Skip to main content
×
Home
The Cambridge Companion to Utilitarianism
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    The Cambridge Companion to Utilitarianism
    • Online ISBN: 9781139096737
    • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CCO9781139096737
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to? *
    ×
  • Buy the print book

Book description

Utilitarianism, the approach to ethics based on the maximization of overall well-being, continues to have great traction in moral philosophy and political thought. This Companion offers a systematic exploration of its history, themes, and applications. First, it traces the origins and development of utilitarianism via the work of Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill, Henry Sidgwick, and others. The volume then explores issues in the formulation of utilitarianism, including act versus rule utilitarianism, actual versus expected consequences, and objective versus subjective theories of well-being. Next, utilitarianism is positioned in relation to Kantianism and virtue ethics, and the possibility of conflict between utilitarianism and fairness is considered. Finally, the volume explores the modern relevance of utilitarianism by considering its practical implications for contemporary controversies such as military conflict and global warming. The volume will be an important resource for all those studying moral philosophy, political philosophy, political theory, and history of ideas.

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send:
    ×

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
×

Bibliography

Adams, R. M.Finite and Infinite Goods: A Framework for Ethics. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Adams, R. M.Motive Utilitarianism,” Journal of Philosophy 73 (1976), 467–481.
Anomaly, J.Nietzsche’s Critique of Utilitarianism,” Journal of Nietzsche Studies 29 (2005), 1–15.
Anscombe, G. E. M.Modern Moral Philosophy,” Philosophy 33 (1958), 1–19.
AristotleNicomachean Ethics, ed. and trans. R. Crisp, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
AristotlePolitics, trans. B. Jowett, in Aristotle, The Complete Works of Aristotle, 2 vols., ed. J. Barnes, vol. ii, pp. 1986–2129.
Armitage, D.Globalizing Jeremy Bentham,” History of Political Thought 32 (2011), 63–82.
Arneson, R. J.Benthamite Utilitarianism and Hard Times,” Philosophy and Literature 2 (1978), 60–75.
Arneson, R. J.Human Flourishing versus Desire Satisfaction,” Social Philosophy and Policy 16 (1999), 113–142.
Arneson, R. J.Sophisticated Rule Consequentialism: Some Simple Objections,” Philosophical Issues 15 (2005), 235–251.
Arrhenius, G.An Impossibility Theorem for Welfarist Axiologies,” Economics and Philosophy 16 (2000), 247–266.
Austin, J.The Province of Jurisprudence Determined, ed. W. E. Rumble, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
Avila-Martel, A. deThe Influence of Bentham on the Teaching of Penal Law in Chile,” Bentham Newsletter 5 (1981), 22–28.
Aydelotte, W. O.The England of Marx and Mill as Reflected in Fiction,” Journal of Economic History 8 supplement (1948), 42–58.
Bales, R. E.Act-Utilitarianism: Account of Right-Making Characteristics or Decision-Making Procedure?American Philosophical Quarterly 8 (1971), 257–265.
Balguy, J.The Foundation of Moral Goodness: or A Further Inquiry into the Original of Our Idea of Virtue, London: J. Pemberton: 1728.
Baron, M.Kantian Ethics Almost without Apology, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1995.
Barry, B.Theories of Justice, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1989.
Beccaria, C.Of Crimes and Punishments [Dei delitti e delle pene], trans. Jane Grigson, New York: Marsilio, 1996.
Bentham, J.A Comment on the Commentaries and A Fragment on Government, eds. J. H. Burns and H. L. A. Hart, London: Athlone Press, 1977.
Bentham, J. Bentham Papers, University College London Library. References refer to box number and folio number.
Bentham, J.Church-of-Englandism and Its Cathechism Examined, eds. J. E. Crimmins and C. Fuller, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2011.
Bentham, J.Constitutional Code, vol. i, eds. F. Rosen and J. H. Burns, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1983.
Bentham, J.The Correspondence of Jeremy Bentham, vols. i–xiv, London: Athlone Press, 1968–81, and Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1984–in progress.
Bentham, J.Deontology together with A Table of the Springs of Action and the Article on Utilitarianism, ed. A. Goldworth, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1983.
Bentham, J.An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation, eds. J. H. Burns and H. L. A. Hart, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996.
Bentham, J.“Legislator of the World”: Writings on Codification, Law, and Education, eds. P. Schofield and J. Harris, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998.
Bentham, J.Of the Limits of the Penal Branch of Jurisprudence, ed. P. Schofield, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2010.
Bentham, J.Principles of International Law in The Works of Jeremy Bentham, vol. ii, ed. J. Bowring, Edinburgh: William Tait, 1843, pp. 535–560.
Bentham, J.Rationale of Judicial Evidence in The Works of Jeremy Bentham, vols. vi–vii, ed. J. Bowring, Edinburgh: William Tait, 1843.
Bentham, J.Traités de législation civile et pénale . . . Publiés en français par Ét. Dumont de Genève, 3 tom., 2nd edn., Paris: Bossange, Père et Fils; Rey et Gravier, 1820. Eng. trans., Theory of Legislation . . . by R. Hildreth, 2 vols., 1840; 2nd edn., 1864, rept. with introduction by J. E. Crimmins, Bristol, UK: Thoemmes Continuum, 2004.
Bentham, J.The Works of Jeremy Bentham, ed. J. Bowring, 11 vols., Edinburgh: William Tait, 1838–43.
Berger, F. R.Happiness, Justice, and Freedom: The Moral and Political Philosophy of John Stuart Mill, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1984.
Bergström, L.The Alternatives and Consequences of Actions: An Essay on Certain Fundamental Notions in Teleological Ethics, Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1966.
Bergström, L.Reflections on Consequentialism,” Theoria 62 (1996), 74–94.
Berkeley, G.Passive Obedience, Or the Christian Doctrine of not Resisting the Supreme Power, Proved and Vindicated upon the Principles of the Law of Nature, Dublin: F. Dickson, 1712.
Berman, D.The Jacobitism of Berkeley’s Passive Obedience,” Journal of the History of Ideas 47 (1986), 309–319.
Blackorby, C., W. Bossert, and D. Donaldson, Population Issues in Social-Choice Theory, Welfare Economics and Ethics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
Blamires, C.The French Revolution and the Creation of Benthamism, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.
Boonin, D.The Problem of Punishment, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
Bradford, W.Of Plymouth Plantation: 1620–1647, ed. S. E. Morison, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1952.
Bradley, B.Against Satisficing Consequentialism,” Utilitas 18 (2006), 97–108.
Bradley, B.Well-Being and Death, New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.
Bradley, F. H.Ethical Studies, London: H. S. King, 1876.
Brandt, R. B.A Theory of the Good and the Right, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979.
Brandt, R. B.Ethical Theory: The Problems of Normative and Critical Ethics, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1959.
Brandt, R. B.Facts, Values, and Morality, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Brandt, R. B.Fairness to Indirect Optimific Theories in Ethics,” in R. B. Brandt, Morality, Utilitarianism, and Rights, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992, pp. 137–157.
Brandt, R. B.Some Merits of One Form of Rule-Utilitarianism,” in R. B. Brandt, Morality, Utilitarianism, and Rights, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992, pp. 111–136.
Brandt, R. B.Toward a Credible Form of Utilitarianism,” in Morality and the Language of Conduct, eds. H.-N. Castañeda and G. Nakhnikian, Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1965, pp. 107–143.
Brandt, R. B.Utilitarianism and the Laws of War,” Philosophy and Public Affairs 1 (1972), 145–165.
Broad, C. D.Five Types of Ethical Theory, London: K. Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1930. See especially chapter vi, “Sidgwick.”
Broome, J.A Reply to Sen,” Economics and Philosophy 7 (1991), 285–287.
Broome, J.‘Utility’,” Economics and Philosophy 7 (1991), 1–12.
Broome, J.Weighing Goods: Equality, Uncertainty and Time, Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1991.
Broome, J.Weighing Lives, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Brown, C.Blameless Wrongdoing and Agglomeration: A Response to Streumer,” Utilitas 17 (2005), 222–225.
Brown, J.Essays on the Characteristics, London: Davis, 1751.
Burch-Brown, J. M.Clues for Consequentialists,” forthcoming in Utilitas 26 (2014).
Butler, J.The Works of Joseph Butler, ed. W. E. Gladstone, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1896.
Bykvist, K.How to Do Wrong Knowingly and Get Away with It,” in Neither/Nor: Philosophical Papers Dedicated to Erik Carlson on the Occasion of His Fiftieth Birthday, eds. E. Carlsonet al., Uppsala: Department of Philosophy, Uppsala University, Uppsala Philosophical Studies 58 (2011).
Bykvist, K.Utilitarianism: A Guide for the Perplexed, London: Continuum, 2010.
Byron, M. (ed.) Satisficing and Maximizing: Moral Theorists on Practical Reason, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
Cameron, F.Nietzsche and the ‘Problem’ of Morality, New York: Peter Lang, 2002.
Caplan, B. “Eureka! Economic Illiteracy as Mental Substitution,” in Library of Economics and Liberty, Liberty Fund, Inc., at http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2012/01/eureka_economic.html, 2012.
Carlson, E.Consequentialism Reconsidered, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1995.
Carlson, E.Mere Addition and Two Trilemmas of Population Ethics,” Economics and Philosophy 14 (1998), 283–306.
Carlyle, T.On Heroes, Hero-Worship, and the Heroic in History, eds. M. K. Goldberg, J. J. Brattin, and M. Engel, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1993.
Carmichael, G.Natural Rights on the Threshold of the Scottish Enlightenment: The Writings of Gershom Carmichael, eds. J. Moore and M. Silverthorne, trans. M. Silverthorne, Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2002.
Carson, T. L.Church-of-Englandism and Its Catechism examined . . . by Jeremy Bentham,” Quarterly Review 21 (1819), 167–177.
Carson, T. L.Value and the Good Life, Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2000.
Cocking, D. and J. Oakley, “Indirect Consequentialism, Friendship, and the Problem of Alienation,” Ethics 106 (1995), 86–111.
Cohen, G. A.Self-Ownership, Freedom, and Equality, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
Cohen, R.Can You Forgive Him? How a Book and a Friendship Went up in Flames,” New Yorker, November 8, 2004, pp. 48–65.
Collini, S., D. Winch, and J. Burrow, That Noble Science of Politics: A Study in Nineteenth-Century Intellectual History, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.
Conway, S.Bentham on Peace and War,” Utilitas 1 (1989), 82–101.
Cooper, T.Lectures on the Elements of Political Economy, 2nd edn., New York: A. M. Kelley, 1971.
Cooper, T.Philosophical Writings of Thomas Cooper, 3 vols., ed. U. Thiel, Bristol, UK: Thoemmes Press, 2001.
Cooper, T.Slavery,” Southern Literary Journal and Magazine of Arts 1 (1835), 188–193.
Cowen, T. and D. Parfit, “Against the Social Discount Rate,” in Justice Between Age Groups and Generations, eds. P. Laslett and J. Fishkin, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1992, pp. 144–161.
Crimmins, J. E.Religion, Utility and Politics: Bentham versus Paley,” in Religion, Secularization and Political Thought: Thomas Hobbes to J. S. Mill, ed. J. E. Crimmins, London: Routledge, 1989, pp. 130–152.
Crimmins, J. E.Secular Utilitarianism: Social Science and the Critique of Religion in the Thought of Jeremy Bentham, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990.
Crimmins, J. E.Utilitarian Philosophy and Politics: Bentham’s Later Years, London and New York: Continuum, 2011.
Crimmins, J. E.Utilitarians and Religion, Bristol: Thoemmes Press, 1998.
Crimmins, J. E. and M. G. Spencer (eds.) Utilitarians and Their Critics in America, 1789–1914, 4 vols., with an introduction by J. E. Crimmins, Bristol, UK: Thoemmes Continuum, 2005.
Crisp, R.Hedonism Reconsidered,” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 73 (2006), 619–645.
Crisp, R.Reasons and the Good, New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.
Crisp, R.Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Mill on Utilitarianism, London: Routledge, 1997.
Crisp, R.Utilitarianism and the Life of Virtue,” Philosophical Quarterly 42 (1992), 139–160.
Cumberland, R.A Treatise of the Laws of Nature [De Legibus Naturae], trans. J. Maxwell, ed. J. Parkin, Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2005.
Cummiskey, D.Kantian Consequentialism, New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Dancy, J.Moral Reasons, Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1993.
Darwall, S.Norm and Normativity,” in The Cambridge History of Eighteenth-Century Philosophy, vol. ii, ed. K. Haakonssen, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006, pp. 987–1025.
Darwall, S.Valuing Activity,” Social Philosophy and Policy 16 (1999), 176–196.
d’Aspremont, C. and L. Gevers, “Equity and the Informational Basis of Collective Choice,” Review of Economic Studies 44 (1977), 199–209.
Dasgupta, P.Savings and Fertility: Ethical Issues,” Philosophy and Public Affairs 23 (1994), 99–127.
Dinwiddy, J. R.Bentham and the Early Nineteenth Century,” Bentham Newsletter 8 (1984), 15–33.
Diogenes Laërtius, The Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers, trans. C. D. Yonge, London: Henry G. Bohn, 1853.
Donagan, A.Is There a Credible Form of Utilitarianism?” in Contemporary Utilitarianism, ed. M. Bayles, Gloucester MA: Peter Smith, 1978, pp. 187–202.
Donner, W.The Liberal Self: John Stuart Mill’s Moral and Political Philosophy, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1991.
Donner, W.Mill’s Moral and Political Philosophy,” in W. Donner and R. Fumerton, Mill, Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009, pp. 13–143.
Donner, W.Mill’s Theory of Value,” in The Blackwell Guide to Mill’s Utilitarianism, ed. H. R. West, Malden, MA, and Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2006, pp. 117–138.
Dorsey, D.Consequentialism, Metaphysical Realism, and the Argument from Cluelessness,” Philosophical Quarterly 62 (2012), 48–70.
Donner, W.Three Arguments for Perfectionism.” Noûs 44 (2010), 59–79.
Driscoll, E. A.The Influence of Gassendi on Locke’s Hedonism,” International Philosophical Quarterly 12 (1972), 87–110.
Driver, J.Consequentialism, Abingdon: Routledge, 2012.
Driver, J.Uneasy Virtue, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
Driver, J.What the Objective Standard is Good For,” in Oxford Studies in Normative Ethics, vol. ii, ed. M. Timmons, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012, pp. 28–44.
Dworkin, R.Justice for Hedgehogs, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011.
Dworkin, R.What Is Equality? Part 1: Equality of Welfare,” Philosophy and Public Affairs 10 (1981), 185–246.
Eggleston, B.Does Participation Matter? An Inconsistency in Parfit’s Moral Mathematics,” Utilitas 15 (2003), 92–105.
Eggleston, B.Practical Equilibrium: A Way of Deciding What to Think about Morality,” Mind 119 (2010), 549–584.
Eggleston, B.Rejecting the Publicity Condition: The Inevitability of Esoteric Morality,” Philosophical Quarterly 63 (2013), 29–57.
Ellis, B.Retrospective and Prospective Utilitarianism,” Noûs 15 (1981), 325–339.
Empson, W.Bentham’s Rationale of Evidence,” Edinburgh Review, or Critical Journal 48 (1828), 457–520.
Engelmann, S. G.Imagining Interest,” Utilitas 13 (2001), 289–322.
Epicurus, The Extant Remains, trans. Cyril Bailey, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1926.
Ewing, A. C.The Definition of Good, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1947.
Feinberg, J.Social Philosophy, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1973.
Feldman, F.Actual Utility, the Objection from Impracticality, and the Move to Expected Utility,” Philosophical Studies 129 (2006), 49–79.
Feldman, F.Adjusting Utility for Justice,” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 55 (1995), 567–585.
Feldman, F.Doing the Best We Can: An Essay in Informal Deontic Logic, Dordrecht: D. Reidel, 1986.
Feldman, F.Pleasure and the Good Life: Concerning the Nature, Varieties, and Plausibility of Hedonism, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2004.
Feldman, F.True and Useful: On the Structure of a Two Level Normative Theory,” Utilitas 24 (2012), 151–171.
Feldman, F.What Is This Thing Called Happiness?, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.
Feldman, F.What We Learn from the Experience Machine,” in The Cambridge Companion to Nozick’s Anarchy, State, and Utopia, ed. R. M. Bader and J. Meadowcroft, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011, pp. 59–86.
Ferkany, M.The Objectivity of Wellbeing,” Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 93 (2012), 472–492.
Fleurbaey, M., B. Tungodden, and P. Vallentyne, “On the Possibility of Nonaggregative Priority for the Worst Off,” Social Philosophy and Policy 26 (2009), 258–285.
Foot, P.Utilitarianism and the Virtues,” Mind 94 (1985), 196–209.
Foot, P.Virtues and Vices and Other Essays in Moral Philosophy, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1978.
Forbes, D.James Mill and India,” Cambridge Journal 5 (1951), 19–33.
Force, P.Helvétius as an Epicurean Political Theorist,” in Epicurus in the Enlightenment, eds. N. Leddy and A. S. Lifschitz, Oxford: Voltaire Foundation, 2009, pp. 105–118.
Force, P.Self-Interest before Adam Smith: A Genealogy of Economic Science, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Forero, J.Leaving the wild, and rather liking the change,New York Times, May 11, 2006; at www.nytimes.com/2006/05/11/world/americas/11colombia.html.
Foucault, M.Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison, New York: Pantheon, 1977.
Fuchs, A. E.Mill’s Theory of Morally Correct Action,” in The Blackwell Guide to Mill’s Utilitarianism, ed. H. R. West, Malden, MA, and Oxford: Blackwell, 2006, pp. 139–158.
Gaus, G.On the Difficult Virtue of Minding One’s Own Business: Towards the Political Rehabilitation of Ebenezer Scrooge,” The Philosopher: A Magazine for Free Spirits 5 (1997), 24–28; at www.gaus.biz/scrooge.pdf.
Gauthier, D.Rule-Utilitarianism and Randomization,” Analysis 25 (1965): 68–69.
Gay, J.Preliminary Dissertation Concerning the Fundamental Principle of Virtue or Morality,” in W. King, An Essay on the Origin of Evil, vol. i, 2nd edn., ed. E. Law, London: 1732, pp. xxviii–lvii.
Gensler, H. J.Paradoxes of Subjective Obligation,” Metaphilosophy 18 (1987), 208–213.
Gert, B.Morality: Its Nature and Justification, revised edn., Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Goldstein, I.Pleasure and Pain: Unconditional, Intrinsic Values.” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 50 (1989), 255–276.
Goodin, R. E.On Settling, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2012.
Goodin, R. E.Utilitarianism as a Public Philosophy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
Gosseries, A. and L. Meyer (eds.) Intergenerational Justice, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.
Graham, P.In Defense of Objectivism about Moral Obligation,” Ethics 121 (2010), 88–115.
Green, T. H. and T. H. Grose, “Introduction” to D. Hume, A Treatise of Human Nature, vol. ii, London: Longmans, Green, 1874.
Griffin, J.Well-Being: Its Meaning, Measurement, and Moral Importance, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986.
Grote, J.An Examination of the Utilitarian Philosophy, ed. J. B. Mayor, Cambridge: Deighton, Bell, 1870.
Gruzalski, B.Foreseeable Consequence Utilitarianism,” Australasian Journal of Philosophy 59 (1981), 163–176.
Guyer, P.Kant on Freedom, Law, and Happiness, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Haakonssen, K.Natural Law and Moral Philosophy: From Grotius to the Scottish Enlightenment, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Halévy, E.The Growth of Philosophic Radicalism, trans. M. Morris, Clifton, NJ: Augustus M. Kelley, 1972.
Hardin, G.The Tragedy of the Commons,” Science 162 (1968): 1243–1248.
Hardin, R.Morality within the Limits of Reason, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1988.
Hare, R. M.Could Kant Have been a Utilitarian?,” Utilitas 5 (1993), 1–16.
Hare, R. M.Moral Thinking: Its Levels, Method, and Point, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1981.
Hare, R. M.Philosophy and Practice: Some Issues about War and Peace,” in Philosophy and Practice, ed. A. P. Griffiths, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985, pp. 1–16 (Supplement to Philosophy: Royal Institute of Philosophy Lecture Series 18).
Hare, R. M.Rules of War and Moral Reasoning,” Philosophy and Public Affairs 1 (1972), 166–181.
Hare, R. M.Sorting Out Ethics, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997.
Hare, R. M.The Structure of Ethics and Morals,” in R. M. Hare, Essays in Ethical Theory, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989, pp. 175–190.
Harris, James, “The Epicurean in Hume,” in Epicurus in the Enlightenment, eds. N. Leddy and A. S. Lifschitz, Oxford: Voltaire Foundation, 2009, pp. 105–118.
Harris, Jonathan, “Gay, John (1699–1745),” in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn., January 2008; at www.oxforddnb.com.ezproxy.lib.usf.edu/view/article/10474.
Harrison, J.Utilitarianism, Universalization, and Our Duty to Be Just,” Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 53 (1953): 105–134.
Harrod, R. F.Utilitarianism Revised,” Mind 45 (1936), 137–156.
Harsanyi, J. C.A Preference-Based Theory of Well-Being and a Rule-Utilitarian Theory of Morality,” in Game Theory, Experience, Rationality: Foundations of Social Sciences, Economics and Ethics, eds. W. Leinfellner and E. Köhler, Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1998, pp. 285–300.
Harsanyi, J. C.Cardinal Utility in Welfare Economics and in the Theory of Risk-Taking,” Journal of Political Economy 61 (1953), 434–435.
Harsanyi, J. C.Cardinal Welfare, Individualistic Ethics, and Interpersonal Comparisons of Utility,” Journal of Political Economy 63 (1955), 309–321.
Harsanyi, J. C.Morality and the Theory of Rational Behaviour,” in Utilitarianism and Beyond, eds. A. Sen and B. Williams, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982, pp. 39–62.
Harsanyi, J. C.Rule Utilitarianism and Decision Theory,” Erkenntnis 11 (1977), 25–53.
Harsanyi, J. C.Some Epistemological Advantages of a Rule Utilitarian Position in Ethics,” Midwest Studies in Philosophy, vol. vii, eds. P. A. French, T. E. Uehling, Jr., and H. K. Wettstein, Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1982, pp. 389–402.
Haybron, D.The Pursuit of Unhappiness: The Elusive Psychology of Well-Being, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.
Hayek, F. A.The Use of Knowledge in Society,” American Economic Review 35 (1945), 519–530.
Hazlitt, W.The Complete Works of William Hazlitt, 21 vols., ed. P. P. Howe, London: J. M. Dent, 1930–34.
Heathwood, C.Desire Satisfactionism and Hedonism,” Philosophical Studies 128 (2006), 539–563.
Heathwood, C.The Problem of Defective Desires,” Australasian Journal of Philosophy 83 (2005), 487–504.
Heathwood, C.The Reduction of Sensory Pleasure to Desire,” Philosophical Studies 133 (2007), 23–44.
Heathwood, C.Welfare,” in The Routledge Companion to Ethics, ed. J. Skorupski, New York: Routledge, 2010, pp. 645–655.
Helvétius, C.A Treatise on Man, His Intellectual Faculties and His Education [De L’Homme], London: B. Law and G. Robinson, 1777.
Helvétius, C.De l’esprit, or, Essays on the Mind: And Its Several Faculties, London: Dodsley, 1759.
Heyd, D.Genethics: Moral Issues in the Creation of People, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1992.
Hildreth, R.Theory of Morals: An Inquiry Concerning the Law of Moral Distinctions and the Variations and Contradictions of Ethical Codes, Boston: C. C. Little & J. Brown, 1844.
Hill, Jr., T. E.Assessing Moral Rules: Utilitarian and Kantian Perspectives,” Philosophical Issues 15 (2005): 161–178.
Hill, Jr., T. E.Kant on Imperfect Duty and Supererogation,” in T. E. Hill, Jr., Dignity and Practical Reason in Kant’s Moral Theory, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1992, pp. 147–175.
Hobbes, T.Leviathan, ed. R. Tuck, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
Hodgson, D. H.Consequences of Utilitarianism: A Study in Normative Ethics and Legal Theory, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1967.
Hoffman, D.A Course of Legal Study; Respectfully Addressed to the Students of Law in the United States, Baltimore, MD: Coale and Maxwell, 1817; 2nd edn., Baltimore, MD: Joseph Neal, 1836.
Hoffman, D.Legal Outlines: Being the Substance of a Course of Lectures Now Delivering in the University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD: E. J. Coale, 1829.
Holtug, N.Prioritarianism,” in Egalitarianism: New Essays on the Nature and Value of Equality, eds. N. Holtug and K. Lippert-Rasmussen, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006, pp. 125–156.
Hooker, B.Does Moral Virtue Constitute a Benefit to the Agent?,” in How Should One Live? Essays on the Virtues ed. R. Crisp, New York: Oxford University Press, 2003, pp. 141–155.
Hooker, B.Fairness, Needs, and Desert,” in The Legacy of H. L. A. Hart: Legal, Political and Moral Philosophy, eds. M. H. Kramer, C. Grant, B. Colburn, and A. Hatzistavrou, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008, pp. 181–199.
Hooker, B.Ideal Code, Real World: A Rule-consequentialist Theory of Morality, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Hooker, B.Reflective Equilibrium and Rule Consequentialism,” in Morality, Rules, and Consequences: A Critical Reader, eds. B. Hooker, E. Mason, and D. E. Miller, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2000, pp. 222–238.
Hooker, B.Reply to Arneson and McIntyre,” Philosophical Issues 15 (2005): 266–281.
Hooker, B.Rule Consequentialism,” in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (spring 2011 edn.), ed. E. N. Zalta, at http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2011/entries/consequentialism-rule.
Hooker, B.When Is Impartiality Morally Appropriate?” in Partiality and Impartiality: Morality, Special Relationships, and the Wider World, eds. B. Feltham and J. Cottingham, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010, pp. 26–41.
Hooker, B. and G. Fletcher. “Variable versus Fixed-Rate Rule-Utilitarianism,” Philosophical Quarterly 58 (2008), 344–352.
Howard-Snyder, F.It’s the Thought That Counts,” Utilitas 17 (1997), 265–281.
Howard-Snyder, F.The Rejection of Objective Consequentialism,” Utilitas 9 (1997), 241–248.
Howard-Snyder, F.Rule Consequentialism Is a Rubber Duck,” American Philosophical Quarterly 30 (1993), 271–278.
Hudson, J. L.Subjectivization in Ethics,” American Philosophical Quarterly 26 (1989), 221–229.
Hume, D.An Enquiry concerning the Principles of Morals, ed. T. Beauchamp, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.
Hume, L. J.Bentham and Bureaucracy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981.
Hurka, T.Perfectionism, New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
Hurka, T.Value and Population Size,” Ethics 93 (1983), 496–507.
Hursthouse, R.Applying Virtue Ethics,” in Virtues and Reasons: Philippa Foot and Moral Theory, ed. R. Hursthouse, G. Lawrence, and W. Quinn, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995, pp. 57–75.
Hursthouse, R.On Virtue Ethics, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Hursthouse, R.Practical Wisdom: A Mundane Account,” Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 106 (2006), 285–309.
Hursthouse, R.The Virtuous Agent’s Reasons: A Reply to Bernard Williams,” in Aristotle and Moral Realism, ed. R. Heinaman, London: University College London Press, 1995, pp. 24–33.
Hutcheson, F.An Inquiry into the Original of Our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue: in Two Treatises, ed. W. Leidhold, Indianapolis, IN: Liberty Fund, 2004.
Ignatieff, M.A Just Measure of Pain: The Penitentiary in the Industrial Revolution 1750–1850, New York: Pantheon, 1978.
Irwin, T., The Development of Ethics: A Historical and Critical Study, vol. iii: From Kant to Rawls, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. See especially chapters 81–83, on Sidgwick.
Jackson, F.A Probabilistic Approach to Moral Responsibility,” Studies in Logic and the Foundations of Mathematics 114 (1986), 351–365.
Jackson, F.Decision-Theoretic Consequentialism and the Nearest and Dearest Objection,” Ethics 101 (1991), 461–482.
Jackson, F.How Decision Theory Illuminates Assignments of Moral Responsibility,” in Intention in Law and Philosophy, ed. N. Naffine, R. J. Owens, and J. Williams, Aldershot: Ashgate, 2001, pp. 19–36.
Jackson, F. and M. Smith, “Absolutist Moral Theories and Uncertainty,” Journal of Philosophy 103 (2006), 267–283.
Jenyns, S.A Free Inquiry into the Nature and Origin of Evil, London: R. and J. Dodsley, 1757.
Jenyns, S.Jeremy Bentham,” United States Magazine and Democratic Review 8 (1840), 251–271.
Johnson, C. D.Moral Legislation: A Legal-Political Model for Indirect Consequentialist Reasoning, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
Johnson, R.Kant’s Moral Philosophy,” in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (summer 2012 edn.), ed. E. N. Zalta, at http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2012/entries/kant-moral.
Kagan, S.Evaluative Focal Points,” in Morality, Rules, and Consequences: A Critical Reader, eds. B. Hooker, E. Mason, and D. E. Miller, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2000, pp. 134–155.
Kagan, S.The Geometry of Desert, New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.
Kagan, S.Normative Ethics, Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1998.
Kagan, S.Well-Being as Enjoying the Good,” Philosophical Perspectives 23 (2009), 253–272.
Kahn, L.Rule Consequentialism and Scope,” Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 15 (2012), 631–646.
Kahneman, D.Thinking, Fast and Slow, New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2011.
Kahneman, D. and A. Tversky, “Subjective Probability: A Judgment of Representativeness,” Cognitive Psychology 3 (1972), 430–454.
Kant, I.Critique of Practical Reason, ed. M. Gregor, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
Kant, I.Critique of Pure Reason, eds. P. Guyer and A. W. Wood, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
Kant, I.Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, eds. M. Gregor and J. Timmermann, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.
Kant, I.Lectures on Ethics, eds. P. L. Heath and J. B. Schneewind, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
Kant, I.The Metaphysics of Morals, ed. M. Gregor, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Kapur, N. B.Why It Is Wrong to Be Always Guided by the Best: Consequentialism and Friendship,” Ethics 101 (1991), 483–504.
Kawall, J.The Experience Machine and Mental State Theories of Well-Being,” Journal of Value Inquiry 33 (1999), 381–387.
Keller, S.Welfare and the Achievement of Goals,” Philosophical Studies 121 (2004), 27–41.
Kelly, P.Utilitarianism and Distributive Justice: The Civil Law and the Foundations of Bentham’s Economic Thought,” Utilitas 1 (1989), 62–81.
Kerner, G. C.The Immortality of Utilitarianism and the Escapism of Rule-Utilitarianism,” Philosophical Quarterly 21 (1971), 36–50.
King, P. J.Utilitarian Jurisprudence in America: The Influence of Bentham and Austin on American Legal Thought in the Nineteenth Century, New York and London: Garland, 1986.
Korsgaard, C. M.Kant’s Formula of Universal Law,” in C. M. Korsgaard, Creating the Kingdom of Ends, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996, pp. 77–105.
Korsgaard, C. M.The Sources of Normativity, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Kraut, R.Desire and the Human Good,” Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 68 (1994), 39–54.
Kumar, R.Who Can Be Wronged?Philosophy and Public Affairs 31 (2003), 99–118.
Kymlicka, W.Contemporary Political Philosophy: An Introduction, 2nd edn., Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.
Lackey, D.The Ethics of War and Peace, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1989.
Law, E.Morality and Religion,” in W. King, An Essay on the Origin of Evil, 4th edn., ed. E. Law, Cambridge: 1758, pp. xliii–lii.
Law, E.The Nature and Obligations of Man, as a Sensible and Rational Being,” in W. King, An Essay on the Origin of Evil, 4th edn., ed. E. Law, Cambridge: 1758, pp. liii–lx.
Layard, R.Happiness: Lessons from a New Science, New York: Penguin, 2005.
Lazari-Radek, K. de and P. Singer, “Secrecy in Consequentialism: A Defence of Esoteric Morality,” Ratio 23 (2010), 34–58.
Legaré, H. S.Jeremy Bentham and the Utilitarians,” Southern Review 7 (1831), 261–296.
Lemos, N.Indeterminate Value, Basic Value, and Summation,” in The Good, The Right, Life and Death: Essays in Honor of Fred Feldman, eds. K. McDaniel, J. Raibley, R. Feldman, and M. Zimmerman, Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing Co., 2006, pp. 71–82.
Lenman, J.Consequentialism and Cluelessness,” Philosophy and Public Affairs 29 (2000), 342–370.
Lewis, C. I.The Ground and Nature of the Right, New York: Columbia University Press, 1955.
Lewis, D.On the Plurality of Worlds, Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1986.
Lieberman, D.Bentham on Codification,” in J. Bentham, Selected Writings, edited with an introduction by S. G. Engelmann, with essays by P. Schofield, D. Lieberman, J. Pitts, and M. Canuel, New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press, 2011, pp. 460–477.
Lively, J. and J. Rees (eds.) Utilitarian Logic and Politics: James Mill’s “Essay on Government,” Macaulay’s Critique and the Ensuing Debate, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1978.
Livingston, E.A System of Penal Law for the State of Louisiana, Philadelphia, PA: James Kay, Jun. & Co., 1833.
Locke, J.An Essay concerning Human Understanding, ed. P. H. Nidditch, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1975.
Locke, J.Political Essays, ed. M. Goldie, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
Locke, J.Two Treatises of Government, ed. P. Laslett, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.
Lockhart, T.Moral Uncertainty and Its Consequences, New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Louden, R. B.On Some Vices of Virtue Ethics,” American Philosophical Quarterly 21 (1984), 227–236.
Lukas, M.Desire Satisfactionism and the Problem of Irrelevant Desires,” Journal of Ethics & Social Philosophy 4 (2012), 1–24.
Luño, A.-E. P.Jeremy Bentham and Legal Education in the University of Salamanca during the Nineteenth Century,” Bentham Newsletter 5 (1981), 44–54.
Lyons, D.Forms and Limits of Utilitarianism, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1965.
Lyons, D.Mill’s Theory of Morality,” in D. Lyons, Rights, Welfare, and Mill’s Moral Theory, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994, pp. 47–65.
Lyons, D.Utility and Rights,” in D. Lyons, Rights, Welfare, and Mill’s Moral Theory, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994, pp. 147–175.
Mackie, J. L.Cooperation, Competition and Moral Philosophy,” in Cooperation and Competition in Humans and Animals, ed. A. M. Colman, Wokingham: van Nostrand Reinhold, 1982, pp. 271–284.
Mackie, J. L.The Law of the Jungle: Moral Alternatives and Principles of Evolution,” Philosophy 53 (1978), 455–464.
Mackintosh, J.Dissertation on the Progress of Ethical Philosophy, Chiefly during the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries, 3rd edn., Edinburgh: A. & C. Black, 1862.
McCloskey, H. J.A Non-Utilitarian Approach to Punishment,” Inquiry 8 (1965), 249–263.
McCloskey, H. J.Utilitarianism: Two Difficulties,” Philosophical Studies 24 (1973), 62–63.
McKennon, T. L.Benthamism in Santander’s Colombia,” Bentham Newsletter 5 (1981), 29–43.
McKerlie, D.Equality and Priority,” Utilitas 6 (1994), 25–42.
Mādhava ĀchāryaThe Sarva-Darśana-Samgraha, trans. E. B. Cowell and A. E. Gough, London: Trübner, 1882.
Mandelbaum, M.On Interpreting Mill’s Utilitarianism,” Journal of the History of Philosophy 6 (1968), pp. 35–46.
Marx, K.Capital: A Critique of Political Economy, vol. i, in K. Marx and F. Engels, Collected Works vol. xxxv, New York: International Publishers, 1975.
Mason, E.Consequentialism and the ‘Ought Implies Can’ Principle,” American Philosophical Quarterly 40 (2003), 319–331.
Mason, E.Objectivism and Prospectivism about Rightness,” Journal of Ethics & Social Philosophy 7 (2013); at www.jesp.org/PDF/objectivism_and_propectivism_about_rightness.pdf.
Mason, E.Subjective Consequentialism, manuscript.
Mele, A.Agents’ Abilities,” Noûs 37 (2003), 447–470.
Mendola, J.Goodness and Justice: A Consequentialist Moral Theory, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
Mill, J.A Fragment on Mackintosh, London: Longmans, 1835.
Mill, J.Analysis of the Phenomena of the Human Mind (2 vols.), 2nd edn., ed. J. S. Mill, New York: Augustus M. Kelley, 1967.
Mill, J.Commerce Defended: An Answer to the Arguments by which Mr. Spence, Mr. Corbett, and Others, Have Attempted to Prove that Commerce Is Not a Source of National Wealth, London: C. and R. Baldwin, 1808.
Mill, J.“Law of Nations,” in Supplement to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, London: J. Innis, 1825.
Mill, J.Political Writings, ed. T. Ball, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.
Mill, J. S.The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, ed. J. M. Robson, 33 vols., Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1963–91.
Miller, D.Principles of Social Justice, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999.
Miller, D. E.Actual-Consequence Act Utilitarianism and the Best Possible Humans,” Ratio 16 (2003), 49–62.
Miller, D. E.Hooker’s Use and Abuse of Reflective Equilibrium,” in Morality, Rules, and Consequences: A Critical Reader, eds. B. Hooker, E. Mason, and D. E. Miller, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2000, pp. 156–178.
Miller, D. E.J. S. Mill: Moral, Social and Political Thought, Cambridge: Polity, 2010.
Miller, D. E.Mill, Rule Utilitarianism, and the Incoherence Objection,” in John Stuart Mill and the Art of Life, eds. B. Eggleston, D. E. Miller, and D. Weinstein, New York: Oxford University Press, 2011, pp. 94–116.
Miller, R. B.Actual Rule Utilitarianism,” Journal of Philosophy 106 (2009), 5–28.
Montmarquet, J.Zimmerman on Culpable Ignorance,” Ethics 109 (1999), 842–845.
Moore, G. E.Ethics, ed. W. H. Shaw, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Moore, G. E.Principia Ethica, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1903.
Moore, J.Hume and Hutcheson,” in Hume and Hume’s Connexions, eds. M. A. Stewart and J. P. Wright, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1994, pp. 23–57.
Moore, J.The Eclectic Stoic, the Mitigated Sceptic,” in New Essays on David Hume, eds. E. Mazza and E. Ronchetti, Milan: FrancoAngeli, 2007, pp. 133–169.
Mulgan, T.The Demands of Consequentialism, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.
Mulgan, T.Ethics for a Broken World: Imagining Philosophy after Catastrophe, Acumen, Durham, UK, 2011.
Mulgan, T.Future People: A Moderate Consequentialist Account of Our Obligations to Future Generations, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.
Mulgan, T.One False Virtue of Rule Consequentialism, and One New VicePacific Philosophical Quarterly 77 (1996), 362–373.
Mulgan, T. “Utilitarianism for a Broken World,” presented at ISUS xii (12th conference of the International Society for Utilitarian Studies), New York University, New York, NY, August 11, 2012.
Mulgan, T.What Is Good for the Distant Future? The Challenge of Climate Change for Utilitarianism,” forthcoming in God, The Good, and Utilitarianism: Perspectives on Peter Singer, ed. J. Perry, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014.
Murphy, L. B.Moral Demands in Nonideal Theory, New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Myers, F. W. H.Fragments of Prose and Poetry, ed. E. Myers, London: Longmans, Green, 1904.
Nagel, T.Death,” Noûs 4 (1970), 73–80.
Nagel, T.Equality and Partiality, New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.
Nathanson, S.Terrorism and the Ethics of War, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.
Neal, J.Principles of Legislation: . . . with notes and a biographical notice of Jeremy Bentham and of M. Dumont, Boston, MA: Wells and Lilly, 1830.
Neal, J.Wandering Recollections of a Somewhat Busy Life, Boston, MA: Roberts Brothers, 1869.
Ng, Y.-K.What Should We Do about Future Generations? Impossibility of Parfit’s Theory X,” Economics and Philosophy 5 (1989), 235–253.
Nietzsche, F.Beyond Good and Evil: Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future, ed. R.-P. Horstmann and J. Norman, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
Nietzsche, F.Twilight of the Idols, or How to Philosophize with a Hammer, in F. Nietzsche, The Anti-Christ, Ecco Homo, Twilight of the Idols: And Other Writings, eds. A. Ridley and J. Norman, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005, pp. 153–229.
Norcross, A.The Scalar Approach to Utilitarianism,” The Blackwell Guide to Mill’s Utilitarianism, ed. H. R. West, Malden, MA, and Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2006, pp. 217–232.
Nordhaus, W.The Challenge of Global Warming: Economic Models and Environmental Policy, available at nordhaus.econ.yale.edu/dice_mss_072407_all.pdf (2007).
Norton, D. F.David Hume: Common-Sense Moralist, Sceptical Metaphysician, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1982.
Nowell-Smith, P. H.Ethics, Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1954.
Nozick, R.Anarchy, State, and Utopia, New York: Basic Books, 1974.
Nussbaum, M.Adaptive Preferences and Women’s Options,” Economics and Philosophy 17 (2001), 67–88.
Oddie, G. and P. Menzies, “An Objectivist’s Guide to Subjective Value,” Ethics 102 (1992), 512–533.
Olsaretti, S.Distributive Justice and Compensatory Desert,” in Desert and Justice, ed. S. Olsaretti, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003, pp. 187–204.
O’Sullivan, J. L.Report in Favor of the Abolition of the Punishment of Death by Law, 2nd edn., New York: J. & H. G. Langley, 1841.
Overvold, M. C.Self-Interest and Getting What You Want,” in The Limits of Utilitarianism, eds. H. B. Miller and W. H. Williams, Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1982, pp. 186–194.
Packe, M. S.The Life of John Stuart Mill, London: Secker & Warburg, 1954.
Paley, W.The Principles of Moral and Political Philosophy, Indianapolis, IN: Liberty Fund, 2002.
Palmer, D. E.On the Viability of a Rule Utilitarianism,” Journal of Value Inquiry 33 (1999), 31–42.
Parfit, D.Equality and Priority,” Ratio 10 (1997), 202–221.
Parfit, D.Equality or Priority?” in The Ideal of Equality, eds. M. Clayton and A. Williams, Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2000, pp. 81–125.
Parfit, D.On What Matters, 2 vols., Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.
Parfit, D.Overpopulation and the Quality of Life,” in Applied Ethics, ed. P. Singer, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986, pp. 145–164.
Parfit, D.Reasons and Persons, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984.
Peonidis, F.Bentham and the Greek Revolution: New Evidence,” Journal of Bentham Studies 11 (2009), available at http://ojs.lib.ucl.ac.uk/index.php/jbs/article/view/60.
Persson, I.A Consequentialist Distinction between What We Ought to Do and Ought to Try,” Utilitas 20 (2008), 348–355.
Persson, I.Universalizability and the Summing of Desires,” Theoria 55 (1989), 159–170.
Petersson, B.The Second Mistake in Moral Mathematics is not about the Worth of Mere Participation,” Utilitas 16 (2004), 288–315.
Pettit, P.Satisficing Consequentialism,” part ii, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society supplementary volume 58 (1984), 165–176.
Pettit, P. and M. Smith, “Global Consequentialism,” in Morality, Rules, and Consequences: A Critical Reader, eds. B. Hooker, E. Mason, and D. E. Miller, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2000, pp. 121–133.
Phillips, D.Sidgwickian Ethics, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.
Plan of Parliamentary Reform . . . by Jeremy Bentham,” Edinburgh Review, or Critical Journal 31 (1818), 165–203.
Plan of Parliamentary Reform . . . by Jeremy Bentham,” Quarterly Review 18 (1817), 128–135.
Plato, Euthyphro, in Plato, Complete Works, ed. J. Cooper, Indianapolis, IN: Hackett, 1997, pp. 1–16.
Pojman, L. P. and O. MacLeod, What Do We Deserve? A Reader on Justice and Desert, New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Portmore, D.Commonsense Consequentialism: Wherein Morality Meets Rationality, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.
Posner, R.The Problems of Jurisprudence, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1990.
Prichard, H. A.Duty and Ignorance of Fact,” in his Moral Writings, ed. J. MacAdam, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2002, pp. 84–101.
Quinn, M.A Failure to Reconcile the Irreconcilable? Security, Subsistence and Equality in Bentham’s Writings on the Civil Code and on the Poor Laws,” History of Political Thought 29 (2008), 320–343.
Rabinowicz, W.Preference Utilitarianism by Way of Preference Change?” in Preference Change: Approaches from Philosophy, Economics and Psychology, eds. T. Grüne-Yanoff and S. O. Hansson, Dordrecht: Springer, 2009, pp. 185–206.
Rabinowicz, W. and B. Strömberg, “What If I Were in His Shoes? On Hare’s Argument for Preference Utilitarianism,” Theoria 62 (1996), 95–123.
Rachels, S.A Set of Solutions to Parfit’s Problems,” Noûs 35 (2001), 214–238.
Radzinowicz, L.A History of English Criminal Law and its Administration from 1750, 3 vols., London: Stevens, 1948.
Raibley, J.Well-Being and the Priority of Values,” Social Theory and Practice 36 (2010), 593–620.
Railton, P.Alienation, Consequentialism, and the Demands of Morality,” Philosophy and Public Affairs 13 (1984), 134–171.
Railton, P.Facts and Values,” Philosophical Topics 14 (1986), 5–31.
Railton, P.Naturalism and Prescriptivity,” Social Philosophy and Policy 7 (1989), 151–174.
Rawls, J.A Theory of Justice, Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 1971.
Rawls, J.Justice as Fairness,” Philosophical Review 67 (1958), 164–194.
Rawls, J.Two Concepts of Rules,” in J. Rawls, Collected Papers, ed. S. Freeman, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999, pp. 20–46.
Raz, J.The Morality of Freedom, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986.
Regan, D.Utilitarianism and Co-operation, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980.
Rhoads, S. E.The Economist’s View of the World: Government, Markets, and Public Policy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
Ridge, M.Introducing Variable-Rate Rule-Utilitarianism,” Philosophical Quarterly 56 (2006), 242–253.
Riley, J.Defending Rule Utilitarianism,” in Morality, Rules, and Consequences: A Critical Reader, eds. B. Hooker, E. Mason, and D. E. Miller, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2000, pp. 40–70.
Rivers, I.Reason, Grace, and Sentiment: A Study of the Language of Religion and Ethics in England 1660–1780, vol. 2: Shaftesbury to Hume, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Roberts, M.A New Way of Doing the Best That We Can: Person-Based Consequentialism and the Equality Problem,” Ethics 112 (2001), 315–350.
Roberts, M. and D. Wasserman (eds.) Harming Future Persons: Ethics, Genetics and the Nonidentity Problem, Dordrecht: Springer, 2009.
Robson, J. M. “Textual Introduction,” in J. S. Mill, Collected Works, vol. x, pp. cxv–cxxxix.
Rosati, C. S.Persons, Perspectives, and Full Information Accounts of the Good,” Ethics 105 (1995), 296–325.
Rosen, F.Classical Utilitarianism from Hume to Mill, London: Routledge, 2003.
Ross, I. C.Was Berkeley a Jacobite? Passive Obedience Revisited,” Eighteenth-Century Ireland 20 (2005), 17–30.
Ross, W. D.Foundations of Ethics, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1939.
Ross, W. D.The Right and the Good, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1930.
Russell, D. C.Practical Intelligence and the Virtues, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.
Rutherforth, T.An Essay on the Nature and Obligations of Virtue, Cambridge: J. Bentham, 1744.
Rutherforth, T.Institutes of Natural Law: Being the Substance of a Course of Lectures on Grotius De Jure Belli Et Pacis, Two Volumes, Cambridge: J. Bentham, 1754–1756.
Ryberg, J. and T. Tännsjö (eds.) The Repugnant Conclusion: Essays on Population Ethics, Dordrecht: Kluwer, 2004.
Sandel, M. J.How Markets Crowd out Morals,Boston Review, May/June 2012; at www.bostonreview.net/BR37.3/ndf_michael_j_sandel_markets_morals.php.
Sandel, M. J.Justice: What’s the Right Thing to Do?New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2009.
Sandel, M. J.What Isn’t for Sale?The Atlantic, April 2012; at www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2012/04/what-isnt-for-sale/308902/.
Scanlon, T. M.Contractualism and Utilitarianism,” in Utilitarianism and Beyond, eds. A. Sen and B. Williams, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982, pp. 103–128.
Scanlon, T. M.What We Owe to Each Other, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998.
Scarre, G.Utilitarianism, London: Routledge, 1996.
Scheffler, S.The Rejection of Consequentialism: A Philosophical Investigation of the Considerations Underlying Rival Moral Conceptions, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982.
Schmidtz, D.A Place for Cost–Benefit Analysis,” Philosophical Issues 11 (2001), 148–171.
Schneewind, J. B.Introduction,” in J. S. Mill, Mill’s Ethical Writings, ed. J. B. Schneewind, London: Collier-Macmillan and New York: Collier, 1965.
Schneewind, J. B.The Invention of Autonomy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
Schneewind, J. B.The Misfortunes of Virtue,” Ethics 101 (1990), 42–63.
Schneewind, J. B.Sidgwick’s Ethics and Victorian Moral Philosophy, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1977.
Schofield, P.Utility and Democracy: The Political Thought of Jeremy Bentham, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.
Schueler, G. F.Some Reasoning about Preferences,” Ethics 95 (1984), 78–80.
Schultz, B. (ed.) Essays on Henry Sidgwick, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.
Schultz, B., Henry Sidgwick – Eye of the Universe: An Intellectual Biography, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
Sedgwick, A.A Discourse on the Studies of the University, Leicester: Leicester University Press, 1969.
Semple, J.Bentham’s Prison: A Study of the Panopticon Penitentiary, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993.
Sen, A.Utilitarianism and Welfarism,” Journal of Philosophy 76 (1979), 463–489.
Sen, A.Utility: Ideas and Terminology,” Economics and Philosophy 7 (1991), 277–283.
Sepielli, A.What to Do When You Don’t Know What to Do,” Oxford Studies in Metaethics, vol. iv, ed. Russ Shafer-Landau, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009, pp. 5–28.
Shaftesbury, Earl of (A. A. Cooper), Characteristicks of Men, Manners, Opinions, Times, Indianapolis, IN: Liberty Fund, 2001.
Shaw, W. H.Consequentialism, War, and National Defense,” forthcoming in Journal of International Political Theory 10 (2014).
Shaw, W. H.Contemporary Ethics: Taking Account of Utilitarianism, Oxford: Blackwell, 1999.
Shaw, W. H.Just War Theory,” in Social and Personal Ethics, ed. W. H. Shaw, 8th edn., Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage, 2014, pp. 341–347.
Shaw, W. H.Utilitarianism and Recourse to War,” Utilitas 23 (2011), 380–401.
Shrader-Frechette, K.Parfit and Mistakes in Moral Mathematics,” Ethics 98 (1987), 50–60.
Sidgwick, H.The Elements of Politics, 3rd edn., London: Macmillan, 1908.
Sidgwick, H.Essays on Ethics and Method, ed. M. G. Singer, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2000.
Sidgwick, H.The Methods of Ethics, 7th edn., London: Macmillan, 1907.
Sidgwick, H.Miscellaneous Essays and Addresses, London: Macmillan, 1904.
Sidgwick, H.The Morality of Strife,” in H. Sidgwick, Practical Ethics: A Collection of Addresses and Essays, New York: Oxford University Press, 1998, pp. 47–62.
Sidgwick, H.Outlines of the History of Ethics, London: Macmillan, 1886.
Singer, P.Animal Liberation: The Definitive Classic of the Animal Movement, New York: Harper Perennial, 2009.
Singer, P.Famine, Affluence, and Morality,” Philosophy and Public Affairs 1 (1972), 229–243.
Singer, P.Marx, New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1980.
Singer, P.Practical Ethics, 3rd edn., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.
Sinnott-Armstrong, W.Consequentialism,” in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (winter 2012 edn.), ed. E. N. Zalta, at http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2012/entries/consequentialism.
Skorupski, J. (ed.) The Cambridge Companion to Mill, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
Skorupski, J.John Stuart Mill, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1989.
Skorupski, J., “The Place of Utilitarianism in Mill’s Philosophy,” in The Blackwell Guide to Mill’s Utilitarianism, ed. H. R. West, Malden, MA, and Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2006, pp. 45–59.
Slote, M. A.Beyond Optimizing: A Study of Rational Choice, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1989.
Slote, M. A.Common-Sense Morality and Consequentialism, London: Routledge & Kegan, 1985.
Slote, M. A.From Morality to Virtue, New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
Slote, M. A.Morals from Motives, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.
Slote, M. A.Satisficing Consequentialism,” part i, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society supplementary volume 58 (1984), 139–163.
Slote, M. A.Two Views of Satisficing,” in Satisficing and Maximizing: Moral Theorists on Practical Reason, ed. M. Byron, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004, pp. 14–29.
Smart, J. J. C.An Outline of a System of Utilitarian Ethics, Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1961.
Smart, J. J. C.An Outline of a System of Utilitarian Ethics,” in J. J. C. Smart and B. Williams, Utilitarianism: For and Against, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1973, pp. 1–74.
Smart, J. J. C.Extreme and Restricted Utilitarianism,” Philosophical Quarterly 6 (1956), 344–354.
Smith, A.An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, 2 vols., eds. R. H. Campbell and A. S. Skinner, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979.
Smith, A.The Theory of Moral Sentiments, eds. D. D. Raphael and A. L. Macfie, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979.
Smith, G.Utilitarianism,” in Oxford Reader’s Companion to Dickens, ed. P. Schlicke, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999, pp. 581–582.
Smith, H. M.Culpable Ignorance,” Philosophical Review 92 (1983), 543–571.
Smith, H. M.Deciding How to Decide: Is There a Regress Problem?” in Essays in the Foundations of Decision Theory, ed. M. Bacharach and S. Hurley, Oxford: Basil Blackwell, Inc., 1991, pp. 194–219.
Smith, H. M.Making Moral Decisions,” Noûs 22 (1988), 89–108.
Smith, H. M.Measuring the Consequences of Rules,” Utilitas 22 (2010), 413–433.
Smith, H. M.The ‘Prospective View’ of Obligation,” Journal of Ethics & Social Philosophy 5 (2011); at www.jesp.org/articles/download/ProspectiveView.pdf.
Smith, H. M.Subjective Rightness,” Social Philosophy and Policy 27:2 (2010), 64–110.
Smith, H. M.Two-Tier Moral Codes,” Social Philosophy and Policy 7:1 (1989), 112–132.
Smith, H. M.Varieties of Moral Worth and Moral Credit,” Ethics 101 (1991), 279–303.
Sobel, D.Full Information Accounts of Well-Being,” Ethics 104 (1994), 784–810.
Spencer, H.The Data of Ethics, London: Williams and Norgate, 1879.
Spencer, H.The Principles of Psychology, 2nd edn., New York: D. Appleton, 1871.
Spinoza, B.Ethics, in B. Spinoza, The Collected Works of Spinoza, ed. and trans. E. Curley, vol. i, pp. 408–617.
Stephen, J. F.Horæ Sabbaticæ, 3 vols., London: Macmillan, 1892.
Stephen, L.History of English Thought in the Eighteenth Century, vol. ii, London: Smith, Elder, 1902.
Stephen, L.The Science of Ethics, London: Smith, Elder, 1882.
Stern, N.Stern Review: The Economics of Climate Change; at http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/http:/www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/sternreview_index.htm, 2006.
Stocker, M.The Schizophrenia of Modern Ethical Theories,” Journal of Philosophy 73 (1976), 453–466.
Stone, M.Dickens, Bentham, and the Fictions of the Law: A Victorian Controversy and Its Consequences,” Victorian Studies 29 (1985), 125–154.
Streumer, B.Can Consequentialism Cover Everything?Utilitas 15 (2003), 237–247.
Strong, T. B.Friedrich Nietzsche and the Politics of Transformation, expanded edn., Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1988.
Sumner, L. W.Welfare, Happiness, and Ethics, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Temkin, L.Intransitivity and the Mere Addition Paradox,” Philosophy and Public Affairs 16 (1987), 138–187.
Temkin, L.Theory of Legislation, by Jeremy Bentham,” North American Review 51 (1840), 384–396.
Thomas, W.The Philosophic Radicals: Nine Studies in Theory and Practice, 1817–1841, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1979.
Thompson, W.Appeal of One Half of the Human Race Women against the Pretensions of the other Half Men, to Retain Them in Political, and Thence in Civil and Domestic, Slavery; in Reply to a Paragraph of Mr. Mill’s Celebrated “Article on Government,”New York: Burt Franklin, 1970.
Tiberius, V. and A. Plakias, “Well-Being,” in The Moral Psychology Handbook, eds. J. M. Doris and the Moral Psychology Research Group, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010, pp. 402–432.
Tierney, B.The Idea of Natural Rights: Studies on Natural Rights, Natural Law, and Church Law, 1150–1625, Atlanta, GA: Scholars Press, 1997.
Timmermann, J.Good But Not Required? – Assessing the Demands of Kantian Ethics,” Journal of Moral Philosophy 2 (2005), 9–27.
Timmermann, J.Kant’s Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals: A Commentary, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
Timmermann, J.When the Tail Wags the Dog: Animal Welfare and Indirect Duty in Kantian Ethics,” Kantian Review 10 (2005), 128–149.
Timmermann, J.Why Kant Could Not Have Been a Utilitarian,” Utilitas 17 (2005), 243–264.
Timmons, M.Moral Theory: An Introduction, Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2002.
Tuck, R.Natural Rights Theories: Their Origin and Development, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982.
Tucker, A.The Light of Nature Pursued, 5 vols., London: 1768.
Tully, J.A Discourse on Property: John Locke and His Adversaries, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980.
Unger, P.Living High and Letting Die, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Urmson, J. O.The Interpretation of the Moral Philosophy of J. S. Mill,” Philosophical Quarterly 3 (1953), 33–39.
Vallentyne, P.Against Maximizing Act Consequentialism,” in Contemporary Debates in Moral Theory, ed. J. Dreier, Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2006, pp. 21–37.
Vallentyne, P.Utilitarianism and Infinite Utility,” Australasian Journal of Philosophy 71 (1993), 212–217.
Vallentyne, P. and S. Kagan, “Infinite Value and Finitely Additive Value Theory,” Journal of Philosophy 94 (1997), 5–26.
von Wright, G. H.The Varieties of Goodness, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1963.
Waldron, J.God, Locke, and Equality: Christian Foundations in Locke’s Political Thought, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
Wall, G.Mill on Happiness as an End,” Philosophy 57 (1982), 537–541.
Walzer, M.Just and Unjust Wars: A Moral Argument with Historical Illustrations, 3rd edn., New York: Basic Books, 2000.
Warke, T.Multi-Dimensional Utility and the Index Number Problem: Jeremy Bentham, J. S. Mill, and Qualitative Hedonism,” Utilitas 12 (2000), 176–203.
West, H. R.An Introduction to Mill’s Utilitarian Ethics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
West, H. R.Mill’s Utilitarianism: A Reader’s Guide, London: Continuum, 2007.
Weymark, J. A.A Reconsideration of the Harsanyi–Sen Debate on Utilitarianism,” in Interpersonal Comparisons of Well-Being, eds. J. Elster and J. E. Roemer, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991, pp. 255–320.
Whewell, W.Lectures on the History of Moral Philosophy in England and Additional Lectures on History of Moral Philosophy, Bristol, UK: Thoemmes Press, 1990.
Wiggins, D.Claims of Need,” in D. Wiggins, Needs, Value, Truth: Essays in the Philosophy of Value, 2nd edn., Oxford: Blackwell, 1991, pp. 1–57.
Wiland, E.Monkeys, Typewriters, and Objective Consequentialism,” Ratio 18 (2005), 352–360.
Williams, B.A Critique of Utilitarianism,” in J. J. C. Smart and B. Williams, Utilitarianism: For and Against, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1973, pp. 75–150.
Williams, B.Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1985.
Williams, G.J. S. Mill and Political Violence,” Utilitas 1 (1989), 102–111.
Wolf, S.Meaning in Life and Why It Matters, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2010.
Wolf, S.Moral Saints,” Journal of Philosophy 79 (1982), 419–439.
Wootton, D.Helvétius: From Radical Enlightenment to Revolution,” Political Theory 28 (2000), 307–336.
Yasukawa, R.James Mill on Peace and War,” Utilitas 3 (1991), 179–197.
Zimmerman, M. J.Is Moral Obligation Objective or Subjective?Utilitas 18 (2006), 329–361.
Zimmerman, M. J.Living with Uncertainty: The Moral Significance of Ignorance, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
Zimmerman, M. J.Moral Responsibility and Ignorance,” Ethics 107 (1997), 410–426.
Zwolinski, M.The Ethics of Price-Gouging,” Business Ethics Quarterly 18 (2008), 347–378.
Zwolinski, M. and D. Schmidtz, “Environmental Virtue Ethics: What It Is and What It Needs to Be,” in The Cambridge Companion to Virtue Ethics, ed. D. C. Russell, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013, pp. 221–239.