Abell, KJ & Van Driesche, RG (2012) Impact of latitude on synchrony of a scale (Fiorinia externa) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) and its parasitoid (Encarsia citrina) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) in the eastern United States. Biological Control 63: 339–347.
Abrams, PA (2015) Why ratio dependence is (still) a bad model of predation. Biological Reviews 90: 794–814.
Abrams, PA & Ginzburg, LR (2000) The nature of predation: prey dependent, ratio dependent, or neither? Trends in Ecology & Evolution 15: 337–341.
Abrantes, J, Carmo, CR, Matthee, CA, Yamada, F, Loo, W & Esteves, P (2011) A shared unusual genetic change at the chemokine receptor type 5 between Oryctolagus, Bunolagus and Pentalagus. Conservation Genetics 12: 325–330.
Abu-Dieyeh, MH & Watson, AK (2007) Grass overseeding and a fungus combine to control Taraxacum officinale. Journal of Applied Ecology 44: 115–124.
Acheampong, S & Stark, JD (2004) Can reduced rates of pymetrozine and natural enemies control the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (Homoptera: Aphididae) on broccoli? International Journal of Pest Management 50: 275–279.
Acorn, J (2007) Ladybugs of Alberta. Edmonton, University of Alberta Press.
Adachi-Hagimori, T, Miura, K & Stouthamer, R (2008) A new cytogenetic mechanism for bacterial endosymbiont-induced parthenogenesis in Hymenoptera. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 275: 2667–2673.
Adams, JM, Fang, W, Callaway, RM, Cipollini, D & Newell, E (2009) A cross-continental test of the enemy release hypothesis: leaf herbivory on Acer platanoides (L.) is three times lower in North America than in its native Europe. Biological Invasions 11: 1005–1016.
Adams, PB (1990) The potential of mycoparasites for biological control of plant diseases. Annual Review of Phytopathology 28: 59–72.
Agnello, AM, Reissig, WH, Kovach, J & Nyrop, JP (2003) Integrated apple pest management in New York State using predatory mites and selective pesticides. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 94: 183–195.
Agrawal, AA & Kotanen, PM (2003) Herbivores and the success of exotic plants: a phylogenetically controlled experiment. Ecology Letters 6: 712–715.
Agrawal, AA, Kotanen, PM, Mitchell, CE, Power, AG, Godsoe, W & Klironomos, J (2005) Enemy release? An experiment with congeneric plant pairs and diverse above- and below ground enemies. Ecology 86: 2979–2989.
Agricola, U & Fisher, HU (1991) Hyperparasitism in two newly introduced parasitoids, Epidinocarsis lopezi and Gyranosoidea tebygi (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) after their establishment in Togo. Bulletin of Entomological Research 81: 127–132.
Ainsworth, N (2003) Integration of herbicides with arthropod biocontrol agents for weed control. Biocontrol Science and Technology 13: 547–570.
Alabouvette, C, Heilig, U & Cordier, C (2012) Microbial control of plant diseases. In Beneficial Microorganisms in Agriculture, Food and the Environment (Sundh, I, Wilcks, A & Goettel, M, eds.) Wallingford, UK, CABI Publishing, pp. 96–111.
Alhmedi, A, Haubruge, E, D’Hoedt, S & Francis, F (2011) Quantitative food webs of herbivore and related beneficial community in non-crop and crop habitats. Biological Control 58: 103–112.
Ali, AD & Reagan, TE (1985) Vegetation manipulation impact on predator and prey populations in Louisiana sugarcane ecosystems. Journal of Economic Entomology 78: 1409–1414.
Allen, SK, Thiery, RG & Hagstrom, NT (1986) Cytological evaluation of the likelihood that triploid grass carp will reproduce. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 115: 841–848.
Alphey, L (2014) Genetic control of mosquitoes. Annual Review of Entomology 59: 205–224.
Alstad, DN & Edmonds, JGF (1983) Selection, outbreeding depression, and the sex ratio of scale insects. Science 220: 93–95.
Altfeld, L & Stiling, P (2009) Effects of aphid-tending Argentine ants, nitrogen enrichment and early-season herbivory on insects hosted by a coastal shrub. Biological Invasions 11: 183–191.
Althoff, DM (2003) Does parasitoid attack strategy influence host specificity? A test with new world braconids. Ecological Entomology 28: 500–502.
Altieri, MA & Letourneau, DK (1982) Vegetation management and biological control in agroecosystems. Crop Protection 1: 405–430.
Altieri, MA & Whitcomb, WH (1979) The potential use of weeds in the manipulation of beneficial insects. HortScience 14: 12–18.
Altieri, MA & Whitcomb, WH (1980) Weed manipulation for insect pest management in corn. Environmental Management 4: 483–489.
Alyokhin, A & Sewell, G (2004) Changes in a lady beetle community following the establishment of three alien species. Biological Invasions 6: 463–471.
Amaral, DS, Venzon, M, Pallini, A, Lima, PC & DeSouza, O (2010) Does vegetational diversification reduce coffee leaf miner Leucoptera coffeella (Guerin-Meneville) (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae) attack? Neotropical Entomology 39: 543–548.
Amsellem, Z, Cohen, BA & Gressel, J (2002) Engineering hypervirulence in a mycoherbicidal fungus for efficient weed control. Nature Biotechnology 20: 1035–1039.
Anagnostakis, SL (1982) Biological control of chestnut blight. Science 215: 466–471.
Andersen, MC, Ewald, M & Northcott, J (2005) Risk analysis and management decisions for weed biological control agents: ecological theory and modeling results. Biological Control 35: 330–337.
Anderson, G, Delfosse, ES, Spencer, N, Prosser, C & Richard, R (2000) Biological control of leafy spurge: an emerging success story. In Proceedings of the X International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds (Spencer, NR, ed.), Bozeman, Montana State University, pp. 15–25.
Anderson, RM & May, RM (1978) Regulation and stability of host-parasite population interactions. 1. Regulatory processes. Journal of Animal Ecology 47: 219–247.
Anderson, RM & May, RM (1981) The population dynamics of microparasites and their invertebrate hosts. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B 291: 451–524.
Anderson, RM & May, RM (1982) Coevolution of hosts and parasites. Parasitology 85: 411–426.
Andow, DA (1990) Population dynamics of an insect herbivore in simple and diverse habitats. Ecology 71: 1006–1017.
Andow, DA (1991) Vegetational diversity and arthropod population response. Annual Review of Entomology 36: 561–586.
Andow, DA & Hilbeck, A (2004) Science-based risk assessment for non-target effects of transgenic crops. BioScience 54: 637–649.
Andow, DA & Imura, O (1994) Specialization of phytophagous arthropod communities on introduced plants. Ecology 75: 296–300.
Andow, DA, Lane, CP & Olson, DM (1995) Use of Trichogramma in maize – estimating environmental risks. In Biological Control: Benefits and Risks (Hokkanen, HMT & Lynch, JM, eds.), Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press, pp. 101–118.
Andow, DA & Prokrym, DR (1990) Plant structural complexity and host-finding by a parasitoid. Oecologia 82: 162–165.
Andres, LA & Rees, NE (1995) Musk thistle. In Biological Control in the Western United States (Nechols, JR, ed.), Oakland, University of California Press, pp. 248–251.
Andrewartha, HG & Birch, LC (1954) The Distribution and Abundance of Animals. Chicago, University of Chicago Press.
Angalet, GW & Fuester, R (1977) The Aphidius parasites of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum in the eastern half of the United States. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 70: 87–96.
Antolin, MF (1999) A genetic perspective on mating systems and sex ratios of parasitoid wasps. Researches on Population Ecology 41: 29–37.
Antolin, MF, Bjorksten, TA & Vaughn, TT (2006) Host-related fitness trade-offs in a presumed generalist parasitoid, Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae). Ecological Entomology, 31: 242–254.
Antolin, MF & Strand, MR (1992) Mating system of Bracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Ecological Entomology 17: 1–7.
Antonovics, J (1992) Toward community genetics. In Plant Resistance to Herbivores and Pathogens: Ecology, Evolution, and Genetics (Fritz, RS & Simms, EL, eds.), Chicago, University of Chicago Press, pp. 426–449.
Araj, S-E, Wratten, S, Lister, A & Buckley, H (2009) Adding floral nectar resources to improve biological control: potential pitfalls of the fourth trophic level. Basic and Applied Ecology 10: 554–562.
Arditi, R (1983) A unified model of the functional response of predators and parasitoids. Journal of Animal Ecology 52: 293–303.
Arditi, R & Akcakaya, HR (1990) Underestimation of mutual interference in predators. Oecologia 83: 358–361.
Arditi, R & Ginzburg, LR (1989) Coupling in predator–prey dynamics: ratio-dependence. Journal of Theoretical Biology 139: 311–326.
Arditi, R & Ginzburg, LR (2012) How Species Interact: Altering the Standard View on Trophic Ecology. New York, Oxford University Press.
Argaud, O, Croizier, L, Lopez-Ferber, M & Croizier, G (1998) Two key mutations in the host-range specificity domain of the p143 gene of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus are required to kill Bombyx mori larvae. Journal of General Virology 79: 931–935.
Armbrecht, I & Gallego, MC (2007) Testing ant predation on the coffee berry borer in shaded and sun coffee plantations in Colombia. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 124: 261–267.
Armbruster, P, Bradshaw, WE & Holzapfel, CM (1997) Evolution of the genetic architecture underlying fitness in the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii. Evolution 51: 451–458.
Ashburner, M, Hoy, MA & Peloquin, JJ (1998) Prospects for the genetic transformation of arthropods. Insect Molecular Biology 7: 201–213.
Asano, S & Miyamoto, K (2007) A laboratory method to evaluate the effectiveness of ultraviolet (UV) protectant for Bacillus thuringiensis product. Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology 51: 121–127.
Askew, RR (1994) Parasitoids of leaf-mining Lepidoptera: what determines their host ranges? Parasitoid Community Ecology (Hawkins, BA & Sheehan, W, eds.), Oxford, UK, Oxford University Press, pp. 177–202.
Askew, RR & Shaw, MR (1986) Parasitoid communities: their size, structure and development. Insect Parasitoids (Waage, JK & Greathead, D, eds.), London, UK, Academic Press, pp. 225–264.
Aspi, J (2000) Inbreeding and outbreeding depression in male courtship song characters in Drosophila montana. Heredity 84: 273–282.
Asplen, MK, Chacon, JM & Heimpel, GE (2016) Divergent sex-specific dispersal by a parasitoid wasp in the field. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 159: 252–259.
Asplen, MK, Whitfield, JB, de Boer, JG & Heimpel, GE (2009) Is single-locus complementary sex determination the ancestral mechanism for hymenopteran haplodiploidy? Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22: 1762–1769.
Auerbach, M & Simberloff, D (1988) Rapid leaf-miner colonization of introduced trees and shifts in sources of herbivore mortality. Oikos 52: 41–50.
Auslander, DM, Oster, GF & Huffaker, CB (1974) Dynamics of interacting populations. Journal of the Franklin Institute 297: 345–376.
Babendreier, D, Kuske, S & Bigler, F (2003) Non-target host acceptance and parasitism by Trichogramma brassicae Bezdenko (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) in the laboratory. Biological Control 26: 128–138.
Babendreier, D, Bigler, F & Kuhlmann, U (2006) Current status and constraints in the assessment of non-target effects. Environmental Impact of Invertebrates for Biological Control of Arthropods: Methods and Risk Assessment (Bigler, F, Babendreier, D & Kuhlmann, U, eds.), Wallingford, UK, CABI Publishing, pp. 1–14.
Baek, J-M, Howell, CR & Kenerley, CM (1999) The role of an extracellular chitinase from Trichoderma virens Gv29–8 in the biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani. Current Genetics 35: 41–50.
Baer, CF, Tripp, DW, Bjorksten, TA & Antolin, MF (2004) Phylogeography of a parasitoid wasp (Diaeretiella rapae): no evidence of host-associated lineages. Molecular Ecology 13: 1859–1869.
Baggen, LR & Gurr, GM (1998) The influence of food on Copidosoma koehleri (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), on the use of flowering plants as a habitat management tool to enhance biological control of potato moth, Phythorimaea operculella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Biological Control 11: 9–17.
Baggen, LR, Gurr, GM & Meats, A (1999) Flowers in tri-trophic systems: mechanisms allowing selective exploitation by insect natural enemies for conservation biological control. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 91: 155–161.
Bai, C, Shapiro-Ilan, DI, Gaugler, R & Hopper, KR (2005) Stabilization of beneficial traits in Heterorhabditis bacteriophora through creation of inbred lines. Biological Control 32: 220–227.
Bailey, EP (1992) Red foxes, Vulpes vulpes, as biological control agents for introduced arctic foxes, Alopex lagopus, on Alaskan islands. Canadian Field-Naturalist 106: 200–205.
Baker, DA, Loxdale, HD & Edwards, OR (2003). Genetic variation and founder effects in the parasitoid wasp, Diaeretiella rapae (M’intosh) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae), affecting its potential as a biological control agent. Molecular Ecology 12: 3303–3311.
Baker, KF (1987) Evolving concepts of the biological control of plant pathogens. Annual Review of Plant Pathology 25:67–85.
Baker, KF & Cook, RJ 1974. Biological Control of Plant Pathogens. San Francisco, CA, Freeman.
Bakker, PAHM, Pieterse, CMJ & Van Loon, LC (2007) Induced systemic resistance by fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. Phytopathology 97: 239–243.
Bakker, PAHM, Ran, LX, Pieterse, CMJ & Van Loon, LC (2003) Understanding the involvement of rhizobacteria-mediated induction of systemic resistance in biocontrol of plant diseases. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 25: 5–9.
Balciunas, JK (2000) Code of best practices for classical biological control of weeds. In Proceedings of the X International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds (Spencer, NR, ed.), Bozeman, Montana State University, p. 435.
Balciunas, JK (2004a) Are mono-specific agents necessarily safe? The need for pre-release assessment of probable impact of candidate biocontrol agents, with some examples. In Proceedings of the XI Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds (Cullen, JM, Briese, DT, Kriticos, DJ, Lonsdale, WM, Morin, L & Scott, JK, eds.), Canberra, Australia, CSIRO, pp. 252–257.
Balciunas, JK (2004b) Four years of ‘Code of Best Practices’: has it had an impact? In Proceedings of the XI Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds (Cullen, JM, Briese, DT, Kriticos, DJ, Lonsdale, WM, Morin, L & Scott, JK, eds.), Canberra, Australia, CSIRO pp. 258–260.
Bale, JS, Van Lenteren, JC & Bigler, F (2008) Biological control and sustainable food production. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 363: 761–776.
Balmer, O, Geneau, CE, Belz, E, Weishaupt, B, Förderer, G, Moos, S, Ditner, N, Juric, I & Luka, H (2014) Wildflower companion plants increase pest parasitation and yield in cabbage fields: experimental demonstration and call for caution. Biological Control 76: 19–27.
Banks, JE, Bommarco, R & Ekbom, B (2008) Population response to resource separation in conservation biological control. Biological Control 47: 141–146.
Banks, JE, Stark, JD, Vargas, RI & Ackleh, AS (2011) Parasitoids and ecological risk assessment: can toxicity data developed for one species be used to protect an entire guild? Biological Control 59: 336–339.
Barbercheck, ME & Millar, LC (2000) Environmental impacts of entomopathogenic nematodes used for biological control in soil. In Nontarget Effects of Biological Control (Follett, PA & Duan, JJ, eds.), Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Kluwer, pp. 287–308.
Barbosa, P, ed. (1998) Conservation Biological Control. San Diego, CA, Academic Press.
Barclay, HJ (1982) Models for pest control using predator release, habitat management and pesticide release in combination. Journal of Applied Ecology 19: 337–348.
Barclay, HJ, Otvos, IS & Thomson, AJ (1985) Models of periodic inundative of parasitoids for pest control. Canadian Entomologist 117: 705–716.
Barlow, ND (1994) Predicting the effect of a novel vertebrate biocontrol agent: a model for viral vectored immunocontraception of New Zealand opossums. Journal of Applied Ecology 31: 454–462.
Barlow, ND (1998) Biological control in New Zealand: new models from real systems. In Proceedings of the VII International Congress of Ecology (Farina, A, Kennedy, J & Bossu, V, eds.), Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press, pp. 230–259.
Barlow, ND (1999) Models in biological control: a field guide. In Theoretical Approaches to Biological Control (Hawkins, BA & Cornell, HV, eds.), Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press, pp. 43–68.
Barlow, ND (2000) The ecological challenge of immunocontraception: editor’s introduction. Journal of Applied Ecology 37: 897–902.
Barlow, ND, Barratt, BIP, Ferguson, CM & Barron, MC (2004) Using models to estimate parasitoid impact on nontarget host abundance. Environmental Entomology 33: 941–948.
Barlow, ND, Barron, MC &