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The Cambridge Companion to Jorge Luis Borges
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    Swanson, Philip 2018. Borges and Popular Culture. Hispanic Research Journal, Vol. 19, Issue. 3, p. 250.

    Barnard, Josie 2016. Tweets as microfiction: on Twitter's live nature and 140-character limit as tools for developing storytelling skills. New Writing, Vol. 13, Issue. 1, p. 3.

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Jorge Luis Borges (1899–1986) was one of the great writers of the twentieth century and the most influential author in the Spanish language of modern times. He had a seminal influence on Latin American literature and a lasting impact on literary fiction in many other languages. However, Borges has been accessible in English only through a number of anthologies drawn mainly from his work of the 1940s and 1950s. The primary aim of this Companion is to provide a more comprehensive account of Borges's oeuvre and the evolution of his writing. It offers critical assessments by leading scholars of the poetry of his youth and the later poetry and fiction, as well as of the 'canonical' volumes of the middle years. Other chapters focus on key themes and interests, and on his influence in literary theory and translation studies.


'Borges, the eternal reviser, would have approved.'

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Further reading

Works by Borges, in chronological order of publication

(Unless otherwise indicated, the place of publication is Buenos Aires. Anthologies of other writers’ works edited by Borges are not included.)

Fervor de Buenos Aires (poems), privately printed, 1923
Luna de enfrente (poems), Proa, 1925
Inquisiciones (essays), Proa, 1925. [Reissued by Espasa Calpe/Seix Barral, 1993]
El tamaño de mi esperanza (essays), Proa, 1926. [Reissued by Espasa Calpe/Seix Barral, 1993]
El idioma de los argentinos (essays), Manuel Gleizer, 1929. [Reissued by Espasa Calpe/Seix Barral, 1994]
Cuaderno San Martín (poems), Proa, 1929
Evaristo Carriego (biography and essays), Manuel Gleizer, 1930
Discusión (essays), Manuel Gleizer, 1932
Las kenningar (essay), Francisco A. Colombo, 1933. (Later included in Historia de la eternidad below.)
Historia universal de la infamia (stories), Tor, 1935
Historia de la eternidad (essays), Viau y Zona, 1936
El jardín de senderos que se bifurcan (stories), Sur, 1941
Poemas (1923–1943), Losada, 1943. (First edition of collected poems, omitting a number of poems from earlier books and containing numerous variants on the original texts.)
Ficciones (stories), Sur, 1944
Nueva refutación del tiempo (essay), Oportet & Haereses (a fictitious publisher), 1947. [Later included in Otras inquisiciones below.]
El Aleph (stories), Losada, 1949
Aspectos de la literatura gauchesca (originally a lecture delivered at the University of Montevideo, October 29, 1945), Montevideo, Número, 1950
Otras inquisiciones (1937–1952), (essays), Sur, 1952
Poemas (1923–1958), Emecé, 1958. (This marks the beginning of Borges’s association with the publishers Emecé.)
El hacedor (poems and prose), Emecé, 1960
Antología personal, Sur, 1961
Obra poética, Emecé, 1964. (New title for collected poems. Includes new poems in a section called El otro, el mismo, later published as a separate volume under this title, Emecé, 1969.)
Para las seis cuerdas (lyrics for milongas), Emecé, 1965
Elogio de la sombra (poems), Emecé, 1969
El informe de Brodie (stories), Emecé, 1970
El Congreso (novella), El Archibrazo, 1971. [Later included in El libro de arena below.]
El oro de los tigres (poems), Emecé, 1972
Obras completas, Emecé, 1974
El libro de arena (stories), Emecé, 1975
La rosa profunda (poems), Emecé, 1975
Prólogos con un prólogo de prólogos (collected prologues to works by other authors), Torres Agüero Editor, 1975
La moneda de hierro (poems), Emecé, 1976
Historia de la noche (poems and prose), Emecé, 1977
Rosa y azul (first publication of two stories: “La Rosa de Paracelso” and “Tigres azules,” which were later included in Veinticinco Agosto 1983 y otros cuentos below), Madrid, Sedmay, 1977
Obra poética (1923–1976), 10th edn., Emecé, 1978. (Last edition with variants on earlier texts. Henceforward new volumes of poetry will be incorporated without change in subsequent editions.)
Borges, oral (lectures delivered at the Universidad de Belgrano), Emecé/Editorial de Belgrano, 1979
Siete noches (lectures delivered at the Teatro Coliseo, Buenos Aires, in 1977), Mexico, Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1980
La cifra (poems), Madrid, Alianza, 1981
Nueve ensayos dantescos (essays, seven of which were first published in La Nación: six in 1948, one in 1951), Madrid, Espasa-Calpe, 1982
“La memoria de Shakespeare” (story). First published in Clarín, May 15, 1980, and subsequently incorporated as the title story of a collection forming part of the Obras completas (1989), below.
Veinticinco Agosto 1983 y otros cuentos (four stories), Madrid, Siruela, 1983
Los conjurados (poems and prose), Madrid, Alianza, 1985
Obras completas, four volumes, Emecé, 1989
This Craft of Verse, Cambridge, MA, and London, Harvard University Press, 2000. (The Charles Eliot Norton Lectures, originally delivered in English at Harvard during 1967–68.)

Works in collaboration

With Adolfo Bioy Casares

Seis problemas para don Isidro Parodi (stories under joint pseudonym, H. Bustos Domecq), Sur, 1942
Dos fantasías memorables (two stories under joint pseudonym, H. Bustos Domecq),
Oportet & Haereses (a fictitious publisher), 1946
Un modelo para la muerte (novella under joint pseudonym, B. Suárez Lynch), Oportet & Haereses, 1946
Los orilleros. El paraíso de los creyentes (two screenplays), Losada, 1955
Crónicas de Bustos Domecq (stories), Losada, 1967
Nuevos cuentos de Bustos Domecq (stories), Ediciones Librería de la Ciudad, 1977

With Delia Ingenieros

Antiguas literaturas germánicas, Mexico, Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1951

With Margarita Guerrero

El Martín Fierro, Columba, 1953
Manual de zoología fantástica, Mexico, Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1957.
(An expanded version published as: El libro de los seres imaginarios, Kier, 1967.)

With Betina Edelberg

La imagen perdida, 1953. (Unpublished script for a ballet; apparently lost.)
Leopoldo Lugones (essays), Troquel, 1955

With Luisa Mercedes Levinson

La hermana de Eloísa, Ene, 1955

With María Esther Vázquez

Introducción a la literatura inglesa, Columba, 1965
Literatura germánicas medievales, Falbo, 1966

With Esther Zemborain de Torres

Introducción a la literatura norteamericana, Columba, 1967

With Alicia Jurado

Qué es el budismo, Columba, 1976

With María Kodama

Breve antología anglosajona (translations of Anglo-Saxon texts), Santiago de Chile, La Ciudad, 1978
Atlas, Sudamericana, 1984
Obras completas en colaboración, Emecé, 1991

Collections of texts by Borges first published in journals, magazines, or newspapers

Jorge Luis Borges: Textos cautivos (Ensayos y reseñas en “El Hogar,” 1936–1939) (essays and reviews published in the magazine El Hogar), Barcelona, Tusquets, 1986
Borges en “Revista Multicolor de los Sábados” (articles, reviews, and translations first published in the literary supplement of the newspaper Crítica), Atlántida, 1995
Borges en “Sur,” 1931–1980 (articles and reviews first published in the literary journal Sur), Emecé, 1999
Jorge Luis Borges: Textos recobrados, 1919–1929 (uncollected essays, poems, and reviews), Emecé, 1997
Jorge Luis Borges: Textos recobrados, 1931–1955, Emecé, 2001
Jorge Luis Borges: Textos recobrados, 1956–1986, Emecé, 2003

Borges in English

The most readily available editions are the three volumes published by Penguin:

JorgeLuis Borges, Collected Fictions, trans. AndrewHurley, New York, Viking Penguin, 1998
JorgeLuis Borges, Selected Poems, ed. AlexanderColeman, New York, Viking Penguin, 1999
JorgeLuis Borges, Selected Non-Fiction, 1922–1986,* ed. EliotWeinberger, New York, Viking Penguin, 1999
*The title of the British edition is The Total Library: Non-Fiction, 1922–1986, London, Allen Lane, the Penguin Press, 2000. The other two volumes appeared in the same year. The page numbers in the British editions are the same as for the US editions.

In Penguin Classics (New York, 2010), under the general editorship of Suzanne Jill Levine:

Jorge Luis Borges, On Writing, ed. Suzanne Jill Levine
Jorge Luis Borges, On Argentina, ed. Alfred MacAdam
Jorge Luis Borges, On Mysticism, ed. María Kodama
Jorge Luis Borges, Poems of the Night, ed. Efraín Kristal
Jorge Luis Borges, The Sonnets, ed. Stephen Kessler

Previously, Borges’s principal writings were available to English-speaking readers in a variety of translations by different hands:

Ficciones, ed. with an introduction by Anthony Kerrigan, New York, Grove Press, 1962 (In the UK: Weidenfeld and Nicolson: London, 1962.)
Dreamtigers, trans. Mildred Boyer and Harold Borland, Austin, University of Texas Press, 1964 (Translation of El hacedor, 1960.)
Other Inquisitions, 1937–1952, trans. Ruth L. C. Simms, Austin, University of Texas Press, 1964
Labyrinths: Selected Stories and Other Writings, ed. Donald A. Yates and James E. Irby, New York, New Directions, 1964 (In the UK: Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1970.)
The Book of Imaginary Beings, written in collaboration with Margarita Guerrero. Revised, enlarged and translated by Norman Thomas di Giovanni in collaboration with the author, New York, Dutton, 1969 (In the UK: London, Jonathan Cape, 1970.)
The Aleph and Other Stories (1933–1969), ed. and trans. Norman Thomas di Giovanni in collaboration with the author, New York, Dutton, 1970 (Contains ‘An Autobiographical Essay’ and ‘Commentaries’. See below.) (In the UK: London, Jonathan Cape, 1971.)
Doctor Brodie’s Report, ed. and trans. Norman Thomas di Giovanni in collaboration with the author, Dutton: New York, 1971 (In the UK: London, Allen Lane, 1974.)
Selected Poems, 1923–1967, ed. with introduction and notes by Norman Thomas di Giovanni, Delacorte Press: New York, 1972 (In the UK: London, Allen Lane, 1972.)
A Universal History of Infamy, trans. Norman Thomas di Giovanni, Dutton: New York, 1972 (In the UK: London, Allen Lane, 1973.)
In Praise of Darkness, trans. Norman Thomas di Giovanni, New York, Dutton, 1974 (In the UK: London, Allen Lane, 1975.)
The Book of Sand, trans. Norman Thomas di Giovanni, New York, Dutton, 1977 (In the UK: London, Allen Lane, 1977.)
The Gold of the Tigers: Selected Later Poems, trans. Alastair Reid, New York, Dutton, 1977 (Published in the UK as The Book of Sand; The Gold of the Tigers, London, Allen Lane, 1979.)
Borges: A Reader, ed. Alastair Reid and Emir Rodríguez Monegal, New York, Dutton, 1981
This Craft of Verse, Cambridge, MA, and London, Harvard University Press, 2000 (The Charles Eliot Norton Lectures, originally delivered in English at Harvard during 1967–68.)

With Adolfo Bioy Casares

Six Problems for Don Isidro Parodi, trans. Norman Thomas di Giovanni, New York, Dutton, 1981 (In the UK: London, Allen Lane, 1981.)
Chronicles of Bustos Domecq, trans. Norman Thomas di Giovanni, New York, Dutton, 1982 (In the UK: London, Allen Lane, 1982.)
Evaristo Carriego, trans. Norman Thomas di Giovanni, New York, Dutton, 1984 (In the UK: London, Allen Lane, 1984.)

With María Kodama

Atlas, trans. Anthony Kerrigan, New York, Viking, 1986

Borges in French

Œuvres complètes, ed. Jean Pierre Bernès, Bibliothèque de la Pléiade, Paris, Gallimard, 2 vols., 1993, 1999 (Contains informative notes, many of biographical and bibliographical interest.)

Critical studies of Borges’s work

Aizenberg, Edna. The Aleph Weaver: Biblical, Kabbalistic and Judaic Elements in Borges, Potomac, Maryland, Scripta Humanistica, 1984
Aizenberg, EdnaBorges and His Successors: The Borgesian Impact on Literature and the Arts, Columbia, University of Missouri Press, 1990
Alazraki, Jaime (ed.). Critical Essays on Jorge Luis Borges, Boston, MA, G. K. Hall, 1987
Alazraki, Jaime.Borges and the Kabbalah, and Other Essays On His Fiction and Poetry, Cambridge University Press, 1988
Arana, Juan. El centro del laberinto: Los motivos filosóficos en la obra de Jorge Luis Borges, Navarra, EUNSA, 1994
Ashbery, John. “A Game with Shifting Mirrors.” See Alazraki (ed.), 1987
Balderston, Daniel. The Literary Universe of Jorge Luis Borges: An Index to References and Allusions to Persons, Titles, and Places in His Writings, New York, Greenwood Press, 1986
Balderston, DanielOut of Context: Historical Reference and the Representation of Reality in Borges, Durham, NC, Duke University Press, 1993
Balderston, Daniel, GastónGallo, and NicolásHelft. Borges. Una enciclopedia, Buenos Aires, Grupo Editorial Norma, 1999
Barrenechea, Ana María. Borges, the Labyrinth Maker, New York University Press, 1965
Barth, John. “The Literature of Exhaustion.” See Alazraki (ed.), 1987
Bastos, María Luisa. Borges ante la crítica argentina: 1923–1960, Buenos Aires, Hispamérica, 1974
Bell-Villada, Gene H.Borges and His Fiction: A Guide to His Mind and Art, Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 1981
Bioy Casares, Adolfo. Borges, ed. DanielMartino, Barcelona, Destino, 2006
Block de Behar, Lisa. Borges: The Passion of an Endless Quotation, Albany, State University of New York Press, 2003
Bloom, Harold (ed.). Jorge Luis Borges, New York, Chelsea House Publishers, 1986
Bloom, Harold. “Borges, Neruda and Pessoa: Hispanic-Portuguese Whitman,” in The Western Canon, New York, Harcourt, Brace, 1994, 463–92
Boldy, Steven. A Companion to Jorge Luis Borges, London, Tamesis, 2009
Blüher, Karl Alfred and Toro, Alfonso de (eds.). Jorge Luis Borges: variaciones interpretativas sobre sus procedimientos y bases epistemológicas, Frankfurt am Main, Vervuert, 1992
Bossart, W. H. and HansH. Rudnick (eds.). Borges and Philosophy: Self, Time, and Metaphysics, Oxford, Peter Lang, 2003
Cahiers de L’Herne, “Jorge Luis Borges,” Paris, Éditions de L’Herne, 1964
Calvino, Italo. “Jorge Luis Borges,” in Why Read the Classics? Trans. Martin McLaughlin. New York, Pantheon Books, 1999
Champeau, Serge. Borges et la métaphysique, Paris, Vrin, 1990
Christ, Ronald. The Narrow Act: Borges’ Art of Allusion, New York University Press, 1969
Cozarinsky, Edgardo. Borges in/and/on Film, New York, Lumen Books, 1988
Dunham, Lowell and Ivask, Ivar (eds.). The Cardinal Points of Borges, Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1971.
Echavarría, Arturo. Lengua y literatura de Borges, Barcelona, Ariel, 1983
Echavarría, ArturoEl arte de la jardinería china en Borges, y otros estudios, Madrid, Iberoamericana, 2006.
Fishburn, Evelyn and Hughes, Psique. A Dictionary of Borges. London, Duckworth, 1990
Fishburn, Evelyn (ed.). Borges and Europe Revisited, London, Institute of Latin American Studies, University of London, 1998
Flynn, Annette U.The Quest for God in the Work of Borges, London, Continuum, 2009
Frisch, Mark. You Might Be Able to Get There from Here: Reconsidering Borges and the Postmodern, Madison/Teaneck, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2004
Gass, William H. “Imaginary Borges and His Books.” See Alazraki (ed.), 1987
Genette, Gérard. “L’utopie littéraire,” in Paris, Figures, Seuil, 1966
Helft, Nicolás and AlanPauls. El factor Borges. Nueve ensayos ilustrados. Buenos Aires, Fondo de Cultura Económica, 2000
Irwin, John T.The Mystery to a Solution: Poe, Borges and the Analytic Detective Story, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994
Kristal, Efraín. Invisible Work: Borges and Translation, Nashville, Vanderbilt University Press, 2002
Lafon, Michel. Borges ou la réécriture, Paris, Seuil, 1990
Lefere, Robin. Borges, entre autorretrato y automitografía, Madrid, Gredos, 2005
Lema-Hincapié, Andrés. Borges … ¿filósofo?, Bogotá, Instituto Caro y Cuervo, 2012
Louis, Annick. Jorge Luis Borges: Œuvres et Manœuvres, Paris, LHarmattan, 1997
Louis, AnnickBorges ante el fascismo, Oxford, Peter Lang, 2007
Macherey, Pierre. “Borges and the Fictive Narrative.” See Alazraki (ed.), 1987
Man, Paul de. “A Modern Master.” See Alazraki (ed.), 1987
Mateos, Zulma. Filosofía en la obra de Jorge Luis Borges, Buenos Aires, Biblos,1998
Modern Fiction Studies, Special Issue: Borges, 19 (1973)
Molloy, Sylvia. Signs of Borges, Durham, NC, Duke University Press, 1994
Nahson, Daniel. La crítica del mito: Borges y la literatura como sueño de vida, Madrid, Iberoamericana, 2009
Novillo-Corvalán, Patricia. Borges and Joyce: An Infinite Conversation, Leeds, Maney, 2011
Núñez-Faraco, Humberto. Borges and Dante: Echoes of a Literary Friendship, Oxford, Peter Lang, 2006
Nuño, Juan. La filosofía de Borges, Mexico, Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1986
Olaso, Ezequiel de. Jugar en serio: aventuras de Borges, Mexico, Paidós Mexicana, 1999
Olea Franco, Rafael. El otro Borges, el primer Borges, Buenos Aires, Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1993
Olea Franco, Rafael (ed.). Borges: desesperaciones aparentes y consuelos secretos, México, El Colegio de México, 1999
Richardson, Bill, Borges and Space, Oxford, Peter Lang, 2012
Romanic Review, Special Issue: Jorge Luis Borges, 98 (2007)
Rowe, William, Canaparo, Claudio, and Louis, Annick (eds.). Jorge Luis Borges: intervenciones sobre pensamiento y literatura, Buenos Aires, Paidós, 2000
Rowlandson, William. Borges, Swedenborg and Mysticism, Oxford, Peter Lang, 2013
Sarlo, Beatriz. Borges: A Writer on the Edge, London, Verso, 1993
Scholes, Robert. “The Reality of Borges.” See Alazraki (ed.), 1987
Shaw, Donald L.Borges’ Narrative Strategy, Leeds, Francis Cairns, 1992
Sosnowski, Saúl. Borges y la cábala: La búsqueda del verbo, Buenos Aires, Hispamérica, 1976
Sturrock, John. Paper Tigers: The Ideal Fictions of Jorge Luis Borges, Clarendon Press: Oxford, 1977
Sucre, Guillermo. Borges, el poeta, Monte Avila: Caracas, 1974
Steiner, George. “Tigers in the Mirror.” See Alazraki (ed)., 1987
Tanner, Tony. “Borges and American Fiction 1950–1970.” See Alazraki (ed.), 1987
Toro, Alfonso de (ed.). Jorge Luis Borges: Ciencia y filosofia, Hildesheim, Georg Olms Verlag, 2007
Toro, Alfonso de (ed.). El laberinto de los libros: Jorge Luis Borges frente al canon literario, Hildesheim, Georg Olms Verlag, 2007
Toro, Alfonso de (ed.). Jorge Luis Borges: Translación e historia, Hildesheim, Georg Olms Verlag, 2010
Toro, Alfonso de and Toro, Fernando de (eds.). El siglo de Borges: Homenaje a Jorge Luis Borges en su centenario (2 vols.), Frankfurt am Main, Vervuert; Madrid, Iberoamericana, 1999
Updike, John. “The Author as Librarian.” See Alazraki (ed.), 1987
Waisman, Sergio. Borges and Translation: The Irreverence of the Periphery, Lewisburg, PA, Bucknell University Press, 2005
Williamson, Edwin. Borges: A Life, New York, Viking Penguin, 2004
Williamson, EdwinBorges y Bioy: una amistad entre biombos,” Letras Libres, 81 (2008), 3037
Wilson, Jason. Jorge Luis Borges, London, Reaktion Books, 2006
Yates, Donald A.Behind ‘Borges and I’,” Modern Fiction Studies, 19 (1973), 31724.

See also Variaciones Borges, the journal of the Borges Center at the University of Pittsburgh. Its informative website is at:


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