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Drawing data from multiple sources, Un argues that following the 1993 United Nations intervention to promote democracy, the Cambodian People's Party (CPP) perpetuated a patronage state weak in administrative capacity but strong in coercive capacity. This enabled them to maintain the presence of electoral authoritarianism, but increased political awareness among the public, the rise in political activism among community-based organizations and a united opposition led to the emergence of a counter-movement. Sensing that this counter-movement might be unstoppable, the CPP has returned Cambodia to authoritarianism, a move made possible in part by China's pivot to Cambodia.

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  • D1, interview with author, Phnom Penh, July 10, 2003.

  • D7, interview with author, Phnom Penh, August 2, 2011.

  • D3, interview with author, Phnom Penh, October 10, 2014.

  • D4, interview with author, Phnom Penh, July 14, 2018.

  • G12, interview with author, Phnom Penh, August 1, 2013.

  • G20, interview with author, Phnom Penh, June 27, 2017.

  • Steve Heder, interview with author, Phnom Penh, July 26, 2017.

  • Soksan Hing, interview with author, Phnom Penh, June 20, 2014.

  • J23, interview with author, Phnom Penh, September 25, 2002.

  • J32, interview with author, Phnom Penh, June 20, 2001.

  • Khieu Khannariddh, Minister of the Ministry of Information, interview with the author, Phnom Penh, June 16, 2005.

  • N2, interview with author, Phnom Penh, May 25, 2003; July 9, 2017; July 19, 2017.

  • N3, interview with author, Phnom Penh, January 15, 2003.

  • N6, interview with author, Phnom Penh, January 20, 2003; July 4, 2017.

  • N7, personal communication, September 5, 2018.

  • N14, interview with author, Phnom Penh, January 8, 2003; January 8, 2013.

  • N39, interview with author, Phnom Penh, June 18, 2013; July 4, 2017; July 10, 2017.

  • N40, interview with author, Phnom Penh, July 18, 2017.

  • Sothirak Pou, Executive Director, Cambodia Institute for Peace and Cooperation, Former Secretary of State, Ministry of International Affairs and Cooperation, and former Cambodian Ambassador to Japan, interview with author, July 23, 2018.

  • Preap Kol, Executive Director, Transparency International Cambodia, interview with author, August 2, 2017.


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