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    Bureaucratizing Islam
    • Online ISBN: 9781108227124
    • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108227124
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Book description

How have states in the Middle East and North Africa responded to the War on Terror? While much scholarship has focused on terrorism in the region, there is need for critical studies of Middle Eastern states' counter-terrorism policies. This book addresses that need by investigating Morocco's unique approach to counter-terrorism: the bureaucratization of religion. Morocco's strategy is unique in the degree to which it relies on reforms that seek to make the country's religious institutions into tools for rewarding loyalty and discouraging dissent from religious elites. Through these measures they have limited opposition through an enduring form of institutional control, accommodating some of the country's most virulent critics. This book will be of great use to researchers and scholars of Middle Eastern politics, and it will also appeal to those policymakers interested in security studies and counter-terrorism policies.

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This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.


Zakia Salime . “The War on Terrorism: Appropriation and Subversion by Moroccan Women.” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 33, no. 1 (September 2007): 124

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M. D. Driessen Public Religion, Democracy, and Islam: Examining the Moderation Thesis in Algeria.” Comparative Politics 44, no. 2 (2012): 171–89

J. Schwedler Can Islamists Become Moderates? Rethinking the Inclusion-Moderation Hypothesis.” World Politics 63, no. 2 (2011): 347–76

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Carrie Rosefsky Wickham . “The Path to Moderation: Strategy and Learning in the Formation of Egypt's Wasat Party.” Comparative Politics 36, no. 2 (2004): 205–28

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Alfred C. Stepan , and Graeme B. Robertson . “An ‘Arab’ More than a ‘Muslim’ Electoral Gap.” Journal of Democracy 14, no. 3 (2003): 3044

Daniela Donno , and Bruce Russett . “Islam, Authoritarianism, and Female Empowerment: What Are the Linkages?” World Politics 56, no. 4 (July 1, 2004): 582607

Michael L. Ross Oil, Islam, and Women.” American Political Science Review 102, no. 1 (2008): 107–23

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Alexander Thurston . Salafism in Nigeria: Islam, Preaching and Politics. Cambridge University Press, 2016

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Elizabeth Shakman Hurd . Beyond Religious Freedom: The New Global Politics of Religion. Princeton University Press, 2015

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Saeid Golkar . Captive Society: The Basij Militia and Social Control in Iran. Columbia University Press, 2015

Michael Robbins , and Lawrence Rubin . “The Rise of Official Islam in Jordan.” Politics, Religion & Ideology 14, no. 1 (March 2013): 69

Léon Buskens . “Recent Debates on Family Law Reform in Morocco: Islamic Law as Politics in an Emerging Public Sphere.” Islamic Law and Society 10, no. 1 (2003): 70131

Henri Lauzière . The Making of Salafism: Islamic Reform in the Twentieth Century. Columbia University Press, 2015

Charles Hirschkind , and Saba Mahmood . “Feminism, the Taliban, and Politics of Counter-Insurgency.” Anthropological Quarterly 75, no. 2 (2002): 339354

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Francesco Cavatorta , and Emanuela Dalmasso . “Liberal Outcomes through Undemocratic Means: The Reform of the Code de Statut Personnel in Morocco.” Journal of Modern African Studies 47, no. 4 (2009): 496

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Mona Hassan . “Reshaping Religious Authority in Contemporary Turkey: State-Sponsored Female Preachers.” In Women, Leadership and Mosque Changes in Contemporary Islamic Authority, edited by Masooda Bano and Hilary Kalmbach . Brill, 2011, pp. 85104

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Leonardo A. Villalón 2015. “Cautious Democrats: Religious Actors and Democratization Processes in Senegal.” Politics and Religion 8 (June): 305333

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Lisa Anderson . “The State in the Middle East and North Africa.” Comparative Politics 20, no. 1 (October 1987): 118.

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Francesco Cavatorta , and Emanuela Dalmasso . “Liberal Outcomes through Undemocratic Means: The Reform of the Code De Statut Personnel in Morocco.” Journal of Modern African Studies 47, no. 4 (2009): 487506.

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Janine A. Clark , and Amy E Young . “Islamism and Family Law Reform in Morocco and Jordan.” Mediterranean Politics 13, no. 3 (November 2008): 333352. doi:10.1080/13629390802386663.

Stuart Croft . Culture, Crisis and America's War on Terror. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Daniela Donno , and Bruce Russett . “Islam, Authoritarianism, and Female Empowerment: What Are the Linkages?” World Politics 56, no. 4 (July 1, 2004): 582607.

M. D. Driessen Public Religion, Democracy, and Islam: Examining the Moderation Thesis in Algeria.” Comparative Politics 44, no. 2 (2012): 171189.

Amelia Fauzia . Faith and the State: A History of Islamic Philanthropy in Indonesia. Leiden: Brill, 2013.

M. Steven Fish . “Islam and Authoritarianism.” World Politics 55, no. 01 (2002): 437. doi:10.1353/wp.2003.0004.

David Gutelius . “Islam in Northern Mali and the War on Terror.” Journal of Contemporary African Studies 25, no. 1 (January 1, 2007): 5976. doi:10.1080/02589000601157063.

Mona Hassan . “Reshaping Religious Authority in Contemporary Turkey: State-Sponsored Female Preachers.” In Women, Leadership and Mosques Changes in Contemporary Islamic Authority, edited by Masooda Bano and Hilary Kalmbach , 85104. Leiden: Brill, 2011.

Charles Hirschkind , and Saba Mahmood . “Feminism, the Taliban, and Politics of Counter-Insurgency.” Anthropological Quarterly 75, no. 2 (2002): 339354.

Elizabeth Shakman Hurd . Beyond Religious Freedom: The New Global Politics of Religion. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2015.

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Henri Lauzière . “The Construction of Salafiyya: Reconsidering Salafism from the Perspective of Conceptual History.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 42, no. 03 (July 15, 2010): 369389. doi:10.1017/S0020743810000401.

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Driss Maghraoui . 254The Strengths and Limits of Religious Reforms in Morocco.” Mediterranean Politics 14, no. 2 (July 2009): 195211. doi:10.1080/13629390902985976.

Marshall W. Meyer , and M. Craig Brown . “The Process of Bureaucratization.” American Journal of Sociology, 1977, 364385.

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Daniel Philpott . “Has the Study of Global Politics Found Religion?” Annual Review of Political Science 12, no. 1 (June 2009): 183202. doi:10.1146/annurev.polisci.12.053006.125448.

Margaret J. Rausch Women Mosque Preachers and Spiritual Guides: Publicizing and Negotiating Women's Religious Authority in Morocco.” In Women, Leadership, and Mosques: Changes in Contemporary Islamic Authority, edited by Masooda Bano and Hilary Kalmbach , pp. 5984. Leiden: Brill, 2011.

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Arskal Salim . Challenging the Secular State: The Islamization of Law in Modern Indonesia. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2008.

Zakia Salime . “The War on Terrorism: Appropriation and Subversion by Moroccan Women.” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 33, no. 1 (September 2007): 124. doi:10.1086/518370.

Ani Sarkissian . “Religious Regulation and the Muslim Democracy Gap.” Politics and Religion 5, no. 03 (December 2012): 501527. doi:10.1017/S1755048312000284.

Elizabeth Schmidt . Foreign Intervention in Africa: From the Cold War to the War on Terror. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

J. Schwedler Can Islamists Become Moderates? Rethinking the Inclusion-Moderation Hypothesis.” World Politics 63, no. 02 (2011): 347376.

Yüksel Sezgin , and Mirjam Künkler . “Regulation of ‘Religion’ and the ‘Religious’: The Politics of Judicialization and Bureaucratization in India and Indonesia.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 56, no. 02 (April 2014): 448478. doi:10.1017/S0010417514000103.

Theda. Skocpol Bringing the State Back in: Strategies of Analysis in Current Research.” In Bringing the State Back In, edited by Peter B. Evans , Dietrich Rueschemeyer and Theda Skocpol , pp. 337. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1985.

Lisa Stampnitzky . Disciplining Terror: How Experts Invented “Terrorism.” New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

Alfred C. Stepan , and Graeme B Robertson . “An ‘Arab’ More than a ‘Muslim’ Electoral Gap.” Journal of Democracy 14, no. 3 (2003): 3044. doi:10.1353/jod.2003.0064.

Etty Terem . Old Texts, New Practices: Islamic Reform in Modern Morocco. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2014.

Alexander Thurston . Salafism in Nigeria: Islam, Preaching and Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2016.

Leonardo A. Villalón Cautious Democrats: Religious Actors and Democratization Processes in Senegal.” Politics and Religion 8, no. 02 (June 2015): 305333. doi:10.1017/S1755048315000176.

Leonardo A. Villalón Islamic Society and State Power in Senegal: Disciples and Citizens in Fatick. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Joas Wagemakers . A Quietist Jihadi: The Ideology and Influence of Abu Muhammad Al-Maqdisi. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.

Gregory W. White Free Trade as a Strategic Instrument in the War on Terror? The 2004 US-Moroccan Free Trade Agreement.” Middle East Journal 59, no. 4 (Autumn 2005): 597616.

Carrie Rosefsky Wickham . “The Muslim Brotherhood and Democratic Transition in Egypt.” Middle East Law and Governance 3, no. 1–2 (March 25, 2011): 204223. doi:10.1163/187633711X591558.

Carrie Rosefsky Wickham . “The Path to Moderation: Strategy and Learning in the Formation of Egypt's Wasat Party.” Comparative Politics 36, no. 2 (January 1, 2004): 205228. doi:10.2307/4150143.

Quintan Wiktorowicz . “Anatomy of the Salafi Movement.” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 29, no. 3 (May 2006): 207239. doi:10.1080/10576100500497004.

Tim Winter . The Cambridge Companion to Classical Islamic Theology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

Katja Zvan Elliott . “Reforming the Moroccan Personal Status Code: A Revolution for Whom?” Mediterranean Politics 14, no. 2 (July 2009): 213227. doi:10.1080/13629390902987659.

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