Skip to main content
×
Home
Bureaucratizing Islam
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    Bureaucratizing Islam
    • Online ISBN: 9781108227124
    • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108227124
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to? *
    ×
  • Buy the print book

Book description

How have states in the Middle East and North Africa responded to the War on Terror? While much scholarship has focused on terrorism in the region, there is need for critical studies of Middle Eastern states' counter-terrorism policies. This book addresses that need by investigating Morocco's unique approach to counter-terrorism: the bureaucratization of religion. Morocco's strategy is unique in the degree to which it relies on reforms that seek to make the country's religious institutions into tools for rewarding loyalty and discouraging dissent from religious elites. Through these measures they have limited opposition through an enduring form of institutional control, accommodating some of the country's most virulent critics. This book will be of great use to researchers and scholars of Middle Eastern politics, and it will also appeal to those policymakers interested in security studies and counter-terrorism policies.

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send:
    ×

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
×
‘Abd al-Wāḥid Ibn ‘Āshir. “Matn Ibn ‘Āshir (The Text of Ibn ‘Āshir), Al-Murshid Al-Mu‘īn ‘alā Al-Ḍarūrī Min ‘Ulūm Al-Dīn (The Helpful Guide to What Is Necessary in Religious Sciences).” http://ia800503.us.archive.org/9/items/NadmIbn3acher/Bn3acher.pdf (Accessed November 12, 2015).
“About Us.” International Institute for Justice and the Rule of Law, 2014. https://theiij.org/about-us/.
Abouzeid Leila. Year of the Elephant: A Moroccan Woman's Journey toward Independence. Translated by Parmenter Barbara. Austin: Center for Middle Eastern Studies, University of Texas at Austin, 1989.
Afa Aoemar, ed. Repertoire Des Theses Universitaires: Enregistrées Dans Les Facultés Des Lettres Du Maroc 1961–1994. Etudes Bibliographiques 4. Rabat: Publication de la Faculté des Lettres et des Sciences Humaines, 1996.
Africa Center. “Morocco's Contribution to Countering Violent Extremism in Africa and the Middle East.” Atlantic Council, April 8, 2015. www.atlanticcouncil.org/events/past-events/morocco-s-contribution-to-countering-violent-extremism-in-africa-and-the-middle-east.
de Presse Agence Marocaine. “Message de Condoléances de S.M. Le Roi À La Famille de Feu Ibrahim Mahmoud Joub.” Le Matin, June 25, 2014. www.lematin.ma/journal/2014/message-de-condoleances-de-sm-le-roi-a-la-famille-de-feu-ibrahim-mahmoud-joub/204792.html.
Ahmed Chanfi. West African ‘ulamā’ and Salafism in Mecca and Medina: Jawāb Al-Ifrῑqῑ – The Response of the African. Leiden: Brill, 2015.
“Al-Amīn Al-’Ām Lil-Majlis Al-’Ilmī Al-A'alā Fī Al-Maghrib L-L-‘Sharq Al-Awsaṭ’: Al-Iftā’ Laysa ’Amla Muzājiyya.” Al-Sharq Al-Awsaṭ, March 20, 2012, 12166 edition. http://archive.aawsat.com/details.asp?section=17&article=668814&issueno=12166#.Vw5k6z-Ei9Z.
al-Hādaf Azzaldīn. “Al-Qatl ’Aqūba Al-Murtid Ākhir Al-Fatāwa Al-Muthīra Li-Jadal Fī Al-Maghrib.” Radio Sawa, April 24, 2013. www.radiosawa.com/content/morocco-fatwa-kil-converter-islam/222506.html.
al-Hadrati Mohammed, ben-Ajeeba Yusif, Aet Azma Ahmed, al-Khamisi Azzedine, and Muhamadi Bushaeb. Fī Riḥāb: Al-Tarbiyya Al-Islamiyya. Casablanca: al-Dar al-Almia al-Kitab, 2010.
Ali Shaheen Sardar. Modern Challenges to Islamic Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016.
“Al-Majlis Al-’Ilmī L-’amāla Ṭanja Aṣīla.” www.majlisilmi-tanger.ma/page.php?4 (Accessed May 12, 2016).
al-Maghribiyya al-Mamlaka; al-Ḥukūma ra’īs. Mashrū’ Qānūn Raqam 86.14, 2014. www.chambredesrepresentants.ma/sites/default/files/loi/lect_186.14_0.pdf.
al-Maghribiyya Al-Mamlaka, al-Waṭaniyya Wizārat al-Tarbiya. Al-Kitāb Al-Abyaḍ Al-Juzʾ 1: Al-Ikhtiyārāt Wa-L-Tawjīhāt Al-Tarbawiyya Al-ʿĀmma Al-Muʿtamada Fī Murājʿat Al-Manāhij Al-Tarbawiyya, 2002.
al-Maghribiyya Al-Mamlaka, al-Waṭaniyya Wizārat al-Tarbiya. Al-Kitāb Al-Abyaḍ Al-Juzʾ 2: Al-Manāhij Al-Tarbawiyya Li-Silkī Al-Taʿlīm Al-Ibtidāʾī, 2002.
al-Maghribiyya Al-Mamlaka, al-Waṭaniyya Wizārat al-Tarbiya. Al-Kitāb Al-Abyaḍ Al-Juzʾ 7: Al-Manāhij Al-Tarbawiyya Li-Qaṭaba Al-’Ulūm, 2002.
al-Markaz al-Maghribi lil-Darasat wal-Abhath al-M'aasira . Al-Halat Al-Deenea Fil Maghrib, 2007–2008. Rabat: CEMERC, 2009.
Alsharif Asma. “Saudi Clerics Demand Fair Trials for Prisoners.” Reuters, January 14, 2013. www.reuters.com/article/2013/01/14/us-saudi-clerics-prisoners-idUSBRE90D0XY20130114.
“Amīr Al-Mu'minīn Ya’īn Al-Ustādh Amāl Jalāl R'aīsan Li-Jāmi'a Al-Qarawiyyīn.” Jāmi'a Al-Qarawiyyīn. www.alquaraouiyine.com (Accessed October 20, 2015).
“Amnesty International Staff Members Expelled from Morocco.” Amnesty International, June 11, 2015. www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2015/06/amnesty-international-staff-members-expelled-from-morocco/.
Anderson Lisa. “The State in the Middle East and North Africa.” Comparative Politics 20, no. 1 (October 1987): 118.
Rabasa Angel M., Benard Cheryl, Schwartz Lowell H., and Sickle Peter. Building Moderate Muslim Networks. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2007. www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/monographs/2007/RAND_MG574.pdf.
“Anti-Money Laundering Committee.” Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency, October 25, 2015. www.sama.gov.sa/en-US/AntiMoney/Pages/home.aspx.
Antoun Richard T.Fundamentalism, Bureaucratization, and the State's Co-Optation of Religion: A Jordanian Case Study.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 38, no. 03 (2006): 369393.
Azzahrae Chaabani Fatima, and El Ghayam Sellama. “Morocco.” In Cultural Policies in Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Palestine, Syria and Tunisia: An Introduction, edited by Boekmanstudies, Culture Resource (al Thaqafy Al Mawred) and European Cultural Foundation, pp. 126149. Amsterdam: European Cultural Foundation, 2010.
Bacchi Umberto. “Turkey Mass Arrests: 251 ‘Terrorists’ Linked to Isis and Kurdish Militants Rounded-Up.” International Business Times, July 24, 2015. www.ibtimes.co.uk/turkey-arrests-251-terrorists-accused-sympathies-towards-isis-kurdish-militants-1512401.
“Bad Blood Still Flows between Algeria and Morocco.” Stratfor, May 3, 2016. www.stratfor.com/analysis/bad-blood-still-flows-between-algeria-and-morocco.
Ki Moon Ban. Report of the Secretary-General on the Situation Concerning Western Sahara. United Nations Security Council, April 10, 2015. www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/2015/246&referer= http://www.un.org/en/media/accreditation/dailylist.shtml&Lang=E.
Bayart Jean-François. “Le Politique Par Le Bas En Afrique Noire, Questions de Méthode.” In Le Politique Par Le Bas En Afrique Noire, edited by Mbembe Achille and Toulabor Comi, pp. 5382. www.politique-africaine.com/numeros/pdf/001053.pdf (Accessed February 10, 2016).
Belhaj Abdessamad. “La dimension islamique dans la politique étrangère du Maroc: Déterminants, acteurs, orientations.” Université catholique de Louvain, 2009.
Ben Farhat Soufiane. “Adoption de La Loi Antiterroriste N'en Déplaise Aux Veules….” La Presse, July 27, 2015. http://lapresse.tn/27072015/102181/nen-deplaise-aux-veules%E2%80%A6.html.
“The Best Guide for Gitmo? Look to Singapore.” Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, May 18, 2009. http://carnegieendowment.org/2009/05/18/best-guide-for-gitmo-look-to-singapore/13k.
Bilkisu Hajiya. “African Scholars Meet in Morocco.” Daily Trust, July 23, 2015. www.dailytrust.com.ng/daily/index.php/opinion/60655-african-scholars-meet-in-morocco.
Black Ian. “Syria Suffers Worst Terror Attack since Start of Uprising.” The Guardian, May 10, 2012, sec. World news. www.theguardian.com/world/2012/may/10/syria-worst-terror-attack-uprising.
Bourdieu Pierre. Propos sur le champ politique. Lyon: Presses Universitaires Lyon, 2000.
Boutieri Charis. An Ambivalent Embrace: The Cultural Politics of Arabization and the Knowledge Economy in the Moroccan Public School. Princeton: Department of Anthropology, Princeton University, January 2011.
Boutieri Charis. Learning in Morocco: Language Politics and the Abandoned Educational Dream. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2016.
Braude Joseph. “Examining Religious Television Channels in the Middle East.” America Abroad Media, February 11, 2016. http://americaabroadmedia.org/documentary-or-newsroom/examining-religious-television-channels-middle-east.
Braude Joseph. “Moroccan Islamic Broadcasting in Response to Religious Extremism.” In Examining Religious Television Channels in the Middle East. Washington, DC: America Abroad Media, February 11, 2016. http://americaabroadmedia.org/sites/default/files/Moroccan%20Islamic%20Broadcasting%20in%20Response%20to%20Religious%20Extremism.pdf.
Brookings Institution. The Origins of ISIS (Islamic State). 2014. www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=3&v=cb_xHlA3Oj0.
Brown Nathan J.Advice for Youngsters: Do as I Say, Not as I Did.” Project on Middle East Political Science, 2014. http://pomeps.org/2014/10/27/advice-for-youngsters-do-as-i-say-not-as-i-did/.
Brown Rajeswary Ampalavanar. Islam in Modern Thailand: Faith, Philanthropy and Politics. London: Routledge, 2013.
Buehler Matt. “Safety-Valve Elections and the Arab Spring: The Weakening (and Resurgence) of Morocco's Islamist Opposition Party.” Terrorism and Political Violence 25, no. 1 (January 2013): 137156. doi:10.1080/09546553.2013.733274.
Burckhardt Titus, and Stoddart William. Fez, City of Islam. Cambridge: Islamic Texts Society, 1992.
Burke III Edmund. The Ethnographic State: France and the Invention of Moroccan Islam. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2014.
Buskens Léon. “Recent Debates on Family Law Reform in Morocco: Islamic Law as Politics in an Emerging Public Sphere.” Islamic Law and Society 10, no. 1 (2003): 70131.
Buskens Léon. “Sharia and National Law in Morocco.” In Sharia Incorporated: A Comparative Overview of the Legal Systems of Twelve Muslim Countries in Past and Present, edited by Otto Jan Michiel, pp. 89138. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2010.
Cairo Institute for Human Rights Studies. “Freedom of Expression Does Not Undermine the Security of the State: Morocco Should Drop Charges against Freedom of Expression Advocates and Halt All Restrictions on Rights and Freedoms,” November 19, 2015. www.cihrs.org/?p=17614&lang=en.
Campo Juan Eduardo, ed. “Abu Al-Qasim Ibn Muhammad Ibn Al-Junayd Al-Khazzaz Al-Qawariri Al-Junayd.” In Encyclopedia of Islam, 415. New York: Infobase Publishing, 2009.
Cavatorta Francesco, and Dalmasso Emanuela. “Liberal Outcomes through Undemocratic Means: The Reform of the Code De Statut Personnel in Morocco.” Journal of Modern African Studies 47, no. 4 (2009): 487506.
Central Intelligence Agency. “Morocco.” The World Factbook, November 2, 2015. www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mo.html.
Charrad Mounira. States and Women's Rights: The Making of Postcolonial Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001.
Clark J.Social Movement Theory and Patron-Clientelism: Islamic Social Institutions and the Middle Class in Egypt, Jordan, and Yemen.” Comparative Political Studies 37, no. 8 (October 2004): 941968. doi:10.1177/0010414004267982.
Clark Janine A., and Young Amy E. “Islamism and Family Law Reform in Morocco and Jordan.” Mediterranean Politics 13, no. 3 (November 2008): 333352. doi:10.1080/13629390802386663.
“A Conversation With Shaykh Abdallah Bin Bayyah.” Council on Foreign Relations, June 4, 2015. www.cfr.org/radicalization-and-extremism/conversation-shaykh-abdallah-bin-bayyah/p36726.
Cottart N.Mālikiyya.” In Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by Bearman P., Bianquis Th., Bosworth C. E., van Donzel E., and, Heinrichs W. P.. Brill Online, April 24, 2012. http://referenceworks.brillonline.com/entries/encyclopaedia-of-islam-2/malikiyya-COM_0652.
Croft Stuart. Culture, Crisis and America's War on Terror. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
Dabashi Hamid. The Arab Spring: The End of Postcolonialism. London: Zed Books, 2012.
“Dahir N° 1–03–193 Fixant Les Attributions et L'organisation Du Ministère Des Habous et Des Affaires Islamiques.” www.habous.gov.ma/fr/textes-de-lois-mosquées/53-textes-de-lois-mosquées/448-dahir-n-1–03–193-fixant-les-attributions-et-l-organisation-du-ministere-des-habous-et-des-affaires-islamiques.html (Accessed October 5, 2015).
“Dahir N° 1–03–196 Du 16 Ramadan 1424 (11 November 2003) Portant Promulgation de La Loi N° 02–03 Relative À L'entrée et Au Séjour Des Étrangers Au Royaume Du Maroc, À L’émigration et L'immigra-tion Irrégulières,” 2003. www.consulat.ma/admin_files/Loi_02_031.pdf.
Daouda Cheikh Boureima Abdou. “Communiqué Final Du Troisième Atelier de La Ligue Des Oulémas, Prêcheurs et Imams Des Pays Du Sahel.” Actualité Islamique, November 16, 2015. www.actualite-islamique.com/2015/11/communique-final-du-troisieme-atelier.html.
Deeb Sarah El. “Leaders of Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood Face Prosecution.” Christian Science Monitor, October 19, 2013. www.csmonitor.com/World/Latest-News-Wires/2013/1019/Leaders-of-Egypt-s-Muslim-Brotherhood-face-prosecution.
Department of State, Bureau of Counterterrorism. “Programs and Initiatives,” April 14, 2006. www.state.gov/j/ct/programs/index.htm#TSCTP.
Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 2011 Report on International Religious Freedom. July 30, 2012. www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/irf/2011/nea/192899.htm.
Department of State, Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs. “Program and Budget Guide: Fiscal Year 2013 Budget,” June 2012. www.state.gov/documents/organization/206770.pdf.
Department of State, Morocco 2013 International Religious Freedom Report. www.state.gov/documents/organization/222517.pdf (Accessed April 11, 2015).
Department of State, Office of Website Management, Bureau of Public Affairs. “Co-Chairs’ Fact Sheet: About the GCTF,” April 2, 2014. www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2014/04/224313.htm.
Department of State, “Remarks at Opening Plenary of the US-Morocco Strategic Dialogue.” Remarks|Remarks, April 4, 2014. www.state.gov/secretary/remarks/2014/04/224411.htm.
Department of State, “Ten Things You Should Know about the Global Counterterrorism Forum,” December 16, 2014. www.state.gov/r/pa/pl/235149.htm.
Diallo Thierno Amadou Omar Hass. La Lutte Contre L'incitation À Commettre Des Actes Terroristes Motivés Par L'extrémisme et L'intolérance: Approche et Expériences Du Royaume Du Maroc Avec D'autres Pays Africains. New York: Réunion du Comite contre le terrorisme des Nations Unies (CTED), September 30, 2014. www.un.org/en/sc/ctc/docs/2014/Minister%20Thierno%20Amadou%20Omar%20Hass%20Diallo-FRENCH.pdf.
Diouf Mamadou. Tolerance, Democracy, and Sufis in Senegal. New York: Columbia University Press, 2012.
Donno Daniela, and Russett Bruce. “Islam, Authoritarianism, and Female Empowerment: What Are the Linkages?” World Politics 56, no. 4 (July 1, 2004): 582607.
Doorn-Harder Pieternella van. Women Shaping Islam: Indonesian Women Reading the Qur'an. Urbana-Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 2006.
“Dozens Held over Jordan Bombings.” BBC, November 11, 2005, sec. Middle East. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/4428204.stm.
Driessen M. D.Public Religion, Democracy, and Islam: Examining the Moderation Thesis in Algeria.” Comparative Politics 44, no. 2 (2012): 171189.
Eddouada Souad, and Pepicelli Renata. “Morocco: Towards an ‘Islamic State Feminism.’” Sciences Po, n.d. www.sciencespo.fr/ceri/sites/sciencespo.fr.ceri/files/ci_feminism_iran_se_rp.pdf.
“Egypt Arrests 1,004 at Friday's Muslim Brotherhood Protests.” Reuters, August 17, 2013. www.reuters.com/article/2013/08/17/us-egypt-protests-arrests-idUSBRE97G01Y20130817.
“Egypt: Mass Arrests and Torture in Sinai.” Human Rights Watch, February 2005. www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/egypt0205.pdf.
“Egypt: Terrorist Tag Politically Driven.” Human Rights Watch, December 28, 2013. www.hrw.org/news/2013/12/28/egypt-terrorist-tag-politically-driven.
Eickelman Dale F. Knowledge and Power in Morocco. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1985.
Eickelman Dale F. Moroccan Islam. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1976.
El Haitami Meriem. “Restructuring Female Religious Authority: State-Sponsored Women Religious Guides (Murshidat) and Scholars (’Alimat) in Contemporary Morocco.” Mediterranean Studies 20, no. 2 (2012): 227240.
Elahmadi Mohsine. “Modernisation du champ religieux au Maroc, 1999–2009.” In Une décennie de réformes au Maroc (1999–2009), edited by Karthala Editions, pp. 117142. Paris: Karthala Editions, 2010.
El-Sadany Mai. “Legislating Terror in Egypt.” Tahrir Institute for Middle East Policy, n.d. http://timep.org/esw/articles-analysis/legislating-terror-in-egypt (Accessed October 15, 2015).
Esposito John. “Ashari, Abu-Al-Hasan Ali Ibn Ismail Al-.” In The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003. www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t125/e212.
Esposito John. “Sunni Islam.” In The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.
“Ethiopia: Prominent Muslims Detained in Crackdown.” Human Rights Watch, August 15, 2012. www.hrw.org/news/2012/08/15/ethiopia-prominent-muslims-detained-crackdown.
“Extrait Du Discours de S.M. Roi Mohammed VI Lors de L'ouverture de La Session D'automne de La Troisième Anné Législative.” www.men.gov.ma/sites/fr/Lists/Pages/charte_discours-roi_fr.aspx (Accessed January 15, 2014).
“Fact Sheet: Extraordinary Rendition.” American Civil Liberties Union. www.aclu.org/fact-sheet-extraordinary-rendition (Accessed October 26, 2015).
Fahmi Georges. “The Egyptian State and the Religious Sphere.” Carnegie Middle East Center, September 18, 2014. http://carnegie-mec.org/2014/09/18/egyptian-state-and-religious-sphere/hpac.
Fauzia Amelia. Faith and the State: A History of Islamic Philanthropy in Indonesia. Leiden: Brill, 2013.
Feuer Sarah J. Religious Establishment and Regime Survival: The Politics of Religious Education in Morocco and Tunisia, 1956–2010. Waltham, MA: Brandeis University, 2014. http://gradworks.umi.com/36/37/3637210.html.
Filali-Ansary Houda. “Faut-Il Réformer La Loi Contre Le Terrorisme?” La Vie Éco, March 14, 2008. www.lavieeco.com/news/politique/faut-il-reformer-la-loi-contre-le-terrorisme–5735.html.
Fish M. Steven. “Islam and Authoritarianism.” World Politics 55, no. 01 (2002): 437. doi:10.1353/wp.2003.0004.
“#FreeThePress: Reeyot Alemu – PressUncuffed.” Committee to Protect Journalists. www.cpj.org/campaigns/pressuncuffed/reeyot-alemu.php (Accessed October 25, 2015).
Geertz Clifford. Islam Observed: Religious Development in Morocco and Indonesia, 10th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971. http://monoskop.org/images/0/06/Geertz_Clifford_Islam_Observed_Religious_Development_in_Morocco_and_Indonesia_1971.pdf.
Gerber Jane S. Jewish Society in Fez 1450–1700: Studies in Communal and Economic Life. Leiden: Brill, 1980.
Gill Anthony. The Political Origins of Religious Liberty. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
“Global Insider: Morocco and U.S. Stay Close as War on Terror Evolves.” World Politics Review, July 9, 2012. www.worldpoliticsreview.com/trend-lines/12141/global-insider-morocco-and-u-s-stay-close-as-war-on-terror-evolves.
Gold Richard. “Jewish Community in Morocco.” In Encyclopedia of the Jewish Diaspora: Origins, Experiences, and Culture, edited by Ehrlich Mark Avrum, 2:481486. New York: ABC-CLIO, 2009.
Gray Doris H. Beyond Feminism and Islamism: Gender and Equality in North Africa. London: I. B. Tauris, 2014.
Gutelius David. “Islam in Northern Mali and the War on Terror.” Journal of Contemporary African Studies 25, no. 1 (January 1, 2007): 5976. doi:10.1080/02589000601157063.
Hamid Shadi. “Arab Islamist Parties: Losing on Purpose?” Journal of Democracy 22, no. 1 (2011): 6880.
Hamid Shadi. Temptations of Power: Islamists and Illiberal Democracy in a New Middle East. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.
Hammoudi Abdellah. Master and Disciple: The Cultural Foundations of Moroccan Authoritarianism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997.
Hanafi Leila. The Implementation of Morocco's 2004 Family Code Moudawana: Stock-Taking & Recommendations. Danish Centre for Research and Information on Gender, Equality, and Diversity, November 2013. http://kvinfo.dk/sites/default/files/studymoudawana.pdf.
Hassan Mona. “Reshaping Religious Authority in Contemporary Turkey: State-Sponsored Female Preachers.” In Women, Leadership and Mosques Changes in Contemporary Islamic Authority, edited by Bano Masooda and Kalmbach Hilary, 85104. Leiden: Brill, 2011.
Hassani Mohamed Benbachir. “Al-Dirāsāt Al-Islāmīya: Dawā’ī Inshā’ihā Ahdāfihā, Ab‘ādiha,” n.d.
Hatem Mervat F. “Discourses on the ‘War on Terrorism’ in the US and Its Views of the Arab, Muslim, and Gendered ‘Other.’” Arab Studies Journal, 2003, 7797.
Haykel Bernard. “On the Nature of Salafi Thought and Action.” In Global Salafism, edited by Meijer Roel, pp. 3350. New York: Columbia University Press, 2011.
Hegghammer Thomas. “There Is Nothing Soft about Saudi Counterterrorism.” Foreign Policy, March 11, 2010. https://foreignpolicy.com/2010/03/11/there-is-nothing-soft-about-saudi-counterterrorism/.
Herbst Jeffrey. States and Power in Africa: Comparative Lessons in Authority and Control. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000.
Hirchi Mohammed. “Political Islam in Morocco: The Case of the Party of Justice and Development (PJD).” Association of Concerned Africa Scholars Bulletin 77 (August 2007). http://concernedafricascholars.org/bulletin/issue77/hirchi/.
Hirschkind Charles, and Mahmood Saba. “Feminism, the Taliban, and Politics of Counter-Insurgency.” Anthropological Quarterly 75, no. 2 (2002): 339354.
“History.” Hedayah. http://hedayah.ae/about-hedayah/history (Accessed October 27, 2015).
“History Al Quaraouiyine University Fez Morocco.” Al Quaraouiyine University, February 2, 2014. www.alquaraouiyine.com/en/index.php/history-al-quaraouiyine-university-2.
Hlaoua Aziz. “Les Ambiguïtés de La Politique Religieuse Marocaine.” Centre Jacques Berque pour les Etudes en Sciences Humaines et Sociales au Maroc, 2015. www.cjb.ma/268-les-archives/270-archives-editos/414-archives-editos-2015/les-ambiguites-de-la-politique-religieuse-marocaine-2905.html.
“Hommage Au Pr. Ahmed El Khamlichi: Un Pionnier de La Réforme de La Pensée et de l'Ijtihad.” Albayane, March 18, 2011. www.maghress.com/fr/albayane/7695.
Howe Marvine. Morocco: The Islamist Awakening and Other Challenges. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.
“HRW Accuses Egypt of Mass Human Rights Abuses.” Middle East Online, February 22, 2005. www.middle-east-online.com/english/?id=12774.
Human Rights Watch. Morocco: Human Rights at a Crossroads: IV. Human Rights after the Casablanca Bombings, 2004. www.hrw.org/reports/2004/morocco1004/4.htm.
Human Rights Watch. World Report 2015: Jordan. www.hrw.org/world-report/2015/country-chapters/jordan (Accessed October 23, 2015).
Hunt Krista, and Rygiel Kim.(En)Gendered War Stories and Camouflaged Politics.” In (En)Gendering the War on Terror: War Stories and Camouflaged Politics, edited by Hunt Krista and Rygiel Kim, pp. 125. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing, 2013.
Hurd Elizabeth Shakman. Beyond Religious Freedom: The New Global Politics of Religion. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2015.
Institut Royal des Etudes Stratégiques. Rajaa NAJI MEKKAOUI, Juriste Pénaliste Université Mohammed V – Agdal, 2013. www.youtube.com/watch?v=hJA1w-Uq8sk.
ISIS. “Shari'ah Alone Will Rule Africa.” Dabiq, no. 8 (Jumada al-Akhirah 1436). http://media.clarionproject.org/files/islamic-state/isis-isil-islamic-state-magazine-issue+8-sharia-alone-will-rule-africa.pdf.
“Istiftā’ Amīr Al-Mu'manīn Ḥawla Al-Maṣlaḥa Al-Marsala.” Wizārat Al-Awqāf W-Al-Shu’ūn Al-Islamiyya, October 9, 2012. www.habous.gov.ma/component/content/article/223–2012–05–03–18–49–59/1919-inline-graphic.html.
Jackson Richard. Writing the War on Terrorism: Language, Politics and Counter-Terrorism. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2005.
Jamal Amaney A. Of Empires and Citizens: Pro-American Democracy or No Democracy at All? Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2012.
“Jihad Rehab Camp – Photo Essays.” TIME.com. http://content.time.com/time/photogallery/0,29307,1671787,00.html (Accessed October 25, 2015).
Joscelyn Thomas. “Ansar Al Sharia Egypt Releases Founding Statement.” FDD's Long War Journal, November 20, 2012. www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2012/11/_defending_al_qaeda.php.
Kably Mohamed, ed. Histoire Du Maroc. L'Institut Royal pour la Recherche sur l'Histoire du Maroc: Librarie des Colonnes, 2013.
Kane Abdoulaye. “Les pèlerins sénégalais au Maroc: la sociability autour de al Tijaniyya.” In Les nouveaux urbains dans l'espace Sahara-Sahel – Un cosmopolitisme par le bas, edited by Marfaing Laurence and Boessen Elisabeth, pp. 187208. Paris: Karthala Editions, 2007.
Kane Ousmane. Muslim Modernity in Postcolonial Nigeria: A Study of the Society for the Removal of Innovation and Reinstatement of Tradition. Leiden: Brill, 2003.
Kébé Abdoul Azize. “La Coopération Religieuse et Spirituelle Pour Un Monde de Paix: L'exemple Du Maroc.” Le Soleil, July 28, 2015.
Keyman Emin Fuat. Remaking Turkey: Globalization, Alternative Modernities, and Democracy. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2007.
Kieh George Klay, and Kalu Kelechi. West Africa and the U.S. War on Terror. London: Routledge, 2013.
Kingdom of Bahrain. “Regulations of Members.” MENAFATF Official Website, 2015. www.menafatf.org/categoryList.asp?cType=reg.
Kingsley Patrick. “Female Muslim Brotherhood Protesters Arrested in Alexandria.” The Guardian, November 1, 2013, sec. World news. www.theguardian.com/world/2013/nov/01/female-muslim-brotherhood-protesters-arrested.
Kirkpatrick David D. “Army Ousts Egypt's President; Morsi Is Taken into Military Custody.” New York Times, July 3, 2013. www.nytimes.com/2013/07/04/world/middleeast/egypt.html.
Koesel Karrie J. Religion and Authoritarianism: Cooperation, Conflict, and the Consequences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014.
Laâbi Chafik. “Etat et Religion, Comment Lire Les Changements Annoncés.” La Vie Eco, July 5, 2004. www.lavieeco.com/news/politique/etat-et-religion-comment-lire-les-changements-annonces-5330.html.
Lacroix Stéphane. “Sheikhs and Politicians: Inside the New Egyptian Salafism.” Policy Briefing. Brookings Institution, June 11, 2012. www.brookings.edu/research/papers/2012/06/07-egyptian-salafism-lacroix.
Lakhdar Lafif. “Moving From Salafi to Rationalist Education.” Middle East Review of International Affairs 9, no. 1 (March 3, 2005). www.gloria-center.org/2005/03/lakhdar-2005–03–03/.
Lamrabet Asma. “An Egalitarian Reading of the Concepts of Khilafah, Wilayah, and Qiwamah.” In Men in Charge? Rethinking Authority in Muslim Legal Tradition, edited by Mir-Hosseini Ziba, Al-Sharmani Mulki, and Rumminger Jana, pp. 6587. London: Oneworld Publications, 2015.
Lamrabet Asma. Les Femmes et L'islam: Une Vision Réformiste. Valeurs d'Islam. Paris: Fondation pour l'Innovation Politique, 2015. www.asma-lamrabet.com/publications/les-femmes-et-l-islam-une-vision-reformis/.
Laroui Abdallah. The History of the Maghrib: An Interpretive Essay. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2015.
Lauzière Henri. “The Construction of Salafiyya: Reconsidering Salafism from the Perspective of Conceptual History.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 42, no. 03 (July 15, 2010): 369389. doi:10.1017/S0020743810000401.
Lauzière Henri. The Making of Salafism: Islamic Reform in the Twentieth Century. New York: Columbia University Press, 2015.
Lauzière Henri. “The Religious Dimension of Islamism: Sufism, Salafism, and Politics in Morocco.” In Islamist Politics in the Middle East: Movements and Change, edited by Shehata Samer, pp. 88106. London: Routledge, 2012.
“Law No. 13.10.” Official Journal No 5911, January 24, 2011. www.menafatf.org/images/UploadFiles/Moroccan_AMLCFT_system_law_13_10.pdf.
“Letter Dated 18 September 2002 from the Chairman of the Security Council Committee Established Pursuant to Resolution 1373 (2001) Concerning Counter-Terrorism Addressed to the President of the Security Council.” United Nations Security Council, September 19, 2002. www.refworld.org/pdfid/46d6ba170.pdf.
“Liste Des Délégations Provinciales Des Affaires Islamiques.” Ministry of Endowments and Religious Affairs, November 30, 1999. www.habous.gov.ma/fr/component/content/article/38-Délégations-régionales/62-liste-des-delegations-provinciales-des-affaires-islamiques.html.
Loveluck Louisa. “Planting the Seeds of Tunisia's Ansar Al Sharia.” Foreign Policy, September 27, 2012. https://foreignpolicy.com/2012/09/27/planting-the-seeds-of-tunisias-ansar-al-sharia/.
Lynch Marc. The Arab Uprising: The Unfinished Revolutions of the New Middle East. New York: PublicAffairs, 2013.
Madani Mohamed, Maghraoui Driss, and Zerhouni Saloua. The 2011 Moroccan Constitution: A Critical Analysis. Stockholm: International IDEA, 2012. www.idea.int/publications/the_2011_moroccan_constitution/loader.cfm?csModule=security/getfile&pageid=56782.
Maghraoui Driss. Revisiting the Colonial Past in Morocco. London: Routledge, 2013.
Maghraoui Driss. “The Strengths and Limits of Religious Reforms in Morocco.” Mediterranean Politics 14, no. 2 (July 2009): 195211. doi:10.1080/13629390902985976.
Makdisi George. The Rise of Colleges: Institutions of Learning in Islam and the West. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1981.
Malik Jamal. “Introduction.” In Madrasas in South Asia: Teaching Terror?, pp. 122. London: Routledge, 2007.
“Mandate and Mission.” International Institute for Justice and the Rule of Law, 2014. https://theiij.org/about-us/mandate-and-mission/.
Mandaville Peter. Global Political Islam. London: Routledge, 2010.
Maqna’ Laḥsan. “Al-Dāi'iyya Al-Maghribī ‘Abd Al-Bārī Al-Zamzamī: Lā Itafaqa Ma’ Fikra Inshā’ Aḥzāb Islāmiyya Fī Balad Islāmī… Wa Murāqiba Al-Masājid Fīhā Ḥamāyya Lil-Ama.” Al-Sharq Al-Awsaṭ, October 16, 2004. http://archive.aawsat.com/details.asp?section=4&issueno=9454&article=260725&feature=/details.asp#.Vsc1uBiEhAY.
“Marrakesh Declaration,” January 27, 2016. http://marrakeshdeclaration.org/files/Declaration-Marrakesh-Eng-27.pdf.
Marshall Katherine. “Moderation and Modernity: Challenges for Moroccan Islam.” Berkley Center for Religion and World Affairs, June 5, 2014. http://berkleycenter.georgetown.edu/blogs/faith-in-action/posts/moderation-and-modernity-challenges-for-moroccan-islam.
“Mawqi'a Majmu'a Al-Malik Fahd Li-Ṭabā’a Al-Maṣhaf Al-Sharīf.” http://qurancomplex.gov.sa (Accessed October 28, 2015).
Mbaye Assane. “Grande Mosquée de Dakar: Centre Religion, Clans et Lutes D'influences!” Enquête, July 23, 2015, 1229 edition.
Melchert Christopher. The Formation of the Sunni Schools of Law: 9th–10th Centuries C.E. Leiden: Brill, 1997.
The Mellah Society: Jewish Community Life in Sherifian Morocco. 2nd ed. Chicago Studies in the History of Judaism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989.
Mersch Sarah. “Tunisia's Ineffective Counterterrorism Law.” Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, August 6, 2015. http://carnegieendowment.org/sada/?fa=60958.
Meyer Marshall W., and Brown M. Craig. “The Process of Bureaucratization.” American Journal of Sociology, 1977, 364385.
Migration Policy Centre. MPC – Migration Profile: Morocco; The Demographic-Economic Framework of Migration; The Legal Framework of Migration; The Socio-Political Framework of Migration. European University Institute, June 2013. www.migrationpolicycentre.eu/docs/migration_profiles/Morocco.pdf.
Ministere des Habous et des Affaires Islamiques. “27 Septembre 2008: Discours de SM Le Roi À L'occasion de La Tenue À Tétouan de La Session Ordinaire Du Conseil Supérieur Des Oulémas,” September 27, 2008. www.habous.gov.ma/fr/discours-royaux/126-Discours-royaux/665–27-septembre-2008-discours-de-sm-le-roi-a-l-occasion-de-la-tenue-a-tetouan-de-la-session-ordinaire-du-conseil-superieur-des-oulemas.html.
Ministere des Habous et des Affaires Islamiques. “Concours D'accès Au Cycle de La Licence À l'Institut Mohammed VI Des Lectures et Études Coraniques.” www.habous.gov.ma/fr/component/jevents/eventdetail/206/215|261|527|528|529/concours-d-acces-au-cycle-de-la-licence-a-l-institut-mohammed-vi-des-lectures-et-etudes-coraniques.html?Itemid=1 (Accessed May 19, 2016).
Ministere des Habous et des Affaires Islamiques. “Nomination de Mr. Khalid Saqi Au Poste de Directeur de l'Institut Mohammed VI Des Lectures et Études Coraniques.” Royaume du Maroc, September 25, 2013. http://habous.gov.ma/fr/postes-de-responsabilités/1613-nomination-de-mr-khalid-saqi-au-poste-de-directeur-de-l-institut-mohammed-vi-des-lectures-et-études-coraniques.html.
Ministere des Habous et des Affaires Islamiques. “Press Release on the Occasion of the Announcement of the Creation of the Foundation.” Royaume du Maroc, July 15, 2015. http://habous.gov.ma/fr/fondation-mohammed-vi-des-oulémas-africains/580-articles-ar/2861-press-release-on-the-occasion-of-the-announcement-of-the-creation-of-the-foundation.html.
Ministere des Habous et des Affaires Islamiques. “Le Prix ‘Cheikh Ibrahim Niass Pour La Paix’ décerné À SM Le Roi Mohammed VI À Dakar.” Royaume du Maroc, July 29, 2015. http://www.habous.gov.ma/fr/activités-amir-almouminine/2889-le-prix-cheikh-ibrahim-niass-pour-la-paix-décerné-à-sm-le-roi-mohammed-vi-à-dakar.html.
Ministere des Habous et des Affaires Islamiques. “Le Programme de Qualification Des Imams Dans Le Pacte Des Ouléma (Mithaq Al Oulamae),” October 10, 2011. http://habous.gov.ma/fr/formation-et-qualification.html.
Ministere des Habous et des Affaires Islamiques. “SM Le Roi, Amir Al Mouminine, Inaugure À Rabat l'Institut Mohammed VI de Formation Des Imams, Morchidines et Morchidates.” Royaume Du Maroc, March 27, 2015. http://habous.gov.ma/fr/islam-au-maroc/2647-sm-le-roi,-amir-al-mouminine,-inaugure-à-rabat-l'institut-mohammed-vi-de-formation-des-imams,-morchidines-et-morchidates.html.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs. “Report Submitted by Egypt to the Security Council Committee Established pursuant to Resolution 1373 (2001),” December 2001. https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N01/714/85/PDF/N0171485.pdf?OpenElement.
Mnebhi Farid. “Discours Du Roi Du Maroc, Une Réelle Déclaration de Bamako 2013.” Koaci, September 19, 2013. http://koaci.com/koacinaute-maroc-discours-maroc-reelle-declaration-bamako-2013–85754.html.
Mohamed Bala. Africa and Nonalignment: A Study in the Foreign Relations of New Nations. Kano: Triumph Publishing, 1982.
Mohammed VI. Dahir 1–09–198 Du 8 Rabii 1 1431 (23 Février 2010) Portant Creation de La Fondation Mohammed VI Pour L’édition Du Saint Coran, 2010. http://habous.gov.ma/fr/images/abook_file/BO_5840.1363_Fr.pdf.
Mohammed VI. “Discours de SM Le Roi Devant Les Membres Du Conseil Supérieur et Des Conseils Provinciaux Des Ouléma.” Presented at the Centre National de Documentation du Maroc, April 30, 2004. http://doc.abhatoo.net.ma/doc/spip.php?article1623.
Mohammed VI. “Discours de S. M. Le Roi Mohammed VI Lors de L'ouverture de La 2ème Année Législative de La 7ème Législature,” 2003. www.maroc.ma/fr/discours-royaux/discours-de-sm-le-roi-mohammed-vi-lors-de-louverture-de-la-2%C3%A8me-ann%C3%A9e-l%C3%A9gislative-de.
Mohammed VI. “Letter to the Manhattan Sephardic Congregation.” In Manhattan Sephardic Congregation Jewish Calendar 5776 2015–2016: Rehabilitation of the Jewish Cemeteries of Morocco (Part II). Manhattan Sephardic Congregation in collaboration with Council of Jewish Communities of Morocco, n.d.
“Monsieur Ahmed Toufiq Ministre Des Habous et Des Affaires Islamiques.” www.habous.gov.ma/fr/m-le-ministre-10.html (Accessed October 2, 2015).
“Morocco Court Jails Bomb Plotters for 30 Years.” Reuters, October 16, 2008.
“Morocco Hosts World Wide Tijani Conference Fes, Morocco, 27–30 June 2007, 11–14 Jumadi Thani 1428.” Tariqa Tijaniyya. www.tijani.org/news/tijani-conference-2007 (Accessed July 1, 2015).
“Morocco's Truth Commission: Honoring Past Victims during an Uncertain Present.” Human Rights Watch, November 2005. www.hrw.org/reports/2005/morocco1105/index.htm.
“Morocco-US Strategic Dialogue: Consultation. Cooperation. Progress.” Moroccan American Center for Policy, 2012. http://moroccoonthemove.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/SR_USMoroccoStrategicDialogue.pdf.
Morsy Ahmed, and Brown Nathan J. “Egypt's Al-Azhar Steps Forward.” Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, November 7, 2013. http://carnegieendowment.org/2013/11/07/egypt-s-al-azhar-steps-forward.
Mouline Nabil. The Clerics of Islam: Religious Authority and Political Power in Saudi Arabia. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2014.
Moustaoui Adil. “National Charter of Education and Training, October 1999, Excerpts, Non-Official Translation into English.” Mercator, Bulletin 54, no. Dossier 14 (2003): 7984.
“MRE: Le Conseil Des Oulémas Pour l'Europe Arrête Ses Principaux Objectifs.” Yawatani.com, January 27, 2009. www.yawatani.com/index.php/mre/4383-mre–le-conseil-des-oulemas-pour-leurope-arrete-ses-principaux-objectifs.
Munson Henry. Religion and Power in Morocco. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993.
“Nabda ‘an Mu'asisa Dār Al-Ḥadīth Al-Ḥasaniyya.” Dār Al-Ḥadīth Al-Ḥasaniyya. www.edhh.org/index.php# (Accessed November 9, 2015).
Nasr Seyyed Vali Reza. The Islamic Leviathan: Islam and the Making of State Power. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.
Obama Barack Executive Order 13491 – Ensuring Lawful Interrogations. Vol. Executive Order 13491, 2009. www.whitehouse.gov/node/683.
Open Society Justice Initiative. Globalizing Torture: CIA Secret Detention and Extraordinary Rendition. New York: Open Society Foundation, February 2013.
Opwis Felicitas. “Islamic Law and Legal Change: The Concept of Maṣlaḥa in Classical and Contemporary Islamic Legal Theory.” In Shari'a: Islamic Law in the Contemporary Context, eds. Amanat Abbas and Griffel Frank, pp. 6282. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2007.
Park Thomas Kerlin, and Boum Aomar. Historical Dictionary of Morocco. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2006.
Pedahzur Ami. The Israeli Secret Services and the Struggle against Terrorism. New York: Columbia University Press, 2010.
Philpott Daniel. “Has the Study of Global Politics Found Religion?” Annual Review of Political Science 12, no. 1 (June 2009): 183202. doi:10.1146/annurev.polisci.12.053006.125448.
Pierret Thomas. Religion and State in Syria: The Sunni Ulama from Coup to Revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013.
Porges Marisa. “Saudi Arabia's ‘Soft’ Approach to Terrorist Prisoners: A Model for Others?” In Prisons, Terrorism and Extremism: Critical Issues in Management, Radicalisation and Reform, edited by Silke Andrew, p. 169. London: Routledge, 2014.
Porges Marisa. “The Saudi Deradicalization Experiment.” Council on Foreign Relations, January 22, 2010. www.cfr.org/radicalization-and-extremism/saudi-deradicalization-experiment/p21292.
Porter Geoffrey. “At the Pillar's Base: Islam, Morocco and Education in the Qarawiyin Mosque 1912–2000.” New York: Department of Middle Eastern Studies, New York University, January 2002.
Power Samantha. “Remarks by Ambassador Samantha Power, U.S. Permanent Representative to the United Nations, at a UN Security Council Debate on the Maintenance of International Peace and Security: The Role of Youth in Countering Violent Extremism and Promoting Peace,” April 23, 2015. http://Iipdigital.usembassy.gov/St/English/Texttrans/2015/04/20150423314799.xml.
“Press Release: The Withdrawal of the Reservations to CEDAW by Morocco | Women's Learning Partnership.” Women's Learning Parnership for Rights, Development, and Peace, January 6, 2009. www.learningpartnership.org/lib/press-release-withdrawal-reservations-cedaw-morocco.
Proclamation No. 652/2009: A Proclamation on Anti-Terrorism.” Federal Negarit Gazeta of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia 15th year, no. No. 57 (August 2009). www.mfa.gov.et/docs/Anti-Terrorism%20Proclamation.pdf.
Rausch Margaret J.Women Mosque Preachers and Spiritual Guides: Publicizing and Negotiating Women's Religious Authority in Morocco.” In Women, Leadership, and Mosques: Changes in Contemporary Islamic Authority, edited by Bano Masooda and Kalmbach Hilary, pp. 5984. Leiden: Brill, 2011.
“Réalisations de La Direction Des Affaires Générales Pour L'année 2013.” Ministry of Endowments and Religious Affairs, July 18, 2014. www.habous.gov.ma/files/affaires-generals-2013.pdf.
Régragui Ismaïl. La diplomatie publique marocaine: une stratégie de marque religieuse? Paris: Editions L'Harmattan, 2013.
“Religious Rehabilitation Group,” 2014. http://rrg.sg/about-us.
Rerhaye Narjis. “Entretien Avec Ahmed Abbadi, SG de La Rabita Mohammadia Des Oulémas.” Libération, October 1, 2009. www.libe.ma/Entretien-avec-Ahmed-Abbadi-SG-de-la-Rabita-Mohammadia-des-Oulemas-L-Islam-respecte-les-libertes-individuelles-dans-le_a5754.html.
Robinson David. Muslim Societies in African History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
Ross Michael L.Oil, Islam, and Women.” American Political Science Review 102, no. 01 (February 13, 2008). doi:10.1017/S0003055408080040.
Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia Information Office. “The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Initiatives and Actions to Combat Terrorism,” April 2015. https://saudiembassy.net/files/PDF/Reports/Counterterrorism.pdf.
Royaume du Maroc. “Dahir n°1–06–222 Du Chaoual 1427 (22 Novembre 2006) Portant Création de l'Institut Royal Pour La Recherche Sur L'histoire Du Maroc.” Bulletin Officiel 5484 (December 21, 2006). www.habous.gov.ma/fr/files/insitut_bo.pdf.
Royaume du Maroc Ministère de l’Éducation Nationale et de la Formation Professionnelle. “Charte Nationale D’éducation et de Formation,” October 8, 1999. www2.men.gov.ma/viescolaire/Documents/Charte_Fr.pdf.
Royaume du Maroc Ministère des Habous et des Affaires Islamiques. “06 Novembre 2008: Dahir Chérifien n°1.08.17 Portant Sur La Création et L'organisation D'un Conseil Des Oulémas Des Marocains Résidents À L’étranger,” November 6, 2008. http://habous.gov.ma/fr/chronologie/35-Conseil-marocain-des-Oulémas-pour-l-Europe/625–06-novembre-2008-dahir-cherifien-n-1–08–17-portant-sur-la-creation-et-l-organisation-d-un-conseil-des-oulemas-des-marocains-residents-a-l-etranger.html.
Royaume du Maroc Ministère des Habous et des Affaires Islamiques. “Coopération Franco-Marocaine En Matière de Formation D'imams,” September 21, 2015. www.habous.gov.ma/fr/activités-amir-almouminine/2922-coopération-franco-marocaine-en-matière-de-formation-d'imams.html.
Rüdiger Seesemann. “‘Kenyan Muslims’, the Aftermath of 9/1, and the ‘War on Terror’.” In Islam and Muslim Politics in Africa, edited by Soares Benjamin F. and Otayek René, pp. 157176. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.
Saliba Issam. “Morocco: Bill to Amend Counterterrorism Law.” Global Legal Monitor. Library of Congress, February 13, 2015. www.loc.gov/law/foreign-news/article/morocco-bill-to-amend-counterterrorism-law/.
Salim Arskal. Challenging the Secular State: The Islamization of Law in Modern Indonesia. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2008.
Salime Zakia. “The War on Terrorism: Appropriation and Subversion by Moroccan Women.” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 33, no. 1 (September 2007): 124. doi:10.1086/518370.
Salomon Noah. For Love of the Prophet: An Ethnography of Sudan's Islamic State. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2016.
Sambe Bakary. Islam et diplomatie: la politique africaine du Maroc. Gaithersburg, MD: Phoenix Press International, 2011.
Sarkissian Ani. “Religious Regulation and the Muslim Democracy Gap.” Politics and Religion 5, no. 03 (December 2012): 501527. doi:10.1017/S1755048312000284.
“Saudi Arabia: Assaulting Human Rights in the Name of Counter-Terrorism.” Amnesty International, 2009. www.amnesty.nl/sites/default/files/public/assaulting_human_rights_in_the_name_of_counter-terrorism.pdf.
Schmidt Elizabeth. Foreign Intervention in Africa: From the Cold War to the War on Terror. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013.
Schwedler J.Can Islamists Become Moderates? Rethinking the Inclusion-Moderation Hypothesis.” World Politics 63, no. 02 (2011): 347376.
Schwedler J. Faith in Moderation: Islamist Parties in Jordan and Yemen. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
Scott James C. Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999.
Sezgin Yüksel, and Künkler Mirjam. “Regulation of ‘Religion’ and the ‘Religious’: The Politics of Judicialization and Bureaucratization in India and Indonesia.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 56, no. 02 (April 2014): 448478. doi:10.1017/S0010417514000103.
“Sixth Ministerial Plenary.” Global Counterterrorism Forum, September 27, 2015. hwww.thegctf.org/home.
Skocpol Theda.Bringing the State Back in: Strategies of Analysis in Current Research.” In Bringing the State Back In, edited by Evans Peter B., Rueschemeyer Dietrich and Skocpol Theda, pp. 337. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
Slyomovics Susan. The Performance of Human Rights in Morocco. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2005.
Spiegel Avi Max. Young Islam: The New Politics of Religion in Morocco and the Arab World. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2015.
Stampnitzky Lisa. Disciplining Terror: How Experts Invented “Terrorism.” New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013.
Stepan Alfred C., and Robertson Graeme B. “An ‘Arab’ More than a ‘Muslim’ Electoral Gap.” Journal of Democracy 14, no. 3 (2003): 3044. doi:10.1353/jod.2003.0064.
“Ṣudūr Kitāb Jadīd: ‘al-Islām Wa-L-Mar'a: Al-Ṭarīq Al-Thālith,’ lil-Kātiba Wa-L-Ṭabība Asmā’ Al-Murābiṭ.” Markaz Al-Dirāsāt Wa-L-Buḥūth Fī Al-Qaḍāya Al-Nisā’iyya Fī Al-Islām, February 7, 2014. www.annisae.ma/Article.aspx?C=5923.
Suyuti Imam Jamal al-Din ’Abd al-Rahman, and Haleem Ayman Abdel. The Perfect Guide to the Sciences of the Qurān, Volume 1. Reading: Garnet Publishing, 2011.
“Syria: Counterterrorism Court Used to Stifle Dissent.” Human Rights Watch, June 25, 2013. www.hrw.org/news/2013/06/25/syria-counterterrorism-court-used-stifle-dissent.
“Syria: Mass Arrest Campaign Intensifies.” Human Rights Watch, July 20, 2011. www.hrw.org/news/2011/07/20/syria-mass-arrest-campaign-intensifies.
“Tajweed Rules for Warsh ’an Naafi: Part One.” About Tajweed. www.abouttajweed.com/warsh_rules_1.htm (Accessed November 20, 2015).
Tamek Mohamed Salah. “Morocco's Approach to Countering Violent Extremism.” Policywatch. Washington Institute, May 16, 2014. www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/moroccos-approach-to-countering-violent-extremism.
“Taṭwīr Al-Ijtihād Qarā’a Fī A'amāl Al-Ustādh Aḥmad Al-Khamlīshī “mawḍū’ Nadwa ’Almiyya Takrīman L-Il-Ustādh Al-Khamlīshī.” Wikāla Al-Maghrib Al-’Arabī, March 14, 2011. www.maghress.com/map/30116.
Terem Etty. Old Texts, New Practices: Islamic Reform in Modern Morocco. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2014.
“Testimony of Sarah Leah Whitson.” Tom Lantos Human Rights Commission, November 3, 2015. http://tlhrc.house.gov/docs/transcripts/20151103%20Egypt%20Hearing/Whitson%20Testimony.pdf.
“Their Eyes on Me: Stories of Surveillance in Morocco.” Privacy International. https://privacyinternational.atavist.com/theireyesonme (Accessed October 14, 2015).
Thurston Alexander. Salafism in Nigeria: Islam, Preaching and Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2016.
Thurston Alexander, and Lebovich Andrew. A Handbook on Mali's 2012–2013 Crisis. Institute for the Study of Islamic Thought in Africa Working Paper Series. Evanston, IL: Robert Buffett Center for International and Comparative Studies Northwestern University, September 2, 2013. http://buffett.northwestern.edu/documents/working-papers/ISITA-13–001-Thurston-Lebovich.pdf.
Toufiq Ahmed. “The Kingdom of Morocco's Experience to Counter Terrorism.” United Nations Security Council: Counter-Terrorism Committee, September 30, 2014. www.un.org/en/sc/ctc/docs/2014/Minister%20Ahmed%20Toufiq.pdf.
“Tunisia Arrests More than 20 in Crackdown since Museum Attack.” Reuters, March 21, 2015. www.reuters.com/article/2015/03/21/us-tunisia-security-idUSKBN0MH0C620150321.
United Nations Security Council. “United Nations Security Council Resolution 1373,” September 28, 2001. www.un.org/en/sc/ctc/specialmeetings/2012/docs/United%20Nations%20Security%20Council%20Resolution%201373%20(2001).pdf.
Vikør Knut S. Between God and the Sultan: A History of Islamic Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Villalón Leonardo A.Cautious Democrats: Religious Actors and Democratization Processes in Senegal.” Politics and Religion 8, no. 02 (June 2015): 305333. doi:10.1017/S1755048315000176.
Villalón Leonardo A. Islamic Society and State Power in Senegal: Disciples and Citizens in Fatick. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
Vogel Frank E.The Public and Private in Saudi Arabia: Restrictions on the Powers of Committees for Ordering the Good and Forbidding the Evil.” Social Research: An International Quarterly 70, no. 3 (2003): 749768.
Waal Alexander De, and Salam H. Abdel. “Africa, Islamism and America's ‘War on Terror.’” In Islamism and Its Enemies in the Horn of Africa, edited by De Waal Alexander, pp. 231257. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2004.
Wagemakers Joas. A Quietist Jihadi: The Ideology and Influence of Abu Muhammad Al-Maqdisi. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.
Wainscott Ann Marie. “Defending Islamic Education: War on Terror Discourse and Religious Education in Twenty-First-Century Morocco.” Journal of North African Studies (May 26, 2015): 119. doi:10.1080/13629387.2015.1041108.
Wainscott Ann Marie. “Morocco's AU Bid Builds on Years of Strategic Diplomacy.” IPI Global Observatory. https://theglobalobservatory.org/2016/07/morocco-african-union-western-sahara-mohammed-vi (Accessed November 29, 2016).
Waṭaniyya Al-Mamlaka al-Maghribiyya al-, al-Tarbiya Wizārat. Al-Kitāb Al-Abyaḍ Al-Juzʾ 5: Al-Manāhij Al-Tarbawiyya Li-Qaṭaba Al-Ādāb Wa-L-Insāniyyat, 2002.
Waterbury John. The Commander of the Faithful: The Moroccan Political Elite. New York: Columbia University Press, 1970.
Welchman Lynn.Anti-Terrorism Law and Policy in Arab States.” In Global Anti-Terrorism Law and Policy, edited by Ramraj Victor V., Hor Michael, Roach Kent, and Williams George, pp. 621654. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.
“Western Sahara: Out of the Impasse.” Middle East/North Africa Report. International Crisis Group, June 11, 2007. www.crisisgroup.org/~/media/Files/Middle%20East%20North%20Africa/North%20Africa/Western%20Sahara/66_western_sahara___out_of_the_impasse.pdf.
White Gregory W.Free Trade as a Strategic Instrument in the War on Terror? The 2004 US-Moroccan Free Trade Agreement.” Middle East Journal 59, no. 4 (Autumn 2005): 597616.
White House: Office of the Press Secretary. “Joint Statement by the United States of America and the Kingdom of Morocco,” November 22, 2013. www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2013/11/22/joint-statement-united-states-america-and-kingdom-morocco.
Wickham Carrie Rosefsky. Mobilizing Islam: Religion, Activism and Political Change in Egypt. New York: Columbia University Press, 2013.
Wickham Carrie Rosefsky. “The Muslim Brotherhood and Democratic Transition in Egypt.” Middle East Law and Governance 3, no. 1–2 (March 25, 2011): 204223. doi:10.1163/187633711X591558.
Wickham Carrie Rosefsky. “The Path to Moderation: Strategy and Learning in the Formation of Egypt's Wasat Party.” Comparative Politics 36, no. 2 (January 1, 2004): 205228. doi:10.2307/4150143.
Wiktorowicz Quintan. “Anatomy of the Salafi Movement.” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 29, no. 3 (May 2006): 207239. doi:10.1080/10576100500497004.
Wiktorowicz Quintan. The Management of Islamic Activism: Salafis, the Muslim Brotherhood, and State Power in Jordan. Albany: SUNY Press, 2001.
Winter Tim. The Cambridge Companion to Classical Islamic Theology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
Wizārat al-Awqāf w-al-Shu’ūn al-Islamiyya. Ḥamlu Al-Qur’ān Al-Karīm Wa Nashruhu Fī Al-Mamlaka Al-Maghribiyya. Maṭba'a wa-Rāqa al-Faḍīla, 2013. www.habous.gov.ma/files/oeuvre_sur_saint_coran_royaume_du_maroc_minister_de_habous_2013–1.pdf.
Wizārat al-Awqāf w-al-Shu’ūn al-Islamiyya. “Munjazāt Mudīriyya Al-Ta'līm Al-A'tīq Sana 2014,” September 1, 2015. http://www.habous.gov.ma/inline-graphic-2012/1145-inline-graphic-2014/6961-inline-graphic.html.
Wright Lawrence. “The Rebellion Within.” New Yorker, June 2, 2008. www.newyorker.com/magazine/2008/06/02/the-rebellion-within.
Yusuf Hamza. “Foreward.” In Instruction of the Student: The Method of Learning/Ta Limal-Muta Allim Tariq Al-Ta Allum, written by Al-Zarnuji Imam. Translated by Von Grunebaum Gustave E., and Abel Theodora M, pp. viixi. Chicago: Starlatch Press, 2003.
Ẓahīr 1.04.22 Ṣādir Fī 12 Min Dhī Al-Ḥaja 1424 (3 Febrāyar 2004) Binafīdh Al-Qānūn Raqam Bimithāba Mudawana Al-Usra 70.03, 2004. http://adala.justice.gov.ma/production/html/Ar/153007.htm.
Ẓahīr Sharīf 1.15.71 Ṣādir Fī 7 Ramaḍān 1436 (24 June 2015) Yaqḍī Bi-I’āda Tanẓīm Jāmi'a Al-Qarawiyyīn [Reorganization of Qarawiyyin University]. Vol. 6372, 2015. www.habous.gov.ma/files/%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D8%A4%D8%B3%D8%B3%D8%A7%D8%AA/alkarwiyine_reorganisation_dahir.pdf.
Ẓahīr Sharīf Raqam 1.03.300 Ṣādir Fī 2 Rabīa’ Al-Awal 1425 (22 April 2004) Bi-I’āda Tanẓīm Al-Majālis Al-’Ilmiyya, 2004. www.habous.gov.ma/images/abook_file/02–2004–1.03–300.5210.2177.pdf.
Ẓahīr Sharīf Raqam 1.05.159 Ṣādir Fī 18 Min Rajab 1426 (24 August 2005) Bi-I’āda Tanẓīm Mu'ahad Dār Al-Ḥadīth Al-Ḥassaniyya, 2005. http://adala.justice.gov.ma/production/html/Ar/liens/..%5C157123.htm.
Zeghal Malika. Islamism in Morocco: Religion, Authoritarianism, and Electoral Politics. London: Markus Wiener Publishers, 2008.
Zeghal Malika. “Public Institutions of Religious Education in Egypt and Tunisia: Contrasting the Post-Colonial Reforms of Al-Azhar and the Zaytuna.” In Trajectories of Education in the Arab World: Legacies and Challenges, edited by Abi-Mershed Osama, pp. 111124. London: Routledge, 2009.
Žvan Katja. “The Politics of the Reform of the New Family Law (the Moudawana).” St. Antony's College, University of Oxford, 2007. http://users.ox.ac.uk/~metheses/Zvan%20thesis.pdf.
Zvan Elliott Katja. “Reforming the Moroccan Personal Status Code: A Revolution for Whom?” Mediterranean Politics 14, no. 2 (July 2009): 213227. doi:10.1080/13629390902987659.

  • ABC News

  • Algérie Presse Service

  • AllAfrica.fr

  • Al-Arabiya News

  • al-Ḥiwār al-Mutamaddan

  • Al-Itiḥād Al-Ishtirākī

  • Al-Jazeera (Arabic)

  • Al-Jazeera English

  • Al-Monitor

  • Al-Sharq al-Awsaṭ

  • Al-Tajdīd (al-Tajdeed)

  • Aujourdhui Le Maroc

  • BBC News

  • The Daily Star Newspaper (Lebanon)

  • DakarActu.com

  • The Economist

  • L'Economiste

  • Europe News

  • The Guardian

  • Hespress

  • The Independent

  • The Intercept

  • The International Business Times

  • Jeune Afrique

  • La Vie Eco

  • Libération

  • Le 360

  • Le Mag du Maroc

  • Le Mag.ma

  • Magharebia

  • Maliweb.net

  • Mamfakinch

  • Masress “Maṣris

  • Le Matin

  • Medias24 – Site D'information

  • Menara.ma

  • Middle East Monitor

  • Middle East Online

  • Le Monde.fr

  • Morocco World News

  • The New York Times

  • L'observateur Du Maroc

  • L'Opinion

  • Panapress

  • PBS Newshour

  • Radio France International

  • Reuters

  • Sezame

  • Le Soleil

  • The Telegraph

  • TelQuel

  • US News and World Report

  • The Wall Street Journal

  • The Washington Post

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 2
Total number of PDF views: 86 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 838 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 14th September 2017 - 21st November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.