. 2010. “Immigrants Bring Drugs, Brewer Says.” The Arizona Republic, June 26.
Rubin, Alan M., Haridakis, Paul M., Hullman, Gwen A., Sun, Shaojing, Chikombero, Pamela M., and Pornsakulvanich, Vikanda. 2003. “From an Academic: Television Exposure Not Predictive of Terrorism Fear.” Newspaper Research Journal 24 (1): 128.
Rudolph, T. J., and Evans, J.. 2005. “Political Trust, Ideology, and Public Support for Government Spending.” American Journal of Political Science 49 (3): 660–671.
Saad, Lydia. 2012. “Economic Issues Still Dominate Americans’ National Worries.” Gallup.
Scherer, Klaus. 2003. “Introduction: Cognitive Components of Emotion.” In Handbook of Affective Sciences, edited by Davidson, R., Goldsmit, H, and Scherer, K.. New York: Oxford University Press, 563–572.
Schlenger, William E., Caddell, Juesta M., Ebert, Lori, Jordan, B. Kathleen, Rourke, Kathryn M., Wilson, David, Thalji, Lisa, Dennis, J. Michael, Fairbank, John A., and Kulka, Richard A.. 2002. “Psychological Reactions to Terrorist Attacks: Findings From the National Study of Americans’ Reactions to September 11.” JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 288 (5): 581.
Scholz, J. T., and Lubell, M.. 1998. “Trust and Taxpaying: Testing the Heuristic Approach to Collective Action.” American Journal of Political Science 42 (2): 398–417.
Schuster, Mark A., Stein, Bradley D., Jaycox, Lisa H., Collins, Rebecca L., Marshall, Grant N., Elliott, Marc N., Zhou, Annie J., Kanouse, David E., Morrison, Janina L., and Berry, Sandra H.. 2001. “A National Survey of Stress Reactions After the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks.” New England Journal of Medicine 345 (20): 1507–1512.
Schwarz, Norbert, and Clore, Gerald L.. 1983b. “Mood, Misattribution, and Judgments of Well-being: Informative and Directive Functions of Affective States.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 45 (3): 513–523.
Sears, David. 1986. “College Sophomores in the Laboratory: Influence of a Narrow Data Base on Social Psychology's View of Human Nature.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 51: 515–530.
Sears, David O. 1993. “Symbolic Politics: A Socio-Political Theory.” In Explorations in Political Psychology, edited by Iyengar, Shanto and McGuire, William J.. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 113–148.
Sears, David O., Lau, Richard, Tyler, Tom, and Allen, Harris. 1980. “Self-interest vs. Symbolic Politics in Policy Attitudes and Presidential Voting.” The American Political Science Review 74 (3): 670–684.
Sebelius, Kathleen. 2011. “Why We Still Need Smallpox.” The New York Times, April 25. The Opinion Pages:
Shani, Danielle. 2006. “Can Knowledge Correct for Partisan Bias in Political Perceptions?” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, April 20–23. Chicago, Illinois.
Simon, Adam F. 2002. The Winning Message: Candidate Behavior, Campaign Discourse, and Democracy. Communication, Society, and Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Simon, Herbert. 1967. “Motivational and Emotional Controls of Cognition.” Psychological Review 74 (1): 29.
Simon, Rita J., and Alexander, Susan H.. 1993. The Ambivalent Welcome: Print Media, Public Opinion, and Immigration. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Skitka, Linda, Bauman, Christopher, Armovich, Nicholas, and Morgan, G. Scott. 2006. “Confrontational and Preventative Policy Responses to Terrorism: Anger Wants a Fight and Fear Wants ‘Them’ to Go Away.” Basic and Applied Social Psychology 28 (4): 375–384.
Skitka, Linda, Bauman, Christopher W., and Mullen, Elizabeth. 2004. “Political Tolerance and Coming to Psychological Closure Following the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks: An Integrative Approach.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 30 (6): 743–756.
Slovic, Paul. 1993. “Perceived Risk, Trust, and Democracy.” Risk Analysis 13 (6): 675–682.
Slovic, Paul, Peters, E., Finucane, M. L., and MacGregor, D. G.. 2005. “Affect, Risk, and Decision Making.” Health Psychology 24 (4S): S35.
Smith, Craig A., and Ellsworth, Phoebe C.. 1985. “Patterns of Cognitive Appraisal in Emotion.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 48 (4): 813–838.
Smith, Kevin, Oxley, Douglas, Hibbing, Matthew, Alford, John, and Hibbing, John. 2012. “The Ick Factor: Disgust Sensitivity as a Predictor of Political Attitudes.” Paper presented at the 2009 Midwest Political Science Association.
Sniderman, P. M., Brody, R. A., and Tetlock, P.. 1993. Reasoning and Choice: Explorations in Political Psychology. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Spielberger, Charles Donald, Gorsuch, Richard L., and Lushene, Robert E.. 1984. STAI Manual for the State-trait Anxiety Inventory (Self-evaluation Questionnaire). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Starcevic, Vladan, and Berle, Davide. 2006. “Cognitive Specificity of Anxiety Disorders: A Review of Selected Key Constructs.” Depression and Anxiety 23: 51–61.
Steenbergen, Marco, and Ellis, Christopher. 2006. “Fear and Loathing in American Elections: Context, Traits, and Negative Candidate Affect.” In Feeling Politics: Emotion in Political Information Processing, edited by Redlawsk, David P.. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 109–134.
Steinhauser, Paul. 2009. “CNN Poll: Concerns over H1N1 Virus on the Rise.” September 2.
Stern, Jessica. 2006. “The Song Is Still the Same: Responses to ‘Is There Still a Terrorist Threat?’Foreign Affairs. 11.
Stern, Paul, and Fineberg, Harvey. 1996. “Understanding Risk: Informing Decisions in a Democratic Society.” National Research Council. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Taylor-Clark, Kalahn, Blendon, Robert, Zaslavsky, Alan, and Benson, John. 2005. “Confidence in Crisis? Understanding Trust in Government and Public Attitudes toward Mandatory State Powers.” Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science 3 (2): 138–148.
Tichenor, Daniel. 2002. Dividing Lines: The Politics of Immigration Control in America. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Tocqueville, A. D. (1945). Democracy in America. 2 vols. New York: Vintage.
Tolbert, Carolina, and Hero, Rodney. 1996. “Race/Ethnicity and Direct Democracy: An Analysis of California's Illegal Immigration Initiative.” Journal of Politics 58 (3): 806–818.
Tooby, John, and Cosmides, Leda. 2008. “The Evolutionary Psychology of the Emotions and Their Relationship to Internal Regulatory Variables.” In Handbook of Emotions, edited by Lewis, Michael, Haviland-Jones, Jeanette, and Barrett, Lisa Feldman, rd edition. New York: Guilford Press, 114–137.
Tversky, Amos, and Kahneman, Daniel. 1973. “Availability: A Heuristic for Judging Frequency and Probability.” Cognitive Psychology 5: 207–232.
Tyler, Tom R., and Degoey, P.. 1995. “Collective Restraint in Social Dilemmas: Procedural Justice and Social Identification Effects on Support for Authorities.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 69 (3): 482.
Tyler, Tom R., Rasinski, Kenneth A., and McGraw, Kathleen M.. 1985. “The Influence of Perceived Injustice on the Endorsement of Political Leaders1.” Journal of Applied Social Psychology 15 (8): 700–725.
Valentino, Nicholas A., Banks, Antoine, Hutchings, Vincent, and Davis, Anne K.. 2009. “Selective Exposure in the Internet Age: The Interaction between Anxiety and Information Utility.” Political Psychology 30 (4): 591–613.
Valentino, Nicholas A., Hutchings, Vincent L., Banks, Antoine J., and Davis, Anne K.. 2008. “Is a Worried Citizen a Good Citizen? Emotions, Political Information Seeking, and Learning via the Internet.” Political Psychology 29 (2): 247–273.
Vallone, Robert P., Ross, Lee, and Lepper, Mark R.. 1985. “The Hostile Media Phenomenon: Biased Perception and Perceptions of Media Bias in Coverage of the Beirut Massacre.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 49 (3): 577–585.
Verba, Sideny, Schlozman, Kay Lehman, Brady, Henry E., and Brady, H. E. (1995). Voice and Equality: Civic Voluntarism in American Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Wattenberg, M. P., and Brians, C. L. (1999). “Negative Campaign Advertising: Demobilizer or Mobilizer?American Political Science Review 93 (4): 891–899.
Weyland, Kurt. 1996. “Risk Taking in Latin American Economic Restructuring: Lessons from Prospect Theory.” International Studies Quarterly 40: 185–208.
White House. 2008. President Bush Discusses Protect America Act, February 13, 2008. Vol. 2008. February 20, 2008.
Willman, David. 2011. “Cost, Need Questioned in $433-Million Smallpox Drug Deal.” Los Angeles Times, November 13.
Witte, Kim. 1992. “Putting the Fear Back in Fear Appeals: The Extended Parallel Processing Model.” Communication Monographs 59: 329–349.
Witte, Kim, and Allen, Mike. 2000. “A Meta-Analysis of Fear Appeals: Implications for Effective Public Health Campaigns.” Health Education & Behavior 27 (5): 591–615.
Wood, Daniel B. 2005. “What ‘Minuteman’ Vigil Accomplished.” Christian Science Monitor, May 2.
Wood, Jacqueline, Mathews, Andrew, and Dalgleish, Tim. 2001. “Anxiety and Cognitive Inhibition.” Emotion 1 (2): 166–81.
World Health Organization. 2001. Smallpox: WHO Fact Sheet. Vol. 2012. April 25.
Wright, Rex A., and Brehm, Sharon. 1982. “Reactance as Impression Management: A Critical Review.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 42 (4): 608–618.
Yiend, Jenny, and Mathews, Andrew. 2001. “Anxiety and Attention to Threatening Pictures.” The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 54 (3): 665–681.
Youngdahl, Karie. 2012. “Polio and Swimming Pools: Historical Connections.” History of Vaccines Blog: A Project of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia.
Zajonc, Robert. 1980. “Feeling and Thinking: Preferences Need No Interference.” American Psychologist 35 (2): 151–175.
Zaller, John. 1992. The Nature and Origin of Public Opinion. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Zaller, John. 1999. “A Theory of Media Politics: How the Interests of Politicians, Journalists, and Citizens Shape the News.” Unpublished manuscript. University of California–Los Angeles.
Zaller, John. 2002. “The Statistical Power of Election Studies to Detect Media Exposure Effects in Political Campaigns.” Electoral Studies 21 (2): 297.
Zeitzoff, Thomas. 2014. “Anger, Exposure to Violence, and Intragroup Conflict: A ‘Lab in the Field’ Experiment in Southern Israel.” Political Psychology 35 (3) (June 1): 309–335. doi:10.1111/pops.12065.


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between #date#. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed