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Binomials in the History of English
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Binomials, such as for and against, dead or alive, to have and to hold, can be broadly defined as two words belonging to the same grammatical category and linked by a semantic relationship. They are an important phraseological phenomenon present throughout the history of the English language. This volume offers a range of studies on binomials, their types and functions from Old English through to the present day. Searching for motivations and characteristic features of binomials in a particular genre or writer, the chapters engage with many linguistic levels of analysis, such as phonology or semantics, and explore the important role of translation. Drawing on philological and corpus-linguistic approaches, the authors employ qualitative and quantitative methods, setting the discussion firmly in the extra-linguistic context. Binomials and their extended forms - multinomials - emerge from these discussions as an important phraseological tool, with rich applications and complex motivations.


‘Binomials in the History of English contains chapters providing detailed, interesting, and highly informative historical descriptions of binomials in English: fixed structures such as to and fro or knife and fork that are joined by a coordinator. Individual chapters contain descriptions of the form and function of these structures in texts taken from all the major periods of English, ranging from the roles that they played in Old English poetry and law to their stylistic uses in modern English novels.'

Charles Meyer - University of Massachusetts, Boston

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These are collated references for the whole volume. They have been divided into four sections: (1) primary sources, which include editions, facsimiles, translations, collections of documents, etc. used by the authors as primary materials; (2) secondary sources: (2a) dictionaries, concordances, corpora and software, (2b) studies concentrating primarily on binomials, and (2c) all the remaining background literature consulted for the purposes of the book.


(1) Primary Sources

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Anon. Ovide moralisé en prose II. MS Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Fonds Fr. 137.
ASPR = Krapp, George Philip and Van Kirk Dobbie, Elliott, eds. 1931–1953. The Anglo-Saxon poetic records. 6 vols. New York: Columbia University Press; London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
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Caxton, William. [1480] 1924. Ovyde hys Booke of Metamorphose: Booke x−xv. Trans. Caxton, William, ed. Gaselee, Stephen and Brett-Smith, Herbert F.B.. Oxford: Shakespeare Head.
Caxton, William. [1480] 1968. The Metamorphoses of Ovid translated by William Caxton 1480. Ed. Braziller, George in association with Magdalene College. 2 vols. New York and Cambridge: Jarrold. [Facsimile-Edition of Caxton’s Ovid.]
Caxton, William. [~1460–~1490] 1973. Selections with an introduction, notes and glossary. Ed. Blake, Norman F.. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Caxton, William. 2008. Caxton’s Ovid, books II and III. A Critical Edition of the Second and Third Book of Caxton’s Middle English Translation, Ovyde Metamorphose Hys Booke (1480), together with its Middle French Source Text, the Ovyde Moralisé en Prose II. Ed. Wolfgang Mager. Unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Munich.
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Forshall, Josiah, and Madden, Frederic. 1850a. The Holy Bible, containing the Old and New Testaments, with the apocryphal books, in the earliest English versions, made from the Latin Vulgate by John Wycliffe and his followers. Volume I. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Forshall, Josiah, and Madden, Frederic. 1850b. The Holy Bible, containing the Old and New Testaments, with the apocryphal books, in the earliest English versions, made from the Latin Vulgate by John Wycliffe and his followers. Volume IV. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Friedman, Albert B., and Harrington, Norman T.. 1964. Ywain and Gawain. Early English Text Society Original Series 254. London: Oxford University Press.
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Hecht, Hans. 1900–1907. Bischof Wærferth von Worcester Übersetzung der Dialoge Gregors des Grossen über das Leben und die Wundertaten italienischer Väter und über die Unsterblichkeit der Seelen. 2 vols. Bibliothek der angelsächsischen Prosa 5. Leipzig: Wiegand [repr. in one volume: Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1965].
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Holt, James Clark, ed. 1974. A vernacular–French text of Magna Carta, 1215. The English Historical Review 89/351: 346364.
Horstman, C., ed. 1895. Yorkshire writers. Richard Rolle of Hampole: An English father of the Church and his followers. London: Swan Sonnenschein & Co.
Huemer, J. 1885. Sedulii opera omnia. Corpus scriptorum ecclesiasticorum latinorum 10. Vienna: Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften.
Kalendayr of the Shyppars. 1503. Paris: Ant(h)oine Vérard [reprinted in Sommer 1892, vol. II].
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Klaeber4 = Klaeber’s Beowulf and the Fight at Finnsburg, 4th edn, ed. Fulk, R. D., Bjork, R. E. and Niles, J. D.. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2008.
Kuhn, Sherman M., ed. 1965. The Vespasian Psalter. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Le Compost et kalendrier des bergiers. 1497. Paris: Guy Marchant for Jean Petit. Digital microfilm and XML edition, [accessed on 9 February 2015].
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Lindberg, Conrad, ed. 1973. The earlier version of the Wycliffite Bible. Vol. 6: Baruch 3.20–end of OT, edited from MS Christ Church 145. Stockholm Studies in English 29. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.
Lindberg, Conrad, ed. 1994. The earlier version of the Wycliffite Bible. Vol. 7: The Gospels edited from MS Christ Church 145. Stockholm Studies in English 81. Stockholm: Norstedt.
Lindberg, Conrad, ed. 1997. The earlier version of the Wycliffite Bible. Vol. 8: The Epistles etc., edited from MS Christ Church 145. Stockholm Studies in English 87. Stockholm: Norstedt.
Lindberg, Conrad, ed. 1999. King Henry’s Bible. MS Bodley 277: The revised version of the Wyclif Bible. Vol. I: Genesis–Ruth. Stockholm Studies in English 89. Stockholm: Ekblad & Co.
Lindberg, Conrad, ed. 2004. King Henry’s Bible. MS Bodley 277. The revised version of the Wyclif Bible. Vol. 4: The New Testament. Stockholm Studies in English 100. Stockholm: Ekblad & Co.
Liuzza, Roy M. 1994–2000. The Old English version of the Gospels. 2 vols. Early English Text Society Original Series 304 and 314. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Meritt, Herbert Dean. 1945. Old English glosses: A collection. New York: Modern Language Association of America.
Migne, Jacques-Paul, ed. 1845. Patrologia Latina 22: Hieronymus. Paris: Ateliers catholiques.
Miller, Thomas, ed. 1890–1898. The Old English version of Bede’s Ecclesiastical History of the English People. Early English Text Society Original Series 95, 96, 110, 111. London: Trübner.
Moll, Richard J. 2013. William Caxton: The Booke of Ovyde named Metamorphose. Toronto and Oxford: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies and Bodleian Library.
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Nolting-Hauff, Ilse, ed. and trans. 1983. Yvain. 2nd edn. Klassische Texte des Romanischen Mittelalters in zweisprachigen Ausgaben. Munich: Fink.
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Probate Records of the Vice-Chancellor’s Court. Wills I–V. University Archives, University of Cambridge.
Pulsiano, Phillip. 2001. Old English glossed psalters. Toronto and London: The Pennsylvania State University Press.
Raine, James. 1836. Testamenta Eboracensia; or, Wills registered at York. Part 1. Publications of the Surtees Society 4. London: Surtees Society.
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Roberts, H. (comp.). 1907. Calendar of Wills proved in Vice-Chancellor’s Court at Cambridge, 1501–1765. Cambridge.
Robertson, A. J., ed. and trans. 1956. Anglo-Saxon Charters. 2nd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rosenthal, Bernard, Adams, Gretchen, Burns, Margo, Grund, Peter, Hiltunen, Risto, Kytö, Merja, Peikola, Matti, Ray, Benjamin C., Rissanen, Matti, Roach, Marilynne K. and Trask, Richard. 2009. The records of the Salem witch hunt, 1692. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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(2) Secondary Sources


(2a) Dictionaries, Concordances, Corpora and Software

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(2b) Studies on Binomials

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