Skip to main content
Biotic Interactions in the Tropics
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 8
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Namian, Mostafa Albert, Alex Zuluaga, Carlos M. and Jaselskis, Edward J. 2016. Improving Hazard-Recognition Performance and Safety Training Outcomes: Integrating Strategies for Training Transfer. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, p. 04016048.

    Griffin, Eric A. and Carson, Walter P. 2015. The Ecology and Natural History of Foliar Bacteria with a Focus on Tropical Forests and Agroecosystems. The Botanical Review, Vol. 81, Issue. 2, p. 105.

    Born, Julia Pluess, Andrea R. Burslem, David F.R.P. Nilus, Reuben Maycock, Colin R. and Ghazoul, Jaboury 2014. Differing Life History Characteristics Support Coexistence of Tree Soil Generalist and Specialist Species in Tropical Rain Forests. Biotropica, Vol. 46, Issue. 1, p. 58.

    Dyer, Lee A. Walla, Thomas R. Greeney, Harold F. Stireman III, John O. and Hazen, Rebecca F. 2010. Diversity of Interactions: A Metric for Studies of Biodiversity. Biotropica, Vol. 42, Issue. 3, p. 281.

    TABARELLI, MARCELO AGUIAR, ANTONIO V. GIRÃO, LUCIANA C. PERES, CARLOS A. and LOPES, ARIADNA V. 2010. Effects of Pioneer Tree Species Hyperabundance on Forest Fragments in Northeastern Brazil. Conservation Biology, Vol. 24, Issue. 6, p. 1654.

    Eichhorn, Markus P. Fagan, K. C. Compton, Stephen G. Dent, Daisy H. and Hartley, Sue E. 2007. Explaining Leaf Herbivory Rates on Tree Seedlings in a Malaysian Rain Forest. Biotropica, Vol. 39, Issue. 3, p. 416.

    Dent, Daisy H. Bagchi, Robert Robinson, David Majalap-Lee, Noreen and Burslem, David F. R. P. 2006. Nutrient fluxes via litterfall and leaf litter decomposition vary across a gradient of soil nutrient supply in a lowland tropical rain forest. Plant and Soil, Vol. 288, Issue. 1-2, p. 197.

    Pennington, R. Toby Richardson, James E. and Lavin, Matt 2006. Insights into the historical construction of species-rich biomes from dated plant phylogenies, neutral ecological theory and phylogenetic community structure. New Phytologist, Vol. 172, Issue. 4, p. 605.

  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    Biotic Interactions in the Tropics
    • Online ISBN: 9780511541971
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to? *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

Tropical ecosystems house a significant proportion of global biodiversity. To understand how these ecosystems function we need to appreciate not only what plants, animals and microbes they contain, but also how they interact with each other. This volume, first published in 2005, synthesises the state of knowledge in this area, with chapters providing reviews or case studies drawn from research conducted in both Old and New World tropics and including biotic interactions among taxa at all trophic levels. In most chapters plants (typically trees) are the starting point, but, taken together, the chapters consider interactions of plants with other plants, with micro-organisms and with animals, and the inter-relationships of human-induced disturbance with interactions among species. An underlying theme of the volume is the attempt to understand the maintenance of high diversity in tropical regions, which remains one of the most significant unexplained observations in ecological studies.


    • Aa
    • Aa
Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send:

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.

Page 1 of 2

Page 1 of 2

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

G. I. Ågren (1983) Nitrogen productivity of some conifers. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 13, 494–500

T. M. Aide (1987) Limbfalls: a major cause of sapling mortality for tropical forest plants. Biotropica, 19, 284–285

I. T. Baldwin , A. Kessler & R. Halitschke (2002) Volatile signaling in plant–plant–herbivore interactions: what is real? Current Opinions in Plant Biology, 5, 1–5

C. L. Ballaré , A. L. Scopel & R. A. Sánchez (1990) Far-red radiation reflected from adjacent leaves: an early signal of competition in plant canopies. Science, 247, 329–332

P. Becker & A. Castillo (1990) Root architecture of shrubs and saplings in the understory of a tropical moist forest in lowland Panama. Biotropica, 22, 242–249

M. D. Bertness & R. Callaway (1994) Positive interactions in communities. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 9, 191–193

S. W. Bigelow , J. J. Ewel & J. P. Haggar (2004). Enhancing nutrient retention in tropical tree plantations: no short cuts. Ecological Applications, 14, 28–46

W. J. Bond , G. F. Midgley & F. I. Woodward (2003) The importance of low atmospheric CO2 and fire in promoting the spread of grasslands and savannas. Global Change Biology, 9, 973–982

A. H. Calladine & J. S. Pate (2000) Haustorial structure and functioning of the root hemiparastic tree Nuytsia floribunda (Labill.) R.Br. and water relationships with its hosts. Annals of Botany, 85, 723–731

R. M. Callaway (2002) The detection of neighbors by plants. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 17, 104–105

R. L. Chazdon (1986) Light variation and carbon gain in rainforest understory palms. Journal of Ecology, 74, 995–1012

R. L. Chazdon (1988) Sunflecks and their importance to forest understory plants. Advances in Ecological Research, 18, 1–63

D. A. Clark & D. B. Clark (1992) Life history diversity of canopy and emergent trees in a neotropical rain forest. Ecological Monographs, 62, 315–344

D. B. Clark & D. A. Clark (1991) The impact of physical damage on canopy tree regeneration in tropical rain forest. Journal of Ecology, 79, 447–457

D. A. Coomes & P. J. Grubb (1998) Responses of juvenile trees to above- and belowground competition in nutrient-starved Amazonian rainforest. Ecology, 79, 768–782

R. T. Corlett (1987) Post-fire succession on Mt. Wilhelm, Papua New Guinea. Biotropica, 19, 157–169

T. E. Dawson , S. Mambelli , A. H. Plamboeck , P. H. Templer & K. P. Tu (2002) Stable isotopes in plant ecology. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 33, 507–559

B. Demmig-Adams & W. W. Adams (1992) Photoprotection and other responses of plants to high light stress. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology, 43, 599–626

J. S. Denslow (1987) Tropical rainforest gaps and tree species diversity. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 18, 431–451

M. Dicke & J. Bruin (2001) Chemical information transfer between plants: back to the future. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 29, 981–994

L. R. Dillenburg , A. H. Teramura , I. N. Forseth & D. F. Wigham (1995) Photosynthetic and biomass allocation responses of Liquidambar styraciflua (Hammamelidaceae) to vine competition. American Journal of Botany, 82, 454–461

D. R. Drake & L. W. Pratt (2001) Seedling mortality in Hawaiian rain forest: the role of small-scale physical disturbance. Biotropica, 33, 319–323

J. J. Gerwing (1995) Competitive effects of three tropical tree species on two species of Piper. Biotropica, 27, 47–56

S. M. Gleason , K. C. Ewel & N. V. Hue (2003) Soil redox conditions and plant–soil relationships in a Micronesian mangrove forest. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 56, 1065–1074

S. Goosem & D. Lamb (1986) Measurements of phyllosphere nitrogen fixation in a tropical and two sub-tropical rainforests. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 2, 373–376

J. Granados & C. Körner (2003) In deep shade, elevated CO2 increases the vigor of tropical climbing plants. Global Change Biology, 8, 1109–1117

J. P. Haggar & J. J. Ewel (1997) Primary productivity and resource partitioning in model tropical ecosystems. Ecology, 78, 1211–1221

L. Heneghan , D. C. Coleman , X. Zou , D. A. Crossley & B. L. Haines (1999) Soil microarthropod contributions to decomposition dynamics: tropical–temperate comparisons of a single substrate. Ecology, 80, 1873–1882

A. J. Hiremath (2000) Photosynthetic nutrient-use efficiency in three fast-growing topical trees with differing leaf longevities. Tree Physiology, 20, 937–944

A. J. Hiremath & J. J. Ewel (2001) Ecosystem nutrient use efficiency, productivity, and nutrient accrual in model tropical communities. Ecosystems, 4, 669–682

M. Holmgren , M. Scheffer & M. A. Huston (1997) The interplay of facilitation and competition in plant communities. Ecology, 78, 1966–1975

P. Huante , E. Rincon & F. S. Chapin (1995) Responses to phosphorus of contrasting successional tree-seedling species form the tropical deciduous forest of Mexico. Functional Ecology, 9, 760–766

S. Hummel (2000) Understorey development in young Cordia alliodora plantations. New Forests, 19, 159–170

P. C. Jackson , F. C. Meinzer , M. Bustamante et al. (1999) Partitioning of soil water among tree species in a Brazilian cerrado ecosystem. Tree Physiology, 19, 717–724

S. M. Jennings , G. R. Wilkinson & G. L. Unwin (2003) Response of blackwood (Acacia melanoxylon) regeneration to silvicultural removal of competition in regrowth eucalypt forests of north-west Tasmania, Australia. Forest Ecology and Management, 177, 75–83

J. P. Kaye , S. C. Resh , M. W. Kaye & R. A. Chimner (2000) Nutrient and carbon dynamics in a replacement series of Eucalyptus and Albizia trees. Ecology, 81, 3267–3273

J. E. Keeley & C. J. Fotheringham (1997) Trace gas emissions in smoke-induced seed germination. Science, 276, 1248–1251

M. Kellman (1986) Long-term effects of cutting tap roots of Pinus caribaea growing on infertile savanna soils. Plant and Soil, 93, 137–140

A. Kessler & I. T. Baldwin (2002) Plant responses to insect herbivory: the emerging molecular analysis. Annual Review of Plant Biology, 53, 299–328

J. H. Langenheim , C. B. Osmond , A. Brooks & Ferrar P. J. (1984) Photosynthetic responses to light in seedlings of selected Amazonian and Australian rainforest tree species. Oecologia, 63, 215–224

W. F. Laurance , D. Pérez-Salicrup , P. Delamonica et al. (2001) Rainforest fragmentation and the structure of Amazonian liana communities. Ecology, 82, 105–116

W. F. Laurance & G. B. Williamson (2001) Positive feedback among forest fragmentation, drought, and climate change in the Amazon. Conservation Biology, 15, 1529–1535

D. W. Lee (1979) Abaxial anthocyanin layer in leaves of tropical rain forest plants: enhancer of light capture in deep shade. Biotropica, 11, 70–77

D. W. Lee , K. Baskaran , M. Mansor , H. Mohamad & K. Y. Son (1996) Irradiance and spectral quality affect Asian tropical rain forest tree seedling development. Ecology, 77, 568–580

A. E. Lugo (1992) Comparison of tropical tree plantations with secondary forests of similar age. Ecological Monographs, 62, 1–41

K. MacDicken , K. Hairiah , A. Otsamo , B. Duguma & N. Majid (1995) Shade-based control of Imperata cylindrica: tree fallows and cover crops. Agroforestry Systems, 36, 131–149

A. L. Mack (1998) The potential impact of small-scale physical disturbance on seedlings in a Papuan rain forest. Biotropica, 30, 547–552

J. D. Marshall & J. R. Ehleringer (1990) Are xylem-tapping mistletoes partially heterotrophic? Oecologia, 84, 244–248

V. M. Meher-Homji (1967) Phytogeography of the South Indian Hill Stations. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 94, 230–242

F. D. Menalled , M. J. Kelty & J. J. Ewel (1998) Canopy development in tropical tree plantations: a comparison of species mixtures and monocultures. Forest Ecology and Management, 104, 249–263

S. Menon , J. Hansen , L. Nazarenko & Y. Luo (2002) Climate effects of black carbon aerosols in China and India. Science, 297, 2250–2253

M. C. Merwin , S. A. Rentmeester & N. M. Nadkarni (2003) The influence of host tree species on the distribution of epiphytic bromeliads in experimental monospecific plantations, La Selva, Costa Rica. Biotropica, 35, 37–47

V. N. Misra (2001) Prehistoric human colonization of India. Journal of Biosciences, 26 (supplement), 491–531

N. M. Nadkarni (1981) Canopy roots: convergent evolution in rainforest nutrient cycles. Science, 214, 1023–1024

J. C. Neff , F. S. Chapin III & P. M. Vitousek (2003) Breaks in the cycle: dissolved organic nitrogen in terrestrial ecosystems. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 1, 205–211

E. A. Newell , E. P. McDonald , B. R. Strain & J. S. Denslow (1993) Photosynthetic responses of Miconia species to canopy openings in a lowland tropical rainforest. Oecologia, 94, 49–56

E. Ottaviano , D. L. Mulcahy , M. S. Gorla & G. Bergamini (1992) Angiosperm Pollen and Ovules: Basic and Applied Aspects.New York, USA: Springer-Verlag

J. A. Parrotta & J. W. Turnbull (1997) Catalyzing native forest regeneration on degraded tropical lands. Forest Ecology and Management, 99, 1–290

R. W. Pearcy (1990) Sunflecks and photosynthesis in plant canopies. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Molecular Biology, 41, 421–453

H. L. Pearson & P. M. Vitousek (2001) Stand dynamics, nitrogen accumulation, and symbiotic nitrogen fixation in regenerating stands of Acacia koa. Ecological Applications, 11, 1381–1394

D. R. Pérez-Salicrup & M. G. Barker (2000) Effect of liana removal on water potential and growth of adult Senna multijuga (Caesalpinioideae) trees in a Bolivian tropical forest. Oecologia, 124, 469–475

D. R. Pérez-Salicrup , A. Claros , R. Guzmán et al. (2001a) Cost and efficiency of cutting lianas in a lowland liana forest of Bolivia. Biotropica, 33, 324–329

J. S. Powers , J. P. Haggar & R. F. Fisher (1997) The effect of overstorey composition on understorey woody regeneration and species richness in 7-year-old plantations in Costa Rica. Forest Ecology and Management, 99, 43–54

F. E. Putz (1984) The natural history of lianas on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Ecology, 65, 1713–1724

F. E. Putz & N. M. Holbrook (1989) Strangler fig rooting habits and nutrient relations in the llanos of Venezuela. American Journal of Botany, 76, 781–788

J. P. Read , P. Hallam & J.-F. Cherrier (1995) The anomaly of monodominant tropical rainforests: some preliminary observations in the Nothofagus-dominated rainforests of New Caledonia. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 11, 359–389

A. Reich , J. J. Ewel , N. M. Nadkarni , T. Dawson & R. D. Evans (2003) Nitrogen isotope ratios shift with plant size in tropical bromeliads. Oecologia, 137, 587–590

H. L. Rodgers , M. P. Brakke & J. J. Ewel (1995) Shoot damage effects on starch reserves of Cedrela odorata. Biotropica, 27, 71–77

A. E. Russell , C. A. Cambardella , J. J. Ewel & T. B. Parkin (2004) Species, rotation- frequency, and life-form diversity effects on soil carbon in experimental tropical ecosystems. Ecological Applications 14, 47–60

H. J. Schenk , R. M. Callaway & B. E. Mahall (1999) Spatial root segregation: are plants territorial? Advances in Ecological Research, 28, 145–180

E. Schefuss , S. Schouten , J. H. F. Jansen & J. S. Sinninghe Damsté (2003) African vegetation controlled by tropical sea surface temperatures in the mid-Pleistocene period. Nature, 422, 418–421

J. Schmitt , S. A. Dudley & M. Pigliucci (1999) Manipulative approaches to testing adaptive plasticity: phytochrome-mediated shade-avoidance responses in plants. American Naturalist, 154, S43–S54

F. G. Scholz , S. J. Bucci , G. Goldstein , F. C. Meinzer & A. C. Franco (2002) Hydraulic redistribution of soil water by neotropical savanna trees. Tree Physiology, 22, 603–612

F. Siegert , G. Ruecker , A. Hinricks & A. A. Hoffman (2001) Increased damage from fires in logged forests during droughts caused by El Niño. Nature, 414, 437–440

C. K. Smith , H. L. Gholz & F. Oliveira (1998) Soil nitrogen dynamics and plant-induced soil changes under plantations and primary forest in lowland Amazonia, Brazil. Plant and Soil, 200, 193–204

R. W. Snaydon (1991) Replacement or additive designs for competition studies? Journal of Applied Ecology, 28, 930–946

R. Sukumar , R. Ramesh , R. K. Pant & G. Rajagopalan (1993) A δ13 C record of late Quaternary climate change from tropical peats in southern India. Nature, 364, 703–706

F. W. Went (1941) Effects of light on stem and leaf growth. American Journal of Botany, 28, 83–95

K. Wesche (2003) The importance of occasional droughts for Afro-alpine landscape ecology. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 19, 197–207

C. K. Augspurger (1984) Light requirements of neotropical tree seedlings: a comparative study of growth and survival. Journal of Ecology, 72, 777–795

P. Becker , P. E. Rabenold , J. R. Idol & A. P. Smith (1988) Water potential gradients for gaps and slopes in a Panamanian tropical moist forest's dry season. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 4, 173–184

P. Becker , N. Sharbini & R. Yahya (1999) Root architecture and root:shoot allocation of shrubs and saplings in two lowland tropical forests: implications for life form composition. Biotropica, 31, 93–101

J. M. G. Bloor & P. J. Grubb (2003) Growth and mortality in high and low light: trends among 15 shade-tolerant tropical rain forest tree species. Journal of Ecology, 91, 77–85

D. Bonal , D. Sabatier , P. Montpied , D. Tremeaux & J. M. Guehl (2000) Interspecific variability of δ13C among trees in rainforests of French Guiana: functional groups and canopy integration. Oecologia, 124, 454–468

F. Bongers , L. Poorter , R. S. A. R. Rompaey & M. P. E. Parren (1999) Distribution of twelve moist forest canopy tree species in Liberia and Côte d'Ivoire; response curves to a climatic gradient. Journal of Vegetation Science, 10, 371–382

N. Brown (1993) The implications of climate and gap microclimate for seedling growth conditions in a Bornean lowland rain forest. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 9, 153–168

S. O. Burgess , M. A. Adams , M. C. Turner & C. K. Ong (1998) The redistribution of soil water by tree root systems. Oecologia, 115, 306–311

K. F. Cao (2000) Water relations and gas exchange of tropical saplings during a prolonged drought in a Bornean heath forest, with reference to root architecture. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 16, 101–116

N. R. Chiariello , C. B. Field & H. A. Mooney (1987) Midday wilting in a tropical pioneer tree. Functional Ecology, 1, 3–11

R. Condit , S. P. Hubbell & R. B. Foster (1995) Mortality rates of 205 neotropical tree and shrub species and the impact of a severe drought. Ecological Monographs, 65, 419–439

R. Condit , S. P. Hubbell & R. B. Foster (1996) Assessing the response of plant functional types to climatic change in tropical forests. Journal of Vegetation Science, 7, 405–416

D. A. Coomes & P. J. Grubb (2000) Impact of root competition in forests and woodlands: a theoretical framework and review of experiments. Ecological Monographs, 70, 171–207

S. J. Davies , P. A. Palmiotto , P. S. Ashton , H. S. Lee & J. V. LaFrankie (1998) Comparative ecology of 11 sympatric species of Macaranga in Borneo: tree distribution in relation to horizontal and vertical resource heterogeneity. Journal of Ecology, 86, 662–673

B. M. J. Engelbrecht & T. A. Kursar (2003) Comparative drought resistance of seedlings of 28 species of co-occurring tropical woody plants. Oecologia, 136, 383–393

A. H. Gentry & L. H. Emmons (1987) Geographical variation in fertility, phenology, and the composition of the understorey of neotropical forests. Biotropica, 19, 216–227

J. Grainger & P. Becker (2001) Root architecture and root:shoot allocation of shrubs and saplings in a Bruneian heath forest. Biotropica, 33, 368–374

J. P. Grime , K. Thompson , R. Hunt et al. (1997) Integrated screening validates primary axes of specialisation. Oikos, 79, 259–281

J. M. Guehl , A. M. Domenach , M. Bereau et al. (1998) Functional diversity in an Amazonian rainforest of French Guyana: a dual isotope approach (δ15N and δ13C). Oecologia, 116, 316–330

J. B. Hall & M. D. Swaine (1981) Distribution and Ecology of Vascular Plants in a Tropical Rain Forest. The Hague: Dr. W. Junk Publishers

K. E. Harms , J. S. Powers & R. A. Montgomery (2004) Variation in small sapling density, understorey cover and resource availability in four neotropical forests. Biotropica, 36, 40–51

M. Holmgren (2000) Combined effects of shade and drought on tulip poplar seedlings: trade-off in tolerance or facilitation? Oikos, 90, 67–78

H. F. Howe (1990) Survival and growth of juvenile Virola surinamensis in Panama: effects of herbivory and canopy closure. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 6, 259–280

P. Huante , E. Rincon & M. Gavito (1992) Root system analysis of seedlings of seven tree species from a tropical dry forest in Mexico. Trees, 6, 77–82

R. Huc , A. Ferhi & J. M. Guehl (1994) Pioneer and late stage tropical rainforest tree species (French Guiana) growing under common conditions differ in leaf gas exchange regulation, carbon isotope discrimination and leaf water potential. Oecologia, 99, 297–305

M. J. Hutchings & H. Kroon (1994) Foraging in plants: the role of morphological plasticity in resource acquisition. Advances in Ecological Research, 25, 159–238

P. C. Jackson , J. Cavelier , G. Goldstein , F. C. Meinzer & N. M. Holbrook (1995) Partitioning of water sources among plants of a lowland tropical forest. Oecologia, 101, 197–203

D. A. King (1990) Allometry of saplings and understorey trees of a Panamanian forest. Functional Ecology, 4, 27–32

D. A. King (1995) Allometry and life history of tropical trees. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 12, 25–44

D. A. King (1998a) Influence of leaf size on tree architecture: first branch height and crown dimensions in tropical rain forest trees. Trees, 12, 438–445

D. A. King (1998b) Relationship between crown architecture and branch orientation in rain forest trees. Annals of Botany, 82, 1–7

D. A. King & J. H. Maindonald (1999) Tree architecture in relations to leaf dimensions and tree stature in temperate and tropical rain forests. Journal of Ecology, 87, 1012–1024

R. K. Kobe (1997) Carbohydrate allocation to storage as a basis of interspecific variation in sapling survivorship and growth. Oikos, 80, 226–233

T. Kohyama (1993) Size-structured tree populations in gap-dynamic forest: the forest architecture hypothesis for the stable coexistence of species. Journal of Ecology, 81, 131–143

T. Kohyama , E. Suzuki , T. Partomihardjo , T. Yamada & T. Kubo (2003) Tree species differentiation in growth, recruitment and allometry in relation to maximum height in a Bornean mixed dipterocarp forest. Journal of Ecology, 91, 797–806

H. Koop & F. J. Sterck (1994) Light penetration though structurally complex forest canopies: an example of a lowland tropical rainforest. Forest Ecology and Management, 69, 111–122

D. Lieberman , M. Lieberman , G. Hartshorn & R. Peralta (1985) Growth rates and age–size relationships of tropical wet forest trees in Costa Rica. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 1, 97–109

C. H. Lusk (2002) Leaf area accumulation helps juvenile evergreen trees tolerate shade in a temperate rainforest. Oecologia, 132, 188–196

F. C. Meinzer , G. Goldstein , P. Jackson , N. M. Holbrook , M. V. Gutiérrez & J. Cavalier (1995) Environmental and physiological transpiration in tropical forest gap species: the influence of boundary layer and hydraulic properties. Oecologia, 101, 514–522

R. Ostertag (1998) Belowground effects of canopy gaps in a tropical wet forest. Ecology, 79, 1294–1304

O. O. Osunkoya & J. E. Ash (1991) Acclimation to a change in light regime in seedlings of six Australian rainforest tree species. Australian Journal of Botany, 39, 591–605

H. Paz (2003) Root/shoot allocation and root architecture in seedlings: variation among forest sites, microhabitats, and ecological groups. Biotropica, 35, 318–332

R. W. Pearcy & W. Yang (1998) The functional morphology of light capture and carbon gain in the Redwood forest understorey plant Adenocaulon bicolor Hook. Functional Ecology, 12, 543–552

M. Peña-Claros (2003) Changes in forest structure and species composition during secondary succession in the Bolivian Amazon. Biotropica, 35, 450–461

H. Poorter & O. Nagel (2000) The role of biomass allocation in the growth response of plants to different levels of light, CO2, nutrients and water: a quantitative review. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, 27, 595–607

L. Poorter (1999) Growth responses of fifteen rain forest tree species to a light gradient: the relative importance of morphological and physiological traits. Functional Ecology, 13, 396–410

L. Poorter & Y. Hayashida-Oliver (2000) Effects of seasonal drought on gap and understorey seedlings in a Bolivian moist forest. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 16, 481–498

L. Poorter & S. F. Oberbauer (1993) Photosynthetic induction responses of two rainforest tree species in relation to light environment. Oecologia, 96, 193–199

L. Poorter , F. Bongers , F. J. Sterck & H. Wöll (2003) Architecture of 53 rain forest tree species differing in adult stature and shade tolerance. Ecology, 84, 602–608

L. Poorter , F. Bongers , F. N. Kouamé & W. D. Hawthorne (2004) Biodiversity of West African Forests. An Ecological Atlas of Woody Plant Species. Wallingford: CABI Publishing

J. Popma & F. Bongers (1991) Acclimation of seedlings of three tropical rain forest species to changing light availability. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 7, 85–97

E. G. Reekie & F. A. Bazzaz (1989) Competition and patterns of resource use among seedlings of five tropical trees grown at ambient and elevated CO2. Oecologia, 79, 212–222

E. G. Reekie & P. Wayne (1992) Leaf canopy display, stomatal conductance, and photosynthesis in seedlings of three tropical pioneer tree species subjected to drought. Canadian Journal of Botany, 70, 2334–2338

P. B. Reich , D. S. Ellsworth & C. Uhl (1995) Leaf carbon and nutrient assimilation and conservation in species of differing successional status in an oligotrophic Amazonian forest. Functional Ecology, 9, 65–76

P. B. Reich , M. G. Tjoelker , M. B. Walters , D. W. Vanderklein & C. Buschena (1998) Close association of RGR, leaf and root morphology, seed mass and shade tolerance in seedlings of nine boreal tree species grown in high and low light. Oecologia, 114, 471–482

P. B. Reich , I. J. Wright , J. Cavender-Bares et al. (2003) The evolution of plant functional variation: traits, spectra, and strategies. International Journal of Plant Sciences, 164, 143–164

T. Rijkers , P. J. Vries , T. L. Pons & F. Bongers (2001) Photosynthetic induction in saplings of three shade-tolerant tree species: comparing understorey and gap habitats in a French Guiana rain forest. Oecologia, 125, 331–340

P. Ryser (1996) The importance of tissue density for growth and life span of leaves and roots: a comparison of five ecologically contrasting grasses. Functional Ecology, 10, 717–723

L. Sack & P. J. Grubb (2002) The combined effects of deep shade and drought on the growth and biomass allocation of shade-tolerant woody seedlings. Oecologia, 131, 175–185

D. A. Sims , R. L. E. Gebauer & R. W. Pearcy (1994) Scaling sun and shade photosynthetic acclimation of Alocasia macrorrhiza to whole-plant performance. II. Simulation of carbon balance and growth at different photon flux densities. Plant, Cell and Environment, 17, 889–900

T. Smith & M. Huston (1989) A theory of the spatial and temporal dynamics of plant communities. Vegetatio, 83, 49–69

F. J. Sterck & F. Bongers (1998) Ontogenetic changes in size, allometry, and mechanical design of tropical rain forest trees. American Journal of Botany, 85, 266–272

F. J. Sterck , D. B. Clark , D. A. Clark & F. Bongers (1999) Light fluctuations, crown traits, and response delays for tree saplings in a Costa Rican lowland rain forest. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 15, 83–95

M. D. Swaine & P. Becker (1999) Woody life-form composition and association on rainfall and soil fertility gradients in Ghana. Plant Ecology, 145, 167–173

S. C. Thomas (1996a) Relative size at onset of maturity in rain forest trees: a comparative analysis of 37 Malaysian species. Oikos, 76, 145–154

S. C. Thomas (1996b) Asymptotic height as a predictor of growth and allometric characteristics in Malaysian rain forest trees. American Journal of Botany, 83, 556–566

M. F. Tobin , O. R. Lopez & T. A. Kursar (1999) Responses of tropical understorey plants to a severe drought: tolerance and avoidance of water stress. Biotropica, 31, 570–578

I. M. Turner (2001) The Ecology of Trees in the Tropical Rain Forest. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

M. T. Tyree & J. S. Sperry (1989) Vulnerability of xylem to cavitation and embolism. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Molecular Biology, 40, 19–38

M. T. Tyree , R. D. Davis & D. Cochard (1994) Biophysical perspectives of xylem function: is there a tradeoff of hydraulic efficiency for vulnerability to disfunction? IAWA Journal, 15, 335–360

M. T. Tyree , V. Velez & J. W. Dalling (1998) Growth dynamics of root and shoot hydraulic conductance in seedlings of five neotropical tree species: scaling to show possible adaptation to different light regimes. Oecologia, 114, 293–298

M. T. Tyree , B. M. J. Engelbrecht , G. Vargas & T. A. Kursar (2003) Desiccation tolerance of five tropical seedlings in Panama. Relationship to a field assessment of drought performance. Plant Physiology, 132, 1439–1447

F. Valladares , M. T. Allen & R. W. Pearcy (1997) Photosynthetic responses to dynamic light under field conditions in six tropical rainforest shrubs occurring along a light gradient. Oecologia, 111, 505–514

F. Valladares , J. B. Skillman & R. W. Pearcy (2002) Convergence in light capture efficiencies among tropical forest understorey plants with contrasting crown architectures: a case of morphological compensation. American Journal of Botany, 89, 1275–1284

E. M. Veenendaal , M. D. Swaine , D. Blay , N. B. Yelifari & C. E. Mullins (1996a) Seasonal and long term soil water regime in West African tropical forest. Journal of Vegetation Science, 7, 473–482

E. M. Veenendaal , M. D. Swaine , V. K. Agyeman et al. (1996b) Differences in plant and soil-water relations in and around a forest gap in West Africa during the dry season may influence seedling establishment and survival. Journal of Ecology, 84, 83–90

R. P. D. Walsh & D. M. Newbery (1999) The ecoclimatology of Danum, Sabah, in the context of the world's rain forest regions, with particular reference to dry periods and their impact. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 354, 1869–1883

C. O. Webb & D. R. Peart (2000) Habitat associations of trees and seedlings in a Bornean rain forest. Journal of Ecology, 88, 464–478

S. J. Wright (1991) Seasonal drought and the phenology of understorey shrubs in a tropical moist forest. Ecology, 72, 1643–1657

S. J. Wright (1992) Seasonal drought, soil fertility and the species density of tropical plant communities. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 7, 260–263

S. J. Wright , J. L. Machado , S. S. Mulkey & A. P. Smith (1992) Drought acclimation among tropical forest shrubs (Psychotria, Rubiaceae). Oecologia, 89, 457–463

A. M. Barton , N. Fetcher & S. Redhead (1989) The relationship between treefall gap size and light flux in a neotropical rain forest in Costa Rica. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 5, 437–439

F. A. Bazzaz & S. T. A. Pickett (1980) Physiological ecology of tropical succession: a comparative review. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 11, 287–310

J. M. G. Bloor (2003) Light responses of shade-tolerant tropical tree species in north-east Queensland: a comparison of forest- and shadehouse-grown seedlings. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 19, 163–170

N. V. L. Brokaw (1985) Gap-phase regeneration in a tropical forest. Ecology, 66, 682–687

N. V. L. Brokaw (1987) Gap-phase regeneration of three pioneer tree species in a tropical forest. Journal of Ecology, 75, 9–19

N. D. Brown & T. C. Whitmore (1992) Do dipterocarp seedlings really partition tropical rain forest gaps? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 335, 369–378

D. F. R. P. Burslem , I. M. Turner & P. J. Grubb (1994) Mineral nutrient status of coastal hill dipterocarp forest and adinandra belukar in Singapore: bioassays of nutrient limitation. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 10, 579–599

D. F. R. P. Burslem , P. J. Grubb & I. M. Turner (1996) Responses to simulated drought and elevated nutrient supply among shade- tolerant tree seedlings of lowland tropical forest in Singapore. Biotropica, 28, 636–648

D. F. R. P. Burslem , T. C. Whitmore & G. C. Brown (2000) Short-term effects of cyclone impact and long-term recovery of tropical rain forest on Kolombangara, Solomon Islands. Journal of Ecology, 88, 1063–1078

J. Chave , H. C. Muller-Landau & S. A. Levin (2002) Comparing classical community models: theoretical consequences for patterns of diversity. American Naturalist, 159, 1–23

P. Chesson (2000) Mechanisms of maintenance of species diversity. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 31, 343–366

J. S. Clark & J. S. McLachlan (2003) Stability of forest biodiversity. Nature, 423, 635–637

J. S. Clark , J. Mohan , M. Dietze & I. Ibanez (2003) Coexistence: how to identify trophic trade-offs. Ecology, 84, 17–31

D. A. Coomes & P. J. Grubb (2003) Colonization, tolerance, competition and seed-size variation within functional groups. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 18, 283–291

J. W. Dalling & E. V. J. Tanner (1995) An experimental study of regeneration on landslides in montane forest in Jamaica. Journal of Ecology, 83, 55–64

J. W. Dalling , K. E. Harms & R. Aizprúa (1997a) Seed damage tolerance and seedling resprout ability of Prioria copaifera (‘El Cativo’). Journal of Tropical Ecology, 13, 617–621

J. W. Dalling , M. D. Swaine & N. C. Garwood (1997b) Soil seed bank community dynamics in seasonally moist lowland forest, Panama. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 13, 659–680

J. W. Dalling , M. D. Swaine & N. C. Garwood (1998) Dispersal patterns and seed bank dynamics of pioneer trees in moist tropical forest. Ecology, 79, 564–578

J. W. Dalling , C. E. Lovelock & S. P. Hubbell (1999) Growth responses of two neotropical pioneer seedlings to simulated forest gap environments. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 15, 827–839

J. W. Dalling , H. C. Muller-Landau , S. J. Wright & S. P. Hubbell (2002) Role of dispersal in the recruitment limitation of neotropical pioneer species. Journal of Ecology, 90, 714–727

J. W. Dalling , K. Winter & S. P. Hubbell (2004) Variation in growth responses of neotropical pioneer species to simulated gaps. Functional Ecology, 18, 725–736

M. I. Daws , D. F. R. P. Burslem , L. M. Crabtree et al. (2002a) Differences in seed germination responses may promote coexistence of four sympatric Piper species. Functional Ecology, 16, 258–267

M. I. Daws , C. E. Mullins , D. F. R. P. Burslem , S. Paton & J. W. Dalling (2002b) Topographic position affects the water regime in a semideciduous tropical forest in Panamá. Plant and Soil, 238, 79–89

I. Debski , D. F. R. P. Burslem , P. A. Palmiotto , J. V. Lafrankie , H. S. Lee & N. Manokaran (2002) Habitat preferences of Aporosa in two Malaysian forests: implications for abundance and coexistence. Ecology, 83, 2005–2018

J. S. Denslow (1980) Gap partitioning among tropical rainforest trees. Biotropica, 12 (Supplement), 47–55

B. M. J. Engelbrecht , V. Velez & M. T. Tyree (2000) Hydraulic conductance of two co-occuring neotropical understorey shrubs with different habitat preferences. Annals of Forest Science, 57, 201–208

B. M. J. Engelbrecht , S. J. Wright & D. Steven (2002) Survival and ecophysiology of tree seedlings during El Niño drought in a tropical moist forest in Panama. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 18, 569–579

N. Fetcher , B. L. Haines , R. A. Cordero et al. (1996) Responses of tropical plants to nutrients and light on a landslide in Puerto Rico. Journal of Ecology, 84, 331–341

B. L. Fisher , H. F. Howe & S. J. Wright (1991) Survival and growth of Virola surinamensis yearlings: water augmentation in gap and understorey. Oecologia, 86, 292–297

G. Funes , S. Basconcelo , S. Diaz & M. Cabido (1999) Seed size and shape are good predictors of seed persistence in soil in temperate mountain grasslands of Argentina. Seed Science Research, 9, 341–345

N. C. Garwood (1983) Seed germination in a seasonal tropical forest in Panama: a community study. Ecological Monographs, 53, 159–181

T. J. Givnish (1988) Adaptation to sun and shade, a whole-plant perspective. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, 15, 63–92

P. J. Grubb (1977) The maintenance of species richness in plant communities: the importance of the regeneration niche. Biological Reviews, 52, 107–145

P. J. Grubb (1998) A reassessment of the strategies of plants which cope with shortages of resources. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 1, 3–31

C. V. S. Gunatilleke , I. A. U. N. Gunatilleke , G. A. D. Perera , D. F. R. P. Burslem , P. M. S. Ashton & P. S. Ashton (1997) Responses to nutrient addition among seedlings of eight closely related species of Shorea in Sri Lanka. Journal of Ecology, 85, 301–311

K. E. Harms & J. W. Dalling (1997) Damage and herbivory tolerance through resprouting as an advantage of large seed size in tropical trees and lianas. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 13, 481–490

H. S. Horn & R. H. MacArthur (1972) Competition among fugitive species in a harlequin environment. Ecology, 53, 749–753

P. Huante , R. Rincón & I. Acosta (1995) Nutrient availability and growth rate of 34 woody species from a tropical deciduous forest in Mexico. Functional Ecology, 9, 849–858

S. P. Hubbell (1979) Tree dispersion, abundance and diversity in a tropical dry forest. Science, 203, 1299–1309

S. P. Hubbell & R. B. Foster (1992) Short-term dynamics of a neotropical forest – why ecological research matters to tropical conservation and management. Oikos, 63, 48–61

G. E. Hutchinson (1959) Homage to Santa Rosalia, or why are there so many different kinds of animals? American Naturalist, 93, 145–159

D. A. King (1994) Influence of light level on the growth and morphology of saplings in a Panamanian forest. American Journal of Botany, 81, 948–957

K. Kitajima (1994) Relative importance of photosynthetic traits and allocation patterns as correlates of seedling shade tolerance of 13 tropical trees. Oecologia, 98, 419–428

K. Kitajima & B. M Bolker (2003) Testing performance rank reversals among coexisting species: crossover point irradiance analysis by Sack & Grubb (2001) and alternatives. Functional Ecology, 17, 276–287

R. K. Kobe (1999) Light gradient partitioning among tropical tree species through differential seedling mortality and growth. Ecology, 80, 187–201

T. Kohyama (1987) Significance of architecture and allometry of saplings. Functional Ecology, 1, 399–404

T. Kohyama & M. Hotta (1991) Significance of allometry in tropical saplings. Functional Ecology, 4, 515–521

R. E. Latham (1992) Co-occurring tree species change rank in seedling performance with resources varied experimentally. Ecology, 73, 2129–2144

D. Lawrence (2003) The response of tropical tree seedlings to nutrient supply: meta-analysis for understanding a changing tropical landscape. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 19, 239–250

S. L. Lewis & E. V. J. Tanner (2000) Effects of above- and below-ground competition on growth and survival of rain forest tree seedlings. Ecology, 81, 2525–2538

R. H. MacArthur & R. Levins (1967) The limiting similarity, convergence, and divergence of coexisting species. American Naturalist, 101, 377–385

T. Marañon & P. J. Grubb (1993) Physiological basis and ecological significance of the seed size and relative growth rate relationship in Mediterranean annuals. Functional Ecology, 7, 591–599

D. J. Metcalfe (1996) Germination of small-seeded tropical rain forest plants exposed to different spectral compositions. Canadian Journal of Botany, 74, 516–520

D. J. Metcalfe & P. J. Grubb (1997) The responses to shade of seedlings of very small-seeded tree and shrub species from tropical rain forest in Singapore. Functional Ecology, 11, 215–221

D. J. Metcalfe , P. J. Grubb & S. S. Metcalfe (2002) Soil dilution as a surrogate for root competition: effects on growth of seedlings of Australian tropical rainforest trees. Functional Ecology, 16, 223–231

J.-F. Molino & D. Sabatier (2001) Tree diversity in a tropical rain forests: a validation of the intermediate disturbance hypothesis. Science, 294, 1702–1704

K. S. Moriuchi , D. L. Venable , C. E. Pake & T. Lange (2000) Direct measurement of the seed bank age structure of a Sonoran desert annual plant. Ecology, 81, 1133–1138

D. J. O'Dowd & M. E. Hay (1980) Mutualism between harvester ants and a desert ephemeral: seed escape from rodents. Ecology, 61, 531–540

T. R. H. Pearson , D. F. R. P. Burslem , C. E. Mullins & J. W. Dalling (2002) Germination ecology of neotropical pioneers: interacting effects of environmental conditions and seed size. Ecology, 83, 2798–2807

T. R. H. Pearson , D. F. R. P. Burslem , C. E. Mullins & J. W. Dalling (2003a) Functional significance of photoblastic germination in neotropical pioneer trees: a seed's eye view. Functional Ecology, 17, 394–402

M. H. Peart (1984) The effects of morphology, orientation and position of grass diaspores on seedling survival. Journal of Ecology, 72, 437–453

O. L. Phillips , P. Núñez Vargas , A. Lorenzo Monteagudo et al. (2003) Habitat association among Amazonian tree species: a landscape-scale approach. Journal of Ecology, 91, 757–775

S. T. A. Pickett (1980) Non-equilibrium coexistence of plants. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 107, 238–246

N. C. A. Pitman , J. W. Terborgh , M. R. Silman & P. Nuñez (1999) Tree species distributions in an upper Amazonian forest. Ecology, 80, 2651–2661

F. E. Putz (1983) Treefall pits and mounds, buried seeds and the importance of soil disturbance to pioneer trees on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Ecology, 64, 1069–1074

M. Rees (1993) Trade-offs among dispersal strategies in the British flora. Nature, 366, 150–152

R. E. Ricklefs (1977) Environmental heterogeneity and plant species diversity: a hypothesis. American Naturalist, 111, 376–381

L. Sack & P. J. Grubb (2001) Why do species of woody seedlings change rank in relative growth rate between low and high irradiance? Functional Ecology, 15, 145–154

M. D. Swaine & T. C. Whitmore (1988) On the definition of ecological species groups in tropical rain forests. Vegetatio, 75, 81–86

J. Terborgh , R. B. Foster & P. Nuñez (1996) Tropical tree communities: a test of the non-equilibrium hypothesis. Ecology, 77, 561–567

T. C. Theimer & C. A. Gehring (1999) Effects of litter-disturbing bird species on tree seedling germination and survival in an Australian tropical rain forest. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 15, 737–749

K. Thompson & J. P. Grime (1979) Seasonal variation in the seed banks of herbaceous species in ten contrasting habitats. Journal of Ecology, 67, 893–921

K. Thompson , S. R. Band & J. G. Hodgson (1993) Seed size and shape predict persistence in soil. Functional Ecology, 7, 236–241

D. Tilman (1994) Competition and biodiversity in spatially structured habitats. Ecology, 75, 2–16

H. Tuomisto , K. Ruokolainen , M. Aguilar & A. Sarmiento (2003) Floristic patterns along a 43-km-long transect in an Amazonian rain forest. Journal of Ecology, 91, 743–756

C. Uhl , K. Clark , N. Dezzeo & P. Maquirino (1988) Vegetation dynamics in Amazonian treefall gaps. Ecology, 69, 751–763

C. Vázquez-Yanes & A. Orozco-Segovia (1982) Seed germination of a tropical rain forest tree Heliocarpus donnell-smithii in response to diurnal fluctuations in temperature. Physiologia Plantarum, 56, 295–298

C. Vázquez-Yanes & A. Orozco-Segovia (1993) Patterns of seed longevity and germination in the tropical rain forest. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 24, 69–87

C. Vázquez-Yanes & H. Smith (1982) Phytochrome control of seed germination in the tropical rain forest pioneer trees Cecropia obtusifolia and Piper auritum and its ecological significance. New Phytologist, 92, 477–485

C. Vázquez-Yanes , A. Orozco-Segovia , E. Rincon et al. (1990) Light beneath the litter in a tropical forest: effect on seed germination. Ecology, 71, 1952–1958

D. L. Venable & J. S. Brown (1988) The selective interactions of dispersal, dormancy, and seed size as adaptations for reducing risk in variable environments. American Naturalist, 131, 360–384

P. M. Vitousek & J. S. Denslow (1986) Nitrogen and phosphorus availability in treefall gaps of a lowland tropical rain-forest. Journal of Ecology, 74, 1167–1178

C. W. Welden , S. W. Hewett , S. P. Hubbell & R. B. Foster (1991) Sapling survival, growth and recruitment: relationship to canopy height in a neotropical forest. Ecology, 72, 35–50

T. C. Whitmore (1966) The social status of Agathis in a rain forest in Melanesia. Journal of Ecology, 54, 285–301

B. Beckage & J. S. Clark (2003) Seedling survival and growth of three forest tree species: the role of spatial heterogeneity. Ecology 84: 1849–1861

C. D. Canham , P. T. LePage & K. D. Coates In press. A neighbourhood analysis of canopy tree competition: effects of shading versus crowding. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 34: 778–787

J. Chase & M. Leibold (2003) Ecological Niches: Linking Classical and Contemporary Approaches. Chicago: University of Chicago Press

J. H. Connell (1980) Diversity and the coevolution of competitors: the ghost of competition past. Oikos 35: 131–138

J. H. Connell , J. G Tracey & L. W. Webb (1984) Compensatory recruitment, growth and mortality as factors maintaining rain forest tree diversity. Ecological Monographs 54: 141–164

A. A. Federov (1966) The structure of the tropical rain forest and speciation in the humid tropics. Journal of Ecology 54: 1–11

W. L. Goffe , G. D. Ferrier & J. Rogers (1994) Global optimization of statistical functions with simulated annealing. Journal of Econometrics 60: 65–99

D. E. Goldberg & P. A. Werner (1982) Equivalence of competitors in plant communities: a null hypothesis and a field experimental approach. American Journal of Botany 70: 1098–1104

D. E. Goldberg , R. Turkington , L. Olsvig- Whittaker & A. R. Dyer (2001) Density dependence in an annual plant community: variation among life history stages. Ecological Monographs 71: 423–446

S. P. Hubbell , R. Condit & R. B. Foster (1990) Presence and absence of density dependence in a neotropical community. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 330: 269–281

S. P. Hubbell , J. A. Ahumada , R. Condit & R. B. Foster (2001) Local neighbourhood effects on long-term survival of individual trees in a neotropical forest. Ecological Research 16: 859–875

G. E. Hutchinson (1961) The paradox of the plankton. American Naturalist 95: 137–145

R. K. Kobe (1996) Intraspecific variation in sapling mortality and growth predicts genographic variation on forest composition. Ecological Monographs 66: 181–201

R. K Kobe , S. W Pacala , J. A. Silander & C. D. Canham (1995) Juvenile tree survivorship as a component of shade tolerance. Ecological Applications 5: 517–532

B. J. McGill (2003) A test of the unified neutral theory of biodiversity. Nature 422: 881–885

C. G. G. J. Steenis (1969) Plant speciation in Malesia, with special reference to the theory of non-adaptive salutatory evolution. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 1: 97–133

J. Vettenranta (1999) Distance-dependent models for predicting the development of mixed coniferous stands in Finland. Silva Fennica 33: 51–72

I. Volkov , J. R. Banavar , S. P. Hubbell & A. Maritan (2003) Neutral theory and relative species abundance in ecology. Nature 424: 1035–1037

R. G. Wagner & S. R. Radosevich (1998) Neighbourhood approach for quantifying interspecific competition in coastal Oregon forests. Ecological Applications 8: 779–794

C. O. Webb (2000) Exploring the phylogenetic structure of ecological communities: an example for rain forest trees. American Naturalist 156: 145–155

M. C. Wimberly & B. B. Bare (1996) Distance- dependent and distance-independent models of Douglas fir and western hemlock basal area growth following silvicultural treatment. Forest Ecology and Management 89: 1–11

P. H. Wyckoff & J. S. Clark (2002) The relationship between growth and mortality for seven co-occurring tree species in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Journal of Ecology 90: 604–615

F. R. Adler & J. Mosquera (2000) Is space necessary? Interference competition and limits to biodiversity. Ecology, 81, 3226–3232

O. W. Archibold (1995) Ecology of World Vegetation. New York: Chapman & Hall

G. Bell (2001) Neutral macroecology. Science, 293, 2413–2418

H. Caswell (1976) Community structure: a neutral model analysis. Ecological Monographs, 46, 327–354

R. Condit , N. Pitman , E. G. Leigh Jret al. (2002) Beta diversity in tropical forest trees. Science, 295, 666–669

J. W. Dalling & S. P. Hubbell (2002) Seed size, growth rate and gap microsite conditions as determinants of recruitment success for pioneer species. Journal of Ecology, 90, 557–568

J. F. Duivenvoorden , J.-C. Svenning & S. J. Wright (2002) Beta diversity in tropical forests. Science, 295, 636–637

J. Fargione , C. S. Brown & D. Tilman (2003) Community assembly and invasion: an experimental test of neutral vs. niche processes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 100, 8916–8920

R. A. Fisher , A. S. Corbet & C. B. Williams (1943) The relation between the number of species and the number of individuals in a random sample of an animal population. Journal of Animal Ecology, 12, 42–58

K. E. Harms , R. Condit , S. P. Hubbell & R. B. Foster (2001) Habitat associations of trees and shrubs in a 50-ha neotropical forest plot. Journal of Ecology, 89, 947–959

G. C. Hurtt & S. W. Pacala (1995) The consequences of recruitment limitation: reconciling chance, history, and competitive differences between plants. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 176, 1–12

A. P. Kinzig , S. A. Levin , J. Dushoff & S. W. Pacala (1999) Limiting similarity, species packing, and system stability for hierarchical competition models. American Naturalist, 153, 371–383

A. P. Kirilenko , N. V. Belotelov , B. G. Bogatyrev (2000) Global model of vegetation migration: incorporation of climatic variability. Ecological Modelling, 132, 125–133

J. M. Levine & D. J. Murrell (2003) The community-level consequences of seed dispersal patterns. Annual Reviews of Ecology and Systematics, 34, 549–574

R. Levins & D. Culver (1971) Regional coexistence of species and competition between rare species. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 68, 1246–1248

R. H. MacArthur (1960) On the relative abundance of species. American Naturalist, 94, 25–36

S. W. Pacala C. D. Canham , J. Saponara , J. A. Silander , R. K. Kobe & E. Ribbens (1996) Forest models defined by field measurements: estimation, error analysis and dynamics. Ecological Monographs, 66, 1–43

R. Pelissier , S. Dray & D. Sabatier (2002) Within-plot relationships between tree species occurrences and hydrological soil constraints: an example in French Guiana investigated through canonical correlation analysis. Plant Ecology, 162, 143–156

H. A. Peters (2003) Neighbour-regulated mortality: the influence of positive and negative density dependence on tree populations in species-rich tropical forests. Ecology Letters, 6, 757–765

L. Poorter & E. J. M. M. Arets (2003) Light environment and tree strategies in a Bolivian moist forest: an evaluation of the light partitioning hypothesis. Plant Ecology, 166, 295–306

F. W. Preston (1948) The commonness, and rarity, of species. Ecology, 29, 254–283

C. R. Pyke , R. Condit , S. Aguilar & S. Lao (2001) Floristic composition across a climatic gradient in a neotropical lowland forest. Journal of Vegetation Science, 12, 553–566

H. H. Shugart (1984) A Theory of Forest Dynamics.New York: Springer-Verlag

J. W. F. Slik & K. A. O. Eichhorn (2003) Fire survival of lowland tropical rain forest trees in relation to stem diameter and topographic position. Oecologia, 137, 446–455

W. Tinner & A. F. Lotter (2001) Central European vegetation response to abrupt climate change at 8.2 ka. Geology, 29, 551–554

H. Tuomisto , K. Ruokolainen & M. Yli-Halla (2003) Dispersal, environment, and floristic variation of western Amazonian forests. Science, 299, 241–244

G. A. Watterson (1974) The sampling theory of selectively neutral alleles. Advances in Applied Probability, 6, 463–488

R. H. Whittaker (1965) Dominance and diversity in land plant communities. Science 147, 250–260

L. Wick (2000) Vegetational response to climatic changes recorded in Swiss late glacial lake sediments. Palaoegeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology, 159, 231–250

J. W. Williams , D. M. Post , L. C. Cwynar , A. F. Lotter & A. J. Levesque (2002) Rapid and widespread vegetation responses to past climate change in the North Atlantic region. Geology, 30, 971–974

H. M. Alexander & J. Antonovics . 1988. Disease spread and population dynamics of anther-smut infection of Silene alba caused by the fungus Ustilago violacea. Journal of Ecology 76: 91–104

H. M. Alexander & R. D. Holt . 1998. The interaction between plant competition and disease. Perspectives in Plant Ecology Evolution and Systematics 1: 206–220

S. A. Alexander , J. M. Skelly & R. S. Webb . 1981. Effects of Heterobasidion annosum on radial growth in southern pine beetle-infested loblolly pine. Phytopathology 71: 479–481

P. A. Anthony , J. A. M. Holtum & B. R. Jackes . 2002. Shade acclimation of rainforest leaves to colonization by lichens. Functional Ecology 16: 808–816

A. E. Arnold , Z. Maynard & G. S. Gilbert . 2001. Fungal endophytes in dicotyledonous neotropical trees: patterns of abundance and diversity. Mycological Research 105: 1502–1507

C. K. Augspurger 1983a. Offspring recruitment around tropical trees – changes in cohort distance with time. Oikos 40: 189–196

J. A. Barone 1998. Host-specificity of folivorous insects in a moist tropical forest. Journal of Animal Ecology 67: 400–409

P. Bayman , P. Angulo-Sandoval , Z. Báez-Ortiz & D. J. Lodge . 1998. Distribution and dispersal of Xylaria endophytes in two tree species in Puerto Rico. Mycological Research 102: 944–948

P. Bayman , L. L. Lebron , R. L. Tremblay & D. J. Lodge . 1997. Variation in endophytic fungi from roots and leaves of Lepanthes (Orchidaceae). New Phytologist 135: 143–149

I. E. Bella & S. Navratil . 1988. Western gall rust dynamics and impact in young lodgepole pine stands in west-central Alberta. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 18: 1437–1442

J. D. Bever 1994. Feedback between plants and their soil communities in an old field community. Ecology 75: 1965–1977

J. D. Bever , K. M. Westover & J. Antonovics . 1997. Incorporating the soil community into plant population dynamics: the utility of the feedback approach. Journal of Ecology 85: 561–573

G. F. Bills & J. D. Polishook . 1994. Abundance and diversity of microfungi in leaf litter of a lowland rain forest in Costa Rica. Mycologia 86: 187–198

W. J. Bloomberg & D. J. Morrison . 1989. Relationship of growth reduction in Douglas-fir to infection by Armillaria root disease in southeastern British Columbia [Canada]. Phytopathology 79: 482–487

D. J. Bradley , G. S. Gilbert & I. M. Parker . 2003. Susceptibility of clover species to fungal infection: the interaction of leaf surface traits and environment. American Journal of Botany 90: 857–864

J. J. Burdon & G. A. Chilvers . 1982. Host density as a factor in plant disease ecology. Annual Review of Phytopathology 20: 143–166

J. J. Burdon & A. M. Jarosz . 1991. Host-pathogen interactions in natural populations of Linum marginale and Melampsora lini. 1. Patterns of resistance and racial variation in a large host population. Evolution 45: 205–217

P. F. Cannon & D. L. Hawksworth . 1995. The diversity of fungi associated with vascular plants: the known, the unknown and the need to bridge the knowledge gap. Advances in Plant Pathology 11: 277–302

U. Carlsson-Graner 1997. Anther-smut disease in Silene dioica: variation in susceptibility among genotypes and populations, and patterns of disease within populations. Evolution 51: 1416–1426

W.-Q. Chen , D. E. Gardner & D. T. Webb . 1996. Biology and life cycle of Atelocauda koae, an unusual demicyclic rust. Mycoscience 37: 91–98

D. A. Clark & D. Clark . 1984. Spacing dynamics of a tropical rain forest tree: evaluation of the Janzen–Connell model. American Naturalist 124: 769–788

D. B. Clark & D. A. Clark . 1985. Seedling dynamics of a tropical tree: impacts of herbivory and meristem damage. Ecology 66: 1884–1892

K. Clay 1995. Correlates of pathogen species richness in the grass family. Canadian Journal of Botany 73: S42–S49

A. L. Davelos , H. M. Alexander & N. A. Slade . 1996. Ecological genetic interactions between a clonal host plant (Spartina pectinata) and associated rust fungi (Puccinia seymouriana and Puccinia sparganioides). Oecologia 105: 205–213

G. L. Fail & J. H. Langenheim . 1990. Infection processes of Pestalotia subcuticularis on leaves of Hymenaea courbaril. Phytopathology 80: 1259–1265

A. Ferrer & G. S. Gilbert . 2003. Effect of tree host species on fungal community composition in a tropical rain forest in Panama. Diversity and Distributions 9: 455–468

L. R. Fox & P. A. Morrow . 1981. Specialization: species property or local phenomenon? Science 211: 887–893

G. García-Guzmán , J. J. Burdon , J. E. Ash & R. B. Cunningham . 1996. Regional and local patterns in the spatial distribution of the flower-infecting smut fungus Sporisorium amphilophis in natural populations of its host Bothriochloa macra. New Phytologist 132: 459–469

G. García-Guzmán & R. Dirzo . 2001. Patterns of leaf-pathogen infection in the understorey of a Mexican rain forest: incidence, spatiotemporal variation, and mechanisms of infection. American Journal of Botany 88: 634–645

D. E. Gardner 1994. The native rust fungi of Hawaii. Canadian Journal of Botany 72: 976–989

G. S. Gilbert 2002. Evolutionary ecology of plant diseases in natural ecosystems. Annual Review of Phytopathology 40: 13–43

G. S. Gilbert , A. Ferrer & J. Carranza . 2002. Polypore fungal diversity and host density in a moist tropical forest. Biodiversity and Conservation 11: 947–957

G. S. Gilbert & W. P. Sousa . 2002. Host specialization among wood-decay polypore fungi in a Caribbean mangrove forest. Biotropica 34: 396–404

E. M. Hansen & E. M. Goheen . 2000. Phellinus weirii and other native root pathogens as determinants of forest structure and process in western North America. Annual Review of Phytopathology 38: 515–539

K. E. Harms , S. J. Wright , O. Calderon , A. Hernandez & E. A. Herre . 2000. Pervasive density-dependent recruitment enhances seedling diversity in a tropical forest. Nature 404: 493–495

D. L. Hawksworth 2001. The magnitude of fungal diversity: the 1.5 million species estimate revisited. Mycological Research 105: 1422–1432

S. P. Hubbell 1997. A unified theory of biogeography and relative species abundance and its application to tropical rain forests and coral reefs. Coral Reefs 16: S9–S21

D. H. Janzen 1970. Herbivores and the number of tree species in tropical forests. The American Naturalist 104: 501–527

K. Kitajima & C. K. Augspurger . 1989. Seed and seedling ecology of a monocarpic tropical tree, Tachigalia versicolor. Ecology 70: 1102–1114

T. Laessøe & D. J. Lodge . 1994. Three host-specific Xylaria species. Mycologia 86: 436–446

J. H. Langenheim & W. H. Stubblebine . 1983. Variation in leaf resin composition between parent tree and progeny in Hymenaea: implications for herbivory in the humid tropics. Biochemistry Systematics and Ecology 11: 97–106

C. Leben 1965. Epiphytic microorganisms in relation to plant disease. Annual Review of Phytopathology 3: 209–230

I. Lindblad 2000. Host specificity of some wood-inhabiting fungi in a tropical forest. Mycologia 92: 399–405

> I. Lindblad 2001. Diversity of poroid and some corticoid wood-inhabiting fungi along the rainfall gradient in tropical forests, Costa Rica. Journal of Tropical Ecology 17: 353–369

D. J. Lodge 1997. Factors related to diversity of decomposer fungi in tropical forests. Biodiversity and Conservation 6: 681–688

D. J. Lodge & S. Cantrell . 1995. Fungal communities in wet tropical forests: variation in time and space. Canadian Journal of Botany 73: S1391–S1398

D. J. Lodge , P. J. Fisher & B. C. Sutton . 1996. Endophytic fungi of Manilkara bidentata leaves in Puerto Rico. Mycologia 88: 733–738

R. M. May 1991. A fondness for fungi. Nature 352: 475–476

I. Y. Opoku , A. Y. Akrofi & A. A. Appiah . 2002. Shade trees are alternative hosts of the cocoa pathogen Phytophthora megakarya. Crop Protection 21: 629–634

A. Packer & K. Clay . 2000. Soil pathogens and spatial patterns of seedling mortality in a temperate tree. Nature 404: 278–281

J. D. Polishook , G. F. Bills & D. J. Lodge . 1996. Microfungi from decaying leaves of two rain forest trees in Puerto Rico. Journal of Industrial Microbiology 17: 284–294

F. E. Putz , P. D. Coley , K. Lu , A. Montalvo & A. Aiello . 1983. Uprooting and snapping of trees: structural determinants and ecological consequences. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 13: 1011–1020

D. M. Rizzo & M. Garbelotto . 2003. Sudden oak death: endangering California and Oregon forest ecosystems. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 1: 197–204

K. F. Rodrigues 1994. The foliar fungal endophytes of the Amazonian palm Euterpe oleracea. Mycologia 86: 376–385

M. H. Schoeman , B. Q. Manicom & M. J. Wingfield . 1995. Epidemiology of powdery mildew on mango blossoms. Plant Disease 79: 524–528

S. E. Travers , G. S. Gilbert & E. F. Perry . 1998. The effect of rust infection on reproduction in a tropical tree (Faramea occidentalis). Biotropica 30: 438–443

C. O. Webb & D. R. Peart . 1999. Seedling density dependence promotes coexistence of Bornean rain forest trees. Ecology 80: 2006–2017

F. L. Wellman & E. Echandi . 1981. The coffee rust situation in Latin America in 1980. Phytopathology 71: 968–971

G. Weste & G. C. Marks . 1987. The biology of Phytophthora cinnamomi in Australasian forests. Annual Review of Phytopathology 25: 207–229

J. J. Worrall & T. C. Harrington . 1988. Etiology of canopy gaps in spruce-fir forests at Crawford Notch, New Hampshire [USA]. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 18: 1463–1469

R. A. Abuzinadah & D. J. Read (1986) The role of proteins in the nitrogen nutrition of ectomycorrhizal plants. 1. Utilization of peptides and proteins by ectomycorrhizal fungi. New Phytologist, 103, 481–493

R. Agerer (2001) Exploration types of ectomycorrhizae – a proposal to classify ectomycorrhizal mycelial systems according to their patterns of differentiation and putative ecological importance. Mycorrhiza, 11, 107–114

I. J. Alexander , N. Ahmad & S. S. Lee (1992) The role of mycorrhizae in the regeneration of some Malaysian forest trees. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 335, 379–388

R. K. Antibus , R. L. Sinsabaugh & A. E. Linkins (1992) Phosphatase-activities and phosphorus uptake from inositol phosphate by ectomycorrhizal fungi. Canadian Journal of Botany, 70, 794–801

A. M. Ba , K. B. Sanon , R. Duponnois & J. Dexheimer (1999) Growth response of Afzelia africana Sm. seedlings to ectomycorrhizal inoculation in a nutrient-deficient soil. Mycorrhiza, 9, 91–95

A. M. Ba , K. B. Sanon & R. Duponnois (2002) Influence of ectomycorrhizal inoculation on Afzelia quanzensis Welw. seedlings in a nutrient-deficient soil. Forest Ecology and Management, 161, 215–219

I. C. Baillie , P. S. Ashton , M. N. Court , J. A. R. Anderson , E. A. Fitzpatrick & J. Tinsley (1987) Site characteristics and the distribution of tree species in mixed dipterocarp forest on tertiary sediments in central Sarawak, Malaysia. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 3, 201–220

M. I. Bakarr & D. P. Janos (1996) Mycorrhizal associations of tropical legume trees in Sierra Leone, West Africa. Forest Ecology and Management, 89, 89–92

G. D. Bending & D. J. Read (1995) The structure and function of the vegetative mycelium of ectomycorrhizal plants. 5. Foraging behaviour and translocation of nutrients from exploited litter. New Phytologist, 130, 401–409

G. D. Bending & D. J. Read (1996) Nitrogen mobilization from protein–polyphenol complex by ericoid and ectomycorrhizal fungi. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 28, 1603–1612

M. Bereau , T. S. Barigah , E. Louisanna & J. Garbaye (2000) Effects of endomycorrhizal development and light regimes on the growth of Dicorynia guianensis Amshoff seedlings. Annals of Forest Science, 57, 725–733

J. D. Bever (2002a) Host-specificity of AM fungal population growth rates can generate feedback on plant growth. Plant and Soil, 244, 281–290

J. D. Bever (2003) Soil community feedback and the coexistence of competitors: conceptual frameworks and empirical tests. New Phytologist, 157, 465–473

M. I. Bidartondo & T. D. Bruns (2001) Extreme specificity in epiparasitic Monotropoideae (Ericaceae): widespread phylogenetic and geographical structure. Molecular Ecology 10, 2285–2295

M. I. Bidartondo , D. Redecker , I. Hijri et al. (2002) Epiparasitic plants specialized on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Nature, 419, 389–392

N. S. Bolan (1991) A critical review on the role of mycorrhizal fungi in the uptake of phosphorus by plants. Plant and Soil, 134, 189–207

V. A. Borowicz (2001) Do arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alter plant–pathogen relations? Ecology, 82, 3057–3068

S. M. Bradbury (1998) Ectomycorrhizas of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) seedlings originating from seed in Southwestern Alberta cut blocks. Canadian Journal of Botany, 76, 213–217

M. B. Branzanti , E. Rocca & A. Pisi (1999) Effect of ectomycorrhizal fungi on chestnut ink disease. Mycorrhiza, 9, 103–109

F. Q. Brearley , M. C. Press & J. D. Scholes (2003) Nutrients obtained from leaf litter can improve the growth of dipterocarp seedlings. New Phytologist, 160, 101–110

C. Brownlee , J. A. Duddridge , A. Malibari & D. J. Read (1983) The structure and function of mycelial systems of ectomycorrhizal roots with special reference to their role in assimilate and water transport. Plant and Soil, 71, 433–443

R. A. Bungard , S. A. Zipperlen , M. C. Press & J. D. Scholes (2002) The influence of nutrients on growth and photosynthesis of seedlings of two rainforest dipterocarp species. Functional Plant Biology, 29, 505–515

D. F. R. P. Burslem , P. J. Grubb & I. M. Turner (1995) Responses to nutrient addition among shade-tolerant tree seedlings of lowland tropical rain-forest in Singapore. Journal of Ecology, 83, 113–122

J. W. G. Cairney (1999) Intraspecific physiological variation: implications for understanding functional diversity in ectomycorrhizal fungi. Mycorrhiza, 9, 125–135

G. B. Chuyong , D. M. Newbery & N. C. Songwe (2002) Litter breakdown and mineralization in a Central African rain forest dominated by ectomycorrhizal trees. Biogeochemistry, 61, 73–94

J. P. Clapp , A. Rodriguez & J. C. Dodd (2002) Glomales rRNA gene diversity – all that glistens is not necessarily Glomalean? Mycorrhiza, 12, 269–270

C. C. Cleveland , A. R. Townsend & S. K. Schmidt (2002) Phosphorus limitation of microbial processes in moist tropical forests: evidence from short-term laboratory incubations and field studies. Ecosystems, 5, 680–691

P. D. Coley & J. A. Barone (1996) Herbivory and plant defences in tropical forests. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 27, 305–335

J. V. Colpaert , A. Vanlaere , K. K. Vantichelen & J. A. Vanassche (1997) The use of inositol hexaphosphate as a phosphorus source by mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). Functional Ecology, 11, 407–415

J. H. C. Cornelissen , R. Aerts , B. Cerabolini , M. J. A. Werger & M. G. A. Heijden (2001) Carbon cycling traits of plant species are linked with mycorrhizal strategy. Oecologia, 129, 611–619

E. Cuevas & E. Medina (1988) Nutrient dynamics within Amazonian forests. 2. Fine-root growth, nutrient availability and leaf litter decomposition. Oecologia, 76, 222–235

J. R. Cumming & J. Ning (2003) Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi enhance aluminium resistance of broomsedge (Andropogon virginicus L.). Journal of Experimental Botany, 54, 1447–1459

J. R. Cumming & L. H. Weinstein (1990) Aluminum-mycorrhizal interactions in the physiology of pitch pine seedlings. Plant and Soil, 125, 7–18

A. Dahlberg & E. Stenström (1991) Dynamic changes in nursery and indigenous mycorrhiza of Pinus sylvestris seedlings planted out in forest and clearcuts. Plant and Soil, 136, 73–86

L. J. Delissio & R. B. Primack (2003) The impact of drought on the population dynamics of canopy-tree seedlings in an aseasonal Malaysian rain forest. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 19, 489–500

J. S. Denslow , P. M. Vitousek & J. C. Schultz (1987) Bioassays of nutrient limitation in a tropical rain-forest soil. Oecologia, 74, 370–376

K. S. Emmerton , T. V. Callaghan , H. E. Jones , J. R. Leake , A. Michelsen & D. J. Read (2001a) Assimilation and isotopic fractionation of nitrogen by mycorrhizal fungi. New Phytologist, 151, 503–511

G. Feng , Y. C. Song , X. L. Li & P. Christie (2003) Contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to utilization of organic sources of phosphorus by red clover in a calcareous soil. Applied Soil Ecology, 22, 139–148

A. C. Gange (2001) Species-specific responses of a root- and shoot-feeding insect to arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of its host plant. New Phytologist, 150, 611–618

A. C. Gange & H. M. West (1994) Interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and foliar-feeding insects in Plantago lanceolata L. New Phytologist, 128, 79–87

M. Gardes & T. D. Bruns (1996) Community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi in a Pinus muricata forest: above- and below-ground views. Canadian Journal of Botany, 74, 1572–1583

C. A. Gehring (2003) Growth responses to arbuscular mycorrhizae by rain forest seedlings vary with light intensity and tree species. Plant Ecology, 167, 127–139

C. A. Gehring & T. G. Whitham (1994) Interactions between aboveground herbivores and the mycorrhizal mutualists of plants. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 9, 251–255

C. A. Gehring , N. S. Cobb & T. G. Whitman (1997) Three-way interactions among ectomycorrhizal mutualists, scale insects, and resistant and susceptible Pinyon pines. American Naturalist, 149, 824–841

G. S. Gilbert (1994) Density- and distance-to-adult effects of a canker disease of trees in a moist tropical forest. Oecologia, 98, 100–108

M. Goverde , M. G. A. Heijden , A. Wiemken , I. R. Sanders & A. Erhardt (2000) Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi influence life history traits of a lepidopteran herbivore. Oecologia, 125, 362–369

J. H. Graham (2001) What do root pathogens see in mycorrhizas? New Phytologist, 149, 357–359

J. J. Green & D. M. Newbery (2001) Light and seed size affect establishment of grove-forming ectomycorrhizal rain forest tree species. New Phytologist, 151, 271–289

R. P. Griffiths , E. R. Ingham , B. A. Caldwell , M. A. Castellano & K. Cromack (1991) Microbial characteristics of ectomycorrhizal mat communities in Oregon and California. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 11, 196–202

M. M. Hart , R. J. Reader & J. N. Klironomos (2003) Plant coexistence mediated by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 18, 418–423

T. B. Hart , J. A. Hart & P. G. Murphy (1989) Monodominant and species-rich forests of the humid tropics – causes for their co-occurrence. American Naturalist, 133, 613–633

D. C. Hartnett & G. W. T. Wilson (2002) The role of mycorrhizas in plant community structure and dynamics: lessons from grasslands. Plant and Soil, 244, 319–331

R. J. Haynes & M. S. Mokolobate (2001) Amelioration of Al toxicity and P deficiency in acid soils by additions of organic residues: a critical review of the phenomenon and the mechanisms involved. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 59, 47–63

T. W. Henkel (2003) Monodominance in the ectomycorrhizal Dicymbe corymbosa (Caesalpiniaceae) from Guyana. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 19, 417–437

T. W. Henkel , J. Terborgh & R. J. Vilgalys (2002) Ectomycorrhizal fungi and their leguminous hosts in the Pakaraima mountains of Guyana. Mycological Research, 106, 515–531

A. Hodge (2003) N capture by Plantago lanceolata and Brassica napus from organic material: the influence of spatial dispersion, plant competition and an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus. Journal of Experimental Botany, 54, 2331–2342

A. Hodge , C. D. Campbell & A. H. Fitter (2001) An arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus accelerates decomposition and acquires nitrogen directly from organic material. Nature, 413, 297–299

P. Högberg & I. J. Alexander (1995) Roles of root symbioses in African woodland and forest – evidence from N15 abundance and foliar analysis. Journal of Ecology, 83, 217–224

M. N. Högberg & P. Hogberg (2002) Extramatrical ectomycorrhizal mycelium contributes one-third of microbial biomass and produces, together with associated roots, half the dissolved organic carbon in a forest soil. New Phytologist, 154, 791–795

P. Högberg , A. Nordgren , N. Buchmann et al. (2001) Large-scale forest girdling shows that current photosynthesis drives soil respiration. Nature, 411, 789–792

T. R. Horton & T. D. Bruns (1998) Multiple-host fungi are the most frequent and abundant ectomycorrhizal types in a mixed stand of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and bishop pine (Pinus muricata). New Phytologist, 139, 331–339

T. R. Horton & T. D. Bruns (2001) The molecular revolution in ectomycorrhizal ecology: peeking into the black-box. Molecular Ecology, 10, 1855–1871

R. Husband , E. A. Herre , S. L. Turner , R. Gallery & J. P. W. Young (2002a) Molecular diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and patterns of host association over time and space in a tropical forest. Molecular Ecology, 11, 2669–2678

R. Husband , E. A. Herre & J. P. W. Young (2002b) Temporal variation in the arbuscular mycorrhizal communities colonising seedlings in a tropical forest. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 42, 131–136

S. F. Hwang , P. Chakravarty & K. F. Chang (1995) The effect of two ectomycorrhizal fungi, Paxillus involutus and Suillus tomentosus, and of Bacillus subtilis, on Fusarium damping-off in Jack pine seedlings. Phytoprotection, 76, 57–66

K. Ingleby , R. C. Munro , M. Noor , P. A. Mason & M. J. Clearwater (1998) Ectomycorrhizal populations and growth of Shorea parvifolia (Dipterocarpaceae) seedlings regenerating under three different forest canopies following logging. Forest Ecology & Management, 111, 171–179

I. Jakobsen , L. K. Abbott & A. D. Robson (1992) External hyphae of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with Trifolium subterraneum L.1. Spread of hyphae and phosphorus inflow into roots. New Phytologist, 120, 371–380

D. P. Janos (1980b) Mycorrhizae influence tropical succession. Biotropica, 12 (supplement), 56–64

G. Jentschke & D. L. Godbold (2000) Metal toxicity and ectomycorrhizas. Physiologia Plantarum, 109, 107–116

A. H. Johnson , J. Frizano & D. R. Vann (2003) Biogeochemical implications of labile phosphorus in forest soils determined by the Hedley fractionation procedure. Oecologia, 135, 487–499

E. J. Joner & I. Jakobsen (1995) Uptake of P32 from labelled organic matter by mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L). Plant and Soil, 172, 221–227

E. J. Joner , I. M. Aarle & M. Vosatka (2000) Phosphatase activity of extra-radical arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae: a review. Plant and Soil, 226, 199–210

L. Jonsson , A. Dahlberg , M. C. Nilsson , O. Karen & O. Zackrisson (1999) Continuity of ectomycorrhizal fungi in self-regenerating boreal Pinus sylvestris forests studied by comparing mycobiont diversity on seedlings and mature trees. New Phytologist, 142, 151–162

R. T. Koide & I. A. Dickie (2002) Effects of mycorrhizal fungi on plant populations. Plant and Soil, 244, 307–317

R. T. Koide & Z. Kabir (2000) Extraradical hyphae of the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices can hydrolyse organic phosphate. New Phytologist, 148, 511–517

D. A. Kyllo , V. Velez & M. T. Tyree (2003) Combined effects of arbuscular mycorrhizas and light on water uptake of the neotropical understoroy shrubs, Piper and Psychotria. New Phytologist, 160, 443–454

J. Larsen & L. Bodker (2001) Interactions between pea root-inhabiting fungi examined using signature fatty acids. New Phytologist, 149, 487–493

P. Mader , H. Vierheilig , R. Streitwolf-Engel et al. (2000) Transport of N15 from a soil compartment separated by a polytetrafluoroethylene membrane to plant roots via the hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. New Phytologist 146, 155–161

L. A. Martinelli , M. C. Piccolo , A. R. Townsend et al. (1999) Nitrogen stable isotopic composition of leaves and soil: tropical versus temperate forests. Biogeochemistry, 46, 45–65

A. Marulanda , R. Azcon & J. M. Ruiz-Lozano (2003) Contribution of six arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal isolates to water uptake by Lactuca sativa plants under drought stress. Physiologia Plantarum, 119, 526–533

A. A. Meharg & J. W. G. Cairney (2000) Co-evolution of mycorrhizal symbionts and their hosts to metal-contaminated environments. Advances in Ecological Research, 30, 69–112

E. Mirmanto , J. Proctor , J. Green , L. Nagy & Suriantata (1999) Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization in a lowland evergreen rainforest. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 354, 1825–1829

D. Morandi (1996) Occurrence of phytoalexins and phenolic compounds in endomycorrhizal interactions, and their potential role in biological control. Plant & Soil 185, 241–251

B. Moyersoen & A. H. Fitter (1999) Presence of arbuscular mycorrhizas in typically ectomycorrhizal host species from Cameroon and New Zealand. Mycorrhiza, 8, 247–253

B. Moyersoen , I. J. Alexander & A. H. Fitter (1998) Phosphorus nutrition of ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal tree seedlings from a lowland tropical rain forest in Korup National Park, Cameroon. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 14, 47–61

B. Moyersoen , A. H. Fitter & I. J. Alexander (1998) Spatial distribution of ectomycorrhizas and arbuscular mycorrhizas in Korup National Park Rain Forest, Cameroon, in relation to edaphic parameters. New Phytologist, 139, 311–320

B. Moyersoen , P. Becker & I. J. Alexander (2001) Are ectomycorrhizas more abundant than arbuscular mycorrhizas in tropical heath forests? New Phytologist, 150, 591–599

K. Natarajan & K. V. Chandrashekara (1978) A new species of Tomentella from south India. Mycologia 70, 1294–1297

J. Neville , J. L. Tessier , I. Morrison , J. Scarratt , B. Canning & J. N. Klironomos (2002) Soil depth distribution of ecto- and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with Populus tremuloides within a 3-year-old boreal forest clear-cut. Applied Soil Ecology, 19, 209–216

D. M. Newbery , I. J. Alexander , D. W. Thomas & J. S. Gartlan (1988) Ectomycorrhizal rain-forest legumes and soil phosphorus in Korup National Park, Cameroon. New Phytologist, 109, 433–450

D. M. Newbery , I. J. Alexander & J. A. Rother (1997) Phosphorus dynamics in a lowland African rain forest: the influence of ectomycorrhizal trees. Ecological Monographs, 67, 367–409

D. M. Newbery , I. J. Alexander & J. A. Rother (2000) Does proximity to conspecific adults influence the establishment of ectomycorrhizal trees in rain forest? New Phytologist, 147, 401–409

D. M. Newbery , G. B. Chuyong , J. J. Green , N. C. Songwe , F. Tchuenteu & L. Zimmermann (2002a) Does low phosphorus supply limit seedling establishment and tree growth in groves of ectomycorrhizal trees in a Central African rainforest? New Phytologist, 156, 297–311

K. K. Newsham , A. H. Fitter & A. R. Watkinson (1995a) Multi-functionality and biodiversity in arbuscular mycorrhizas. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 10, 407–411

K. K. Newsham , A. H. Fitter & A. R. Watkinson (1995b) Arbuscular mycorrhiza protect an annual grass from root pathogenic fungi in the field. Journal of Ecology, 83, 991–1000

P. J. O'Connor , S. E. Smith & E. A. Smith (2002) Arbuscular mycorrhizas influence plant diversity and community structure in a semiarid herbland. New Phytologist, 154, 209–218

N. A. Onguene & T. W. Kuyper (2002) Importance of the ectomycorrhizal network for seedling survival and ectomycorrhiza formation in rain forests of South Cameroon. Mycorrhiza, 12, 13–17

M. W. Palmer (1991) Estimating species richness: the second-order jackknife reconsidered. Ecology, 72, 1512–1513

T. R. H. Pearson , D. F. R. P Burslem , R. E. Goeriz & J. W. Dalling (2003) Regeneration niche partitioning in neotropical pioneers: effects of gap size, seasonal drought and herbivory on growth and survival. Oecologia, 137, 456–465

J. Perez-Moreno & D. J. Read (2000) Mobilization and transfer of nutrients from litter to tree seedlings via the vegetative mycelium of ectomycorrhizal plants. New Phytologist, 145, 301–309

J. Persson , P. Hogberg , A. Ekblad , M. N. Hogberg , A. Nordgren & T. Nasholm (2003) Nitrogen acquisition from inorganic and organic sources by boreal forest plants in the field. Oecologia, 137, 252–257

L. B. Rabin & R. S. Pacovsky (1985) Reduced larva growth of two Lepidoptera (Noctuidae) on excised leaves of soybean infected with a mycorrhizal fungus. Journal of Economic Entomology, 78, 1358–1363

D. J. Read (1991) Mycorrhizas in ecosystems. Experientia, 47, 376–391

D. J. Read (1997) The ties that bind. Nature, 388, 517–518

D. J. Read & J. Perez-Moreno (2003) Mycorrhizas and nutrient cycling in ecosystems: a journey towards relevance? New Phytologist, 157, 475–492

P. Reddell & N. Malajczuk (1984) Formation of mycorrhizae by jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata Donn ex Smith) in litter and soil. Australian Journal of Botany, 32, 511–520

D. Redeker (2002) Molecular identification and phylogeny of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Plant & Soil, 244, 67–73

P. J. Roberts & B. M. Spooner (2000) Cantherelloid, clavarioid and thelephoroid fungi from Brunei Darussalam. Kew Bulletin, 55, 843–851

D. Robinson & A. Fitter (1999) The magnitude and control of carbon transfer between plants linked by a common mycorrhizal network. Journal of Experimental Botany, 50, 9–13

G. Rufyikiri , S. Declerck , J. E. Dufey & B. Delvaux (2000) Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi might alleviate aluminium toxicity in banana plants. New Phytologist, 148, 343–352

F. E. Sanders , P. B. Tinker , R. L. B. Black & S. M. Palmerley (1977) The development of endomycorrhizal root systems: I. Spread of infection and growth-promoting effects with four species of vesicular-arbuscular endophyte. New Phytologist, 78, 257–268

A. Schüssler , H. Gehrig , D. Schwarzott & C. Walker (2001) Analysis of partial Glomales SSU rRNA gene sequences: implications for primer design and phylogeny. Mycological Research, 105, 5–15

L. B. Shi , M. Guttenberger , I. Kottke & R. Hampp (2002) The effect of drought on mycorrhizas of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.): changes in community structure, and the content of carbohydrates and nitrogen storage bodies of the fungi. Mycorrhiza, 12, 303–311

R. Singer & I. Araujo-Aguiar (1986) Litter decomposition and ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes in an Igapó forest. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 153, 107–117

J. O. Siqueira & O. J. Saggin-Junior (2001) Dependency on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and responsiveness of some Brazilian native woody species. Mycorrhiza, 11, 245–255

B. Söderström (2002) Challenges for mycorrhizal research into the new millennium. Plant and Soil, 244, 1–7

G. Straatsma & I. Krisai-Greilhuber (2003) Assemblage structure, species richness, abundance, and distribution of fungal fruit bodies in a seven-year plot-based survey near Vienna. Mycological Research, 107, 632–640

G. Straatsma , F. Ayer & S. Egli (2001) Species richness, abundance, and phenology of fungal fruit bodies over 21 years in a Swiss forest plot. Mycological Research, 105, 515–523

E. V. J. Tanner (1977) Four montane rain forests of Jamaica: a quantitative characterisation of the floristics, the soils and the foliar mineral levels, and a discussion of the inter-relationships. Journal of Ecology, 65, 883–918

E. V. J. Tanner , V. Kapos & W. Franco (1992) Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization effects on Venezuelan montane forest trunk growth and litterfall. Ecology, 73, 78–86

E. V. J. Tanner , P. M. Vitousek & E. Cuevas (1998) Experimental investigation of nutrient limitation of forest growth on wet tropical mountains. Ecology, 79, 10–22

J. C. Tarafdar & H. Marschner (1994) Phosphatase-activity in the rhizosphere and hyphosphere of VA mycorrhizal wheat supplied with inorganic and organic phosphorus. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 26, 387–395

K. Tawaraya , Y. Takaya , M. Turjaman et al. (2003) Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of tree species grown in peat swamp forests of central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Forest Ecology and Management, 182, 381–386

A. F. S. Taylor & I. J. Alexander (1990) Demography and population-dynamics of ectomycorrhizas of Sitka spruce fertilized with N. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment, 28, 493–496

L. Thomas , B. C. Mallesha & D. J. Bagyaraj (1994) Biological control of damping-off of cardamom by the VA mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus fasciculatum. Microbiological Research, 149, 413–417

B. D. Thomson , T. S. Grove , N. Malajczuk & G. E. S. J. Hardy (1994) The effectiveness of ectomycorrhizal fungi in increasing the growth of Eucalyptus globulus Labill in relation to root colonization and hyphal development in soil. New Phytologist, 126, 517–524

H. Tiessen , E. Cuevas & P. Chacon (1994) The role of soil organic-matter in sustaining soil fertility. Nature, 371, 783–785

S. D. Torti & P. D. Coley (1999) Tropical monodominance: a preliminary test of the ectomycorrhizal hypothesis. Biotropica, 31, 220–228

S. D. Torti , P. D. Coley & T. A. Kursar (2001) Causes and consequences of monodominance in tropical lowland forests. American Naturalist, 157, 141–153

T. Unestam & Y. P. Sun (1995) Extramatrical structures of hydrophobic and hydrophilic ectomycorrhizal fungi. Mycorrhiza, 5, 301–311

P. Vandenkoornhuyse , R. Husband , T. J. Daniell et al. (2002) Arbuscular mycorrhizal community composition associated with two plant species in a grassland ecosystem. Molecular Ecology 11, 1555–1564

P. Vandenkoornhuyse , K. P. Ridgway , I. J. Watson , A. H. Fitter & J. P. W. Young (2003) Co-existing grass species have distinctive arbuscular mycorrhizal communities. Molecular Ecology, 12, 3085–3095

P. M. Vitousek (1984) Litterfall, nutrient cycling, and nutrient limitation in tropical forests. Ecology, 65, 285–298

P. M. Vitousek & R. L. Sanford (1986) Nutrient cycling in moist tropical forest. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 17, 137–167

P. M. Vitousek , G. Gerrish , D. R. Turner , L. R. Walker & D. Mueller-Dombois (1995) Literfall and nutrient cycling in four Hawaiian montane rainforests. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 11, 189–203

J. L. Whitbeck (2001) Effects of light environment on vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza development in Inga leiocalycina, a tropical wet forest tree. Biotropica, 33, 303–311

S. M. Yazid , S. S. Lee & F. Lapeyrie (1994) Growth stimulation of Hopea spp. (Dipterocarpaceae) seedlings following ectomycorrhizal inoculation with an exotic strain of Pisolithus tinctorius. Forest Ecology and Management, 67, 339–343

W. Zangaro , S. M. A. Nisizaki , J. C. B. Domingos & E. M. Nakano (2003) Mycorrhizal response and successional status in 80 woody species from south Brazil. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 19, 315–324

E. D. Allen , E. Rincon , M. F. Allen , A. Perez-Jimenez & P. P. Huante . 1998. Disturbance and seasonal dynamics of mycorrhizae in a tropical deciduous forest in Mexico. Biotropica 30: 261–274

M. F. Allen 1996. The ecology of arbuscular mycorrhizas: a look back into the 20th century and a peek into the 21st. Mycological Research 100: 769–782

M. F. Allen , T. S. Moore & M. Christiensen . 1980. Phytohormone changes in Bouteloua gracilis infected by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae: I. Cytokinin increases in the host plant. Canadian Journal of Botany 58: 371–374

G. Andrade , K. L. Mihara , R. G. Linderman & G. L. Bethlenfalvay . 1998. Soil aggregation status and rhizobacteria in the mycorrhizosphere. Plant Soil 202: 89–96

C. K. Augspurger 1984. Seedling survival of tropical tree species: interactions of dispersal distance, light-gaps, and pathogens. Ecology 65: 1705–1712

R. Azcon & J. A. Ocampo . 1981. Factors affecting the V-A infection and mycorrhizal dependency of thirteen wheat cultivars. New Phytologist 87: 677–685

J. D. Bever 1999. Dynamics within mutualism and the maintenance of diversity: inferences from a model of interguild frequency dependence. Ecology Letters 2: 52–62

J. D. Bever 2002. Negative feedback within a mutualism: host-specific growth of mycorrhizal fungi reduces plant benefit. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 269: 2595–2601

J. D. Bever , J. B. Morton , J. Antonovics & P. A. Schultz . 1996. Host-dependent sporulation and species diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a mown grassland. Journal of Ecology 84: 71–82

J. D. Bever , P. A. Schultz , A. Pringle & J. B. Morton . 2001. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: more diverse than meets the eye, and the ecological tale of why. Bioscience 51: 923–931

M. C. Brundrett , L. K. Abbott & D. A. Jasper . 1999. Glomalean mycorrhizal fungi from tropical Australia I. Comparison of the effectiveness and specificity of different isolation procedures. Mycorrhiza 8: 305–314

J. P. Castelli & B. B. Casper . 2003. Intraspecific AMF fungal variation contributes to plant–fungal feedback in a serpentine grassland. Ecology 84: 323–336

J. P. Clapp , J. P. W. Young , J. W. Merryweather & A. H. Fitter . 1995. Diversity of fungal symbionts in arbuscular mycorrhizas from a natural community. New Phytologist 130: 259–265

J. P. Clapp , A. H. Fitter & J. P. W. Young . 1999. Ribosomal small subunit sequence variation within spores of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Scutellospora sp. Molecular Ecology 8: 915–921

J. P. Clapp , A. Rodriguez & J. C. Dodd . 2001. Inter- and intra-isolate rRNA large subunit variation in Glomus coronatum spores. New Phytologist 149: 539–554

T. J. Daniell , R. Husband , A. H. Fitter & J. P. W. Young . 2001. Molecular diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonising arable crops. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 36: 203–209

A. H. Eom , D. C. Hartnett & G. W. T. Wilson . 2000. Host plant species effects on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in tallgrass prairie. Oecologia 122: 435–444

C. R. Fischer , D. P. Janos , D. A. Perry , R. G. Linderman & P. Sollins . 1994. Mycorrhiza inoculum potentials in tropical secondary succession. Biotropica 26: 369–377

A. C. Gange , V. K. Brown & L. M. Farmer . 1990. A test of mycorrhizal benefit in an early successional plant community. New Phytologist 115: 85–91

T. J. Givnish 1999. On the causes of gradients in tropical tree diversity. Journal of Ecology 87(2): 193–210

J. P. Grime , M. L. Mackey , S. H. Hillier & D. J. Read . 1987. Floristic diversity in a model system using experimental microcosms. Nature 328: 420–422

P. Guadarrama & F. J. Álvarez-Sánchez . 1999. Abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spores in different environments in a tropical rain forest, Veracruz, Mexico. Mycorrhiza 8: 267–270

M. M. Hart , R. J. Reader & J. N. Klironomos . 2001. Life-history strategies of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in relation to their successional dynamics. Mycologia 93: 1186–1194

D. C. Hartnett & G. W. T. Wilson . 1999. Mycorrhizae influence plant community structure and diversity in tallgrass prairie. Ecology 80: 1187–1195

T. Helgason , T. J. Daniell , R. Husband , A. H. Fitter & J. P. W. Young . 1998. Ploughing up the wood-wide web? Nature 394: 431

T. Helgason , A. H. Fitter & J. P. W. Young . 1999. Molecular diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonising Hyacinthoides non-scripta (bluebell) in a seminatural woodland. Molecular Ecology 8: 659–666

T. Helgason , J. W. Merryweather & J. Denison . 2002. Selectivity and functional diversity in arbuscular mycorrhizas of co-occurring fungi and plants from a temperate deciduous woodland. Journal of Ecology 90: 371–384

B. A. Hetrick & J. Bloom . 1986. The influence of host plant on production and colonization ability of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal spores. Mycologia 78: 32–36

B. A. D. Hetrick , G. W. T. Wilson & T. C. Todd . 1992. Relationship of mycorrhizal symbiosis, rooting strategy and phenology among tall grass prairie forbs. Canadian Journal of Botany 70: 1521–1528

D. P. Janos 1980. Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae affect lowland tropical rain forest plant growth. Ecology 61: 151–162

N. C. Johnson & D. A. Wedin . 1997. Soil carbon, nutrients, and mycorrhizae during conversion of dry tropical forest to grassland. Ecological Applications 7: 171–182

N. C. Johnson , D. Tilman & D. Wedin . 1992. Plant and soil controls on mycorrhizal fungal communities. Ecology 73: 2034–2042

K. Kitajima 2003. Impact of cotyledon and leaf removal on seedling survival in three tree species with contrasting cotyledon functions. Biotropica 35: 429–434

J. N. Klironomos 2002. Variation in plant response to native and exotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Ecology 84: 2292–2301

G. Kuhn , M. Hijri & I. R. Sanders . 2001. Evidence for the evolution of multiple genomes in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Nature 414: 745–748

P. J. Lee & R. E. Koske . 1994. Gigaspora gigantea – seasonal abundance and aging of spores in a sand dune. Mycological Research 98: 453–457

S. A. Lloyd-Macgilp , S. M. Chambers & J. C. Dodd . 1996. Diversity of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacers within and among isolates of Glomus mosseae and related mycorrhizal fungi. New Phytologist 133: 103–111

S. A. Mangan & G. H. Adler (2002) Seasonal dispersal of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi by spiny rats in a neotropical forest. Oecologia 131: 587–597

S. A. Mangan , A.-H. , G. H. Adler , J. B. Yavitt & E. A. Herre (2004) Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi across a fragmented forest in Panama: insular spore communities differ from mainland communities. Oecologia 141: 687–700

J. Merryweather & A. Fitter . 1998. The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi of Hyacinthoides non-scripta. Seasonal and spatial patterns of fungal populations. New Phytologist 138: 131–142

K. M. Mills & J. D. Bever . 1998. Maintenance of diversity within plant communities: soil pathogens as agents of feedback. Ecology 79: 1595–1601

J. B. Morton , S. P. Bentivenga & J. D. Bever . 1995. Discovery, measurement, and interpretation of diversity in arbuscular endomycorrhizal fungi (Glomales, Zygomycetes). Canadian Journal of Botany 73: S25–S32

B. Mosse 1972. Effects of different Endogone strains on the growth of Paspalum notatum. Nature 239: 221–223

H. Olff , R. G. M. Goede , W. H. Putten & J. M. Gleichman . 2000. Small-scale shifting mosaics of two dominant grassland species: the possible role of soil-borne pathogens. Oecologia 125: 45–54

C. Picone 2000. Diversity and abundance of arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungus spores in tropical forest and pasture. Biotropica 32: 734–750

A. Pringle & J. D. Bever . 2002. Divergent phenologies may facilitate the coexistence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a North Carolina grassland. American Journal of Botany 89: 1439–1446

D. Redecker , J. B. Morton & T. D. Bruns . 2000. Ancestral lineages of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomales). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 14: 276–284

M. C. Rillig & M. F. Allen . 1999. What is the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in plant to ecosystem responses to elevated atmospheric CO2. Mycorrhiza 9: 1–8

I. R. Sanders & A. H. Fitter . 1992. Evidence for differential responses between host–fungus combinations of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizas from a grassland. Mycological Research 96: 415–419

I. R. Sanders , M. Alt , K. Groppe , T. Boller & A. Wiemken . 1995. Identification of ribosomal DNA polymorphisms among and within spores of the Glomales: application to studies on the genetic diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities. New Phytologist 130: 419–427

N. C. Schenck & G. S. Smith . 1982. Responses of six species of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and their effects on soybean at four soil temperatures. New Phytologist 92: 193–201

P. A. Schultz , J. D. Bever & J. Morton . 1999. Acaulospora colossica sp. nov. from an old field in North Carolina and morphological comparisons with similar species, A. laevis and A. koskei. Mycologia 91: 676–683

J. O. Siqueira , M. A. C. Carneiro , N. Curi , S. C. da Silva Rosado & A. C. Davide . 1998. Mycorrhizal colonization and mycotrophic growth of native woody species as related to successional groups in Southeastern Brazil. Forest Ecology and Management 107: 241–252

F. A. Smith , I. Jakobsen & S. E. Smith . 2000. Spatial differences in acquisition of soil phosphate between two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in symbiosis with Medicago truncatula. New Phytologist 147: 357–366

R. Streitwolf-Engel , T. Boller , A. Wiemken & I. R. Sanders . 1997. Clonal growth traits of two Prunella species are determined by co-occurring arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from a calcareous grassland. Journal of Ecology 85: 181–191

N. C. Talukdar & J. J. Germida . 1994. Growth and yield of lentil and wheat inoculated with 3 glomus isolates from Saskatchewan soils. Mycorrhiza 5: 45–152

M. G. A. Heijden , T. Boller , A. Wiemken & I. R. Sanders . 1998a. Different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal species are potential determinants of plant community structure. Ecology 79: 2082–2091

C. Wills , R. Condit , R. B. Foster & S. P. Hubbell . 1997. Strong density- and diversity-related effects help to maintain tree species diversity in a neotropical forest. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 94: 1252–1257

A. E. Arnold & E. A. Herre (2003) Canopy cover and leaf age affect colonization by tropical fungal endophytes: ecological pattern and process in Theobroma cacao (Malvaceae). Mycologia 95: 388–398

A. E. Arnold , Z. Maynard , G. S. Gilbert , P. D. Coley & T. A. Kursar (2000) Are tropical fungal endophytes hyperdiverse? Ecology Letters 3: 267–274

A. E. Arnold , L. C. Mejia , D. Kyllo et al. (2003) Fungal endophytes limit pathogen damage in a tropical tree. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 100: 15649–15654

F. J. Camacho , D. S. Gernandt , A. Liston , J. K. Stone & A. S. Klein (1997) Endophytic fungal DNA, the source of contamination in spruce needle DNA. Molecular Ecology 6: 983–987

G. Carroll (1988) Fungal endophytes in stems and leaves: from latent pathogen to mutualistic symbionts. Ecology 69: 2–9

Y. C. Chiang , C. H. Chou , S. Huang & T. Y. Chiang (2003) Possible consequences of fungal contamination on the RAPD fingerprinting in Miscanthus (Poaceae). Australian Journal of Botany 51: 197–201

K. Clay (1988) Fungal endophytes of grasses: a defensive mutualism between plants and fungi. Ecology 69: 10–16

K. Clay & C. Schardl (2002) Evolutionary origins and ecological consequences of endophyte symbiosis with grasses. American Naturalist 160: S99–S127

K. Clay , G. P. Cheplick & S. Marks (1989) Impact of the fungus Balansia henningsiana on Panicum agrostoides: frequency of infection, plant growth and reproduction, and resistance to pests. Oecologia 80: 374–380

E. C. Davis , J. B. Franklin , A. J. Shaw & R. Vilgalys (2003) Endophytic Xylaria (Xylariaceae) among liverworts and angiosperms: phylogenetics, distribution, and symbiosis. American Journal of Botany 90: 1661–1667

R. J. Deckert , L. H. Melville & R. L. Peterson (2001) Structural features of a Lophodermium endophyte during the cryptic life-cycle phase in the foliage of Pinus strobes. Mycological Research 105: 991–997

H. C. Evans , K. A. Holmes & S. E. Thomas (2003) Endophytes and mycoparasites associated with an indigenous forest tree, Theobroma gileri, in Ecuador and a preliminary assessment of their potential as biocontrol agents of cacao diseases. Mycological Progress 2: 149–160

S. H. Faeth (2002) Are endophytic fungi defensive plant mutualists? Oikos 98: 25–36

S. H. Faeth & W. F. Fagan (2002) Fungal endophytes: common host plant symbionts but uncommon mutualists. Integrative and Comparative Biology 42: 360–368

S. H. Faeth & K. E. Hammon (1997) Fungal endophytes in oak trees: experimental analyses of interactions with leafminers. Ecology 78: 820–827

S. A. Frank (1996) Host–symbiont conflict over the mixing of symbiotic lineages. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 263: 339–344

S. Freeman & R. J. Rodriguez (1993) Genetic conversion of a fungal plant pathogen to a nonpathogenic, endophytic mutualist. Science 260: 75–78

J. Frohlich & K. D. Hyde (1999) Biodiversity of palm fungi in the tropics: are global fungal diversity estimates realistic? Biodiversity and Conservation 8: 977–1004

G. S. Gilbert , M. Mejía-Chang & E. Rojas (2002) Fungal diversity and plant disease in mangrove forests: salt excretion as a possible defense mechanism. Oecologia 132: 278–285

K. D. Gwinn & A. M. Gavin . (1992) Relationship between endophyte infection level of tall fescue seed lots and Rhizoctonia zeae seedling disease. Plant Disease 76: 911–914

E. A. Herre , N. Knowlton , U. G. Mueller & S. A. Rehner (1999) The evolution of mutualisms: exploring the paths between conflict and cooperation. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 14: 49–53

E. T. Kiers , R. A. Rousseau , S. A. West & R. F. Denison (2003) Host sanctions and the legume-rhizobium mutualism. Nature 425: 78–81

S. Ortiz-Garcia , D. S. Gernandt , J. K. Stone & P. R. Johnson (2003) Mycologia 95: 846–859

O. Petrini , T. N. Sieber , L. Toti & O. Viret (1992) Ecology, metabolite production and substrate utilization in endophytic fungi. Natural Toxins 1: 185–196

R. W. Preszler , E. S. Gaylord & W. J. Boecklen (1996) Reduced parasitism of a leaf-mining moth on trees with high infection frequencies of an endophytic fungus. Oecologia 108: 159–166

K. Saikkonen , S. H. Faeth , M. Helander & T. J. Sullivan (1998) Fungal endophytes: a continuum of interactions with host plants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 319–343

F. M. Schulthess & S. H. Faeth (1998) Distribution, abundances, and associations of the endophytic fungal community of Arizona fescue (Festuca arizonica). Mycologia 90: 569–578

J. Webber (1981). A natural biological control of Dutch elm disease. Nature 292: 449–450

R. E. Welty , R. E. Barker & M. D. Azevedo . (1993). Response of field-grown tall fescue infected by Acremonium coenophialum to Puccinia graminis ssp. graminicola. Plant Disease 77: 574–575

D. Wilson (1995) Endophyte: the evolution of a term, and clarification of its use and definition. Oikos 73: 274–276

D. Wilson & G. C. Carroll (1994) Infection studies of Discula quercina, an endophyte of Quercus garryana. Mycologia 86: 635–647

D. Wilson & G. C. Carroll (1997) Avoidance of high-endophyte space by gall-forming insects. Ecology 78: 2153–2163

D. Wilson & S. H. Faeth (2001) Do fungal endophytes result in selection for leafminer ovipositional preference? Ecology 82: 1097–1111

D. M. Wilkinson (2001) Horizontally acquired mutualisms, an unsolved problem in ecology? Oikos 92: 377–384

Q. Yue , C. Wang , T. J. Gianfagna & W. A. Meyer (2001) Volatile compounds of endophyte-free and infected tall fescue (Festuca araundinacea Schreb.) Phytochemistry 58: 935–941

T. Abe (2001) Flowering phenology, display size, and fruit set in an understorey dioecious shrub, Aucuba japonica (Cornaceae). American Journal of Botany, 88, 455–461

J. D. Ackerman , M. R. Mesler , K. L. Lu & A. M. Montalvo (1982) Food-foraging behavior of male Euglossini (Hymenoptera: Apidae): vagabonds or trapliners? Biotropica, 14, 241–248

J. Ågren (1996) Population size, pollinator limitation, and seed set in the self-incompatible herb Lythrum salicaria. Ecology, 77, 1779–1790

M. A. Aizen (2001) Flower sex ratio, pollinator abundance, and the seasonal pollination dynamics of a protandrous plant. Ecology, 82, 127–144

J. M. Alatalo & U. Molau (2001) Pollen viability and limitation of seed production in a population of the circumpolar cushion plant, Silene acaulis (Caryophyllaceae). Nordic Journal of Botany, 21, 365–372

J. Albre , A. Quilichini & M. Gibernau (2003) Pollination ecology of Arum italicum (Araceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 141, 205–214

R. Alexandersson & J. Agren (1996) Population size, pollinator visitation and fruit production in the deceptive orchid Calypso bulbosa. Oecologia, 107, 533–540

T. D. Allison (1990) Pollen production and plant density affect pollination and seed production in Taxus canadensis. Ecology, 71, 516–522

K. S. Bawa (1974) Breeding systems of tree species of a lowland tropical community. Evolution, 28, 85–92

K. S. Bawa (1990) Plant–pollinator interactions in tropical rain forests. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 21, 399–422

K. S. Bawa & J. H. Beach (1981) Evolution of sexual systems in flowering plants. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 68, 254–274

K. S. Bawa & C. J. Webb (1984) Flower, fruit and seed abortion in tropical trees: implications for the evolution of paternal and maternal reproductive patterns. American Journal of Botany, 71, 736–751

K. S. Bawa , S. H. Bullock , D. R. Perry , R. E. Coville & M. H. Grayum (1985) Reproductive biology of tropical lowland rain forest trees. II. Pollination systems. American Journal of Botany, 72, 346–356

P. Bierzychudek (1981) Pollinator limitation of plant reproductive effort. American Naturalist, 117, 838–840

M. Bosch & N. M. Waser (1999) Effects of local density on pollination and reproduction in Delphinium nuttallianum and Aconitum columbianum (Ranunculaceae). American Journal of Botany, 86, 871–879

M. Burd (1994) Bateman's principle and plant reproduction: the role of pollen limitation in fruit and seed set. The Botanical Review, 60, 83–139

D. R. Campbell (1985) Pollen and gene dispersal: the influences of competition for pollination. Evolution, 39, 418–431

A. Cascante , M. Quesada , J. J. Lobo & E. A. Fuchs (2002) Effects of dry tropical forest fragmentation on the reproductive success and genetic structure of the tree Samanea saman. Conservation Biology, 16, 137–147

T. K. Consiglio & G. R. Bourne (2001) Pollination and breeding system of a neotropical palm Astrocaryum vulgare in Guyana: a test of the predictability of syndromes. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 17, 577–592

B. J. Copland & R. J. Whelan (1989) Seasonal variation in flowering intensity and pollination limitation of fruit set in four co-occurring Banksia species. Journal of Ecology, 77, 509–523

B. J. Costin , J. W. Morgan & A. G. Young (2001) Reproductive success does not decline in fragmented populations of Leucochrysum albicans subsp. albicans var. tricolor (Asteraceae). Biological Conservation, 98, 273–284

P. A. Cotton (1998) The hummingbird community of a lowland Amazonian rainforest. Ibis, 140, 512–521

J. E. Cresswell (1997) Spatial heterogeneity, pollinator behaviour and pollinator-mediated gene flow: bumblebee movements in variously aggregated rows of oil-seed rape. Oikos, 78, 546–556

J. E. Cresswell (2000) A comparison of bumblebees' movements in uniform and aggregated distributions of their forage plant. Ecological Entomology, 25, 19–25

S. A. Cunningham (1996) Pollen supply limits fruit initiation by a rain forest understorey palm. Journal of Ecology, 84, 185–194

S. A. Cunningham (2000) Depressed pollination in habitat fragments causes low fruit set. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 267, 1149–1152

C. W. Dick , G. Etchelecu & F. Austerlitz (2003) Pollen dispersal of tropical trees (Dinizia excelsa: Fabaceae) by native insects and African honeybees in pristine and fragmented Amazonian rainforest. Molecular Ecology, 12, 753–764

R. K. Didham , J. Ghazoul , N. E. Stork & A. J. Davis (1996) Insects in fragmented forests: a functional approach. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 11, 255–260

G. Dieringer (1992) Pollinator effectiveness and seed set in populations of Agalinis strictifolia (Scrophulariaceae). American Journal of Botany, 79, 1018–1023

B. K. Ehlers , J. M. Olesen & J. Ågren (2002) Floral morphology and reproductive success in the orchid Epipactis helleborine: regional and local across-habitat variation. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 236, 19–32

J. Ehrlen , S. Kack & J. Ågren (2002) Pollen limitation, seed predation and scape length in Primula farinosa. Oikos, 97, 45–51

H. Elberling (2001) Pollen limitation of reproduction in a subarctic-alpine population of Diapensia lapponica (Diapensiaceae). Nordic Journal of Botany, 21, 277–282

N. C. Ellstrand (1992) Gene flow by pollen: implications for plant conservation genetics. Oikos, 63, 77–86

B. K. Epperson & M. T. Clegg (1987) Frequency-dependent variation for outcrossing rate among flower color morphs of Ipomoea purpurea. Evolution, 41, 1302–1311

P. Feinsinger , K. G. Murray , S. Kinsman & W. H. Busby (1986) Floral neighborhood and pollination success in four hummingbird-pollinated cloud forest plant species. Ecology, 67, 449–464

P. Feinsinger , H. M. Tiebout & B. E. Young (1991) Do tropical bird-pollinated plants exhibit density-dependent interactions? Field experiments. Ecology, 72, 1953–1963

T. H. Fleming , R. A. Nunez & L. S. Sternberg (1993) Seasonal changes in the diets of migrant and non-migrant nectarivorous bats as revealed by carbon stable isotope analysis. Oecologia, 94, 72–75

G. W. Frankie , P. A. Opler & K. S. Bawa (1976) Foraging behaviour of solitary bees: implications for outcrossing of a neotropical forest tree species. Journal of Ecology, 64, 1049–1058

A.-L. Fritz & L. A. Nilsson (1994) How pollinator-mediated mating varies with population size in plants. Oecologia, 100, 451–462

E. J. Fuchs , J. A. Lobo & M. Quesada (2003) Effects of forest fragmentation and flowering phenology on the reproductive success and mating patterns of the tropical dry forest tree Pachira quinata. Conservation Biology, 17, 149–157

M. Galetti , C. P. Alves-Costa & E. Cazetta (2003) Effects of forest fragmentation, anthropogenic edges and fruit colour on the consumption of ornithocoric fruits. Biological Conservation, 111, 269–273

J. Ghazoul (2002) Flowers at the front line of invasion? Ecological Entomology, 27, 638–640

J. Ghazoul (2004) Alien abduction: disruption of native plant–pollinator interactions by invasive species. Biotropica, 36, 156–164

J. Ghazoul , K. A. Liston & T. J. B. Boyle (1998) Disturbance-induced density-dependent seed set in Shorea siamensis (Dipterocarpaceae), a tropical forest tree. Journal of Ecology, 86, 462–473

C. Goodwillie (2001) Pollen limitation and the evolution of self-compatibility in Linanthus (Polemoniaceae). International Journal of Plant Sciences, 162, 1283–1292

M. Goverde , K. Schweizer , B. Baur & A. Erhardt (2002) Small-scale habitat fragmentation effects on pollinator behaviour: experimental evidence from the bumblebee Bombus veteranus on calcareous grasslands. Biological Conservation, 104, 293–299

M. J. Groom (1998) Allee effects limit population viability of an annual plant. American Naturalist, 151, 487–496

M. J. Groom (2001) Consequences of subpopulation isolation for pollination, herbivory, and population growth in Clarkia concinna concinna (Onagraceae). Biological Conservation, 100, 55–63

P. Hall , S. Walker & K. Bawa (1996) Effect of forest fragmentation on genetic diversity and mating system in a tropical tree, Pithecellobium elegans. Conservation Biology, 10, 757–768

M. B. Hamilton (1999) Tropical tree gene flow and seed dispersal. Nature, 401, 129–130

E. R. Heithaus , E. Stashko & P. K. Anderson (1982) Cumulative effects of plant–animal interactions on seed production by Bauhinia ungulata, a neotropical legume. Ecology, 63, 1294–1302

S. D. Hendrix & J. F. Kyhl (2000) Population size and reproduction in Phlox pilosa. Conservation Biology, 14, 304–313

M. A. Horner , T. H. Fleming & C. T. Sahley (1998) Foraging behaviour and energetics of a nectar-feeding bat, Leptonycteris curasoae (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae). Journal of Zoology, 244, 575–586

S. M. House (1993) Pollination success in a population of dioecious rain forest trees. Oecologia, 96, 555–561

O. Jennersten (1988) Pollination in Dianthus deltoides (Caryophyllaceae): effects of habitat fragmentation on visitation and seed set. Conservation Biology, 2, 359–366

O. Jennersten & S. G. Nilsson (1993) Insect flower visitation frequency and seed production in relation to patch size of Viscaria vulgaris (Caryophyllaceae). Oikos, 68, 283–292

L. K. Johnson & S. P. Hubbell (1975) Contrasting foraging strategies and coexistence of two bee species on a single resorce. Ecology, 56, 1398–1406

C. A. Kearns , D. W. Inouye & N. W. Waser (1998) Endangered mutualisms: the conservation of plant–pollinator interactions. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 29, 83–112

P. G. L. Klinkhamer & T. J. Jong (1990) Effects of plant size, plant density and sex differential nectar reward on pollinator visitation in the protandrous Echium vulgare (Boraginaceae). Oikos, 57, 399–405

P. G. L. Klinkhamer , T. J. Jong & G.-J. Bruyn (1989) Plant size and pollinator visitation in Cynoglossum officinale. Oikos, 54, 201–204

E. E. Knapp , M. A. Goedde & K. J. Rice (2001) Pollen-limited reproduction in blue oak: implications for wind pollination in fragmented populations. Oecologia, 128, 48–55

J. T. Knudsen , L. Tollsten & F. Ervik (2001) Flower scent and pollination in selected neotropical palms. Plant Biology, 3, 642–653

W. D. Koenig & M. V. Ashley (2003) Is pollen limited? The answer is blowin' in the wind. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 18, 157–159

W. Kunin & Y. Iwasa (1996) Pollinator foraging strategies in mixed floral arrays: density effects and floral constancy. Theoretical Population Biology, 49, 232–263

W. E. Kunin (1992) Density and reproductive success in wild populations of Diplotaxis erucodes (Brassicaceae). Oecologia, 91, 129–133

W. E. Kunin (1993) Sex and the single mustard: population density and pollinator behavior effects on seed-set. Ecology, 74, 2145–2160

W. E. Kunin (1997) Population size and density effects in pollination: pollinator foraging and plant reproductive success in experimental arrays of Brassica kaber. Journal of Ecology, 85, 225–234

B. B. Lamont , P. G. L. Klinkhamer & E. T. F. Witkowski (1993) Population fragmentation may reduce fertility to zero in Banksia goodii – a demonstration of the Allee effect. Oecologia, 94, 446–450

B. M. H. Larson & S. C. H. Barrett (2000) A comparative analysis of pollen limitation in flowering plants. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 69, 503–520

D. A. Levin (1972) Pollen exchange as a function of species proximity in Phlox. Evolution, 26, 251–258

D. A. Levin & H. W. Kerster (1971) Neighborhood structure of plants under diverse reproductive methods. American Naturalist, 105, 345–354

Y. B. Linhart & P. Feinsinger (1980) Plant–hummingbird interactions: effects of island size and degree of specialization on pollination. Journal of Ecology, 68, 745–760

L. H. Liow , N. S. Sodhi & T. Elmqvist (2001) Bee diversity along a disturbance gradient in tropical lowland forests of Southeast Asia. Journal of Applied Ecology, 38, 180–192

S. H. Luijten , A. Dierick , J. G. B. Oostermeijer , L. E. L. Raijmann & H. C. M. Nijs (2000) Population size, genetic variation, and reproductive success in a rapidly declining, self-incompatible perennial (Arnica montana) in The Netherlands. Conservation Biology, 14, 1776–1787

D. L. Marr , J. Leebens-Mack , L. Elms & O. Pellmyr (2000) Pollen dispersal in Yucca filamentosa (Agavaceae): the paradox of self-pollination behavior by Tegeticula yuccasella (Prodoxidae). American Journal of Botany, 87, 670–677

J. Memmott (1999) The structure of a plant–pollinator food web. Ecology Letters, 2, 276–280

E. Menges (1991) Seed germination percentage increases with population size in a fragmented prairie species. Conservation Biology, 5, 158–164

J. M. Moody-Weis & J. S. Heywood (2001) Pollination limitation to reproductive success in the Missouri evening primrose, Oenothera macrocarpa (Onagraceae). American Journal of Botany, 88, 1615–1622

J. W. Morgan (1999) Effects of population size on seed production and germinability in an endangered, fragmented grassland plant. Conservation Biology, 13, 266–273

D. A. Murawski & L. E. Gilbert (1986) Pollen flow in Psiguria warscewiczii: a comparison of Heliconius butterflies and hummingbirds. Oecologia, 68, 161–167

D. A. Murawski & J. L. Hamrick (1992) The mating system of Cavanillesia platanifolia under extremes of flowering-tree density: a test of predictions. Biotropica, 24, 99–101

D. A. Murawski , J. L. Hamrick , S. P. Hubbell & R. B. Foster (1990) Mating systems of two bombacaceous trees of a neotropical moist forest. Oecologia, 82, 501–506

D. A. Murawski , I. A. U. N. Gunatilleke & K. S. Bawa (1994) The effects of selective logging on inbreeding in Shorea megistophylla (Dipterocarpaceae) from Sri Lanka. Conservation Biology, 8, 997–1002

J. D. Nason , E. A. Herre & J. L. Hamrick (1998) The breeding structure of a tropical keystone plant resource. Nature, 391, 685–687

S. G. Nilsson & U. Wastljung (1987) Seed predation and cross-pollination in mast-seeding beech (Fagus sylvatica) patches. Ecology, 68, 260–265

J. M. Olesen & E. Warncke (1989) Temporal changes in pollen flow and neighborhood-structure in a population of Saxifraga hirculus L. Oecologia, 79, 205–211

K. M. Olsen (1997) Pollination effectiveness and pollinator importance in a population of Heterotheca subaxillaris (Asteraceae). Oecologia, 109, 114–121

M. W. Pettersson (1997) Solitary plants do as well as clumped ones in Silene uniflora (Caryophyllaceae). Ecography, 20, 375–382

W. J. Platt , G. R. Hill & S. Clark (1974) Seed production in a prairie legume (Astragalus canadensis L). Oecologia, 17, 55–63

M. Quesada , K. E. Stoner , V. Rosas-Guerrero , C. Palacios-Guevara & J. A. Lobo (2003) Effects of habitat disruption on the activity of nectarivorous bats (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in a dry tropical forest: implications for the reproductive success of the neotropical tree Ceiba grandiflora. Oecologia, 135, 400–406

I. R. Rasmussen & B. Brodsgaard (1992) Gene flow inferred from seed dispersal and pollinator behavior compared to DNA analysis of restriction site variation in a patchy population of Lotus corniculatus L. Oecologia, 89, 277–283

K. S. Richter & A. E. Weis (1998) Inbreeding and outcrossing in Yucca whipplei: consequences for the reproductive success of plant and pollinator. Ecology Letters, 1, 21–24

A. W. Robertson , D. Kelly , J. J. Ladley & A. D. Sparrow (1999) Effects of pollinator loss on endemic New Zealand mistletoes (Loranthaceae). Conservation Biology, 13, 499–508

J. Roll , R. J. Mitchell , R. J. Cabin & D. L. Marshall (1997) Reproductive success increases with local density of conspecifics in a desert mustard (Lesquerella fendleri). Conservation Biology, 11, 738–746

S. Sakai , K. Momose , T. Yumoto , M. Kato & T. Inoue (1999) Beetle pollination of Shorea parvifolia (section Mutica, Dipterocarpaceae) in a general flowering period in Sarawak, Malaysia. American Journal of Botany, 86, 62–69

T. Santos , J. L. Telleria & E. Virgos (1999) Dispersal of Spanish juniper Juniperus thurifera by birds and mammals in a fragmented landscape. Ecography, 22, 193–204

J. Schmitt (1983) Flowering plant density and pollinator visitation in Senecio. Oecologia, 60, 97–102

B. Schulke & N. M. Waser (2001) Long-distance pollinator flights and pollen dispersal between populations of Delphinium nuttallianum. Oecologia, 127, 239–245

P. Severns (2003) Inbreeding and small population size reduce seed set in a threatened and fragmented plant species, Lupinus sulphureus ssp. kincaidii (Fabaceae). Biological Conservation, 110, 221–229

A. Sih & M. S. Baltus (1987) Patch size, pollinator behavior, and pollinator limitation in catnip. Ecology, 68, 1679–1690

J. A. Silander (1978) Density-dependent control of reproductive success in Cassia biflora. Biotropica, 10, 292–296

A. Smithson & M. R. Macnair (1996) Frequency-dependent selection by pollinators: mechanisms and consequences with regard to behaviour of bumblebees Bombus terrestris (L) (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 9, 571–588

A. Smithson & M. R. Macnair (1997) Density-dependent and frequency-dependent selection by bumblebees Bombus terrestris (L) (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 60, 401–417

P. Sowig (1989) Effects of flowering plant's patch size on species composition of pollinator communities, foraging strategies, and resource partitioning in bumblebees (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Oecologia, 78, 550–558

J. D. Thomson (1981) Spatial and temporal components of resource assessment by flower-feeding insects. Journal of Animal Ecology, 50, 49–59

F. Rossum , G. Echchgadda , I. Szabadi & L. Triest (2002) Commonness and long-term survival in fragmented habitats: Primula elatior as a study case. Conservation Biology, 16, 1286–1295

R. Treuren , R. Bijlsma , N. J. Ouborg & W. Delman (1993) The effects of population size and plant density on outcrossing rates in locally endangered Salvia pratensis. Evolution, 47, 1094–1104

R. R. Veit & M. A. Lewis (1996) Dispersal, population growth, and the Allee effect: dynamics of the house finch invasion of eastern North America. American Naturalist, 148, 255–274

P. Vergeer , R. Rengelink , A. Copal & N. J. Ouborg (2003) The interacting effects of genetic variation, habitat quality and population size on performance of Succisa pratensis. Journal of Ecology, 91, 18–26

P. K. Visscher & T. D. Seeley (1982) Foraging strategy of honeybee colonies in a temperate deciduous forest. Ecology, 63, 1790–1801

N. M. Waser (1982) A comparison of distances flown by different visitors to flowers of the same species. Oecologia, 55, 251–257

N. M. Waser , L. Chittka , M. V. Price , N. M. Williams & J. Ollerton (1996) Generalization in pollination systems, and why it matters. Ecology, 77, 1043–1060

I. Washitani (1996) Predicted genetic consequences of strong fertility selection due to pollinator loss in an isolated population of Primula sieboldii. Conservation Biology, 10, 59–64

R. J. Whelan & R. L. Goldingay (1986) Do pollinators influence seed-set in Banksia paludosa Sm. and Banksia spinulosa R. Br.? Australian Journal of Ecology, 11, 181–186

B. Widen (1993) Demographic and genetic effects on reproduction as related to population size in a rare, perennial herb, Senecio integrifolius (Asteraceae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 50, 179–195

B. Widen & M. Widen (1990) Pollen limitation and distance-dependent fecundity in females of the clonal gynodioecious herb Glechoma hederacea (Lamiaceae). Oecologia, 83, 191–196

P. Willmer , F. Gilbert , J. Ghazoul , S. Zalat & F. Semida (1994) A novel form of territoriality: daily paternal investment in an anthophorid bee. Animal Behaviour, 48, 535–549

A. P. Willmott & A. Burquez (1996) The pollination of Merremia palmeri (Convolvulaceae): can hawk moths be trusted? American Journal of Botany, 83, 1050–1056

M. Zimmerman & G. H. Pyke (1988) Reproduction in Polemonium: assessing the factors limiting seed set. American Naturalist, 131, 723–738

P. Alrich & J. L. Hamrick (1998) Reproductive dominance of pasture trees in a fragmented tropical forest mosaic. Science, 281, 103–105

E. Andresen (2001) Effects of dung presence, dung amount and secondary dispersal by dung beetles on the fate of Micropholis guyanensis (Sapotaceae) seeds in central Amazonia. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 17, 61–78

C. K. Augspurger (1986) Morphology and dispersal potential of wind-dispersed diaspores of neotropical trees. American Journal of Botany, 73, 353–363

C. K. Augspurger & S. E. Franson (1988) Input of wind-dispersed seeds into light-gaps and forest sites in a neotropical forest. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 4, 239–252

S. R. Balcomb & C. A. Chapman (2003) Bridging the gap: influence of seed deposition on seedling recruitment in a primate–tree interaction. Ecological Monographs, 73, 625–642

W. J. Bond (1994) Do mutualisms matter: assessing the impact of pollinator and disperser disruption on plant extinction. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 344, 83–90

S. D. Bradshaw & F. J. Bradshaw (2002) Short-term movements and habitat use of the marsupial honey possum (Tarsipes rostratus). Journal of Zoology, 258, 343–348

T. Briner , J.-P. Airoldi , F. Dellsperger , S. Eggimann & W. Nentwig (2003) A new system for automatic radiotracking of small mammals. Journal of Mammalogy, 84, 571–578

R. O. Bustamente & L. M. Canals (1995) Dispersal quality in plants: how to measure efficiency and effectiveness of a seed disperser. Oikos, 73, 133–136

M. L. Cain , B. G. Milligan & A. E. Strand (2000) Long-distance seed dispersal in plant populations. American Journal of Botany, 87, 1217–1227

D. Campbell , P. Duchesne & L. Bernatchez (2003) AFLPn utility for population assignment studies: analytical investigation and empirical comparison with microsatellites. Molecular Ecology, 12, 1979–1991