Skip to main content
Beyond the Rope
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Smångs, Mattias 2017. The lynching of African Americans in the U.S. South: A review of sociological and historical perspectives. Sociology Compass, Vol. 11, Issue. 8, p. e12500.


Book description

Beyond the Rope is an interdisciplinary study that draws on narrative theory and cultural studies methodologies to trace African Americans' changing attitudes and relationships to lynching over the twentieth century. Whereas African Americans are typically framed as victims of white lynch mob violence in both scholarly and public discourses, Karlos K. Hill reveals that in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries African Americans lynched other African Americans in response to alleged criminality, and that twentieth-century black writers envisaged African American lynch victims as exemplars of heroic manhood. By illuminating the submerged histories of black vigilantism and consolidating narratives of lynching in African American literature that framed black victims of white lynch mob violence as heroic, Hill argues that rather than being static and one dimensional, African American attitudes towards lynching and the lynched black evolved in response to changing social and political contexts.


‘In Beyond the Rope: The Impact of Lynching on Black Culture and Memory, Karlos K. Hill powerfully contributes to the movement among historians to reconstruct counter narratives of lynchings told from the perspective of [a] variety of African American actors pursuing very different goals. Perhaps better than has been done before, Hill has historicized African American counter narratives of lynching, situating them within their sociohistorical context and drawing out their specific political objects.'

Sundiata Keita Cha-Jua - University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

‘Taking to heart Stuart Hall's admonition that representation is a part of material reality and lived experience, this deeply thoughtful, richly documented, and theoretically sophisticated study breaks exciting new ground in the much-studied history of lynching. As importantly, it illuminates the ways in which agency and victimhood coexist in the African American past and in how black thinkers, performers, creative writers, activists, and family members have remembered and narrated the experience of terror.'

David Roediger - Foundation Professor of American Studies and History, University of Kansas

‘In Beyond the Rope, Karlos K. Hill mines diverse archival sources and deploys a multidisciplinary approach to reveal the complexity of African Americans' responses to lynching and mob violence. By simultaneously showing black people's victimization and strength, Hill illuminates artists' and activists' creation of a usable past of this violence, which was critical to black people's fight against it. This exciting and welcomed book is an important work … that will [appeal] to scholars interested in African American history and studies.'

Kidada E. Williams - Wayne State University, Michigan

'This slim volume investigates a view of lynching that is seldom found in the literature. … The book is annotated and has a wide-ranging bibliography … Summing Up: Recommended. Upper-division undergraduates and above.'

T. F. Armstrong Source: Choice

'… a short but rich volume … Hill has opened up some new avenues of exploration … Beyond the Rope demands that we tell the story of lynching from a far broader perspective, for we cannot approach any semblance of truth otherwise.'

Guy Lancaster Source: Arkansas Review: A Journal of Delta Studies

'Beyond the Rope itself serves as a much-need consoling narrative within the canon of lynching violence in the United States.'

Tameka Bradley Hobbs Source: H-Law

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
Aiken, Charles S. The Cotton Plantation South since the Civil War. Creating the North American Landscape. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998.
Akers, Monte. Flames after Midnight: Murder, Vengeance, and the Desolation of a Texas Community. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1999.
Alexander, Ann Field. Race Man: The Rise and Fall of the Fighting Editor, John Mitchell Jr. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2002.
Alexander, Jeffrey C., ed. Cultural Trauma and Collective Identity. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004.
Alexander, Shawn Leigh, ed. T. Thomas Fortune, the Afro-American Agitator: A Collection of Writings, 1880–1928. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2008.
Alexandre, Sandy. The Properties of Violence: Claims of Ownership in Representations of Lynching. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2012.
Allen, Frederick. A Decent, Orderly Lynching: The Montana Vigilantes. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2004.
Allen, James. Without Sanctuary: Lynching Photography in America. Santa Fe: Twin Palms, 2000.
Apel, Dora. Imagery of Lynching: Black Men, White Women, and the Mob. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2004.
Apel, Dora. “On Looking: Lynching Photographs and Legacies of Lynching after 9/11.” American Quarterly 55 (2003): 457–478.
Apel, Dora. “Torture Culture: Lynching Photographs and Images of Abu Ghraib.” Art Journal 64 (2005): 88–100.
Apel, Dora and Smith, Shawn Michelle. Lynching Photographs. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007.
Arellano, Lisa. Vigilantes and Lynch Mobs: Narratives of Community and Nation. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2012.
Ayers, Edward L. Vengeance and Justice: Crime and Punishment in the 19th Century American South. New York: Oxford University Press, 1984.
Baker, Bruce. “Lynch Law Reversed: The Rape of Lula Sherman, the Lynching of Manse Waldrop, and the Debate over Lynching in the 1880s.” American Nineteenth Century History 6 (2005): 273–293.
Baker, Bruce. This Mob Will Surely Take Your Life: Lynchings in the Carolinas, 1871–1947. London: Continuum, 2009.
Barnes, Kenneth C. Journey of Hope: The Back-to-Africa Movement in Arkansas in the Late 1800s. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.
Barr, Alwyn. “Black Urban Churches on the Southern Frontier, 1865–1900.” Journal of Negro History 82 (1997): 368–383.
Barton, John Cyril. “‘The Necessity of an Example’: Chestnutt's The Marrow of Tradition & Ohio Anti-Lynching Campaign.” Arizona Quarterly 67 (2011): 27–58.
Bay, Mia. To Tell the Truth Freely: The Life of Ida B. Wells. ed. New York: Hill and Wang, 2009.
Beck, E. M. and Clark, Timothy. “Strangers, Community Miscreants, or Locals: Who Were the Black Victims of Mob Violence?Historical Methods 35 (2002): 77–83.
Beck, E. M., Massey, James L., and Tolnay, Stewart E.. “The Gallows, the Mob, and the Vote: Lethal Sanctioning of Blacks in North Carolina and Georgia, 1882 to 1930.” Law & Society Review 23 (1989): 317–331.
Beck, E. M. and Tolnay, Stewart E.. “The Killing Fields of the Deep South: The Market for Cotton and the Lynching of Blacks, 1882–1930.” American Sociological Review 55 (1990): 526–539.
Beck, E. M. and Tolnay, Stewart E.. “A Season for Violence: The Lynching of Blacks and Labor Demand in the Agricultural Production Cycle in the American South.” International Review of Social History 37 (1992): 1–24.
Bederman, Gail. “‘Civilization,’ the Decline of Middle-Class Manliness, and Ida B. Wells's Anti-Lynching Campaign (1892–94).” Radical History Review 52 (1992): 5–30.
Benson, Christopher and Till-Mobley, Mamie. Death of Innocence: The Story of the Hate Crime That Changed America. New York: Random House, 2003.
Bercaw, Nancy. Gendered Freedoms: Race, Rights, and the Politics of Household in the Delta, 1861–1875. Southern Dissent. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2003.
Berg, Manfred. Popular Justice: A History of Lynching in America. Chicago: Ivan Dee, 2011.
Berger, Martin A. Seeing through Race: A Reinterpretation of Civil Rights Photography. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011.
Bernstein, Matthew H. Screening a Lynching: The Leo Frank Case on Film and Television. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2009.
Bernstein, Patricia. The First Waco Horror: The Lynching of Jesse Washington and the Rise of the NAACP. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2005.
Bessler, John D. Legacy of Violence: Lynch Mobs and Executions in Minnesota. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2003.
Bigelow, Albert Paine. Europe and Elsewhere. New York: Harper and Row, 1923.
Booth, Wayne C. The Company We Keep: An Ethics of Fiction. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988.
Booth, Wayne C. The Rhetoric of Fiction. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1965.
Brandfon, Robert L. Cotton Kingdom of the New South: A History of the Yazoo Mississippi Delta from Reconstruction to the Twentieth Century. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1967.
Brown, Mary Jane. Eradicating This Evil: Women in the American Anti-Lynching Movement, 1892–1940. New York: Garland Pub., 2000.
Brundage, W. Fitzhugh. “The Darien ‘Insurrection’ of 1899: Black Protest during the Nadir of Race Relations.” Georgia Historical Quarterly 74 (1990): 234–253.
Brundage, W. Fitzhugh. Lynching in the New South: Georgia and Virginia, 1880–1930. Blacks in the New World. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1993.
Brundage, W. Fitzhugh. “Mob Violence North and South, 1865–1940.” Georgia Historical Quarterly 75 (1991): 748–770.
Brundage, W. Fitzhugh. “‘To Howl Loudly’: John Mitchell Jr. and His Campaign against Lynching in Virginia.” Canadian Review of American Studies 22 (1991): 325–341.
Brundage, W. Fitzhugh. Under Sentence of Death: Lynching in the South. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1997.
Brundage, W. Fitzhugh. “The Varn Mill Riot of 1891: Lynchings, Attempted Lynchings, and Justice in Ware County, Georgia.” Georgia Historical Quarterly 78, no. 2 (1994): 257–280.
Brundage, W. Fitzhugh. Where These Memories Grow: History, Memory, and Southern Identity. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000.
Bruner, Jerome. “The Narrative Construction of Reality.” Critical Inquiry 18 (1991): 1–21.
Bryant, Jerry H. Born in a Mighty Bad Land: The Violent Man in African American Folklore and Fiction. Bloomington: University of Indiana Press, 2003.
Buchanan, Thomas C. Black Life on the Mississippi: Slaves, Free Blacks, and the Western Steamboat World. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.
Buckelew, Richard Allan. “Racial Violence in Arkansas: Lynchings and Mob Rule, 1860–1930.” PhD diss., University of Arkansas, 1999.
Buckner, Julie. Mary Turner and the Memory of Lynching. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2011.
Burns, Adam. “Without Due Process: Albert E. Pillsbury and the Hoar Anti-Lynching Bill.” American Nineteenth Century History 11 (2010): 223–252.
Butler, Robert. The Critical Response to Richard Wright. Critical Responses in Arts and Letters 16. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1995.
Callinicos, Alex. Making History: Agency, Structure, and Change in Social Theory. Boston: Brill, 2004.
Cantrell, Andrea. “WPA Sources for African-American Oral History in Arkansas: Ex-Slave Narratives and Early Settlers’ Personal Histories.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 63 (2004): 44–67.
Capeci, Dominic J. The Lynching of Cleo Wright. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1998.
Carrigan, William D. The Making of a Lynching Culture: Violence and Vigilantism in Central Texas, 1836–1916. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2006.
Caruth, Cathy, ed. Trauma: Explorations in Memory. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995.
Cerny, Clayton Allen. “Reconstructing Freedom: Romance and Race in American Culture, 1877–1915.” PhD diss., Northwestern University, 1996.
Chadbourn, James Harmon. Lynching and the Law. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1933.
Chafe, William, ed. Remembering Lynching: African Americans Tell about the Segregated South. Durham: Duke University Press, 2001.
Cha-Jua, Sundiata Keita. “‘A Warlike Demonstration’: Legalism, Violent Self-Help, and Electoral Politics in Decatur, Illinois, 1894–1898.” Journal of Urban History 26, no. 5 (2000): 591–629.
Chamberlain, Mary and Thompson, Paul Richard. Narrative and Genre. New York: Routledge, 1998.
Clarke, James W.Without Fear or Shame: Lynching, Capital Punishment and the Subculture of Violence in the American South.” British Journal of Political Science 28 (1998): 269–289.
Cobb, James C. The Most Southern Place on Earth: The Mississippi Delta and the Roots of Regional Identity. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
Cody, Cheryll Ann. “Kin and Community among the Good Hope People after Emancipation.” Ethnohistory 41 (1994): 25–72.
Cole, J. Timothy. The Forest City Lynching of 1900: Populism, Racism, and White Supremacy in Rutherford County, North Carolina. Jefferson: McFarland & Co., 2003.
Coleman, Finnie D. Sutton E. Griggs and the Struggle against White Supremacy. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2007.
Corzine, Jay, Creech, James, and Corzine, Lin. “Black Concentration and Lynchings in the South: Testing Blalock's Power-Threat Hypothesis.” Social Forces 61 (1983): 774–96.
Corzine, Jay, Creech, James, and Corzine, Lin. “The Tenant Labor Market and Lynching in the South: A Test of Split Labor Market Theory.” Sociological Inquiry 58 (1988): 261–278.
Crowder, Ralph L. John Edward Bruce: Politician, Journalist, and Self-Trained Historian of the African Diaspora. New York: New York University Press, 2004.
Crudele, Juanita W.A Lynching Bee: Butler County Style.” Alabama Historical Quarterly 42 (1980): 59–71.
Cutler, James Elbert. Lynch-Law. New York: Longmans, Green, 1905.
Daniel, Pete. The Shadow of Slavery: Peonage in the South, 1901–1969. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1990.
Davidson, James West. They Say: Ida B. Wells and the Reconstruction of Race. New Narratives in American History. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.
Davis, Jack E.‘Whitewash’ in Florida: The Lynching of Jesse James Payne and Its Aftermath.” Florida Historical Quarterly 68 (1990): 277–298.
Davis, Simone W.The ‘Weak Race’ and the Winchester: Political Voices in the Pamphlets of Ida B. Wells.” Legacy 12 (1995): 77–97.
De Jong, Greta. A Different Day: African American Struggles for Justice in Rural Louisiana, 1900–1970. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002.
Dickerson, Dennis C. African American Preachers and Politics: The Careys of Chicago. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2010.
Dixon, Thomas Jr. The Leopard's Spots, a Romance of the White Man's Burden, 1865–1900. New York: Doubleday, 1902.
Downey, Dennis B.A ‘Many Headed Monster’: The 1903 Lynching of David Wyatt.” Journal of Illinois History 2 (1999): 2–16.
Downey, Dennis B. and Hyser, Raymond M.. No Crooked Death: Coatesville, Pennsylvania, and the Lynching of Zachariah Walker. Blacks in the New World. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1991.
Dray, Philip. At the Hands of Persons Unknown: The Lynching of Black America. New York: Random House, 2002.
Duggan, Lisa. Sapphic Slashers: Sex, Violence, and American Modernity. Durham: Duke University Press, 2000.
DuRocher, Kristina. Raising Racists: The Socialization of White Children in the Jim Crow South. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 2011.
Dyer, Thomas G.‘A Most Unexampled Exhibition of Madness and Brutality’: Judge Lynch in Saline County, Missouri, 1859, Part 1.” Missouri Historical Review 89 (1995): 269–289.
Dyer, Thomas G.‘A Most Unexampled Exhibition of Madness and Brutality’: Judge Lynch in Saline County, Missouri, 1859, Part 2.” Missouri Historical Review 89 (1995): 367–383.
Edwards, Linda McMurry. To Keep the Waters Troubled: The Life of Ida B. Wells. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Elder, Arlene A. The “Hindered Hand”: Cultural Implications of Early African-American Fiction. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1978.
Ellis, Mary Louise. “A Lynching Averted: The Ordeal of John Miller.” Georgia Historical Quarterly 70 (1986): 306–316.
Fedo, Michael W. The Lynchings in Duluth. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 2000.
Feimster, Crystal. Southern Horrors: Women and the Politics of Rape and Lynching. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2009.
Ferris, William R. Blues from the Delta. Garden City: Anchor, 1978.
Finnegan, Terence. A Deed So Accursed: Lynchings in Mississippi and South Carolina, 1881–1940. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2013.
Fisher, Walter and Goodman, Robert F., eds. Rethinking Knowledge: Reflections across the Disciplines. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1995.
Fitzgerald, Michael W.To Give Our Votes to the Party: Black Political Agitation and Agricultural Change in Alabama, 1865–1870.” Journal of American History 76 (1989): 489–505.
Fitzgerald, Michael W. The Union League Movement in the Deep South: Politics and Agricultural Change during Reconstruction. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1989.
Foner, Eric. Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863–1877. New York: Perennial Classics, 2002.
Foner, Philip Sheldon and Branham, Robert J.. Lift Every Voice: African American Oratory, 1787–1900. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1998.
Francis, Megan Ming. “The Battle for the Hearts and Minds of America.” Souls 13 (2001): 46–71.
Frank, Arthur W. Letting Stories Breathe: A Socio-narratology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010.
Franklin, John Hope and Schweninger, Loren. Runaway Slaves: Rebels on the Plantation. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Fredrickson, George. The Black Image in the White Mind: The Debate on Afro-American Character and Destiny, 1817–1914. New York: Harper and Row, 1971.
Fredrickson, George. “For African Americans, Justice Was Often at the End of a Rope.” Journal of Blacks in Higher Education 28 (2000): 123–131.
Freedman, Estelle B. Redefining Rape: Sexual Violence in the Era of Suffrage and Segregation. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2013.
Frisch, Michael H. A Shared Authority: Essays on the Craft and Meaning of Oral and Public History. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1990.
Gallicchio, Marc. The African American Encounter with Japan and China: Black Internationalism in Asia, 1895–1945. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000.
Gatewood, Willard. “Arkansas Negroes in the 1890s: Documents.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 33, no. 4 (1974): 293–325.
Gatewood, Willard. “Negro Legislators in Arkansas, 1891: A Document.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 31 (1972): 220–233.
Gatewood, Willard and Whayne, Jeannie M.. The Arkansas Delta: Land of Paradox. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1993.
Geoffrey, Jacques. “Review of Without Sanctuary: Photographs and Postcards of Lynching in America .” The Radical Teacher 59 (2000): 5–9.
Giddings, Paula J. Ida: A Sword among Lions: Ida B. Wells and the Campaign against Lynching. New York: Harper, 2008.
Giddings, Paula J.Missing in Action: Ida B. Wells, the NAACP, and the Historical Record.” Meridians 1 (2001): 1–17.
Giggie, John Michael. After Redemption: Jim Crow and the Transformation of African American Religion in the Delta, 1875–1915. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.
Gilbert, Peter. The Selected Writings of John Edward Bruce: Militant Black Journalist. New York: Arno Press/New York Times, 1971.
Gillespie, Michele K. and Hall, Randall L., eds. Thomas Dixon Jr. and the Birth of Modern America. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University, 2006.
Gloster, Hugh M.Sutton E. Griggs: Novelist of the New Negro.” Phylon 4 (1943): 335–345.
Goings, Kenneth W. and Smith, Gerald L.. “‘Unhidden’ Transcripts: Memphis and African American Agency, 1862–1920.” Journal of Urban History 21 (1995): 372–394.
Goldsby, Jacqueline Denise. “The High and Low Tech of It: The Meaning of the Lynching and Death of Emmett Till.” Yale Journal of Criticism 9 (1996): 245–282.
Goldsby, Jacqueline Denise. A Spectacular Secret: Lynching in American Life and Literature. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006.
Gonzales-Day, Ken. Lynching in the West, 1850–1935. Durham: Duke University Press, 2006.
Gordon, Fon Louise. Caste & Class: The Black Experience in Arkansas, 1880–1920. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1995.
Graves, John William. Town and Country: Race Relations in an Urban-Rural Context, Arkansas, 1865–1905. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1990.
Graves, Tom. Crossroads: The Life and Afterlife of Blues Legend Robert Johnson. Spokane: Demers Books LLC, 2008.
Griggs, Sutton E. The Hindered Hand: Or the Reign of the Repressionist. Whitefish: Kessinger Publishing, 2007.
Grossman, James R. Land of Hope: Chicago, Black Southerners, and the Great Migration. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989.
Gunning, Sandra. Race, Rape, and Lynching: The Red Record of American Literature, 1890–1912. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Guralnick, Peter. Searching for Robert Johnson: The Life and Legend of the King of the Delta Blues Singers. New York: Plume, 1998.
Gussow, Adam. Seems Like Murder Here: Southern Violence and the Blues Tradition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002.
Hahn, Steven. A Nation under Our Feet: Black Political Struggles in the Rural South, from Slavery to the Great Migration. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2003.
Hair, William Ivy. Carnival of Fury: Robert Charles and the New Orleans Race Riot of 1900. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2008.
Hale, Grace Elizabeth. “Review of Without Sanctuary: Photographs and Postcards of Lynching in America .” Journal of American History 89 (2002): 989–994.
Hall, Jacquelyn Dowd. “‘The Mind That Burns in Each Body’: Women, Rape, and Racial Violence.” Southern Exposure 12 (1984): 61–71.
Hall, Jacquelyn Dowd. Revolt against Chivalry: Jesse Daniel Ames and the Women's Campaign against Lynching. New York: Columbia University Press, 1979.
Hall, Stuart. “Race, the Floating Signifier,”
Haram, Kerstyn. “Pametto Leader's Mission to End Lynching in South Carolina: Black Agency and the Black Press in Columbia, 1925–1940.” South Carolina Historical Magazine 107 (2006): 310–333.
Harris, J. William. Deep Souths: Delta, Piedmont, and Sea Island Society in the Age of Segregation. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001.
Harris, Trudier. Exorcising Blackness: Historical and Literary Lynching and Burning Rituals. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1984.
Harrison, Hubert H. and Perry, Jeffrey Babcock. A Hubert Harrison Reader. Middletown: Wesleyan University Press, 2001.
Hill, Karlos K.Black Vigilantism: The Rise and Decline of African American Lynch Mob Activity in the Mississippi and Arkansas Deltas, 1883–1923.” Journal of African American History 95 (2010): 26–43.
Hill, Karlos K. “Resisting Lynching: Black Grassroots Responses to Lynching in the Arkansas and Mississippi Deltas, 1882–1938.” PhD diss., University of Illinois, 2010.
Hill, Rebecca. Men, Mobs, and the Law: Anti-Lynching and Labor Defense in U.S. Radical History. Durham: Duke University Press, 2009.
Hollander, Jocelyn A. and Einwohner, Rachel L.. “Conceptualizing Resistance.” Sociological Forum 19 (2004): 533–554.
Holmes, William F.The Leflore County Massacre and the Demise of the Colored Farmers’ Alliance.” Phylon 34 (1973): 267–274.
Howard, Walter T.‘A Blot on Tampa's History’: The 1934 Lynching of Robert Johnson.” Tampa Bay History 6 (1984): 5–18.
Howard, Walter T. Lynchings: Extralegal Violence in Florida during the 1930s. Cranbury: Susquehanna University Press, 1995.
Howard, Walter T.Vigilante Justice and National Reaction: The 1937 Tallahassee Double Lynching.” Florida Historical Quarterly 67 (1988): 32–51.
Huber, Patrick J.‘Caught Up in the Violent Whirlwind of Lynching’: The 1885 Quadruple Lynching in Chatham County, North Carolina.” North Carolina Historical Review 75 (1998): 134–160.
Ingalls, Robert P.Lynching and Establishment Violence in Tampa, 1858–1935.” Journal of Southern History 53 (1987): 613–644.
Inverarity, James. “Populism and Lynching in Louisiana: 1889–1896: A Test of Erickson's Theory of the Relationship between Boundary Crises and Repressive Justice.” American Sociological Review 41 (1976): 262–279.
Irwin-Zarecka, Iwona. Frames of Remembrance: The Dynamics of Collective Memory. Piscataway: Transaction Publishers, 2007.
Jackson, Lawrence P. The Indignant Generation: A Narrative History of African American Writers and Critics, 1934–1960. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011.
Jackson, Robert. “A Southern Sublimation: Lynching Film and the Reconstruction of American Memory.” Southern Literary Journal 40 (2008): 102–120.
JanMohamed, Abdul R. The Death-Bound-Subject: Richard Wright's Archaeology of Death. Post-Contemporary Interventions. Durham: Duke University Press, 2005.
Jonas, Gilbert. Freedom's Sword: The NAACP and the Struggle against Racism in America, 1909–1969. New York: Routledge, 2005.
Jordan, Winthrop D. Tumult and Silence at Second Creek: An Inquiry into a Civil War Slave Conspiracy. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1993.
Kelley, Robin D. G. Race Rebels: Culture, Politics, and the Black Working Class. New York: Free Press, 1996.
Kermode, Frank. The Sense of an Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1967.
Kinnamon, Keneth. The Emergence of Richard Wright: A Study in Literature and Society. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1972.
Kousser, J. Morgan. “A Black Protest in the ‘Era of Accommodation.’Arkansas Historical Quarterly 34, no. 2 (1975): 149–178.
Kuhl, Michelle. “Modern Martyrs: African-American Responses to Lynching, 1880–1940.” PhD diss., Bighamton University, 2004.
Leidholdt, A. S. “‘Never Thot This Could Happen in the South!’: The Anti-Lynching Advocacy of Appalachian Newspaper Editor Bruce Crawford.” Appalachian Journal 38 (2011): 198–232.
Lemann, Nicholas. The Promised Land: The Great Black Migration and How It Changed America. New York: Knopf, 1991.
Leonard, Stephen J. Lynching in Colorado, 1859–1919. Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2002.
Lewis, Todd E.Mob Justice in the ‘American Congo’: ‘Judge Lynch’ in Arkansas during the Decade After World War 1.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 52 (1993): 156–184.
Lin, Nan. Social Capital: A Theory of Social Structure and Action. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
Litwack, Leon F. Trouble in Mind: Black Southerners in the Age of Jim Crow. New York: Knopf, 1998.
Lomax, Alan. The Land Where the Blues Began. New York: Pantheon, 1993.
Madison, James H. A Lynching in the Heartland: Race and Memory in America. New York: Palgrave, 2001.
Markovitz, Jonathan. Legacies of Lynching: Racial Violence and Memory. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2004.
Massey, James L. and Myers, Martha A.. “Patterns of Repressive Social Control in Post-Reconstruction Georgia, 1882–1935.” Social Forces 68 (1989): 458–488.
McCoyer, Michael. “‘Rough Mens’ in ‘the Toughest Places I Ever Seen’: The Construction and Ramifications of Black Masculine Identity in the Mississippi Delta's Levee Camps, 1900–1935.” International Labor and Working-Class History 69 (2006): 57–80.
McCurry, Linda O. To Keep the Waters Troubled: The Life of Ida B. Wells. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.
McGovern, James R. Anatomy of a Lynching: The Killing of Claude Neal. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1982.
McMillen, Neil R. Dark Journey: Black Mississippians in the Age of Jim Crow. Urbana: University of Illinois, 1990.
Mehlman, Jeffery. “The ‘Floating Signifier’: From Levi-Strauss to Lacan.” Yale French Studies 48 (1972): 10–37.
Mikkelson, Vincent P.Fighting for Sergeant Caldwell: The NAACP Campaign against ‘Legal’ Lynching after World War I.” Journal of African American History 94 (2009): 464–486.
Miller, Jason W. Langston Hughes and American Lynching Culture. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2011.
Mitchell, J. The Strangest Fruit: Forgotten Black-on-Black Lynchings in America, 1835–1935. San Bernardino: CreateSpace Independent Publishing, 2010.
Mitchell, Koritha Ann. “‘A Different Kind of Strange Fruit’: Lynching Drama, African American Identity, and US Culture, 1890–1935.” PhD diss., University of Maryland, 2006.
Mitchell, Koritha Ann. Living with Lynching: African American Plays, Performance, and Citizenship, 1890–1930. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2011.
Moneyhon, Carl H.Black Politics in Arkansas during the Gilded Age, 1876–1900.” Arkansas Historical Quarterly 44 (1985): 222–245.
Moses, Wilson J.Literary Garveyism: The Novels of Reverend Sutton E. Griggs.” Pylon 40 (1979): 203–216.
Moye, J. Todd. Let the People Decide: Black Freedom and White Resistance Movements in Sunflower County, Mississippi, 1945–1986. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.
Muhammad, Khalil G. The Condemnation of Blackness: Race, Crime, and the Making of Modern Urban America. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2010.
Mullane, Deirdre. Crossing the Danger Water: Three Hundred Years of African-American Writing. New York: Anchor Books, 1993.
Olzak, Susan. “The Political Context of Competition: Lynching and Urban Racial Violence, 1882–1914.” Social Forces 69 (1990): 395–421.
Orr, Marion. Black Social Capital: The Politics of School Reform in Baltimore, 1986–1998. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1999.
Otto, John Solomon. The Final Frontiers, 1880–1930: Settling the Southern Bottomlands. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1999.
Pearson, Barry Lee and McCulloch, Bill, eds. Robert Johnson: Lost and Found. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2003.
Perloff, Richard M.The Press and Lynchings of African Americans.” Journal of Black Studies 30 (2000): 315–330.
Perman, Michael. Struggle for Mastery: Disfranchisement in the South, 1888–1908. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001.
Pfeifer, Michael J.Iowa's Last Lynching: The Charles City Mob of 1907 and Iowa Progressivism.” Annals of Iowa 53 (1994): 305–328.
Pfeifer, Michael J.The Northern United States and the Genesis of Racial Lynching: The Lynching of African Americans in the Civil War Era.” Journal of American History 97 (2010): 621–635.
Pfeifer, Michael J. The Roots of Rough Justice: Origins of American Lynching. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2011.
Pfeifer, Michael J. Rough Justice: Lynching and American Society, 1874–1947. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2006.
Phelan, James. Experiencing Fiction: Judgments, Progressions, and the Rhetorical Theory of Narrative. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 2007.
Phelan, James. Narrative as Rhetoric: Techniques, Audiences, Ethics, and Ideology. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1996.
Phillips, David. “Review of Without Sanctuary: Photographs and Postcards of Lynching in America .” Journal of American History 88 (2001): 319–320.
Pollack, Harriet and Mettress, Christopher, eds. Emmett Till in Literary Memory and Imagination. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2008.
Potter, Vilma R. A Reference Guide to Afro-American Publications and Editors, 1827–1946. Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1993.
Rable, George C.The South and the Politics of Anti-lynching Legislation, 1920–1940.” Journal of Southern History 51 (1985): 201–220.
Raboteau, Albert J. Slave Religion: The Invisible Institution in Antebellum America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Raiford, Leigh. Imprisoned in a Luminous Glare: Photography and the African American Freedom Struggle. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2011.
Rampersad, Arnold and Roessel, David, eds. The Collected Poems of Langston Hughes. New York: Random House, 1994.
Raper, Arthur Franklin and Southern Commission on the Study of Lynching. The Tragedy of Lynching. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1933.
Rice, Anne P., ed. Witnessing Lynching: American Writers Respond. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2003.
Rise, Eric W.Race, Rape, and Radicalism: The Case of the Martinsville Seven, 1949–1951.” Journal of Southern History 58 (1992): 461–490.
Roberts, John. From Trickster to Badman: The Black Folk Hero in Slavery and Freedom. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1989.
Roediger, David R. Wages of Whiteness: Race and the Making of the American Working Class. New York: Verso, 2007.
Royce, Edward. The Origins of Southern Sharecropping. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1993.
Rushdy, Ashraf H. A. American Lynching. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012.
Rushdy, Ashraf H. A. The End of American Lynching. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2012.
Russell, Margaret M.Reopening the Emmett Till Case: Lessons and Challenges for Critical Race Prejudice.” Fordham Law Review 73 (2005): 2101–2132.
Sackheim, Eric and Shahn, Jonathan, eds. The Blues Line: Blues Lyrics from Leadbelly to Muddy Waters. New York: Thunder's Mouth Press, 2004.
Saikku, Mikko. This Delta, This Land: An Environmental History of the Yazoo-Mississippi Floodplain. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2005.
Schechter, Patricia Ann. Ida B. Wells and American Reform, 1880–1930. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001.
Schroeder, Patricia R. Robert Johnson, Mythmaking, and Contemporary American Culture. Music in American Life. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2004.
Schultz, Mark. The Rural Face of White Supremacy: Beyond Jim Crow. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2007.
Schwabauer, Barbara A.The Emmett Till Unsolved Civil Rights Act: The Cold Case of Racism in the Criminal Justice System.” Ohio State Law Journal 71 (2010): 653–698.
Scott, James C. Domination and the Arts of Resistance: Hidden Transcripts. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990.
Scott, James C. Weapons of the Weak: Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985.
Seay, Geraldine Hord. “The Literature of Jim Crow: Call and Response.” PhD diss., University of Florida, 1996.
Seraille, William. Bruce Grit: Black Nationalist Writings of John Edward Bruce. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2003.
Shapiro, Herbert. White Violence and Black Response: From Reconstruction to Montgomery. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988.
Simien, Evelyn M., ed. Gender and Lynching: The Politics of Memory. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.
Smead, Howard. Blood Justice: The Lynching of Mack Charles Parker. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.
Smith, Albert C.Southern Violence Reconsidered: Arson as Protest in Black-Belt Georgia, 1865–1910.” Journal of Southern History 51 (1985): 527–564.
Snyder, Robert E.Daytona Beach: A Closed Society.” Florida Historical Quarterly 81, no. 2 (2002): 155–185.
Snyder, Robert E.Without Sanctuary: An American Holocaust?Southern Quarterly 39 (2001): 162–171.
Sommerville, Diane Miller. Rape & Race in the Nineteenth-Century South. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.
SoRelle, James M.‘The Waco Horror’: The Lynching of Jesse Washington.” Southwestern Historical Quarterly 86 (1983): 517–536.
Soule, Sarah A.Populism and Black Lynching in Georgia, 1890–1900.” Social Forces 71 (1992): 431–449.
Stovel, Katherine. “Local Sequential Patterns: The Structure of Lynching in the Deep South, 1882–1930.” Social Forces 79 (2001): 843–880.
Sublette, Cammie Michelle. “The Spectacle and Ideology: Twentieth-Century Representations of Lynching.” PhD diss., Southern Illinois University–Carbondale, 2003.
Thames Leonard, Latonya. “Veneer of Civilization: Southern Lynching, Memory, and African-American Identity, 1882–1940.” PhD diss., University of Mississippi, 2006.
Thompson, Julius E. Black Life in Mississippi: Essays on Political, Social, and Cultural Studies in a Deep South State. Lanham: University Press of America, 2001.
Thompson, Julius E. The Black Press in Mississippi, 1865–1985. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1993.
Thompson, Julius E. Lynchings in Mississippi: A History, 1865–1965. Jefferson.: McFarland & Company, 2007.
Thornborough, Emma Lou. T. Thomas Fortune: Militant Journalist. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1972.
Tolnay, Stewart E. and Beck, E. M.. A Festival of Violence: An Analysis of Southern Lynchings, 1882–1930. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1995.
Tolnay, Stewart E. and Beck, E. M.. “Racial Violence and Black Migration in the American South, 1910 to 1930.” American Sociological Review 57 (1992): 103–116.
Tolnay, Stewart E., Beck, E. M., and Massey, James L.. “Black Lynchings: The Power Threat Hypothesis Revisited.” Social Forces 67 (1989): 605–623.
Tolnay, Stewart E., Deane, Glenn, and Beck, E. M.. “Vicarious Violence: Spatial Effects on Southern Lynchings, 1890–1919.” American Journal of Sociology 102 (1996): 788–815.
Trotter, Joe William. The African American Experience. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2001.
Umoja, Akinyele Kambon. “Eye for an Eye: The Role of Armed Resistance in the Mississippi Freedom Movement.” PhD diss., Emory University, 1997.
Umoja, Akinyele Kambon. “‘We Will Shoot Back’: The Natchez Model and Paramilitary Organization in the Mississippi Freedom Movement.” Journal of Black Studies 32 (2002): 271–294.
Vandiver, Margaret. Legal Punishment: Lynchings and Legal Executions in the South. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2006.
Vinikas, Vincent. “Specters in the Past: The Saint Charles, Arkansas, Lynching of 1904 and the Limits of Historical Inquiry.” Journal of Southern History 65 (1999): 535–564.
Wald, Elijah. Escaping the Delta: Robert Johnson and the Invention of the Blues. New York: Amistad, 2004.
Waldrep, Christopher. African Americans Confront Lynching: Strategies of Resistance from the Civil War to the Civil Rights Era. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2009.
Waldrep, Christopher. Lynching in America: A History in Documents. New York: New York University Press, 2006.
Waldrep, Christopher. The Many Faces of Judge Lynch: Extralegal Violence and Punishment in America. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002.
Waldrep, Christopher. Roots of Disorder: Race and Criminal Justice in the American South, 1817–80. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1998.
Waldrep, Christopher. “War of Words: The Controversy over the Definition of Lynching, 1899–1940.” Journal of Southern History 66 (2000): 75–100.
Waldrep, Christopher. “Women, the Civil War, and Legal Culture in Vicksburg, Mississippi.” Journal of Mississippi History 61 (1999): 137–147.
Waldrep, Christopher and Carrigan, William, eds. Swift to Wrath: Lynching in Global Historical Perspective. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2013.
Watson, Martha. “Mary Church Terrell vs. Thomas Nelson Page: Gender, Race, and Class in Anti-Lynching Rhetoric.” Rhetoric and Public Affairs 12 (2009): 65–90.
Wells-Barnett, Ida B. and Collins, Patricia Hill. On Lynchings. Amherst: Humanity Books, 2002.
Wells-Barnett, Ida B. and Decosta-Willis, Miriam. The Memphis Diary of Ida B. Wells: An Intimate Portrait of the Activist as a Young Woman. Boston: Beacon Press, 1995.
Wells-Barnett, Ida B. and Duster, Alfreda. Crusade for Justice: The Autobiography of Ida B. Wells. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970.
Wells-Barnett, Ida B. and Royster, Jacqueline Jones. Southern Horrors and Other Writings: The Anti-Lynching Campaign of Ida B. Wells, 1892–1900. Boston: Bedford Books, 1997.
Wharton, Vernon Lane. The Negro in Mississippi, 1865–1890. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1965.
White, Hayden. The Content of the Form: Narrative Discourse and Historical Representation. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, 1990.
White, Hayden. Figural Realism: Studies in the Mimesis Effect. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.
Wiegman, Robyn. “The Anatomy of Lynching.” Journal of the History of Sexuality 3 (1993): 445–467.
Williams, Kidada E. They Left Great Marks on Me: African American Testimonies of Racial Violence from Emancipation to World War I. New York: New York University Press, 2012.
Williams, Yohuru. “Permission to Hate: Delaware, Lynching, and the Culture of Violence in America.” Journal of Black Studies 32 (2001): 3–29.
Williams, Yohuru. “A Tragedy with a Happy Ending? The Lynching of George White in History and Memory.” Pennsylvania History 72 (2005): 292–304.
Williamson, Joel. The Crucible of Race: Black-White Relations in the American South since Emancipation. New York: Oxford University Press, 1984.
Williamson, Joel. “Wounds Not Scars: Lynching, the National Conscience, and the American Historian.” Journal of American History 83 (1997): 1221–1253.
Willis, John. Forgotten Time: The Yazoo-Mississippi Delta after the Civil War. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2000.
Wolf, Charlotte. “Constructions of a Lynching.” Sociological Inquiry 62 (1992): 83–97.
Wolters, Wendy. “Without Sanctuary: Bearing Witness, Bearing Witness.” JAC 24 (2004): 399–425.
Wood, Amy Louise. Lynching and Spectacle: Witnessing Racial Violence in America, 1890–1940. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009.
Woodruff, Nan Elizabeth. American Congo: The African American Freedom Struggle in the Delta. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2003.
Woods, Clyde Adrian. Development Arrested: The Blues and Plantation Power in the Mississippi Delta. New York: Verso, 1998.
Woolfolk, Margaret Elizabeth. A History of Crittenden County, Arkansas. Greenville, South Carolina: Southern Historical Press, 1991.
Wright, George C. Racial Violence in Kentucky, 1865–1940: Lynchings, Mob Rule, and “Legal Lynchings.” Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1990.
Wright, John D. Jr.Lexington's Suppression of the 1920 Will Lockett Lynch Mob.” Register of the Kentucky Historical Society 84 (1986): 263–279.
Wright, Richard. Richard Wright: Later Works: Black Boy (American Hunger), The Outsider. New York: Library of America, 1991.
Wright, Richard. Uncle Tom's Children. New York: Harper Collins, 2008.
Wright Austin, Sharon D. The Transformation of Plantation Politics: Black Politics, Concentrated Poverty, and Social Capital in the Mississippi Delta. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2006.
Zangrando, Robert L. The NAACP Crusade against Lynching, 1909–1950. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1980.
Ziglar, William. “‘Community on Trial’: The Coatesville Lynching of 1911.” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 106 (1982): 245–270.
Ziglar, William. “The Decline of Lynching in America.” International Social Science Review 63 (1988): 14–25.


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between #date#. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed