Skip to main content
The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Rome
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Rome
    • Online ISBN: 9781139025973
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to? *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

Rome was the largest city in the ancient world. As the capital of the Roman Empire, it was clearly an exceptional city in terms of size, diversity and complexity. While the Colosseum, imperial palaces and Pantheon are among its most famous features, this volume explores Rome primarily as a city in which many thousands of men and women were born, lived and died. The thirty-one chapters by leading historians, classicists and archaeologists discuss issues ranging from the monuments and the games to the food and water supply, from policing and riots to domestic housing, from death and disease to pagan cults and the impact of Christianity. Richly illustrated, the volume introduces groundbreaking new research against the background of current debates and is designed as a readable survey accessible in particular to undergraduates and non-specialists.

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send:

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.

Page 1 of 2

Page 1 of 2


Aberson, M. 1994. Temples votifs et butin de guerre dans la Rome républicaine. Geneva.
Adam, J. P. 1994. Roman Building: Materials and Techniques. London.
Adams, G. W. 2008. Rome and the Social Role of Elite Villas in its Suburbs, British Archaeological Reports. Oxford.
Adams, J. N. 1983. ‘Words for “prostitute” in Latin’. Rheinisches Museum 126: 321–58.
Adams, J. N. 2003. Bilingualism and the Latin Language. Cambridge.
Africa, T. 1971. ‘Urban violence in imperial Rome’. The Journal of Interdisciplinary History 2: 3–21.
Agostini, S., and W. Pellegrini. 1996. ‘Altre risorse della Maiella: Testimonianze di archaeologia industriale’. In La presenza dell’ uomo sulla Maiella: Archeologia e paesaggio storico: Guida alla Sezione Archeologica del Museo Paolo Barrasso Centro Visitatori della Riserva naturale Valle dell’Orfento, ed. A. R. Staffa. Chieti.
Aicher, P. 1995. Guide to the Aqueducts of Ancient Rome. Wauconda, Il.
Aldrete, G. 1999. Gestures and Acclamations in Ancient Rome. Baltimore.
Aldrete, G. 2007. Floods of the Tiber in Ancient Rome. Baltimore.
Aldrete, G. and D. J. Mattingly. 1999. ‘Feeding the city: the organization, operation, and scale of the supply system for Rome’. In Life, Death, and Entertainment in the Roman Empire, ed. D. S. Potter and D. J. Mattingly. Ann Arbor, 171–204.
Alföldy, G. 1988. Antike Sklaverei: Widersprüche, Sonderformen, Grundstrukturen. Bamberg.
Allison, P. M. 2004. Pompeian Households: An Analysis of Material Culture. Los Angeles.
Amelotti, M. 1955. ‘La posizione degli atleti di fronte al diritto romano’. Studia et Documenta Historiae et Iuris 21: 123–56.
Ampolo, C. 1988. ‘La nascità della città’. In Storia di Roma, I, ed. A. Momigliano and A. Schiavone. Turin, 153–80.
Anderson Jr, J. C. 1984. The Historical Topography of the Imperial Fora. Brussels.
Anderson Jr, J. C 1997. Roman Architecture and Society. Baltimore.
Andreau, J. 1987. ‘L’espace de la vie financière à Rome’. In L’Urbs: espace urbain et histoire (Ier siècle av. J.-C.–IIIe siècle ap. J.-C.). Rome, 157–74.
Andreau, J. 1999. Banking and Business in the Roman World. Cambridge.
Andreau, J. and R. Descat. 2007. Esclave en Grèce et à Rome. Paris.
Andreussi, M. 1999. ‘Pomerium’. In LTUR 4.96–105.
Arce, J. 1999. ‘El inventario de Roma: Curiosum y Notitia’. In The Transformations of Urbs Roma in Late Antiquity, ed. W. V. Harris. Portsmouth, RI, 15–22.
Ascensi, A. et al. 1996. ‘The Roman mummy of Grottarossa’. In Human Mummies, ed. K. Spindler et al. Vienna, 205–18.
Ash, R. 2007. ‘Victim and voyeur: Rome as a character in Tacitus’ Histories 3’. In The Sites of Rome: Time, Space, Memory, ed. D. H. J. Larmour and D. Spencer. Oxford, 211–37.
Ashby, Th. 1935. The Aqueducts of Ancient Rome. Oxford (Italian translation: Rome 1992).
Astin, A. E. 1967. Scipio Aemilianus. Oxford.
Ausbüttel, F. M. 1982. Untersuchungen zu den Vereinen im Westen des römischen Reiches. Kallmünz.
Baccari, M. P. 1996. Cittadini, popoli e communione nella legislazione dei secoli IV–VI. Turin.
Bakker, J. T. 2001. ‘Les boulangeries à moulin et les distributions de blé gratuites’. In Ostia, port et porte de la Rome antique, ed. J.-P. Descœudres. Geneva, 179–85.
Balty, J. et al. eds. 2004–6. Thesaurus cultus et rituum antiquorum. Los Angeles.
Balzaretti, R. 2004. ‘The history of the countryside in sixteenth-century Varese Ligure’. In Ligurian Landscapes: Studies in Archaeology, Geography and History, ed. R. Balzaretti, M. Pearce and C. Watkins. London, 105–12.
Barabàsi, A.-L. 2002. Linked: The New Science of Networks. Cambridge.
Barnes, T. D. 1995. ‘Statistics and the conversion of the Roman aristocracy’. Journal of Roman Studies 85: 135–47.
Barnish, S. J. B. 1987. ‘Pigs, plebeians and potentes: Rome’s economic hinterland, c.350–600 a.d.’. Papers of the British School at Rome 55: 157–85.
Barry, W. 1993. ‘Popular violence and the stability of Roman Alexandria, 30 bcad 215’. Bulletin de la Société Archéologique d’Alexandrie 45: 19–34.
Barton, I. M. 1996. Roman Domestic Buildings. Exeter.
Bauer, H. 1993. ‘Cloaca, Cloaca Maxima’. LTUR 1.288–90.
Beard, M. 1987. ‘A complex of times: no more sheep on Romulus’ birthday’. Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society 33: 1–15.
Beard, M. 2007. The Roman Triumph. New Haven.
Beard, M., J. North and S. Price. 1998. Religions of Rome. Cambridge.
Beare, R. 1978. ‘Were bailiffs ever free born?’. Classical Quarterly 28: 398–401.
Bell III, M. 1994. ‘An imperial flour mill on the Janiculum’. In Le ravitaillement en blé de Rome et des centres urbains des débuts de la République jusqu’au Haut empire: Actes du colloque international de Naples 1991. Naples, 73–89.
Bendlin, A. 2006. ‘Nicht der Eine, nicht die Vielen: zur Pragmatik religiösen Verhaltens in einer polytheistischen Gesellschaft am Beispiel Roms’. In Götterbilder – Gottesbilder – Weltbilder, ed. R. G. Kratz and H. Spieckermann. Tübingen, vol. 2, 279–311.
Bennett, C. 2003. ‘The early Augustan calendars in Rome and Egypt’. Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 142: 221–40.
Bergmann, B. and Kondoleon, C. eds. 1999. The Art of Ancient Spectacle. Washington D.C.
Bernstein, F. H. 1997. Ludi Publici: Untersuchungen zur Entstehung und Entwicklung der öffentlichen Spiele im republikanischen Rom. Stuttgart.
Bickermann, E. 1980. Chronology of the Ancient World. 2nd edn. London.
Bisconti, F. 2000. Mestieri nelle catacombe romane: Appunti sul declino dell’iconografia del reale nei cimiteri cristiani di Roma. Vatican City.
Black, S., Browning, J. L., Laurence, R. 2009. ‘From quarry to road: towards an economic model for the supply of basalt for road paving in the Tiber Valley’. In Mercator placidissimus: The Tiber Valley in Antiquity, ed. F. Coarelli and H. Patterson. Rome.
Blanchard, Ph. et al. 2007. ‘A mass grave from the catacomb of Saints Peter and Marcellinus in Rome, second–third century ad’. Antiquity 81: 898–998.
Blastenbrei, P. 2006. ‘Violence, arms and criminal justice in Papal Rome, 1560–1600’. Renaissance Studies 20: 68–87.
Bloch, H. 1959. ‘The Serapeum of Ostia and the brick-stamp of 123: new landmark in the history of Roman architecture’. American Journal of Archaeology 63: 225–40.
Boatwright, M. T. 1986. ‘The pomerial extension of Augustus’. Historia 35: 13–27.
Boatwright, M. T. 1987. Hadrian and the City of Rome. Princeton.
Bodel, J. 1994. Graveyards and Groves: A Study of the Lex Lucerina. Cambridge, Mass.
Bodel, J. 2005. ‘Caveat emptor: Towards a study of the Roman slave-trade’. Journal of Roman Archaeology 18: 181–95.
Bodel, J. 2008. ‘Genii loci ed i mercati di Roma’. In Epigrafia 2006: atti della XIVe rencontre sur l’épigraphie (Tituli 9), ed. M. L. Caldelli et al. Rome, 209–36.
Bodson, L. 2000. ‘Motivations for pet-keeping in ancient Greece and Rome: a preliminary survey’. In Companion Animals and Us, ed. A. L. Podberscek, E. S. Paul and J. A. Serpell. Cambridge, 27–41.
Bollmann, B. 1998. Römische Vereinshäuser: Untersuchungen zu den Scholae der römischen Berufs-, Kult- und Augustalen-Kollegien in Italien. Mainz.
Bowersock, G. 2002. ‘Peter and Constantine’. In ‘Humana sapit’: Études d’antiquité tardive offertes à Lellia Cracco Ruggini, ed. J.-M. Carrié and R. Lizzi Testa. Turnhout, 209–17.
Bradley, K. R. 1991. Discovering the Roman Family. Oxford.
Bradley, K. R. 1994. Slavery and Society at Rome. Cambridge.
Bradley, M. A. 2002. ‘It all comes out in the wash: looking harder at the Roman fullonica’. Journal of Roman Archaeology 15: 21–44.
Brandenburg, H. 2005. Ancient Churches of Rome from the Fourth to the Seventh Century. Turnhout.
Brélaz, C. 2005. La sécurité publique en Asie Mineure sous le Principat (Ier-IIIème s. ap. J.-C.). Basle.
Brigham, T. et al. 1996. ‘Current archaeological work at Regis House in the City of London (Part I)’. London Archaeologist 82: 31–8.
Brilliant, R. 1967. The Arch of Septimius Severus in the Roman Forum. Rome.
Broadhead, W. 2004. ‘Rome and the mobility of the Latins: problems of control’. In La mobilité des personnes en Méditerranée, de l’Antiquité à l’époque moderne: Procédures de contrôle et documents d’identification, ed. C. Moatti. Rome, 315–35.
Broekaert, W. 2008. ‘Roman economic policies during the third century ad: the evidence of the tituli picti on oil amphorae’. Ancient Society 38: 197–219.
Broekaert, W. 2010. ‘Navicularii et negotiantes: a prosopographical study of Roman traders and the commercial organisation during the empire’. Unpublished PhD dissertation. Ghent.
Broughton, T. R. S. 1951–86. The Magistrates of the Roman Republic. New York.
Brown, P. 2002. Poverty and Leadership in the Later Roman Empire. Hanover.
Browning, R. 1952. ‘The riot of a.d. 387 in Antioch: the role of the theatrical claques in the later empire’. Journal of Roman Studies 42: 13–20.
Brunt, P. A. 1971. Italian Manpower 225 b.c.–a.d. 14. Oxford.
Brunt, P. A. 1980. ‘Free labour and public works at Rome’. Journal of Roman Studies 70: 81–100.
Brunt, P. A. 1988. The Fall of the Roman Republic and Related Essays. Oxford.
Bruun, C. 1991. The Water Supply of Ancient Rome: A Study of Roman Imperial Administration. Helsinki.
Bruun, C. 1997. ‘A city of temples and squares, emperors, horses and houses’. Journal of Roman Archaeology 10: 389–98.
Bruun, C. 2000. ‘Water shortage and surplus in the ancient world’. In Cura aquarum in Sicilia, ed. G. Jansen. Leiden, 215–24.
Bruun, C. 2003a. ‘Medius fidius…tantam pecuniam Nicomedenses perdiderunt!’: Roman water supply, public administration, and private contractors’. In Tâches publiques et entreprise privée dans le monde romain, ed. J.-J. Aubert. Neuchâtel, 305–25.
Bruun, C. 2003b. ‘Velia, Quirinale, Pincio: note su proprietari di domus e su plumbarii’. Arctos 37: 27–48.
Bruun, C. 2004. ‘The impossibility of reaching an exact value for the Roman quinaria measure’. In Rodgers 2004, 342–6.
Bruun, C. 2006. ‘Der Kaiser und die stadtrömischen curae: Geschichte und Bedeutung’. In Herrschaftsstrukturen und Herrschaftspraxis, ed. A. Kolb. Berlin, 89–114.
Bruun, C. 2007. ‘Why did Frontinus write the De Aquaeductu?’. Journal of Roman Archaeology 20: 460–6.
Bruun, C. 2010. ‘Cognomina plurubariorum’, Epigraphica 72: 297–331.
Buccellato, A. et al. 2003. ‘Il comprensorio della necropolis di Via Basiliano (Roma): un’indagine multidisciplinare’. Mélanges d’archéologie et d’histoire de l’École française de Rome. Antiquité 115: 311–76.
Buccellato, A. 2008. ‘La nécropole de Collatina’. Dossiers d’Archéologie 330: 22–31.
Buchner, E. 1982. Die Sonnenuhr des Augustus. Mainz.
Buranelli, F. et al. 2005–6. ‘I nuovi scavi della necropolis della Via Trionfale in Vaticano’. Rendiconti della pontificia accademia di archeologia 78: 451–72.
Caldelli, M. L. 1993. L’Agon Capitolinus: storia e protagonisti dall’istituzione Domizianea al IV secolo. Rome.
Cameron, A. 1976. Circus Factions: Blues and Greens at Rome and Byzantium. Oxford.
Cameron, A. 1999. ‘The last pagans of Rome’. In The Transformations of Urbs Roma in Late Antiquity, ed. W. V. Harris. Portsmouth, RI, 109–21.
Campbell, J. B. 1984. The Emperor and the Roman Army: 31 bc–ad 235. Oxford.
Canci, A. et al. 2005. ‘A case of healing spinal infection from classical Rome’. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 15: 77–83.
Cancik, H. 2008. Römische Religion im Kontext: Gesammelte Aufsätze I, Tübingen.
Capasso, L. 2000. ‘Indoor pollution and respiratory diseases in ancient Rome’. Lancet 356: 1774.
Capasso, L. 2007. ‘Infectious diseases and eating habits at Herculaneum (1st century ad, southern Italy)’. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 17: 350–7.
Carandini, A. 1997. La nascita di Roma: Dèi, lari, eroi e uomini all’alba di una civiltà, 2 vols. Turin.
Carandini, A. 2006a. Remo e Romolo: Dai rioni dei Quiriti all città dei Romani (775/750–700/675 a. C.). Turin.
Carandini, A. ed. 2006b. La fattoria e la villa dell’Auditorium nel quartiere Flaminio di Roma. Rome.
Carandini, A. and E. Papi, eds. 2005. Palatium e Sacra Via II. L’età tardo-repubblicana e la prima età imperiale. Rome.
Carrettoni, G. et al. 1960. La pianta marmorea di Roma antica (Forma Urbis Romae). Rome.
Cascione, C. 1999. Tresviri capitales: Storia di una magistratura minore. Naples.
Casson, L. 1965. ‘Harbour and river boats of Ancient Rome’. Journal of Roman Studies 55: 31–9.
Casson, L. 1971. Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World. Princeton.
Casson, L. 1994. Ships and Seafaring in Ancient Times. Austin.
Catalano, P. 1978. ‘Aspetti spaziali del sistema giuridico-religioso romano’. Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Weltii.16.1, 440–553.
Catalano, P. et al. 2001. ‘Vivere e morire a Roma tra il primo ed il terzo secolo’. Mitteilungen des deutschen archäologischen Instituts, Römische Abteilung 108: 355–63.
Catalano, P. 2008. ‘Les ensembles funéraires de l’époque impériale à Rome’. Dossiers d’Archéologie 330: 10–13.
Cecamore, C. 2002. Palatium: Topografia storica del Palatino tra III Sec. a.c. e I Sec d.c. Rome.
Champlin, E. 1982. ‘The suburbium of Rome’. American Journal of Ancient History 7: 97–117.
Champlin, E. 1991. Final Judgments: Duty and Emotion in Roman Wills. Berkeley.
Champlin, E. 2003. Nero. Cambridge, Mass.
Chastagnol, A. 1960. La préfecture urbaine à Rome sous le bas-empire. Paris.
Childe, V. Gordon. 1950. ‘The urban revolution’. Town Planning Review 21: 3–17.
Chini, P. 1995. ‘Forica romana in Via Garibaldi’. Archeologia laziale 12.1: 207–12.
Chioffi, L. 1999. Caro: Il mercato della carne nell’occidente romano. Rome.
Chioffi, L. 2008. ‘A proposito di confini nella città di Roma: la Regio XIV da pagus ad urbs’. In Epigrafia 2006: atti della XIVe rencontre sur l’épigraphie (Tituli 9), ed. M. L. Caldelli et al. Rome, 239–69.
Cifani, G. 2008. Architettura romana arcaica: edilizia e società tra monarchia e repubblica. Rome.
Cima, M. and E. La Rocca. 1998. Horti romani. Rome.
Claridge, A. 2010. Rome: An Oxford Archaeological Guide. Oxford.
Claridge, A. 2007. ‘Hadrian’s lost temple of Trajan’. Journal of Roman Archaeology 20: 54–92.
Clark, A. J. 2007. Divine Qualities: Cult and Community in Republican Rome, Oxford.
Clark, G. 2004. Christianity and Roman Society. Cambridge.
Clark, P. 1983. The English Alehouse: A Social History, 1200–1830. London.
Clarke, J. R. 2003. Art in the Lives of Ordinary Romans: Visual Representation and Non-elite Viewers in Italy, 100 bc–ad 315. Berkeley.
Clasen, T. F. and A. Bastable. 2003. ‘Faecal contamination of drinking water during collection and household storage: the need to extend protection to the point of use’. Journal of Water and Health 1.2: 1–7.
Clauss, M. 1973. ‘Probleme der Lebensalterstatistik aufgrund römischer Grabinschriften’. Chiron 3: 395–417.
Clavel-Lévêque, M. 1984. L’Empire en jeux: Espace symbolique et pratique sociale dans le monde romain. Paris.
Coarelli, F. 1972. Rome. London.
Coarelli, F. 1983. Il Foro Romano. I. Periodo arcaico. Rome.
Coarelli, F. 1985. Il Foro romano: Periodo repubblicano e augusteo. Rome.
Coarelli, F. 1988. Il Foro Boario dalle origini alla fine della Repubblica. Rome.
Coarelli, F. 1989. ‘Rediscovering the Roman forum’. Journal of Roman Archaeology 2: 157–66.
Coarelli, F. 1997. Il Campo Marzio dalle origini alla fine della Repubblica. Rome.
Coarelli, F. 2001. The Colosseum. Los Angeles.
Coarelli, F. 2007. Rome and its Environs: An Archaeological Guide. Berkeley.
Coates-Stephens, R. 2003. ‘The water-supply of early medieval Rome’. In Technology, Ideology, Water: From Frontinus to the Renaissance and Beyond, ed. C. Bruun and A. Saastamoinen. Rome, 81–113.
Coates-Stephens, R. 2004. Porta Maggiore. Monument and Landscape. Archaeology and Topography of the Southern Esquiline from the Late Republican Period to the Present. Rome.
Cohen, W. B. 1998. Urban Government and the Rise of the French City. New York.
Coleman, K. M. 2006. Martial: Liber spectaculorum. Oxford.
Collins, J. L. 2004. Papacy and Politics in Eighteenth-Century Rome: Pius VI and the Arts. Cambridge.
Colonnelli, G., M. Carpaneto and M. Cristaldi. 2000. ‘Uso alimentare e allevamento del ghiro Myoxus glis presso gli antichi romani: materiale e documenti’. In Atti del 2° Convegno Nazionale di Archeozoologia, ed. G. Malerba, C. Cilli and G. Giacobini. Forlì, 315–25.
Cooper, K. 2007. The Fall of the Roman Household. Cambridge.
Cooper, K. and J. Hillner, eds. 2007. Religion, Dynasty, and Patronage in Early Christian Rome, 300–900. Cambridge.
Corbier, M. 1989. ‘The ambiguous status of meat in ancient Rome’. Food and Foodways 3: 223–64.
Corbier, M. 1999. ‘The broad bean and the moray: social hierarchies and food in Rome’. In Food: A Culinary History from Antiquity to the Present, ed. J.-L. Flandrin. New York, 128–40.
Cornell, T. J. 1995. The Beginnings of Rome: Italy and Rome from the Bronze Age to the Punic Wars (c. 1000–264 bc). London.
Costambeys, M. 2000. ‘Property, ideology and the territorial power of the papacy in the early Middle Ages’. Early Medieval Europe 9: 367–96.
Coulston, J. 2000. ‘Armed and belted men: the soldiery in imperial Rome’. In Ancient Rome: the Archaeology of the Eternal City, ed. J. Coulston and H. Dodge. Oxford, 76–118.
Cracco Ruggini, L. 1976. ‘“Fame laborasse Italiam”: una nuova testimonianza sulla carestia del 383 d. C’. Athenaeum, vol. spec. in onore di P. Fraccaro. Pavia, 83–98.
Crawford, M. 1996. Roman Statutes. London.
Cristofani, M., ed. 1990. La grande Roma dei Tarquini. Rome.
Crook, J. 1967. Law and Life of Rome. London.
Cucchi, T. and J.-D. Vigne. 2006. ‘Origins and diffusion of the house mouse in the Mediterranean’. Human Evolution 21: 95–106.
Cucina, A. et al. 2006. ‘The necropolis of Vallerano (Rome, 2nd–3rd century ad): an anthropological perspective on the ancient Romans in the suburbium’. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 16: 104–17.
Cullhed, M. 1994. Conservator Urbis Suae: Studies in the Politics and Propaganda of the Emperor Maxentius. Stockholm.
Curran, J. 2000. Pagan City and Christian Capital: Rome in the Fourth Century. Oxford.
Dalby, A. 2002. Empire of Pleasures: Luxury and Indulgence in the Roman World. London.
Darvill, T. and A. McWhirr. 1984. ‘Roman brick production and the environment’. In The Romano-British Countryside: Studies in Rural Settlement and Economy, ed. D. Miles. Oxford, 137–50.
Darwall-Smith, R. 1996. Emperors and Architecture: A Study of Flavian Rome. Brussels.
Dasen, V. and T. Späth, eds. forthcoming. Children, Memory and Family: Identity in Roman Culture. Oxford.
Davies, J. K. 2005. ‘Linear and non-linear flow models for the ancient economy’. In The Ancient Economy: Evidence and Models, ed. J. G. Manning and I. Morris. Stanford, 127–56.
Davies, P., D. Hemsoll and M. Wilson Jones. 1987. ‘The Pantheon: triumph of Rome or triumph of compromise?’. Art History 10.2: 133–53.
Davis, D. B. 1966. The Problem of Slavery in Western Culture. Oxford.
DeFelice, J. 2007. ‘Inns and taverns’. In The World of Pompeii, ed. J. J. Dobbins and P. W. Foss. London, 474–86.
De Grossi Mazzorin, J. 1995. ‘La fauna rinvenuta nell’area della Meta Sudans nel quadro evolutivo degli animali domestici in Italia’. In Atti del 1° Convegno Nazionale di Archeozoologia, ed. R. Peretto and O. De Curtis. Rovigo, 309–18.
De Grossi Mazzorin, J. 2004. ‘I resti animali del mitreo della Crypta Balbi: testimonianze di pratiche cultuali’. In Roman Mithraism: The Evidence of the Small Finds, ed. M. Martens and G. De Boe. Brussels, 179–81.
De Grossi Mazzorin, J. 2005. ‘Introduzione e diffusione del pollame in Italia ed evoluzione delle sue forme di allevamento fino al Medioevo’. In Atti del 3° Convegno Nazionale di Archeozoologia. Rome, 351–61.
De Grossi Mazzorin, J. and C. Minniti. 2001. ‘Reperti ossei’. In Roma dall’antichità al medioevo: archeologia e storia nel Museo Nazionale Romano. Crypta Balbi, ed. M. S. Area et al. Rome, 328–30.
De Grossi Mazzorin, J., A. Reidel, and A. Tagliacozzo. 1998. ‘Horse remains in Italy from the Eneolithic to the Roman period’. In International Union of Prehistoric and Protohistoric Sciences: Proceedings of the XIII Congress: Vol. VI–Tome I. Forli, 87–92.
De Grossi Mazzorin, J. and A. Tagliacozzo. 1997. ‘Dog remains in Italy from the Neolithic to the Roman period’. Anthropozoologica 25/26: 429–40.
DeLaine, J. 1997. The Baths of Caracalla: A Study in the Design, Construction, and Economics of Large Scale Building Projects in Imperial Rome. Portsmouth, RI.
DeLaine, J. 2000a. ‘Bricks and mortar: exploring the economics of building techniques at Rome and Ostia’. In Economies beyond Agriculture in the Classical World, ed. D. J. Mattingly and J. Salmon. London, 230–68.
DeLaine, J. 2000b. ‘Building the Eternal City: the building industry of imperial Rome’. In Ancient Rome: the Archaeology of the Eternal City, ed. J. Coulston and H. Dodge. Oxford, 119–41.
DeLaine, J. 2005. ‘The commercial landscape of Ostia’. In Roman Working Lives and Urban Living, ed. A. MacMahon and J. Price. Oxford, 29–47.
De Ligt, L., and S. Northwood, eds. 2008. People, Land and Politics: Demographic Developments and the Transformation of Roman Italy, 300 bc–ad 14. Leiden.
De Maria, S. 1988. Gli archi onorari di Roma e dell’Italia romana. Rome.
De Neeve, P. W. 1984. Colonus: Private Farm Tenancy in Roman Italy during the Republic and the Early Principate. Amsterdam.
De Robertis, F. M. 1935. ‘La cura regionum urbis nel periodo imperiale’. Athenaeum 13: 184–6.
Degrassi, A. 1963. Inscriptiones Italiae, vol. 13: Fasti et Elogia, fasc. 2: Fasti Anni Numani et Iuliani. Rome.
Del Chicca, F., ed. and comm. 2004. Frontino: De aquae ductu urbis Rome. Rome.
Dixon, S. 1988. The Roman Mother. London.
Dixon, S. 1992. The Roman Family. Baltimore.
Donoghue, H. D. and M. Spigelman. 2006. ‘Pathogenic microbial ancient DNA: a problem or an opportunity?’. Proceedings of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences 272: 641–2.
Drogula, F. K. 2007. ‘Imperium, potestas, and the pomerium in the Roman Republic’. Historia 56: 419–52.
Dudley, D. R. 1967. Urbs Roma: A Source Book of Classical Texts on the City and its Monuments. London.
Dumser, E. 2005. ‘The architecture of Maxentius’. PhD dissertation. University of Pennsylvania.
Duncan-Jones, R. 1996. ‘The impact of the Antonine plague’. Journal of Roman Archaeology 9: 108–36.
Dupré Raventós, X., and J.-A. Remolà, eds. 2000. ‘Sordes Urbis’: La eliminición de residuos en la ciudad romana. Rome.
Durliat, J. 1989. De la ville antique à la ville byzantine: Le problème des subsistences. Paris.
Durry, M. 1938. Les cohortes prétoriennes. Paris.
Dyson, S. L. 2010. Rome: A living portrait of an ancient city. Baltimore.
Echols, E. 1958. ‘The Roman city police: origin and development’. Classical Journal 53: 377–85.
Eck, W. 1984. ‘Senatorial self-representation: developments in the Augustan period’. In Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects, ed. F. Millar and E. Segal. Oxford, 129–67.
Eck, W. 1995–8. Die Verwaltung des römischen Reiches in der hohen Kaiserzeit: Ausgewählte und erweiterte Beiträge. 2 vols. Basle.
Edwards, C. 1993. The Politics of Immorality in Ancient Rome. Cambridge.
Edwards, C. 1996. Writing Rome: Textual Approaches to the City. Cambridge.
Edwards, C. and G. Woolf, eds. 2003. Rome the Cosmopolis. Cambridge.
Egelhaaf-Gaiser, U. 2000. Kulträume im römischen Alltag: Das Isisbuch des Apuleius und der Ort von Religion im kaiserzeitlichen Rom. Stuttgart.
Egidi, R. et al. eds. 2003. Aspetti di vita quotidiana dalle necropoli della Via Latina: Località Osteria del Curato. Rome.
Eisner, M. 1986. Zur Typologie der Grabbauten im Suburbium Roms. Mainz.
Ellis, S. J. R. 2004. ‘The distribution of bars at Pompeii: archaeological, spatial, and viewshed analyses’. Journal of Roman Archaeology 17: 371–84.
Ellis, S. P. 1988. ‘The end of the Roman house’. American Journal of Archaeology 92: 565–76.
Ellis, S. P. 2000. Roman Housing. London.
Engels, D. 1999. Classical Cats: The Rise and Fall of the Sacred Cat. New York.
Engemann, J. 1997. Deutung und Bedeutung frühchristlicher Bildwerke. Darmstadt.
Ensoli, S., and E. La Rocca, eds. 2000. Aurea Roma: Dalla città pagana alla città cristiana. Rome.
Erdkamp, P. 2000. ‘Feeding Rome or feeding Mars? A long-term approach to C. Gracchus’ lex frumentaria’. Ancient Society 30: 53–70.
Erdkamp, P. 2002. ‘A starving mob has no respect: urban markets and food riots in the Roman world, 100 bc–400 ad’. In The Transformation of Economic Life under the Roman Empire, ed. L. de Blois and J. Rich. Amsterdam, 93–115.
Erdkamp, P. 2005. The Grain Market in the Roman Empire: A Social, Political and Economic Study. Cambridge.
Erdkamp, P. 2008. ‘Mobility and migration in Italy in the second century BC’. In People, Land, and Politics: Demographic Developments and the Transformation of Roman Italy, ed. L. de Ligt and S. J. Northwood. Leiden, 417–49.
Evans, H. B. 1994. Water Distribution in Ancient Rome: The Evidence of Frontinus. Ann Arbor.
Evans Grubbs, J. 2002. Women and the Law in the Roman Empire. London.
Fabre, G. 1981. Libertus: Recherches sur les rapports patron–affranchi à la fin de la République romaine. Rome.
Fagan, G. 1999. Bathing in Public in the Roman World. Ann Arbor.
Fagan, G. 2006. ‘Bathing for health with Celsus and Pliny the Elder’. Classical Quarterly 56: 190–207.
Fant, J. C. 1993. ‘Ideology, gift, and trade: a distribution model for the Roman imperial marbles’. In The Inscribed Economy: Production and Distribution in the Roman Empire in the Light of Instrumentum Domesticum, ed. W. V. Harris. Portsmouth, RI, 145–70.
Fantham, E. 1997. ‘Images of the city: Propertius’ new-old Rome’. In The Roman Cultural Revolution, ed. T. Habinek and A. Schiesaro. Cambridge, 122–35.
Favro, D. 1992. ‘Pater urbis: Augustus as city father of Rome’. Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 51: 61–84.
Favro, D. 1996. The Urban Image of Augustan Rome. New York.
Feeney, D. 1986. ‘History and revelation in Virgil’s underworld’. Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society 212: 1–24.
Feeney, D. 2007. Caesar’s Calendar: Ancient Time and the Beginnings of History. Berkeley.
Fentress, E. 2005. ‘On the block: Catastae, chalcidica, and cryptae in early imperial Italy’. Journal of Roman Archaeology 18: 220–34.
Feraudi-Gruénais, F. 2001. ‘Ubi diutius nobis habitandum est’: Die Dekoration der kaiserzeitlichen Gräber Roms. Wiesbaden.
Ferrua, A. 1991. The Unknown Catacomb: A Unique Discovery of Early Christian Art. New Lanark.
Finley, M. I. 1980. Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology. London; expanded edition by B. C. Shaw, Princeton, 1998.
Finn, R. D. 2006. Almsgiving in the Later Roman Empire: Christian Promotion and Practice, 313–450. Oxford.
Fiocchi Nicolai, V. 1995–6. ‘La nuova basilica circiforme della Via Ardeatina’, Rendiconti della pontificia accademia di archeologia 68: 69–233.
Fiocchi Nicolai, V. 2001. Strutture funerari ed edifici di culto paleocristiani di Roma dal IV al VI secolo. Vatican City.
Fiocchi Nicolai, V. and J. Guyon, eds. 2006. Origine delle catacombe romane. Vatican City.
FitzGerald, C. et al. 2006. ‘Health of infants in an imperial Roman skeletal sample: perspective from dental microstructure’. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 130: 179–89.
Flohr, M. 2003. ‘Fullones and Roman society: a reconsideration’. Journal of Roman Archaeology 16: 447–50.
Flower, H. L. 2004. ‘Spectacle and political culture’. In Companion to the Roman Republic, ed. H. L. Flower. Cambridge, 322–43.
Forsythe, G. 2005. A Critical History of Early Rome from Prehistory to the First Punic War. Berkeley.
Fowler, D. 2000. ‘The ruin of time: monuments and survival at Rome’. In Roman Constructions: Readings in Postmodern Latin. Oxford, 193–217.
Foxhall, L. 1990. ‘The dependent tenant: leasing and labour in Italy and Greece’. Journal of Roman Studies 80: 97–114.
Foxhall, L. and H. A. Forbes. 1982. ‘Sitometreia: the role of grain as a staple food in classical antiquity’. Chiron 12: 41–90.
Frank, T. 1940. An Economic Survey of Ancient Rome, vol. 5: Rome and Italy of the Empire. Baltimore.
Fraschetti, A. 1990. Roma e il principe. Rome.
Frayn, J. M. 1993 Markets and Fairs in Roman Italy. Oxford.
Fredrick, D., ed. 2002. The Roman Gaze: Vision, Power, and the Body. Baltimore.
Freis, H. 1967. Die Cohortes Urbanae. Cologne.
Frézouls, E. 1987. ‘Rome ville ouverte: réflexions sur les problèmes de l’expansion urbaine d’Auguste à Aurélien’. In L’Urbs: espace urbain et histoire (Ier siècle av. J.-C.–IIIe siècle ap. J.-C.). Rome, 373–92.
Frier, B. 1985. The Rise of the Roman Jurists: Studies in Cicero’s Pro Caecina. Princeton.
Fuhrmann, C. J. 2012. Policing the Roman Empire: Soldiers, Administration, and Public Order. New York.
Funiciello, R., G. Heiken and D. De Rita. 2006. The Seven Hills of Rome: A Geological Tour of the Eternal City. Princeton.
Gabba, E. 1984. ‘The Collegia of Numa: problems of method and political ideas’. Journal of Roman Studies 74: 81–6.
Galinsky, K. 1996. Augustan Culture: An Interpretive Introduction. Princeton.
García Morcillo, M. 2005. Las ventas por subasta en el mundo romano: la esfera privada. Barcelona.
Gardiner, E. ed. 2008. The Marvels of Rome: Mirabilia Urbis Romae, New York.
Gardiner, R. ed. 1995. The Age of the Galley: Mediterranean Oared Vessels since Pre-classical Times. London.
Gardner, J. 1998. Family and Familia in Roman Law and Life. Oxford.
Garnsey, P. 1983. ‘Grain for Rome’. In Trade in the Ancient Economy, ed. P. Garnsey, K. Hopkins and C. R. Whittaker. London, 118–30.
Garnsey, P. 1988. Famine and Food-Supply in the Graeco-Roman World: Responses to Risk and Crisis. Cambridge.
Garnsey, P. 1991. ‘Mass diet and nutrition in the city of Rome’. In Nourrir la plèbe, ed. A. Giovannini. Basle, 67–101.
Garnsey, P. 1999. Food and Society in Classical Antiquity. Cambridge.
Garnsey, P. and D. Rathbone. 1985. ‘The background to the grain law of Gaius Gracchus’. Journal of Roman Studies 75: 20–5.
George, M. 1997. The Roman Domestic Architecture of Northern Italy. Oxford.
George, M. ed. 2005. The Roman Family in the Empire: Rome, Italy, and Beyond. Oxford.
Gilhus, I. S. 2006. Animals, Gods and Humans: Changing Attitudes to Animals in Greek, Roman and Early Christian Ideas. London.
Gillett, A. 2001. ‘Rome, Ravenna and the last western emperors’. Papers of the British School at Rome 69: 131–67.
Gillett, A. 2003. Envoys and Political Communication in the Late Antique West, 411–533. Cambridge.
Giovannini, A., ed. 1991. Nourrir la plèbe: Actes du colloque…en hommage à Denis van Berchem. Basle.
Girri, G. 1954. La taberna nel quadro urbanistico e sociale di Ostia. Rome.
Giuliani, C. F. and P. Verduchi. 1987. L’area centrale del Foro Romano. Florence.
Gjerstadt, E. 1953–73. Early Rome. 6 vols. Lund.
Glazebrook, A., and M. Henry. 2011. Greek Prostitutes in the Ancient Mediterranean, 800 bce–200 ce. Madison, Wis.
Gonzales, A. 2007. ‘Peur des affranchis impériaux et compassion envers les affranchis privés dans l’oeuvre de Pline le Jeune’. In Fear of Slaves – Fear of Enslavement in the Ancient Mediterranean, ed. A. Serghidou. Athens, 307–24.
Goodman, P. 2007. The Roman City and its Periphery: From Rome to Gaul. London.
Gordon, R. 2008. ‘Superstitio, superstition and religious repression in the late Roman Republic and Principate (100 bce–300 ce)’. Past & Present 199: 72–94.
Gow, A. S. F. and D. L. Page. 1968. The Garland of Philip. Cambridge.
Graham, E.-J. 2006. The Burial of the Urban Poor in Italy in the Late Roman Republic and Early Empire. Oxford.
Graham, S. 2005. ‘Of lumberjacks and brick stamps: working with the Tiber as infrastructure’. In Roman Urban Living, ed. A. MacMahon and J. Price. Oxford, 106–24.
Graham, S. 2006. Ex Figlinis: The Network Dynamics of the Tiber Valley Brick Industry in the Hinterland of Rome. Oxford.
Graham, S. 2009. ‘The space between: places and connections in the Tiber Valley’. In Mercator Placidissimus: The Tiber Valley in Antiquity. New Research in the Upper and Middle River Valley, ed. F. Coarelli and H. Patterson. Rome, 671–86.
Graham, S. and G. Ruffini. 2007. ‘Network analysis and Greco-Roman prosopography’. In Prosopography Approaches and Applications: a Handbook, ed. K. S. B. Keats-Rohan. Oxford, 325–36.
Grandazzi, A. 1997. The Foundation of Rome: Myth and History. Ithaca, NY.
Grandazzi, A. 2007. ‘Penser les origines de Rome’. Bulletin de l’Association Guillaume Budé 2: 21–70.
Grandazzi, A. 2008. Alba Longa, histoire d’une légende: recherches sur l’archéologie, la religion, les traditions de l’ancien Latium. 2 vols. Rome.
Grey, C. and A. Parkin. 2003. ‘Controlling the urban mob: the colonatus perpetuus of CTh 14.18.1’. Phoenix 57: 284–99.
Grieser, H. 1997. Sklaverei im spätantiken und frühmittelalterlichen Gallien (5.–7. Jh.). Stuttgart.
Griffin, M. 1991. ‘Urbs Roma, plebs and princeps’. In Images of Empire, ed. L. Alexander. Sheffield, 19–46.
Groag, E. and A. Stein. 1933–. Prosopographia Imperii Romani 2. Berlin.
Gruen, E. S. 1990. ‘Plautus and the public stage’. In Studies in Greek Culture and Roman Policy. Berkeley, 124–57.
Gruen, E. S. 1992. ‘The theatre and aristocratic culture’. In Culture and National Identity in Republican Rome. Ithaca, 183–222.
Gülzow, H. 1969. Christentum und Sklaverei in den ersten drei Jahrhunderten. Bonn. (New edition: Münster, ed. B. Dauber with an epilogue by G. Theißen 1999.)
Günther, L.-M. 1989. ‘Gladiatoren beim Fest Antiochus IV. zu Daphne (166 v. Chr.)?’. Hermes 117: 250–2.
Gundry, S. W. et al. 2006. ‘Contamination of drinking water between source and point-of-use in rural households of South Africa and Zimbabwe: implications for monitoring the Millennium Development Goal for water’. Water Practice and Technology 1.2: 1–9.
Gustafsson, G. 2000. Evocatio Deorum: Historical and Mythical Interpretations of Ritualised Conquest in the Expansion of Ancient Rome. Uppsala.
Guzzo, P. G., and V. Scarano Ussani. 2009. ‘Ex corpore lucrum facere’:La prostituzione nell’antica Pompei. Rome.
Guyon, J. 1974. ‘La vente des tombes à travers l’épigraphie de la Rome chrétienne (IIIe–VIIe siècles): le rôle des fossores, mansionarii, praepositi et prêtres’. Mélanges d’archéologie et d’histoire de l’École française de Rome: Antiquité 86: 549–96.
Hackworth Petersen, L. 2006. The Freedman in Roman Art and History. Cambridge.
Hales, S. 2003. The Roman House and Social Identity. Cambridge.
Hall, M. ed. 2005. Rome: Artistic Centers of the Italian Renaissance. Cambridge.
Halsberghe, G. 1972. The Cult of Sol Invictus. Leiden.
Hanes, C. 1996. ‘Turnover costs and the distribution of slave labor in Anglo-America’. Journal of Economic History 56: 307–29.
Hannah, R. 2008. Time in Antiquity. London.
Hardie, P. 1992. ‘Augustan poets and the mutability of Rome’. In Roman Poetry and Propaganda in the Age of Augustus, ed. A. Powell. Bristol, 59–82.
Harries, J. 2003. ‘Pagans, Christians and public entertainment in late antique Italy’. In Lomas and Cornell 2003, 125–41.
Harries, J. 2007. Law and Crime in the Roman World. Cambridge.
Harrill, J. A. 1995. The Manumission of Slaves in Early Christianity. Tübingen.
Harris, W. V. 1979. War and Imperialism in Republican Rome. Oxford.
Harris, W. V. 1993. The Inscribed Economy: Production and Distribution in the Roman Empire in the Light of Instrumentum Domesticum. Portsmouth, RI.
Harris, W. V. 1999a. ‘Demography, geography and the sources of Roman slaves’. Journal of Roman Studies 89: 62–75.
Harris, W. V. ed. 1999b. The Transformations of Vrbs Roma in Late Antiquity. Portsmouth, RI.
Haselberger, L. 2007. ‘Urbem adornare’: Rome’s Urban Metamorphosis under Augustus. Portsmouth, RI.
Haselberger, L., D. G. Romano, E. A. Dumser et al. 2008. Mapping Augustan Rome. 2nd edn. Portsmouth, RI.
Hasenohr, C. 2003. ‘Les compitalia à Délos’. Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique 127: 167–249.
Hawkins, C. 2006. ‘Work in the city: Roman artisans and the urban economy’. Unpublished dissertation. The University of Chicago.
Heinz, W. 1983. Römische Thermen: Badewesen und Badeluxus im römischen Reich. Munich.
Heinzelmann, M. 2001. Römischer Bestattungsbrauch und Beigabensitten in Rom, Norditalien und den Nordwestprovinzen von der späten Republik bis in die Kaiserzeit. Wiesbaden.
Hekster, O. 2005. ‘Captured in the gaze of power: visibility, games and Roman imperial representation’, in Imaginary Kings: Royal Images in the Ancient Near East, Greece and Rome, ed. O. Heksterand and R. Fowler. Stuttgart, 157–76.
Hemphill, P. 1987. ‘Report on fieldwork on Roman forestry in Italy’. American Journal of Archaeology 91: 304.
Hermansen, G. 1973. ‘Domus and insula in the city of Rome’. In Classica et mediaevalia. Diss. 9. Francisco Blatt septuagenario dedicata, ed. O. S. Due, H. F. Johansen and B. D. Larsen. Copenhagen, 333–41.
Hermansen, G. 1978. ‘The population of imperial Rome: the Regionaries’. Historia 27: 129–68.
Hermansen, Gustav. 1982. Ostia: Aspects of Roman City Life. Edmonton.
Herrmann-Otto, E. 1994. Ex ancilla natus: Untersuchungen zu den ‘hausgeborenen’ Sklaven und Sklavinnen im Westen des römischen Kaiserreiches. Stuttgart.
Herrmann-Otto, E. 2001. ‘Soziale Mobilität in der römischen Gesellschaft: persönliche Freiheit im Spiegel von Statusprozessen’. In Fünfzig Jahre Forschungen zur antiken Sklaverei an der Mainzer Akademie 1950–2000, ed. H. Bellen and H. Heinen. Stuttgart, 171–84.
Herrmann-Otto, E. 2006. ‘Sklaven und Frauen unter Konstantin’. In Konstantin der Große. Geschichte – Archäologie – Rezeption, ed. A. Demandt and J. Engemann. Trier, 83–95.
Herrmann-Otto, E. 2008. ‘Konstantin, die Sklaven und die Kirche’. In Antike Lebenswelten. Konstanz – Wandel – Wirkungsmacht, ed. P. Mauritsch. Wiesbaden, 353–66.
Herrmann-Otto, E. 2009. Sklaverei und Freilassung in der griechisch-römischen Welt. Hildesheim.
Herz, P. 1988. Studien zur römischen Wirtschaftsgesetzgebung: Die Lebensmittelversorgung. Stuttgart.
Hesberg, H. von. 1992. Römische Grabbauten. Darmstadt.
Hesberg, H. von and P. Zanker, eds. 1987. Römische Gräberstraßen: Selbstdarstellung – Status – Standard. Munich.
Hetland, L. M. 2007. ‘Dating the Pantheon’. Journal of Roman Archaeology 20: 95–112.
Hibbert, C. 1988. Rome: The Biography of a City. Harmondsworth.
Hillner, J. 2006. ‘Clerics, property and patronage: the case of the Roman titular churches’. Antiquité Tardive 14: 59–68.
Hillner, J. 2007. ‘Families, patronage and the titular churches of Rome’. In Religion, Dynasty, and Patronage in Early Christian Rome, 300–900, ed. K. Cooper and J. Hillner. Cambridge, 225–61.
Hirschfeld, O. 1913 [1891]. ‘Die Sicherheitspolizei im römischen Kaiserreich’. In Kleine Schriften. Berlin, 576–612.
Höbenreich, E. 1997. Annona: juristische Aspekte der stadtrömischen Lebensmittelversorgung im Prinzipat. Graz.
Hodge, A. T. 1992. Roman Aqueducts and Water Supply. London.
Hohlfelder, R. L., ed. 2008. The Maritime World of Ancient Rome. Ann Arbor.
Holleran, C. 2005. ‘The retail trade in the city of Rome’. Unpublished dissertation. University of Manchester.
Holleran, C. 2011. ‘Migration and the urban economy of Rome’. In Demography and the Graeco-Roman World: New Insights and Approaches, ed. C. Holleran and A. Pudsey. Cambridge, 155–80.
Holleran, C. 2012. Shopping in Ancient Rome: The Retail Trade in the Late Republic and the Principate. Oxford.
Holliday, P. J. 1997. ‘Roman triumphal painting: its function, development, and reception’. The Art Bulletin 79: 130–47.
Hollnsteiner-Racelis, M. 1988. ‘Becoming an urbanite: the neighbourhood as a learning environment’. In The Urbanization of the Third World, ed. J. Gugler. New York, 230–41.
Holloway, R. R. 1994. The Archeology of Early Rome and Latium. London.
Holloway, R. R. 2004. Constantine and Rome. New Haven.
Hopkins, K. 1978a. Conquerors and Slaves: Sociological Studies in Roman History I. Cambridge.
Hopkins, K. 1978b. ‘Economic growth and towns in classical antiquity’. In Towns in Societies: Essays in Economic History and Historical Sociology, ed. P. Abrams and E. A. Wrigley. Cambridge, 35–77.
Hopkins, K. 1999. A World Full of Gods: The Strange Triumph of Christianity, London.
Hopkins, K. and M. Beard. 2005. The Colosseum. Cambridge, Mass.
Horden, P. and N. Purcell. 2000. The Corrupting Sea: A Study of Mediterranean History. Oxford.
Houston, G. W. 2002. ‘The slave and freedman personnel of public libraries in ancient Rome’. Transactions of the American Philological Association 132: 139–76.
Hübner, S. R. and D. M. Ratzan, eds. 2009. Growing up Fatherless in Antiquity. Cambridge.
Hughes, J. D., and J. V. Thirgood. 1982. ‘Deforestation in ancient Greece and Rome: a cause of collapse’. The Ecologist 12: 196–208.
Humphrey, J. H. 1986. Roman Circuses: Arenas for Chariot Racing. London.
Hunt, E. D. 2003. ‘Imperial building at Rome: the role of Constantine’. In Lomas and Cornell 2003, 105–24.
Hyland, A. 1990. Equus: The Horse in the Roman World. London.
Isaac, B. 2004. The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity. Princeton.
Jashemski, W. 2008. ‘Gardens’. In The World of Pompeii, ed. J. J. Dobbins and P. W. Foss. London, 487–98.
Jennison, G. 1937. Animals for Show and Pleasure in Ancient Rome. Manchester (reprinted 1995, Philadelphia).
Johnstone, C. 2004. ‘A biometric study of equids in the Roman world’. PhD dissertation. University of Bradford.
Jonckheere, R. 2006. Christenen en de dood: Een studie naar het ontstaan van de christelijke catacomben te Rome. Utrecht.
Jones, A. H. M. 1960. Studies in Roman Government and Law. Oxford.
Jones, A. H. M. 1964. The Later Roman Empire, 284–602: A Social, Economic, and Administrative Survey. Oxford.
Jones, A. H. M., J. R. Martindale and J. Morris. 1971. The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire.Vol. I: a.d. 260–395. Cambridge.
Jones, P. J. 2005. Reading Rivers in Roman Literature and Culture. Lanham, Md.
Jongman, W. 1991. The Economy and Society of Pompeii. Amsterdam.
Jongman, W. 2000. ‘Wool and the textile industry of Roman Italy: a working hypothesis’. In Mercati permanenti e mercati periodici nel mondo romano, ed. E. Lo Cascio. Bari, 187–97.
Jongman, W. 2001. Lemma ‘Roma II: Bevölkerung und Wirtschaft der Stadt Rom, B Wirtschaft.’ In Der Neue Pauly. Enzyklopädie der Antike X, ed. H. Cancik and H. Schneider. Stuttgart and Weimar, 1079–81.
Jongman, W. 2007. ‘The early Roman empire: consumption’. In The Cambridge Economic History of the Greco-Roman World, ed. W. Scheidel, I. Morris and R. Saller. Cambridge, 592–618.
Johns, C. M. S. 1993. Papal Art and Cultural Politics: Rome in the Age of Clement XI. Cambridge.
Johnson, M. J. 2006. ‘Architecture of empire’. In The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Constantine, ed. N. Lenski. Cambridge, 278–97.
Jory, E. J. 1984. ‘The early pantomime riots’. In Maistor: Classical, Byzantine and Renaissance Studies for Robert Browning, ed. A. Moffatt. Canberra, 57–66.
Joshel, S. R. 1992. Work, Identity, and Legal Status at Rome: A Study of the Occupational Inscriptions. Norman, Okla.
Kadletz, E. 1976. ‘Animal sacrifice in Greek and Roman religion’. PhD dissertation. University of Washington.
Kahane, A. 2011. ‘Image, word and the antiquity of ruins’. European Review of History 18: 829–50.
Keene, D. J. 1982. ‘Rubbish in medieval towns’. In Environmental Archaeology in the Urban Context, ed. A. R. Hall and H. K. Kenward. London, 26–30.
Keitel, E. 1984. ‘Principate and civil war in the Annals of Tacitus’. American Journal of Philology 105: 306–25.
Keller, O. 1909/13. Die antike Tierwelt Band 1–2. Leipzig.
Kelly, B. 2007. ‘Riot control and imperial ideology in the Roman empire’. Phoenix 61: 150–76.
Kelly, G. 2008. Ammianus Marcellinus: The Allusive Historian. Cambridge.
Kertzer, D. 2006. Prisoner of the Vatican: The Popes, the Kings, and Garibaldi’s Rebels in the Struggle to Rule Modern Italy. New York.
Killgrove, K. 2010. ‘Identifying immigrants to imperial Rome using strontium isotope analysis’. In Roman Diasporas: Archaeological Approaches to Mobility and Diversity in the Roman Empire, ed. H. Eckardt. Portsmouth, RI, 157–74.
King, A. 1999. ‘Diet in the Roman world: a regional inter-site comparison of the mammal bones’. Journal of Roman Archaeology 12: 168–202.
Klees, H. 2002. ‘Die römische Einbürgerung der Freigelassenen und ihre naturrechtliche Begründung bei Dionysios von Halikarnassos’. Laverna 13: 91–117.
Kleiner, F. S. 1985. The Arch of Nero in Rome: A Study of the Roman Honorary Arch in Rome before and under Nero. Rome.
Knigge, U. 2005. Der Bau Z. 2 vols. Munich.
Knoch, St. 2005. Sklavenfürsorge im Römischen Reich. Hildesheim.
Koch, C. 1952. ’Roma Aeterna’, Gymnasium 58: 128–43, 196–20.
Koch, G. 2000. Frühchristliche Sarkophage. Munich.
Koch, G., and H. Sichtermann. 1982. Römische Sarkophage. Munich.
Kockel, V. 1993. Porträtreliefs stadtrömischer Grabbauten: Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte und zum Verständnis des spätrepublikanisch-frühkaiserzeitlichen Privatporträts. Mainz.
Kolb, F. 1995. Rom: die Geschichte der Stadt in der Antike. Munich.
Koller, D. et al. 2006. ‘Fragments of the city: Stanford’s digital Forma Urbis Romae Project’. In Imaging Ancient Rome: Documentation, Visualization, Imagination, ed. L. Haselberger and J. Humphrey, Journal of Roman Archaeology Supplementary Series, 61. Portsmouth, RI, 237–52.
Koolhaas, R. et al. 2000. Mutations. New York.
Kraus, C. 1994. ‘No second Troy: topoi and refoundation in Livy book V’. Transactions of the American Philological Association 124: 267–89.
Krause, J.-U. 1994–5. Witwen und Waisen im römischen Reich. Stuttgart.
Krause, J.-U. 2004. Kriminalgeschichte der Antike. Munich.
Krautheimer, R. 1980. Rome: Profile of a City, 312–1308. Princeton (revised by Marvin Trachtenberg, Princeton 2000).
Kron, G. 2005. ‘Anthropometry, physical anthropology, and the reconstruction of ancient health, nutrition, and living standards’. Historia 54: 68–83.
La Rocca, E. 2001. ‘La nuova imagine dei fori imperiali: Appunti in margine agli scavi’. Römische Mitteilungen 108: 171–213.
Labate, M. 1991. ‘Città morte, città future: un tema della poesia augustea’. Maia 43: 167–84.
Lahusen, G. 1983. Untersuchungen zur Ehrenstatue in Rom. Rome.
Lampe, P. 2003. From Paul to Valentinus: Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries. Minneapolis.
Lancaster, L. 1998. ‘Building Trajan’s markets’. American Journal of Archaeology 102: 283–308.
Lancaster, L. 2005. Concrete Vaulted Construction in Imperial Rome: Innovations in Context. Cambridge.
Lancaster, L. 2007. ‘The Colosseum for the general public’. Journal of Roman Archaeology 20: 454–9.
Lançon, B. 2000. Rome in Late Antiquity: Everyday Life and Urban Change ad 312–609, trans. A. Nevill. Edinburgh.
Larmour, D. H. J. 2007. ‘Holes in the body: sites of abjection in Juvenal’s Rome’. In The Sites of Rome: Time, Space, Memory, ed. D. H. J. Larmour and D. Spencer. Oxford, 168–210.
Laurence, R. 1991. ‘The urban Vicus: the spatial organization of power in the Roman city’. In Papers of the Fourth Conference of Italian Archaeology, ed. E. Herring, R. Whitehouse and J. B. Wilkins. London, 145–51.
Laurence, R. 1997. ‘Writing the Roman metropolis’. In Roman Urbanism: Beyond the Consumer City, ed. H. Parkin. London, 1–20.
Laurence, R. 1999. The Roads of Roman Italy: Mobility and Cultural Change. London.
Laurence, R. 2001. ‘The creation of geography: an interpretation of Roman Britain’. In Travel and Geography in the Roman Empire, ed. C. Adams and R. Laurence. London, 67–94.
Laurence, R. 2004. ‘The economic exploitation of geological resources in the Tiber valley: road building’, in Bridging the Tiber: Approaches to Regional Archaeology in the Middle Tiber Valley, ed. H. Patterson. London, 285–96.
Laurence, R. 2007. Roman Pompeii: Space and Society. 2nd edn. London.
Laurence, R. 2008. ‘City traffic and the archaeology of Roman streets’. In Stadtverkehr in der Antiken Welt/Traffico Urbano nel Mondo Antico (Palilia 13), ed. D. Mertens. Rome, 87–106.
Le Houerou, H. N. 1981. ‘Impact of man and his animals on Mediterranean vegetation’. In Mediterranean-type Shrublands, ed. F. Di Castri, D. W. Goodall and R. L. Specht. Amsterdam, 479–521.
Leon, H. 1960. The Jews of Ancient Rome. Philadelphia (updated edition 1995).
Lepelley, C. 1962. ‘Léon le Grand et la cité romaine’. Revue des sciences religieuses 35: 130–50.
Lepper, F. A. and S. S. Frere. 1988. Trajan’s Column: A New Edition of the Cichorius Plates. Gloucester.
Lim, R. 1999. ‘People as power: games, munificence, and contested topography’. In The Transformations of Urbs Roma in Late Antiquity, ed. W. V. Harris. Portsmouth, RI, 265–81.
Linderski, J. 1986. ‘The augural law’. Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt II.16.3, 2146–312.
Lintott, A. W. 1999. Violence in Republican Rome, 2nd edn. Oxford.
Liu, J. 2008. ‘The economy of endowments: the case of Roman associations’. In ‘Pistoi dia tèn technèn’: Bankers, Loans and Archives in the Ancient World, ed. K. Verboven et al. Leuven, 231–56.
Lizzi Testa, R. 2004. Senatori, populi, papi: il governo di Roma al tempo dei Valentiniani. Bari.
Lo Cascio, E. 1997. ‘Le procedure di recensus dalla tarda repubblica al tardo antico e il calcolo della popolazione di Roma’. In La Rome impériale. Démographie et logistique. Rome, 3–76.
Lo Cascio, E. 2001a. ‘Condizioni igienico-sanitarie e dinamica della popolazione della città di Roma dall’età tardorepubblicana al tardoantico’. In Thérapies, médicine et démographie antiques, ed. J.-N. Corvisier, C. Didier and M. Valdher. Arras, 37–70.
Lo Cascio, E. 2001b. ‘Recruitment and the size of the Roman population from the third to the first century bce’, in Debating Roman Demography, ed. W. Scheidel. Leiden, 111–38.
Lo Cascio, E. 2003. ‘La population’. In La Ville de Rome sous le Haut-Empire. Toulouse, 179–98.
Lo Cascio, E. 2006. ‘Did the population of imperial Rome reproduce itself?’. In Storey 2006, 52–68.
Loane, H. J. 1938. Industry and Commerce of the City of Rome (50 b.c.–200 a.d.). Baltimore.
Lomas, K., and T. Cornell, eds. 2003. Bread and Circuses: Euergetism and Municipal Patronage in Roman Italy. London.
Lott, J. B. 2004. The Neighborhoods of Augustan Rome. Cambridge.
Lucassen, J. 1987. Migrant Labour in Europe 1600–1900: The Drift to the North Sea. London.
Lugli, G. 1947. Monumenti minori del Foro Romano. Rome.
Lyding Will, E. 1983. ‘Exportation of olive oil from Baetica to the eastern Mediterranean’. In Producción y comercio del aceite en la Antigüedad: Segundo Congreso Internacional (Sevilla 1982). Madrid, 391–440.
McClelland, J. S. 1989. The Crowd and the Mob: From Plato to Canetti. Boston.
McCormick, M. 2003. ‘Rats, communications, and plague: towards an ecological history’. Journal of Interdisciplinary History 34: 1–25.
MacDonald, W. L. 1982. The Architecture of the Roman Empire: An Introductory Study. New Haven.
McGinn, T. A. J. 1998. Prostitution, Sexuality, and the Law in Ancient Rome. New York.
McGinn, T. A. J. 2002. ‘Pompeian brothels and social history’. In Pompeian Brothels, Pompeii’s Ancient History, Mirrors and Mysteries, Art and Nature at Oplontis and the Herculaneum ‘Basilica’, ed. T. McGinn, P. Carafa, N. de Grummond, B. Bergmann, and T. Najbjerg. Portsmouth, RI, 7–46.
McGinn, T. A. J. 2004. The Economy of Prostitution in the Roman World: A Study of Social History and the Brothel. Ann Arbor.
McGinn, T. A. J. 2011. ‘Roman prostitutes and marginalization’. In Oxford Handbook on Social Relations in the Roman World, ed. M. Peachin. Oxford.
McKay, A. G. 1975 [1998]. Houses, Villas and Palaces in the Roman World. Ithaca.
McKeown, N. 2007. The Invention of Ancient Slavery?London.
MacKinnon, M. 2001. ‘High on the hog: linking zooarchaeological, literary, and artistic data for pig breeds in Roman Italy’. American Journal of Archaeology 105: 649–73.
MacKinnon, M. 2004. Production and Consumption of Animals in Roman Italy: Integrating the Zooarchaeological and Ancient Textual Evidence. Ann Arbor.
MacKinnon, M. 2006. ‘Supplying exotic animals for the Roman amphitheatre games: new reconstructions combining archaeological, ancient textual, historical and ethnographic data’. Mouseion 6: 137–61.
MacKinnon, M. 2007. ‘State of the discipline: osteological research in classical archaeology’. American Journal of Archaeology 111: 473–504.
Macleod, C. W. 1983. Collected Essays. Oxford.
McLynn, N. 2008. ‘Crying wolf: the pope and the Lupercalia’. Journal of Roman Studies 98: 161–75.
MacMahon, A. 2005a. ‘The shops and workshops of Roman Britain’. In MacMahon and Price 2005, 48–69.
MacMahon, A. 2005b. ‘The taberna counters of Pompeii and Herculaneum’. In MacMahon and Price 2005, 70–87.
MacMahon, A. and J. Price, eds. 2005. Roman Working Lives and Urban Living. Oxford.
MacMullen, R. 1986. ‘What difference did Christianity make?’. Historia 35: 322–43.
MacMullen, R. 1990. ‘Late Roman slavery’. Historia 36: 359–82.
MacMullen, R. 1993. ‘The unromanized in Rome’. In Diasporas in Antiquity, ed. S. H. D. Cohen and E. S. Frerichs. Atlanta, 47–64.
Magnuson, T. 1982–6. Rome in the Age of Bernini. 2 vols. Atlantic Highlands, NJ.
Mantovani, D. 1988. ‘Sulla competenza penale del praefectus urbi attraverso il Liber Singularis di Ulpiano’. In Idee vecchie e nuove sul diritto criminale romano, ed. A. Burdese. Padua, 171–223.
Manuwald, G. 2011. Roman Republican Theatre. Cambridge.
Manzi, G. et al. 1999. ‘Discontinuity of life conditions at the transition from the Roman imperial age to the early Middle Ages: example from central Italy evaluated by pathological dento-alveolar lesions’. American Journal of Human Biology 11: 327–41.
Marazzi, F. 1998. I ‘Patrimonia Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae’ nel Lazio (secoli IV–X): Struttura amministrativa e prassi gestionali. Rome.
Mari, Z. 1991. ‘Nuovi cippi degli acquedotti aniensi: considerazioni sull’uso dei cippi acquari’. Papers of the British School at Rome 59: 151–75.
Martin, S. D. 1989. The Roman Jurists and the Organization of Private Building in the Late Republic and Early Empire. Brussels.
Martindale, C. 1993. Redeeming the Text: Latin Poetry and the Hermeneutics of Reception. Cambridge.
Marx, G., and D. McAdam. 1994. Collective Behavior and Social Movements: Process and Structure. Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Marzano, A. 2007. Roman Villas in Central Italy: A Social and Economic History. Leiden.
Massey, D., J. Allen and S. Pile. 1999. City Worlds: Understanding Cities 1. London.
Mattern, S. P. 2008. Galen and the Rhetoric of Healing. Baltimore.
Matthews, J. 1989. ‘Hostages, philosophers, pilgrims and the diffusion of ideas in the late Roman Mediterranean and Near East’. In Tradition and Innovation in Late Antiquity, ed. F. M. Clover and R. S. Humphreys. Madison, WI, 29–49.
Mattingly, D. J. 1996. ‘First fruit? The olive in the Roman world’. In Human Landscapes in Classical Antiquity: Environment and Culture, ed. G. Shipley and J. Salmon. London, 213–53.
Meiggs, R. 1972. The Athenian Empire. Oxford.
Meiggs, R. 1973. Roman Ostia. Oxford.
Meiggs, R. 1982. Trees and Timber in the Ancient Mediterranean World. Oxford.
Mellor, R. 1981. ‘The goddess Roma’. Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Weltii.17.2, 950–1030.
Ménard, H. 2001. ‘L’insécurité de la Rome impériale: entre réalité et imaginaire’. In Rome, ville et capitale de Jules César à la fin des Antonins, ed. S. Lefebvre. Paris, 390–407.
Ménard, H 2004. Maintenir l’ordre à Rome: IIe–IVe siècles ap. J.-C. Seyssel.
Merlen, R. H. A. 1971. De canibus: Dog and Hound in Antiquity. London.
Messineo, G. 1991. La Via Flaminia: Da Porta del Popolo a Malborghetto. Rome.
Metzger Habel, D. 2002. The Urban Development of Rome in the Age of Alexander VII. Cambridge.
Michels, A. K. 1967. The Calendar of the Roman Republic. Princeton.
Millar, F. 1977. The Emperor in the Roman World (31 bcad 69). London.
Millar, F. 1984. ‘The political character of the classical Roman republic, 200–151 bc’. Journal of Roman Studies 74: 1–19.
Millar, F. 1986. ‘Politics, persuasion, and the people before the Social War (150–90 b.c.)’. Journal of Roman Studies 76: 1–11.
Millar, F. 1989. ‘Political power in mid-republican Rome: curia or comitium?’. Journal of Roman Studies 79: 138–50.
Millar, F. 1998. The Crowd in Rome in the Late Republic, Ann Arbor.
Miller, D. L. 2000. Introduction to Collective Behavior and Collective Action. 2nd edn. Prospect Heights, IL.
Miller, P. A. 2007. ‘I get around: sadism, desire and metonymy on the streets of Rome with Horace, Ovid, and Juvenal’. In The Sites of Rome: Time, Space, Memory, ed. D. H. J. Larmour and D. Spencer. Oxford, 138–67.
Moatti, C. 1993. In Search of Ancient Rome. London.
Moatti, C. ed. 2004. La mobilité des personnes en Méditerranée, de l’Antiquité à l’époque moderne: Procédures de contrôle et documents d’identification. Rome.
Moatti, C. 2006. ‘Translation, communication and mobility in the Roman empire’. Classical Antiquity 25: 141–80.
Moatti, C. 2007. ‘Le contrôle des gens de passage à Rome aux trois premières siècles de L’Empire’, in Gens de passage en Méditerranée, de l’antiquité à l’époque moderne, ed. C. Moatti and W. Kaiser. Paris, 79–116.
Mollenkopf, J. H. 1992. A Phoenix in the Ashes: The Rise and Fall of the Koch Coalition in New York City Politics. Princeton, 23–43.
Mommsen, Th. 1887–8. Römisches Staatsrecht. 3rd edn. Leipzig.
Morgan, T. 1998. Literate Education in the Hellenistic and Roman Worlds. Cambridge.
Morley, N. 1996. Metropolis and Hinterland: The City of Rome and the Italian Economy, 200 bc–ad 200. Cambridge.
Morley, N. 2005. ‘The salubriousness of the Roman city’. In Health in Antiquity, ed. H. King. London, 192–204.
Morley, N. 2006. ‘The poor in the city of Rome’. In Poverty in the Roman World, ed. R. Osborne and M. Atkins. Cambridge, 21–39.
Morley, N. 2007. ‘The early Roman empire: distribution’. In The Cambridge Economic History of the Greco-Roman World, ed. W. Scheidel, I. Morris and R. Saller. Cambridge, 570–91.
Mouritsen, H. 2001. Plebs and Politics in the Late Roman Republic. New York.
Muccigrosso, J. 2006. ‘Religion and politics: did the Romans scruple about the placement of their temples?’. In Religion in Republican Italy, ed. C. E. Schultz and P. B. Harvey Jr, Cambridge, 181–206.
Müller-Karpe, H. 1956. Vom Anfang Roms. Heidelberg.
Müller-Karpe, H. 1962. Zur Stadtwerdung Roms. Heidelberg.
Münzer, F. 1920. Römische Adelsparteien und Adelsfamilien. Stuttgart (trans. T. Ridley, Roman Aristocratic Parties and Families. Baltimore, 1999).
Narducci, P. 1889. Sulle fognature della città di Roma. Rome.
Nash, E. 1961–2. A Pictorial Dictionary of Ancient Rome. 2 vols. London.
Nelis-Clément, J., and J.-M. Roddaz, eds. 2008. Le cirque romain et son image. Bordeaux.
Nencioni, L., A. Canci and P. Catalano. 2001. ‘Caratterizzazione antropologica preliminare’. In Ad Deverticulum: scavi archaeologici Lungo la Bretella Nomentana-GRA, ed. P. Di Manzano. Rome, 73–80.
Newbold, R. F. 1974. ‘Some social and economic consequences of the ad 64 fire at Rome’. Latomus 33: 858–69.
Newsome, D. 2009. ‘Centrality in its place: representations and definitions of urban space in the city of Rome’. In Proceedings of the Eighteenth Annual Theoretical Roman Archaeology Conference, Amsterdam 2008, ed. M. Driessen et al. Oxford, 25–38.
Nicolet, C. 1987. ‘La table d’Héraclée et les origines du cadastre romain’. In L’Urbs: espace urbain et histoire (Ier siècle av. J.-C.–IIIe siècle ap. J.-C.). Rome, 1–25.
Nielsen, I. 1990. ‘Thermae et balnea’: The Architecture and Cultural History of Roman Public Baths. Aarhus.
Nippel, W. 1984. ‘Policing Rome’. Journal of Roman Studies 74: 20–9.
Nippel, W. 1988. Aufruhr und ‘Polizei’ in der römischen Republik. Stuttgart.
Nippel, W. 1995. Public Order in Ancient Rome. Cambridge.
Nock, A. D. 1932. ‘Cremation and burial in the Roman empire’. Harvard Theological Review 25: 321–59.
Nock, A. D. 1946. ‘Sarcophagi and symbolism’. American Journal of Archaeology 50: 140–70.
Nörr, D. 2007. ‘Osservazioni in tema di terminologia giuridica predecemvirale e di ius mercatorium mediterraneo: il primo trattato cartaginese–romano’. In Le Dodici Tavole: dai decemviri agli umanisti, ed. M. Humbert. Pavia, 147–89.
Nordh, C. A. 1949. Libellus de Regionibus Urbis Romae. Lund.
North, J. A. and N. McLynn. 2008. ‘Postscript to the Lupercalia: from Caesar to Andromachus’. Journal of Roman Studies 98: 176–81.
Noy, D. 2000a. Foreigners in Rome, Citizens and Strangers. London.
Noy, D. 2000b. ‘Immigrants in late imperial Rome’. In Ethnicity and Culture in Late Antiquity, ed. S. Mitchell and G. Greatrex. London.
O’Gorman, E. 2000. Irony and Misreading in the Annals of Tacitus. Cambridge.
O’Gorman, E. 2004. ‘Cato the Elder and the destruction of Carthage’. Helios 31: 97–125.
Oates, W. J. 1934. ‘The population of Rome’. Classical Philology 29: 101–16.
Oleson, J. P., ed. 2008. The Oxford Handbook of Engineering and Technology in the Classical World. Oxford.
Orlin, E. M. 1997. Temples, Religion and Politics in the Roman Republic. Leiden.
Orlin, E. M. 2002. ‘Foreign cults in republican Rome: rethinking the Pomerial rule’. Memoirs of the American Academy at Rome 47: 1–18.
Osiek, C. and D. L. Balch. 1997. Families in the New Testament World: Households and House Churches. Louisville.
Ottini, L. et al. (2001) ‘Le condizioni di vita nella popolazione di età imperiale: indicatori paleopatologici da necropolis nel territorio di Roma’. Mitteilungen des deutschen archäologischen Instituts, Römische Abteilung 108: 364–6.
Packer, J. E. 1971. The Insulae of Imperial Ostia. Rome.
Packer, J. E. 1997. The Forum of Trajan in Rome: A Study of the Monuments. Berkeley.
Packer, J. E. 2001. The Forum of Trajan in Rome: A Study of the Monuments in Brief. London.
Paine, R. R. and G. R. Storey. 2006. ‘Epidemics, age at death, and mortality in ancient Rome’. In Storey 2006, 69–85.
Painter Jr, B. W. 2007. Mussolini’s Rome: Rebuilding the Eternal City. New York.
Palmer, R. E. A. 1974. ‘The excusatio magisteri and the administration of Rome under Commodus’. Athenaeum 52: 266–88.
Palmer, R. E. A 1978–80. ‘C. Verres’ legacy of charm and love to the city of Rome: a new document’. Rendiconti della Pontificia Accademia di Archeologia 51–52: 111–36.
Palmer, R. E. A 1980. ‘Customs on market goods imported into the city of Rome’. In The Seaborne Commerce of Ancient Rome: Studies in Archaeology and History, ed. E. C. Kopff and J. H. D’Arms. Rome, 217–33.
Palmer, R. E. A 1981. ‘The topography and social history of Rome’s Trastevere southern sector’. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 125.5: 368–97.
Panciera, S. 1970. ‘Tra topografia e epigrafia’. Archeologia classica 22: 131–63.
Panciera, S. 1993. ‘Soldati e civili a Roma nei primi tre secoli dell’impero’. In Prosopographie und Sozialgeschichte, ed. W. Eck. Cologne, 261–76.
Panciera, S. 2000. ‘Nettezza urbana a Roma: organizzazione e responsabili’. In ‘Sordes urbis’: la eliminación de residuos en la ciudad romana, ed. X. Dupré Raventós and J. A. Remolà. Rome, 95–105.
Panella, C., ed. 1996. Meta Sudans. 1. Un’ area sacra in Palatio e la valle del Colosseo prima e dopo Nerone. Rome.
Papi, E., ed. 2007. Supplying Rome and the Empire. Portsmouth, RI.
Parkin, T. G. 1992. Demography and Roman Society. Baltimore.
Parkin, T. G. 2003. Old Age in the Roman World. Baltimore.
Passerini, A. 1939. Le coorti pretorie. Rome.
Patterson, J. 1992. ‘The city of Rome: from Republic to empire’. Journal of Roman Studies, 82: 186–215.
Patterson, J. 2000. ‘On the margins of the city of Rome’. In Death and Disease in the Ancient City, ed. V. M. Hope and E. Marshall. London, 85–103.
Patterson, J. 2006. Landscapes and Cities: Rural Settlement and Civic Transformation in Early Imperial Italy. Oxford.
Patterson, J. 2010. ‘The city of Rome revisited: from mid-Republic to mid-empire’, Journal of Roman Studies, 100: 210–32.
Patterson, O. 1982. Slavery and Social Death: A Comparative Study. London.
Paul, G. M. 1982. ‘Urbs capta: sketch of an ancient literary motif’. Phoenix 36: 144–55.
Pearse, J. D. L. 1974. ‘The organization of Roman building during the late Republic and early empire’. Unpublished dissertation. University of Cambridge.
Pearse, J. D. L. 1976–7. ‘Three Alba of the Collegium Fabrum Tignariorum at Rome’. Bullettino della Commissione Archeologica Comunale di Roma 85: 163–76.
Pedroni, L. 1992. ‘Per una lettura verticale della Forma Urbis marmorea’. Ostraka 1: 223–30.
Peña, J. T. 1998. ‘The mobilization of state olive oil in Roman Africa: the evidence of late 4th-c. ostraca from Carthage’. In Carthage Papers: The Early Colony’s Economy, Water Supply, a Public Bath and the Mobilization of State Olive Oil, ed. J. T. Peña et al. Portsmouth, RI, 117–238.
Peña, J. T. 1999. The Urban Economy during the Early Dominate: Pottery Evidence from the Palatine Hill. Oxford.
Pensabene, P., and S. Falzone, eds. 2001. Scavi del Palatino. I. Rome.
Pensabene, P., and A. D’Alessio. 2006. ‘L’immaginario urbano: spazio sacro sul Palatino tardo-repubblicano’. In Imaging Ancient Rome: Documentation – Visualization – Imagination, ed. L. Haselberger and J. Humphrey. Portsmouth, RI, 30–49.
Pergola, P. 1990. ‘Mensores, frumentarii christiani et annone à la fin de l’Antiquité (relecture d’un cycle des peintures)’. Rivista di Archeologia Cristiana 66: 167–84.
Perry, J. S. 2006. The Roman Collegia: The Modern Evolution of an Ancient Concept. Leiden.
Petrarch. 1979. Opere di Francesco Petrarca, ed. Emilio Bigi. Milan.
Pietri, C. 1976. Roma Christiana: Recherches sur l’église de Rome, son organisation, sa politique, son idéologie de Miltiade à Sixte III (311–440). 2 vols. Rome.
Pietri, C. 1978. ‘Evergétisme et richesses ecclésiastiques dans l’Italie du IVe à la fin du Ve s.: l’exemple romain’. Ktema 3: 317–37 (= Pietri 1997, 813–33).
Pietri, C. 1997. Christiana Respublica: Éléments d’une enquête sur le christianisme antique. 3 vols. Rome.
Piranomonte, M., ed. 2002. Il santuario della musica e il bosco sacro di Anna Perenna. Milan.
Pirson, F. 2008. ‘Shops and industries’. In The World of Pompeii, ed. J. J. Dobbins and P. W. Foss. London, 457–73.
Platner, S. B. and T. Ashby. 1926. A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome. Oxford.
Pollitt, J. J. 1983. The Art of Rome, c. 753 bc–ad 337: Sources and Documents. Cambridge.
Potter, D. S. 2006. ‘Spectacle’. In A Companion to the Roman Empire, ed. D. S. Potter. Oxford, 385–408.
Pottier, B. 2009. ‘Contrôle et répression des vagabonds et des mendiants dans l’empire romain au IVe siècle’. In Le monde de l’itinérance en Méditerranée, de l’Antiquité à l’époque moderne, ed. C. Moatti and W. Kaiser. Bordeaux, 203–40.
Poucet, J. 2000. Les rois de Rome: tradition et histoire. Brussels.
Poulson, B. et al. 19922008. The Temple of Castor and Pollux. 3 vols. Rome.
Price, S. 2000. ‘Religions of Rome’. In Ancient Rome: The Archaeology of the Eternal City, ed. H. Dodge and J. Coulston. Oxford, 290–305.
Priester, S. 2002. Ad summas tegulas: Untersuchungen zu vielgeschossigen Gebäudeblöcken mit Wohneinheiten und Insulae im kaiserzeitlichen Rom. Rome.
Prowse, T. L. et al. 2007. ‘Isotopic evidence for age-related immigration to imperial Rome’. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 132: 510–19.
Prowse, T. L. 2008. ‘Isotopic and dental evidence for infant and young child feeding practices in an imperial Roman skeletal sample’. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 137: 294–308.
Purcell, N. 1983. ‘The apparitores: a study of social mobility’. Papers of the British School at Rome 51: 125–73.
Purcell, N. 1985. ‘Wine and wealth in ancient Italy’. Journal of Roman Studies 75: 1–19.
Purcell, N. 1987a. ‘Tomb and suburb’. In Römische Gräberstraben Selbstdarstellung – Status – Standard, ed. H. von Hesberg and P. Zanker. Munich, 25–41.
Purcell, N. 1987b. ‘Town in country and country in town’. In Ancient Roman Villa Gardens, ed. E. B. MacDougall. Washington, D.C., 187–203.
Purcell, N. 1994. ‘The city of Rome and the plebs urbana in the late Republic’. In The Cambridge Ancient History, vol. 9. 2nd edn. Cambridge, 644–88.
Purcell, N. 1995a. ‘The Roman villa and the landscape of production’. In Urban Society in Roman Italy, ed. T. Cornell and K. Lomas. London, 151–79.
Purcell, N. 1995b. ‘Literate games: Roman society and the game of alea’. Past and Present 147: 3–37. Reprinted in Studies in Ancient Greek and Roman Society, ed. R. G. Osborne, Cambridge 2004, 177–205.
Purcell, N. 1996. ‘Rome and its development under Augustus and his successors’. In Cambridge Ancient History, vol. 10. 2nd edn. Cambridge, 782–811.
Purcell, N. 1999. ‘The populace of Rome in Late Antiquity: problems of classification and historical description’. In The Transformations of Urbs Roma in Late Antiquity, ed. W. V. Harris. Portsmouth, RI, 135–61.
Purcell, N. 2007. ‘The horti of Rome and the landscape of property’. In Res bene gestae: ricerche di storia urbana su Roma antica in onore di Eva Margareta Steinby, ed. A. Leone et al. Rome, 361–74.
Raaflaub, K. A., ed. 2005. Social Struggles in Archaic Rome: New Perspectives on the Conflict of the Orders. 2nd edn. Berkeley.
Raepsaet, G. 2008. ‘Land transport, Part 2: riding, harnesses, and vehicles’. In The Oxford Handbook of Engineering and Technology in the Classical World, ed. J. P. Oleson. Oxford, 580–605.
Rainbird, J. S. 1986. ‘The fire stations of imperial Rome’. Papers of the British School at Rome 54: 147–69.
Ramage, E. S. 1984. ‘Urban problems in ancient Rome’. In Aspects of Graeco-Roman Urbanism: Essays on the Classical City, ed. R. T. Marchese. Oxford, 61–92.
Ramage, N. H. and A. Ramage. 2008. Roman Art: Romulus to Constantine. London.
Rasch, J. J. and A. Arbeiter. 2007. Das Mausoleum der Constantina in Rom. Mainz.
Rauh, N. K. 1989. ‘Finance and estate sales in republican Rome’. Aevum 63: 45–76.
Rawson, B. 1974. ‘Roman concubinage and other de facto marriages’. Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 104: 279–305.
Rawson, B. 1981. ‘Chariot-racing in the Roman Republic’. Papers of the British School at Rome 49: 1–16. Reprinted in Rawson 1991, 389–407.
Rawson, B. 1985. ‘Theatrical life in republican Rome and Italy’. Papers of the British School at Rome 53: 97–113. Reprinted in Rawson 1991, 468–87.
Rawson, B. 1987. ‘Discrimina ordinum. The lex Iulia theatralis’. Papers of the British School at Rome 55: 83–114. Reprinted in Rawson 1991, 508–45.
Rawson, B. 1989. ‘Spurii and the Roman view of illegitimacy’. Antichthon 23: 10–41.
Rawson, B. 1991. Roman Culture and Society. Oxford.
Rawson, B. 2003. Children and Childhood in Roman Italy. Oxford.
Rawson, B. 2011. ‘Degrees of freedom: vernae and Junian Latins in the Roman familia’. In Children, Memory and Family: Identity in Roman Culture, ed. V. Dasen and T. Späth. Oxford.
Rea, R. ed. 2004. L’ipogeo di Trebio Giusto sulla Via Latina: scavi e restauri. Vatican City.
Rebillard, E. 2003. Religion et sépulture: L’Église, les vivants et les morts dans l’Antiquité tardive. Paris.
Reed, J. D. 2007. Virgil’s Gaze: Nation and Poetry in the ‘Aeneid’. Princeton.
Reimers, P. 1989. ‘Opus omnium dictu maximum: literary sources for the knowledge of Roman city drainage’. Opuscula Romana 17: 137–41.
Reynolds, D. W. 1996. ‘Forma Urbis Romae: the Severan marble plan and the urban form of ancient Rome’. Unpublished PhD dissertation. University of Michigan.
Ricci, G. 2002. ‘Un laboratorio tessile a ponte Milvio: indagini2001–2002’. In Il Santuario della Musica e il Bosco Sacro di Anna Perenna, ed. M. Piramonte. Milan, 89–95.
Richardson Jr, L. 1992. A New Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome. Baltimore.
Rickman, G. 1971. Roman Granaries and Store Buildings. Oxford.
Rickman, G. 1980a. The Corn Supply of Ancient Rome. Oxford.
Rickman, G. 1980b. ‘The grain trade under the Roman empire’. Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome 36: 261–75.
Rico, C. 1995. ‘La diffusion par mer des matériaux de construction en terre cuite: un aspect mal connu du commerce antique en Méditerranée occidentale’. Mélanges de l’École Française de Rome 107: 767–800.
Rinkewitz, W. 1984. ‘Pastio villatica’: Untersuchungen zur intensiven Hoftierhaltung in der römischen Landwirtschaft. Frankfurt.
Rives, J. B. 2002. ‘Magic in the XII Tables revisited’. Classical Quarterly 52: 270–90.
Robert, J. 1888. Le chien d’appartement et d’utilité: Education, dressage, hygiène, maladies. Paris.
Robinson, O. F. 1992. Ancient Rome: City Planning and Organization. London.
Rodgers, R. H., ed. 2004. Frontinus, De aquaeductu urbis Romae. Cambridge.
Rodgers, R. H., 2005. ‘Translation of Sextus Julius Frontinus, De aquaeductu urbis Romae’. Journal of Roman Archaeology 18: 514–34.
Rodriguez-Almeida, E. 1981. Forma Urbis marmorea: Aggiornamento. Rome.
Rosen, R. M. ed. 2004. Time and Temporality in the Ancient World. Philadelphia, PA.
Rosen, R. M. and I. Sluiter, eds. 2006. City, Countryside, and the Spatial Organization of Value in Classical Antiquity. Leiden.
Rossi, A. 2002. ‘The fall of Troy: between tradition and genre’. In Clio and the Poets: Augustan Poetry and the Traditions of Roman Historiography, ed. D. Levene and D. P. Nelis. Leiden, 231–51.
Rouveret, A. 1991. ‘Tacite et les monuments’. Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt II.33.4, 3051–99.
Royden, H. L. 1988. The Magistrates of the Roman Professional Collegia in Italy from the First to the Third Century ad. Pisa.
Rüpke, J. 1990. Domi militiae: Die religiöse Konstruktion des Krieges in Rom. Stuttgart.
Rüpke, J. 1995. Kalendar und Öffentlichkeit: Die Geschichte der Repräsentation und religiösen Qualification von Zeit in Rom. Berlin.
Rüpke, J. 2005. Fasti sacerdotum: Die Mitglieder der Priesterschaften und das sakrale Funktionspersonal römischer, griechischer, orientalischer und jüdisch-christlicher Kulte in der Stadt Rom von 300 v. Chr. bis 499 n. Chr. 3 vols. Wiesbaden.
Rüpke, J. ed. 2007a. A Companion to Roman Religion. Oxford.
Rüpke, J. 2007b. The Religion of the Romans. Cambridge.
Rutgers, L. V. 1995. The Jews in Late Ancient Rome: Evidence of Cultural Interaction in the Roman Diaspora. Leiden.
Rutgers, L. V. 2006. ‘Reflections on the demography of the Jewish community of ancient Rome’. In Les cités de l’Italie tardo-antique (IVe–VIe siècle), ed. M. Ghilardi et al. Rome, 345–66.
Rutgers, L. V. et al. 2006. ‘Sul problema di come datare le catacombe ebraiche di Roma’. Babesch 81: 169–78.
Rutgers, L. V. et al. 2007. ‘Further radiocarbon dates from the catacombs of St. Callixtus in Rome’. Radiocarbon 49: 1221–9.
Rutgers, L. V. et al. 2009. ‘Stable isotope data from the early Christian catacombs of ancient Rome: new insights into the dietary habits of Rome’s early Christians’. Journal of Archaeological Science 36: 1127–34.
Saastamoinen, A. 2003. ‘The literary character of Frontinus’ De aquaeductu’. In Technology, Ideology, Water: From Frontinus to the Renaissance and Beyond, ed. C. Bruun and A. Saastamoinen. Rome, 15–39.
Sablayrolles, R. 1996. Libertinus miles: Les cohortes de vigiles. Rome.
Sablayrolles, R. 1997. ‘Sparteoli, les vigiles dans Rome’. In La rue, lieu de sociabilité?, ed. A. Lemémorel. Rouen, 97–104.
Sablayrolles, R. 2001. ‘La rue, le soldat et le pouvoir: la garnison de Rome de César à Pertinax’. Pallas 55: 127–53.
Säflund, G. 1932. Le Mura di Roma repubblicana, saggio di archeologia romana. Paris.
Sallares, R. 2002. Malaria and Rome: A History of Malaria in Ancient Italy. Oxford.
Saller, R. 1994. Patriarchy, Property and Death in the Roman Family. Cambridge.
Saller, R. 2003. ‘Women, slaves, and the economy of the Roman household’. In Early Christian Families in Context: An Interdisciplinary Dialogue, ed. D. L. Balch and C. Osiek. Cambridge, 185–204.
Saller, R. and B. Shaw. 1984. ‘Tombstones and Roman family relations in the Principate: civilians, soldiers and slaves’. Journal of Roman Studies 74: 124–56.
Salvadei, L., F. Ricci and G. Manzi. 2001. ‘Porotic hyperostosis as a marker of health and nutritional conditions during childhood: studies at the transition between imperial Rome and the early Middle Ages’. American Journal of Human Biology 13: 709–17.
Salzman, M. R. 1981. ‘New evidence for the dating of the calendar at Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome’. Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 111: 215–27.
Salzman, M. R. 1990. On Roman Time: The Codex-calendar of 354 and the Rhythms of Urban Life in Late Antiquity. Berkeley.
Salzman, M. R. 2002. The Making of a Christian Aristocracy: Social and Religious Change in the Western Roman Empire. Cambridge, Mass.
Salzman, M. R. 2004. ‘Pagan and Christian notions for the week in the 4th century ce western Roman empire’. In Time and Temporality in the Ancient World, ed. R. Rosen. Philadelphia, Pa., 185–212.
Santoro L’Hoir, F. 2006. Tragedy, Rhetoric and the Historiography of Tacitus’ Annales. Ann Arbor.
Scheid, J. 2003. An Introduction to Roman Religion. Bloomington.
Scheid, J. ed. 2009. ‘Les biens des temples à Rome et dans le monde romain’. Archiv für Religionsgeschichte 11: 1–120.
Scheidel, W. 1994. ‘Libitina’s bitter gains: seasonal mortality and endemic disease in the ancient city of Rome’. Ancient Society 25: 151–75.
Scheidel, W. 1996. ‘The most silent women of Greece and Rome: rural labour and women’s life in the ancient world (II)’. Greece & Rome 43: 1–10.
Scheidel, W. 1997. ‘Quantifying the sources of slaves in the early Roman Empire’. Journal of Roman Studies 87: 156–169.
Scheidel, W. 2001. ‘Progress and problems in Roman demography’. In Debating Roman demography, ed. W. Scheidel. Leiden, 1–81.
Scheidel, W. 2002. ‘The hireling and the slave: a transatlantic perspective’. In Money, Labour and Land: Approaches to the Economies of Ancient Greece, ed. P. Cartledge et al. London, 175–84.
Scheidel, W. 2003. ‘Germs for Rome’. In Rome the Cosmopolis, ed. C. Edwards and G. Woolf. Cambridge, 158–76.
Scheidel, W. 2004. ‘Human mobility in Roman Italy, I: the free population’. Journal of Roman Studies 94: 1–26.
Scheidel, W. 2005. ‘Human mobility in Roman Italy, II: the slave population’. Journal of Roman Studies 95: 64–79.
Scheidel, W. 2007. ‘Demography’. In The Cambridge Economic History of the Greco-Roman World, ed. W. Scheidel, I. Morris and R. Saller. Cambridge, 38–86.
Scheidel, W. 2008. ‘The comparative economics of slavery in the Greco-Roman world’. In Slave Systems: Ancient and Modern, ed. E. Dal Largo. Cambridge, 105–26.
Schnegg-Köhler, B. 2002. Die augusteischen Säkularspiele. Munich.
Schollmeyer, P. 2008. Römische Tempel: Kult und Architektur im Imperium Romanum. Mainz.
Schrumpf, S. 2006. Bestattung und Bestattungswesen im Römischen Reich. Bonn.
Schumacher, L. 2001. Sklaverei in der Antike: Alltag und Schicksal der Unfreien. Munich.
Schwarz, L. D. 1992. London in the Age of Industrialisation: Entrepreneurs, Labour Force, and Living Conditions, 1700–1850. Cambridge.
Scobie, A. 1986. ‘Slums, sanitation, and mortality in the Roman world’. Klio 68: 399–433.
Scullard, H. H. 1981. Festivals and Ceremonies of the Roman Republic. London.
Scully, S. 1990. Homer and the Sacred City. Ithaca.
Sear, F. 2004. Roman Theatres: An Architectural Study. Rome.
Shaw, B. D. 1991. ‘The cultural meaning of death: age and gender in the Roman family’. In The Family in Italy from Antiquity to the Present, ed. D. I. Kertzer and R. P. Saller. New Haven, 66–90.
Shaw, B. D. 1996a. ‘Seasons of death: aspects of mortality in imperial Rome’. Journal of Roman Studies 86: 100–38.
Shaw, B. D. 1996b. ‘Agrarian economy and the marriage cycle of Roman women’. Journal of Roman Archaeology 10: 57–76.
Shaw, B. D. 2000. ‘Rebels and outsiders’. In The Cambridge Ancient History, vol. 11. Cambridge, 361–403.
Shaw, B. D. 2001. ‘Raising and killing children: two Roman myths’. Mnemosyne 54: 31–77.
Shaw, B. D. 2006. ‘Seasonal mortality in imperial Rome and the Mediterranean: three problem cases’. In Storey 2006, 86–109.
Shelton, K. J. 1981. The Esquiline Treasure. London.
Sinn, F., and K. Freyberger. 1996. Die Grabdenkmäler, vol. 2: Die Ausstattung des Hateriergrabes. Mainz.
Sirks, A. J. B. 1983. ‘The Lex Iunia and the effects of informal manumission and iteration’. Revue internationale des droits de l’antiquité 28: 211–92.
Sirks, A. J. B. 1991. Food for Rome: The Legal Structure of the Transportation and Processing of Supplies for the Imperial Distributions in Rome and Constantinople. Amsterdam.
Smith, C. 1996. Early Rome and Latium: Economy and Society c. 1000–500 bc. Oxford.
Smith, J. T. 1997. Roman Villas: A Study in Social Structure. New York.
Smith, R. 1974. ‘Multi-storey building in Scotland1750–1970’. In Multi-Storey Living: The British Working Class Experience, ed. A. Sutcliffe. London, 207–43.
Smits, W., and T. Stromback. 2001. The Economics of the Apprenticeship System. Cheltenham.
Solin, H. 1983. ‘Juden und Syrer im westlichen Teil der römischen Welt’. Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt II.29.2, 770–9.
Sonenscher, M. 1989. Work and Wages: Natural Law, Politics, and the Eighteenth-Century French Trades. Cambridge.
Speidel, M. P. 1994. Riding for Caesar: The Roman Emperors’ Horse Guards. London.
Spencer, D. 2005. ‘Lucan’s follies: memory and ruin in a civil war landscape’. Greece & Rome 52: 46–69.
Sperduti, A. 1995. ‘I resti scheletrici umani della necropoli di età romano-imperiale di Isola Sacra (I–III sec. d. C.): analisi paleodemografica’. PhD dissertation. University of Rome ‘La Sapienza’.
Stambaugh, J. E. 1978. ‘The functions of Roman temples’. Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Weltii.16.1, 554–608.
Stambaugh, J. E. 1988. The Ancient Roman City. Baltimore.
Stamper, J. W. 2005. The Architecture of Roman Temples: The Republic to the Middle Empire. Cambridge.
Stathakopoulos, D. C. 2004. Famine and Pestilence in the Late Roman and Early Byzantine Empire: A Systematic Survey of Subsistence Crises and Epidemics. Aldershot.
Stedman Jones, G. 1971. Outcast London: A Study in the Relationship between Classes in Victorian Society. Oxford.
Stevens, S. 2005. ‘Reconstructing the garden houses at Ostia: exploring water supply, and building height’. Babesch 80: 113–23.
Stewart, P. 2003. Statues in Roman Society: Representation and Response. New York.
Stinger, C. 1995. The Renaissance in Rome. Bloomington.
Storey, G. R. 1997. ‘The population of ancient Rome’. Antiquity 71: 966–78.
Storey, G. R. 2001. ‘Regionaries-type insulae 1: architectural/residential units at Ostia’. American Journal of Archaeology 105: 389–401.
Storey, G. R. 2002. ‘Regionaries-type insulae 2: architectural/residential units at Rome’. American Journal of Archaeology 106: 411–34.
Storey, G. R. 2003. ‘The “skyscrapers” of the ancient Roman world’. Latomus 62: 3–26.
Storey, G. R. 2004. ‘The meaning of insula in Roman residential terminology’. Memoirs of the American Academy at Rome 49: 47–84.
Storey, G. R. ed. 2006. Urbanism in the Preindustrial World: Cross-Cultural Approaches. Tuscaloosa.
Sumi, G. 2005. Ceremony and Power: Performing Politics in Rome between Republic and Empire. Ann Arbor.
Syme, R. 1960. ‘Bastards in the Roman aristocracy’. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 104: 323–7.
Talbert, R. J. A. 1984. The Senate of Imperial Rome. Princeton.
Taylor, L. R. 1937. ‘The opportunities for dramatic performances in the time of Plautus and Terence’. Transactions of the American Philological Association 68: 284–304.
Taylor, L. R. 1966. Roman Voting Assemblies: From the Hannibalic War to the Dictatorship of Caesar. Ann Arbor.
Taylor, L. R. and L. A. Holland. 1952. ‘Janus and the Fasti’. Classical Philology 47: 137–42.
Tengström, E. 1974. Bread for the People: Studies of the Corn-Supply of Rome during the Late Empire. Stockholm.
Thomas, Y. 1996. Origine et commune patrie: Études de droit public romain. Rome.
Thompson, E. P. 1971. ‘The moral economy of the English crowd in the eighteenth century’. Past and Present 50: 76–136.
Timms, D. 1971. The Urban Mosaic: Towards a Theory of Residential Differentiation. Cambridge.
Tomber, R. 1987. ‘Evidence for long-distance commerce: imported bricks and tiles at Carthage’. Rei Cretariae Romanae Fautores 25/26: 161–74.
Tomei, M. A. 1995. ‘Domus oppure lupanar? I materiali dallo scavo boni della “Casa Repubblicana” a ovest dell’Arco di Tito’. Mélanges de l’École Française de Rome (Antiquité) 107: 549–619.
Toynbee, J. M. C. 1973. Animals in Roman Life and Art. Baltimore.
Tran, N. 2006. Les membres des associations romaines: Le rang social des collegiati en Italie et en Gaules sous le haut-empire. Rome.
Treggiari, S. 1975a. ‘Family life among the staff of the Volusii’. Transactions of the American Philological Association 105: 393–401.
Treggiari, S. 1975b. ‘Jobs in the household of Livia’. Papers of the British School at Rome 43: 48–77.
Treggiari, S. 1979. ‘Lower class women in the Roman economy’. Florilegium 1: 65–86.
Treggiari, S. 1980. ‘Urban labour in Rome: mercennarii and tabernarii’. In Non-slave Labour in the Greco-Roman World, ed. P. Garnsey. Cambridge.
Treggiari, S. 1986. Il trionfo dell’acqua: acque e acquedotti a Roma: IVsec.a.c.–XX sec.: Mostra, 31 ottobre 1986–15 gennaio 1987. Rome.
Treggiari, S. 1991. Roman Marriage: Iusti Coniuges from the Time of Cicero to the Time of Ulpian. Oxford.
Trout, D. E. 2003. ‘Damasus and the invention of early Christian Rome’. Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 33: 517–36.
Turcan, R. 1996. The Cults of the Roman Empire, trans. A. Nevill. London.
Ulrich, R. B. 1996. Contignatio, Vitruvius and the Campanian builder. American Journal of Archaeology 100: 137–51.
Usener, H. 1913 [1900]. ‘Italische Volksjustiz’. In Kleine Schriften, vol. 4. Leipzig, 356–82.
Valentini, R. and G. Zucchetti. 1940–53. Codice topografico della città di Roma. Rome.
Van Berchem, D. 1939. Les distributions de blé et d’argent à la plèbe romaine sous l’empire. Geneva.
Van Deman, E. B. 1934. The Building of the Roman Aqueducts. Washington, D.C.
Van der Linde, C. 2009. ‘Roman Catacombs and Demography: A Case Study of the Liberian Region in the Catacombs of St. Callixtus in Rome’. PhD dissertation. University of Utrecht.
Van Nijf, O. M. 1997. The Civic World of Professional Associations in the Roman East. Amsterdam.
Van Tilburg, C. 2007. Traffic and Congestion in the Roman Empire. London.
Vanderbroeck, P. 1987. Popular Leadership and Collective Behavior in the Late Roman Republic. Amsterdam.
Vandiver Nicassio, S. 2009. Imperial City: Rome under Napoleon. Chicago.
Varone, A. 2005. ‘Nella Pompei a luci rosse: Castrensis e l’organizzazione della prostituzione e dei suoi spazi’. Rivista di Studi Pompeiani 16: 93–109.
Verboven, K. 2004. ‘Mentalité et commerce: le cas des negotiatores et de ceux qui negotia habent: une enquête préliminaire’. In Mentalités et choix économiques, ed. J. Andreau, J. France and S. Pittia. Bordeaux, 179–97.
Verboven, K. 2007. ‘The associative order: status and ethos among Roman businessmen in late Republic and early empire’. Athenaeum 95: 861–93.
Veyne, P. 1983. ‘Le folklore à Rome et les droits de la conscience publique sur la conduite individuelle’. Latomus 42: 3–30.
Veyne, P. 1990. Bread and Circuses: Historical Sociology and Religious Pluralism. London.
Virlouvet, C. 1991. ‘La plèbe frumentaire à l’époque d’Auguste: une tentative de définition’. In Nourrir la plèbe, ed. A. Giovannini. Basel, 43–62.
Volp, U. 2002. Tod und Ritual in den christlichen Gemeinden der Antike. Leiden.
Von Petrikovits, H. 1981. ‘Die Spezialisierung des römischen Handwerks’. In Das Handwerk in vor- und frühgeschichtlicher Zeit. Teil I: Historische und rechtshistorische Beiträge und Untersuchungen zur Frühgeschichte der Gilde, ed. Herbert Jankuhn, Walter Janssen, Ruth Schmidt-Wiegand und Heinrich Tiefenbach. Göttingen, 64–132.
Wacke, A. 2001. ‘Manumissio matrimonii causa: die Freilassung zwecks Heirat nach den Ehegesetzen des Augustus’. In Fünfzig Jahre Forschungen zur antiken Sklaverei an der Mainzer Akademie 1950–2000: Miscellanea zum Jubiläum, ed. H. Bellen and H. Heinen. Stuttgart, 133–58.
Waddington, D., K. Jones and C. Critcher. 1989. Flashpoints: Studies in Public Disorder. New York.
Waldstein, W. 1986. Operae libertorum: Untersuchungen zur Dienstpflicht freigelassener Sklaven. Stuttgart.
Wallace-Hadrill, A. 1991. ‘Elites and trade in the Roman town’. In City and Country in the Roman World, ed. J. Rich and A. Wallace-Hadrill. London, 143–81.
Wallace-Hadrill, A. 1994. Houses and Society in Pompeii and Herculaneum. Princeton.
Wallace-Hadrill, A. 2003. ‘The streets of Rome as a representation of imperial power’. In The Representation and Perception of Imperial Power, ed. L. de Blois et al. Amsterdam, 189–206.
Wallace-Hadrill, A. 2008. Rome’s Cultural Revolution. Cambridge.
Waltzing, J.-P. (1895–1900) Étude historique sur les corporations professionnelles chez les Romains depuis les origines jusqu’à la chute de l’empire d’Occident. 4 vols. Louvain.
Ward-Perkins, B. 1984. From Classical Antiquity to the Middle Ages: Urban Public Building in Northern and Central Italy, ad 300–850. Oxford.
Watts, D. 1999. Small Worlds: The Dynamics of Networks between Order and Randomness. Princeton.
Weiler, I. 2003. Die Beendigung des Sklavenstatus im Altertum: Ein Beitrag zur vergleichenden Sozialgeschichte. Stuttgart.
Welch, K. E. 2007. The Roman Amphitheatre: From its Origins to the Colosseum. Cambridge.
Welch, T. 2005. The Elegiac Cityscape: Propertius and the Meaning of Roman Monuments. Columbus, O.
Welwei, K.-W. 2000. Sub corona vendere: Quellenkritische Studien zu Kriegsgefangenschaft und Sklaverei in Rom bis zum Ende des Hannibalkrieges, unter Berücksichtigung des Nachlasses von G. Prachner. Stuttgart.
White, K. D. 1970. Roman Farming. London.
White, L. M. 1996–7. The Social Origins of Christian Architecture. 2 vols. Valley Forge, Pa.
Whittaker, C. R. 1993. ‘The poor in the city of Rome’. In Land, City and Trade in the Roman Empire. Aldershot, 1–25.
Wiedemann, T. E. J. 1981. Greek and Roman Slavery. London.
Wiedemann, T. E. J. 1985. ‘The regularity of manumission at Rome’. Classical Quarterly 35: 162–75.
Wiedemann, T. E. J. 1992. Emperors and Gladiators. London.
Wiedemann, T. E. J. 1997. Slavery. 3rd edn.Oxford.
Wikander, Ö. 1979. ‘Water-mills in ancient Rome’. Opuscula Romana 12: 13–36.
Williams, M. 1994. ‘The organisation of Jewish burials in ancient Rome in the light of evidence from Palestine and the Diaspora’. Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 101: 165–82.
Wilson, A. 2000. ‘The water-mills on the Janiculum’. Memoirs of the American Academy of Rome 45: 219–46.
Wilson, A. 2003. ‘Late-antique water mills on the Palatine’. Papers of the British School at Rome 71: 85–109.
Wilson, A. 2007. ‘The castra of Frontinus’. In ‘Res bene gestae’: ricerche di storia urbana su Roma antica in onore di E. M. Steinby, ed. A. Leone et al. Rome, 439–44.
Wiseman, T. P. 1998. ‘A stroll on the rampart’. In Horti romani, ed. M. Cima and E. La Rocca. Rome, 13–22.
Wiseman, T. P. 2008. Remembering the Roman People. Oxford.
Wissemann, M. 1984. ‘Die Spezialisierung des römischen Handels’. Münstersche Beiträge zur Antiken Handelsgeschichte 3: 116–24.
Witcher, R. 2005. ‘The extended metropolis: urbs, suburbium, and population’. Journal of Roman Archaeology 18: 120–38.
Witcher, R. 2006. ‘Settlement and society in early imperial Etruria’. Journal of Roman Studies 96: 88–123.
Woods, R. 2003. ‘Urban–rural mortality differentials: an unresolved debate’. Population and Development Review 29: 29–46.
Woodward, C. 2001. In Ruins: A Journey through History, Art, and Literature. London.
Wright, J. A., S. W. Gundry and R. Conroy. 2004. ‘Household drinking water in developing countries: a systematic review of micobiological contamination between source and point-of-use’. Tropical Medicine and International Health 9: 106–17.
Wrigley, E. A. 1987. People, Cities and Wealth: The Transformation of Traditional Society. Oxford.
Yavetz, Z. 1965. ‘Plebs sordida’. Athenaeum 43: 295–311.
Yavetz, Z. 1987. ‘The urban plebs in the days of the Flavians, Nerva and Trajan’. In Opposition et résistances à l’empire d’Auguste à Trajan, ed. A. Giovannini. Geneva, 135–86.
Yavetz, Z. 1988. Plebs and Princeps, 2nd edn. Oxford.
Zanker, P. 1988. The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus. Ann Arbor.
Zanker, P., and B. J. Ewald. 2004. Mit Mythen leben: Die Bilderwelt der römischen Sarkophage. Munich.
Zerubavel, E. 2003. Time Maps: Collective Memory and the Social Shape of the Past. Chicago.
Zimmer, G. 1982. Römische Berufsdarstellungen. Berlin.
Zink, S., and H. Piening. 2009. ‘Haec aurea templa: the Palatine temple of Apollo and its polychromy’. Journal of Roman Archaeology 22: 109–22.
Ziolkowski, A. 1992. The Temples of Mid-republican Rome and their Historical and Topographical Context. Rome.
Ziolkowski, A. 1999. ‘Ritual cleaning-up of the city: from the Lupercalia to the Argei’. Ancient Society 29: 191–218.
Ziolkowski, A. 2008. ‘Le origini di Roma e la società romana arcaica’. In Storia d’Europa e del Mediterraneo. IV, Grecia e Mediterraneo dalle guerre persiane all’ellenismo, ed. A. Barbero. Rome, 103–35.