Skip to main content
The Cambridge Economic History of the Greco-Roman World
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 11
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Schloen, J. David 2015. The Wiley Blackwell Companion to Ancient Israel. p. 433.

    Bermejo, Jesús and Quevedo, Alejandro 2014. The FortunaDomus(Cartagena, Spain): An Archaeological Analysis of Household Activities in a Hispano-Roman Colonia. European Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 17, Issue. 3, p. 487.

    BERGH, ANDREAS and LYTTKENS, CARL HAMPUS 2014. Measuring institutional quality in ancient Athens. Journal of Institutional Economics, Vol. 10, Issue. 02, p. 279.

    García, Juan Carlos Moreno 2014. Ancient States and Pharaonic Egypt: An Agenda for Future Research. Journal of Egyptian History, Vol. 7, Issue. 2, p. 203.

    Stewart, John 2014. An enquiry concerning the nature of conceptual categories: a case-study on the social dimension of human cognition. Frontiers in Psychology, Vol. 5,

    Lyttkens, Carl Hampus 2012. The Roman bazaar. A comparative study of trade and markets in a tributary empire. Scandinavian Economic History Review, Vol. 60, Issue. 1, p. 108.

    Ogereau, Julien M. 2012. The Jerusalem Collection as Κοινωνία: Paul's Global Politics of Socio-Economic Equality and Solidarity. New Testament Studies, Vol. 58, Issue. 03, p. 360.

    Gotsis, George N. and Merianos, Gerasimos 2012. Early Christian Representations of the Economy: Evidence from New Testament Texts. History and Anthropology, Vol. 23, Issue. 4, p. 467.

    Longenecker, Bruce W. 2009. Exposing the Economic Middle: A Revised Economy Scale for the Study of Early Urban Christianity. Journal for the Study of the New Testament, Vol. 31, Issue. 3, p. 243.

    Scheidel, Walter 2008. The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. p. 1.

    Scheidel, Walter 2003. The Greek demographic expansion: models and comparisons. The Journal of Hellenic Studies, Vol. 123, p. 120.

  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    The Cambridge Economic History of the Greco-Roman World
    • Online ISBN: 9781139054140
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to? *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

In this, the first comprehensive one-volume survey of the economies of classical antiquity, twenty-eight chapters summarise the current state of scholarship in their specialised fields and sketch new directions for research. The approach taken is both thematic, with chapters on the underlying determinants of economic performance, and chronological, with coverage of the whole of the Greek and Roman worlds extending from the Aegean Bronze Age to Late Antiquity. The contributors move beyond the substantivist-formalist debates that dominated twentieth-century scholarship and display a new interest in economic growth in antiquity. New methods for measuring economic development are explored, often combining textual and archaeological data that have previously been treated separately. Fully accessible to non-specialist, the volume represents a major advance in our understanding of the economic expansion that made the civilisation of the classical Mediterranean world possible.


Review of the hardback:‘By presenting current scholarship and its prospective future course, the editors have produced a very important work. Prodigious bibliography … Summing up: highly recommended.'

Source: Choice

Review of the hardback:‘This is certainly an extraordinary book on the Ancient Mediterranean economies that ought to be read and quoted by all historians who work in the field of pre-industrial economics. This excellent project was brought to completion by its 3 editors and 27 contributors over the span of a decade.'

Source: Bryn Mawr Classical Review

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send:

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.

Page 1 of 2

  • 1 - Introduction
    pp 1-12
  • View abstract
    This introductory chapter of the book begins by presenting the goals of the book, summarizing the state of knowledge in ancient Greek and Roman economic history, and contributing to shaping future research. Most ancient historians rely on literary sources produced by and for a leisured elite. The publication of huge numbers of inscriptions, papyri, coins, and mute archaeological data has transformed scholarship in the last two generations, and Greco-Roman economic historians are now asking new questions and using new methods to answer them. The book can help students of classical culture understand the material forces that made the Greeks' and Romans' cultural achievements possible, and can allow economic historians of other times and places to fit the Greco-Roman experience into the broader sweep of world economic history. The chapter also gives an outline of the content available in other chapters of the book.
  • 2 - Ecology
    pp 13-37
    • By Robert Sallares, University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology
  • View abstract
    This chapter presents Mediterranean ecology as a determinant for economic performance in the ancient Greek and Roman era. It focuses on the geography, climate, environment and agriculture in the region, and health of the people and disease occurrence in the region during the ancient Greco-Roman era. The lands surrounding the Mediterranean Sea are generally hilly or mountainous. Dendrochronological evidence from the Parthenon in Athens provides evidence for a pattern of climatic variability in the fifth century BC which resembles the modern pattern. In addition to being subject to regular climatic cycles, ancient Mediterranean region was a world of sudden, unpredictable catastrophes. Mt. Vesuvius played a prominent role in the Roman period, destroying Pompeii and Herculaneum in AD 79. A combination of agricultural crops had existed in the Near East since at least circa 3000 BC. There is evidence to support that ancient populations suffered from a substantial disease burden, consisting of both endemic and epidemic diseases.
  • 3 - Demography
    pp 38-86
  • View abstract
    This chapter presents demographic conditions as a determinant for economic performance in the ancient Greco-Roman era. It focuses on the relationship between demographic structures and macro-economic features. The chapter first outlines the fundamental demographic characteristics of the Greco-Roman world. Next, it presents a theoretical model of the interdependence of economic and demographic development. Finally, the chapter explores the model's principal variables in the context of ancient Mediterranean economies. Mean life expectancy at birth is conventionally put in the range of 20-30 years. From the middle of the second millennium BC to the early first millennium AD, all parts of the Mediterranean and its hinterlands experienced significant demographic growth. The baseline upward trend in ancient population number is modulated by two distinct layers of variation in the short and medium terms. Several features including mortality, morbidity, nutrition, housing and clothing, point to significant improvements in well-being in the Greek Aegean between the tenth and the fourth centuries BC.
  • 4 - Household and Gender
    pp 87-112
  • View abstract
    In the Greco-Roman world the household was the basic unit of production as well as consumption. This chapter begins with a methodological discussion of the difficulties with the data sources. Next, the chapter presents an account of the demography of household formation and organization. It analyses the patterns of property ownership and management by gender and age in classical Athens and Roman Italy, and then of women's and children's labor in both societies. The stronger property rights of wealthy Roman women enhanced their social status, but it is not obvious that they much affected decisions about economic production. The participation of women and children in certain production sectors appears similar from fifth-century BC Athens to second century AD Rome. One index of economic growth per capita during this period is the improvement in productive techniques used by women. There are indications that from archaic Greece to the Roman Empire investment increased as institutionalized education and training beyond the family emerged.
  • 5 - Law and Economic Institutions
    pp 113-143
  • View abstract
    The landscape of the Greek and Roman economies is invariably configured of individuals, and also of institutions, the organized activity of production and commerce. This chapter explores, within the ancient world, to what extent was economic growth fostered or impeded by the institutional and legal framework within which the Greek and Roman economies operated. The question may be at least formally addressed through modern scholarly methods associated especially with Law and Economics and with the New Institutional Economics. The chapter provides an overview of the methods themselves, and then suggests several ways in which these methods can be applied to come to a deeper understanding of economic organization and the possibilities for economic growth in the Greek and Roman worlds. Adverse selection is an example of how asymmetrical information can affect entry into a market. A cardinal implication of the Coase theorem is that markets cannot and do not exist in isolation from their institutional context.
  • 6 - Technology
    pp 144-172
  • View abstract
    Recent studies of the history of technology increasingly take as their theme, besides invention, the transfer of technology, that is the adoption of technological knowledge from other societies or the transfer of one's own technology to other regions. The development of Greek civilization in archaic times was to a high degree based on the appropriation of the technological achievements of Egypt and Mesopotamia; while the historically relevant process of Romanization, especially in the western Mediterranean and in north-western Europe, also included the spread of Roman technology in the provinces. An important result of modern research in the history of technology is the insight into the interdependency of technological and economic developments. In ancient agriculture, numerous innovations are attested, for example in the threshing of grain for which rotating sledges were used. Technical advances that were of economic relevance such as grain mill, oil presses, wine presses, can be substantiated in various areas of the ancient economy.
  • 7 - The Aegean Bronze Age
    pp 173-210
  • View abstract
    This chapter explores economic activity in the Aegean Bronze Age (circa 3000-1000 BC), focuses on the palatial societies of Late Bronze Age Crete and mainland Greece, and provides an outline of prior developments, on which they were based. It concentrates on what might be termed as the core of the Mycenaean world (mainland Greece from southern Thessaly to the southern Peloponnese, the islands of the Aegean, including Crete, plus much of coastal southwest Anatolia). There are two ways of conceiving the relationship between the Aegean Bronze Age and later periods of Greek history. The first suggests a radical discontinuity, and the second imagines a seamless continuity. Neither of them is likely to be accurate, but it is certainly incorrect to isolate the Bronze Age with artificial barriers between the modern disciplines of history and prehistory. Life continued, however much it had changed, in most areas of the Aegean from the Late Bronze to the Early Iron Age.
  • 8 - Early Iron Age Greece
    pp 211-241
  • View abstract
    This chapter reviews the economic history of Early Iron Age (EIA) Greece. First, it summarizes the evidence, and quantifies some aspects of EIA economic performance. Next, the chapter suggests that 1200-1000 BC saw economic collapse in Aegean Greece; 1000-800 BC saw stagnation; and that recovery began in the eighth century. However, it also argues that the most important economic take-off only came later, around 550-500 BC. The chapter discusses economic structures, before offering the conclusions. Through the 1960s and 1970s Homerists and archaeologists largely ignored each other's models of the EIA. In the 1980s a new synthesis formed, seeing the archaeological Dark Age model as valid before 800, but making Homer and Hesiod crucial to the eighth century. EIA life was more wretched than at any time between the rise of the Minoan palaces and the death of Justinian. Greeks died younger, lived in more squalid surroundings, and had fewer goods.
  • 9 - The Iron Age in the Western Mediterranean
    pp 242-276
  • View abstract
    The economic history of the Iron Age in the western Mediterranean is a complex tale in which encounters and entanglements between diverse indigenous peoples and foreign agents from several expanding states of the eastern and central Mediterranean played a recurrent and crucial role. This chapter presents a highly compressed, and inherently partial, synthesis of the current state of research on the economic history of the western Mediterranean during the Iron Age. In very general terms, the chapter deals with indigenous societies constituting three broad linguistic groupings: Iberian, Celtic, and Ligurian, as well as, three different major sources of external traders and colonists: Phoenician, Greek, Etruscan. The basic global repertoire of cereal crops and domestic animals was quite similar for both colonists and indigenous societies in the western Mediterranean, although there were significant variations in the relative importance of different elements in the diet as well as in the culinary practices used to prepare food.
  • 10 - Archaic Greece
    pp 277-301
  • View abstract
    Under all the major indicators of economic change, that is, population, growth, urbanization, production and exchange, institutions, and stock of knowledge, there are reasons to believe that the period between 700 and 500 BC in archaic Greece saw significant developments. This chapter analyzes those developments in more detail by comparing and contrasting the archaeological evidence relating to circa 700 BC and circa 500 BC. It explores how the picture that one can create on the basis of archaeological evidence relates to the picture of the economy offered by one further resource making its dramatic appearance in this period: literary texts. Athenian Solon puts a value upon the individual citizen, whose political capacity is determined by his wealth. That there was a transition from gift to commodity during the period from the eighth to the sixth century has often been suggested. The chapter traces both the economic background to that change and its political origins.
  • 11 - The Persian Near East
    pp 302-330
  • View abstract
    The Achaemenid Persian empire lasted for slightly over two hundred years, and incorporated several languages and cultures, as well as diverse forms of economic subsistence. This chapter focuses on one major region of the empire, the Near East. The Persian period should be viewed as a continuation of the Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian periods, although new developments can be detected that would have underpinned increased economic growth. Despite population movements, Anatolians into northern Syria, Philistines on the southern Levantine coast, population across northern Syria and northern Mesopotamia may have decreased due to a prolonged period of desiccation. The population movement in the Neo- Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian periods led to increased urbanization in the Assyrian home provinces and, later, in Babylonia, while urban centers decreased in central and southern Syria-Palestine. The chapter also discusses the impact of imperialism on institutions and organizations, specifically regarding the control and exploitation of agricultural land.
  • 12 - Classical Greece: Production
    pp 331-361
  • View abstract
    Many tangible objects were created and used in classical Greece ranging from installations such as houses, temples, public buildings, and infrastructure, through weaponry, ceramics, coins, textiles, and the normal furnishings and equipment of a dwelling house or a farm, to the more exotic and high-value products of the sculptor or the silversmith. For most landscapes occupied by Greeks, varying depths of soil and the imminence of uncultivable mountains generate a clear distinction between cultivable and uncultivable zones. This chapter provides a sketch of ancient Greece's various productive capacities. Scholarship attention has focused not only on crops and yields but also on wider questions of land-use but also on wider questions of land-use, notably the market-oriented specialization and the integration of differing types of terrain. All the same, agrarian production was absolutely primary. Land-ownership remained the principal determinant of status, though, there is evidence of land being bought as an investment, to improve and resell.
  • 13 - Classical Greece: Distribution
    pp 362-384
  • View abstract
    A society's ability to adapt to changing outside parameters and to adjust its institutions determine the performance of its distribution system. In classical Greece, distribution had grown to such an extent that urban elite had no difficulties in consuming delicacies. Production of certain goods clearly exceeded local needs in some regions: Egypt, Sicily, and regions bordering the Black Sea, for instance, produced more grain than they consumed, Thasos, Chios, and the Chalcidice produced more and better wines than other parts of the Mediterranean. The Aegean connected people and the goods they needed. Transport was much easier by sea than overland. Moving goods by road required negotiations, protection money, and was impeded by deliberate obstructions, and outright violence. In classical Greece, many goods circulated through reciprocity, the mutual exchange between social equals. Friendship reduced transaction costs. On the revenue side, the interests of the citizens and the polis corresponded: both needed prosodoi, revenues or income.
  • 14 - Classical Greece: Consumption
    pp 385-406
  • View abstract
    This chapter describes the consumption patterns, in classical Greece, which were affected by regional productive capacities, inter-regional distribution, and several social and geographical biases, as well as ideology and taste. It gives some quantitative assessment of standards of living in comparison to earlier and later periods. Since markets and exchange supplied only a certain amount of domestic consumption, the chapter explores under what conditions consumption turned into demand that affected the economy more generally. Basic information about ancient nutrition can be gained from the remains of human bones. Average height changed little from the Bronze Age to the classical period, and possibly increased slightly for men thereafter. The discrepancy between Mycenae and Lerna may indicate a class difference. The need for imported grain varied from year to year with periods of extraordinary demand at times of food crisis. The seasonality of demand put high pressure on administration and planning, and could not be satisfied by regular markets.
  • 15 - The Hellenistic Near East
    pp 407-433
  • View abstract
    In the Hellenistic period, Greek and Near Eastern traditions came into closer contact than before, increasing the cohabitation of Greeks and non-Greeks. This chapter focuses on the Seleucid empire, since it was the main heir of the earlier Persian empire. The empire contained high civilizations with their own ancient histories: Babylonians, Persians, Greeks, Phoenicians, Jews, and half-Hellenized states in Asia Minor. The chapter examines how the Seleucid economy performed relative to earlier and later periods. Everywhere in antiquity, agriculture was the main means of subsistence. Agricultural conditions, however, varied greatly. Industrial production was linked to agriculture, and many items including textiles, were produced at home. Some regions developed specialties: Phoenicia was famous for purple dyes, glass, and ships, and Babylonia for woolen and linen textiles, salt, and bitumen. As a result of the empire's urbanization policies, many Macedonians and Greeks emigrated to the east; new cities were founded, often on more or less vacant territories.
  • 16 - Hellenistic Egypt
    pp 434-459
  • View abstract
    This chapter deals with the internal economic history of the Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt, the longest lived of the Hellenistic successor states. It addresses the question of the extent to which the Ptolemaic state effected economic development, and to what extent was development driven by demographic change. The foundation and growth of urban centers, the development of roads out to the Red Sea, and the reclamation of new land in the Fayyum, are enough to suggest that the early Ptolemaic period experienced aggregate economic growth, and the increased farming of wheat (at least in some areas) resulted in greater agricultural productivity. The chapter focuses on money and prices, the taxation system, the role of social status, and state revenue. Ptolemaic institutions were a mixture of old and new. The taxation policy above all gradually shifted emphasis away from traditional Egyptian social hierarchies toward the new realities of urban, Greek life.
  • 17 - Hellenistic Greece and Western Asia Minor
    pp 460-484
  • View abstract
    This chapter focuses on old Greece; the southern Balkans, the Aegean islands, and western Asia Minor. Greek-speakers had settled here many centuries earlier. The act of concentration in a new urban center created a new locus of demand for food and other essentials, and new markets. Agriculture remained the chief economic activity for most people in Greece. Outside of the northern kingdoms (Macedon, Epirus), this took place on land belonging to poleis. Many Hellenistic exchanges were mediated through money. States needed coined money to pay troops, war indemnities, and numerous other expenses. The Hellenistic world inherited from classical times a wide array of institutions that served central economic functions but subsequently also saw some changes. The chapter explores the changes to pre-existing institutions, and whether they reflect new economic conditions. Military technology is one area where the Hellenistic world saw major innovations, from siege warfare, to the use of elephants, to the construction of ever-larger ships.
  • 18 - Early Rome and Italy
    pp 485-510
  • View abstract
    This chapter deals with Italy in the period from the beginning of the Greek colonization through 133 BC. It focuses on the Italian peninsula, touching only briefly on northern Italy and the islands, or the world of non-Roman indigenous cultures. For addressing the question of the rise of Rome to the most powerful polity in Italy and a leading Mediterranean power, the chapter examines the impact of wars, treaties, and the founding of colonies, Greek as well as Etruscan and Roman, reciprocal influences, forced or spontaneous transformations. It distinguishes three major periods: from the earliest Greek contacts with Italy to the middle of the fourth century BC; from the middle of the fourth century, which saw Rome's military and political ascent and its rise to economic power, to the Second Punic War; and finally, from the Second Punic War, which caused profound upheavals in the Roman economy, to the period of the Gracchi.
  • 19 - The Late Republic
    pp 511-540
  • View abstract
    This chapter answers questions about economic growth in the late Republic, with a focus on the per capita GDP growth, and the reasons behind the growth or the lack of it. It examines the features of the Roman world which assisted growth or impeded it. The most important thing the Roman government did for the Roman economy was to conquer vast territories; the next most important thing, in this period, was probably to found colonies. Proof positive that the traditional understanding of Roman money is mistaken appears in 49 when the credit system tottered under the impact of civil war: nervous creditors began to seek payment even of the principal in silver, that is, coin. The conditions of labor, at least in the central parts of the Roman world, were dominated by slavery. It is estimated that in the very late Republic there were always four to eight million slaves and serfs in the Roman empire.
  • 20 - The Early Roman Empire: Production
    pp 541-569
  • View abstract
    Commerce and manufacturing certainly occupied a significant place in the early Roman economy. Large landowners and small farmers depended for their livelihoods on the production of surpluses for the market. In Roman agriculture, most common method for cultivating wheat was the two-field system. The Roman empire also witnessed construction of modest sized-estates which regularly included a pars urbana, an often lavishly adorned farmhouse, and a pars rustica, included farming facilities such as those for pressing grapes. Sometimes, many landowners used the institution of farm tenancy to organize the management and labor on their estates. To answer the question of what extent wealth generated from agriculture contributed to an expansion of production in the non-agricultural sectors of the Roman economy, the economic role of cities in the Roman empire and their relationship with the countryside, has to be evaluated. Archaeological evidence indicates that mining was conducted on a widespread basis in many regions of the Roman empire.
  • 21 - The Early Roman Empire: Distribution
    pp 570-591
  • View abstract
    The mobilization and distribution of resources, human and material, was the key to Roman power. The surplus production of an individual peasant household was small; the aggregate demand of the ancient peasantry was considerable. The key question is how far distribution under the empire differed in volume and nature. Archaeology has provided striking and conclusive evidence for a dramatic increase in the volume of goods being distributed within the Roman empire. Goods were distributed through the Roman empire by a variety of means, determined to a great extent by the identity of the ultimate consumer and by the nature of the goods and by the identity of the original producer. The institutional structures that supported distribution were adequate money supply supporting all levels of transactions, and the development of gold coinage and various forms of paper transactions. For the most part, the dynamics of distribution in the early Roman empire followed patterns which had become established under the Republic.
  • 22 - The Early Roman Empire: Consumption
    pp 592-618
  • View abstract
    Roman society of the early empire presents a confusing and ambiguous image that we cannot easily situate in unidirectional accounts of European economic history. Clearly, public monuments in marble or other precious stone, military security, the urban food supply, roads, aqueducts and gladiatorial games testify to public consumption on a grand scale. On the other hand, the signs of poverty, misery, and destitution are no less obvious. Many inhabitants of the Roman empire only eked out a meager living, their skeletons grim testimonies to malnutrition and disease. Growth occurred because the wealth of the elite may have been a sign of effective exploitation of the poor. Roman National Income was indeed larger than that of any preindustrial European state. One of the requirements for an economy is to provide enough subsistence for its population to survive. The economic and social achievements of pre-industrial societies can be measured if standard of living of the masses exceeds bare subsistence levels.
  • 23 - The Early Roman Empire: The State and the Economy
    pp 619-648
  • View abstract
    This chapter explores whether the higher level of economic activity during the first two centuries of the Principate in comparison with the preceding and following periods, and the possible modest growth then, were, at least in part, the result of the existence of a single political entity embracing the Mediterranean, or were achieved despite it. In the first two centuries of the Principate, taxation enhanced market exchanges and promoted growth. The emperor set the rules of the game at the level of the central and provincial administration, but his actions extended in various ways to the level of the individual urban communities. The creation of a single monetary area may have contributed most to the reduction in transaction costs: a centrally produced coinage circulated almost everywhere. In order to account for massive output of the Roman mint it is necessary to assume structural imbalance between tax and public expenditure.

Page 1 of 2

Aaboe A. (1991) “Babylonian mathematics, astrology and astronomy,” in Boardman J. et al., eds., The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume III part 2, The Assyrian and Babylonian Empires and other States of the Near East, from the Eighth to the Sixth Centuries BC. 2nd edn.: 276–92. Cambridge.
el-Abbadi M. A. H. (1967) “The edict of Tiberius Julius Alexander,” BIFAO 65: 216–26.
Abbott J. T. and Valastro S. Jr. (1995) “The Holocene alluvial records of the chorai of Metapontum, Basilicata, and Croton, Calabria, Italy,” in Lewin J., Macklin M. G. and Woodward J. C., eds., Mediterranean Quaternary River Environments : 195–205. Rotterdam.
Abraham K. (2004) Business and Politics under the Persian Empire: The Financial Dealings of Marduk-nasir-apli of the House of Egibi. Bethesda.
Abrams P. and Wrigley E. A., eds. (1978) Towns in Societies: Essays in Economic History and Historical Sociology. Cambridge.
Acquaro E. (1988) “Les monnaies,” in Moscati S. and Amiet P., eds., Les Phéniciens : 464–73. Milan.
Adam J.-P. (1984) La construction romaine. Matériaux et techniques. Paris.
Adams C. and Laurence R., eds. (2001) Travel and Geography in the Roman Empire. London.
Adams C. E. P. (2001) “Who bore the burden? The organization of stone transport in Roman Egypt,” in Mattingly and Salmon , eds. (2001b): 171–92.
Adams J. (1987) “Trade and payments as instituted process: the institutional theory of the external sector,” Journal of Economic Issues 21: 1, 839–60.
Adams J. (1994) “The institutional theory of trade and organization of intersocial commerce in ancient Athens,” in Duncan C. A. M. and Tandy D.W., eds., From Political Economy to Anthropology: Situating Economic Life in Past Societies : 80–104. Montreal and New York.
Adams R. M. (1965) Land behind Baghdad. A History of Settlement in the Diyala Plains. Chicago and London.
Adams R. M. (1981) Heartland of Cities: Surveys of Ancient Settlement and Land Use on the Central Floodplain of the Euphrates. Chicago.
Adams R. M. (1996) Paths of Fire. An Anthropologist’s Inquiry into Western Technology. Princeton.
Adams R. M. and Nissen H. J. (1972) The Uruk Countryside – The Natural Setting of Urban Societies. Chicago.
Ades A. F. and Glaeser E. L. (1995) “Trade and circuses: explaining urban giants,” Quarterly Journal of Economics 110: 195–227.
Adriani A., Bonacasa N., Stefano C. A., Joly E., Piraino M., Schmiedt G., and Cutroni A.Tusa (1970) Himera I: campagne di scavo 1963–1965. Rome.
Adroher A. M., Pons iBrunE., and RuizArbulo J. (1993) “El yacimiento de Mas Castellar de Pontós y el comercio del cereal ibérico en la zona de Emporion y Rhode (ss. IV–II A.C.),” AEA 66: 31–70.
Adrymi-Sismani V. (2000) “Oikia me diadromo apo tin arhaia Iolko,” in To Ergo ton Eforeion Arhaiotiton kai Neoteron Mnimeion tou YP.PO. sti Thessalia kai tin Evruteri Periohi tis (1990–1998): Proti Epistimoniki Synantisi : 279–91. Volos.
Ahlström G. W. (1993) The History of Ancient Palestine from the Palaeolithic Period to Alexander’s Conquest. Sheffield.
Akerlof G. (1970) “The market for lemons: qualitative uncertainty and the market mechanism,” Quarterly Journal of Economics 84: 488–500.
Åkerman K. (1999–2001) “The ‘Aussenhaken Area’ in the city of Assur during the second half of the seventh century BC: a study of a neo-Assyrian city quarter and its demography,” State Archives of Assyria Bulletin 13: 217–72.
Albore LivadieC. (1978) “Sur les amphores de type étrusque des nécropoles archaïques de Nuceria: aspects et problèmes de l’étrusquisation de la Campanie,” RELig 44: 71–135.
Alchian A. A., and Demsetz H. (1972) “Production, information costs, and economic organization,” American Economic Review 62: 777–95.
Alcock S. E. (1991) “Urban survey and the polis of Phlius,” Hesperia 60: 421–63.
Alcock S. E. (1993) Graecia Capta: The Landscapes of Roman Greece. Cambridge.
Alcock S. E. (1994) “Breaking up the Hellenistic world: survey and society,” in Morris , ed. (1994d): 171–237.
Alcock S. E. (1997a) “Greece: a landscape of resistance?” in Mattingly D. J., ed., Dialogues in Roman Imperialism: 103–15. Ann Arbor, MI.
Alcock S. E. ed. (1997b) The Early Roman Empire in the East. Oxford.
Alcock S. E. (2002) Archaeologies of the Greek Past: Landscape, Monuments and Memories. Cambridge.
Alcock S. E., Berlin A., Harrison A., Heath S., Spencer N., and Stone D. L. (2005) “The Pylos regional archaeological project, part VI: historical Messenia, geometric to late Roman periods,” Hesperia 74: 147–209.
Alcock S. E., and Cherry J. F., eds. (2004) Side-by-Side Survey: Comparative Regional Studies in the Mediterranean World. Oxford.
Alcock S. E., Cherry J. F., and Davis J. L. (1994) “Intensive survey, agricultural practice and the classical landscape of Greece,” in Morris, ed. (1994d): 137–70.
Alcock S. E., Cherry J. F., and Gates J. E. (2004) “Patterns in Mediterranean survey data,” in Alcock and Cherry , eds. (2004): 243–51.
Alcock S. E. and Osborne R., eds. (1994) Placing the Gods. Sanctuaries and Sacred Space in Ancient Greece. Oxford.
Alföldy G. (1989) Die Krise des römischen Reiches. Stuttgart.
Allegro N., Belvedere O., Bonacasa N., Carra R. M.Bonacasa, Stefano C. A., Epifanio E., Joly E., Piraino M. T.Manni, Tullio A., and Cutroni A.Tusa. (1976) Himera II: campagne di scavo 1966–1973. Rome.
Allen D.W. (2000) “Transaction costs,” in Bouckaert and Geest , eds. (2000), vol. 1: 893–926.
Allen S. H. (1998) Finding the Walls of Troy: Frank Calvert and Heinrich Schliemann at Hisarlik. Berkeley.
Alonso iMartínezN. (1999) De la Llavor a la Farina. Els Processos Agrícoles Protohistòrics a la Catalunya Occidental. Lattes.
Alston R. (1994) “Roman military pay from Caesar to Diocletian,” JRS 84: 113–23.
Alston R. (1995) Soldier and Society in Roman Egypt: A Social History. London.
Alston R. (1998) “Trade and the city in Roman Egypt,” in Parkins and Smith (1998): 168–202.
Alston R. (1999) “The revolt of the Boukoloi: geography, history and myth,” in Hopwood K., ed., Organised Crime in Antiquity: 129–53. London.
Alston R. (2002) The City in Roman and Byzantine Egypt. London and New York.
Alter G. (1992) “Theories of fertility decline: a nonspecialist’s guide to the current debate,” in Gillis J. R., Tilly L. A. and Levine D., eds., The European Experience of Declining Fertility: 13–27. Cambridge, MA, and Oxford.
Amin S. (1973) Le développement inégal. Essai sur les formations sociales du capitalisme périphérique. Paris.
Amouretti M.-C. (1986) Le pain et l’huile dans la Grèce antique. De lapos;araire au moulin. Centre de Recherche d’Histoire Ancienne vol. 67/ ALUB 328. Paris.
Amouretti M.-C. (1988) “La viticulture antique, contraintes et choix techniques,” REA 40: 5–16.
Amouretti M.-C. (1991) “L’attelage dans l’antiquité. Le prestige d’une erreur scientifique,” Annales ESC 46: 219–32.
Amouretti M.-C. (1992a) “Des apports grecs dans les techniques agraires gauloises?” in Bats et al., eds. (1992): 295–303. Lattes.
Amouretti M.-C. (1992b) “Oléiculture et viticulture dans la Grèce antique,” in Wells , ed. (1992): 77–86.
Amouretti M.-C. and Brun J.-P., eds. (1993) La production du vin et de l’huile en Méditerranée. Athens.
Amouretti M.-C. and Comet G. (1985) Le livre de l’olivier. Aix-en-Provence.
Ampolo C. (1970–1) Su alcuni mutamenti sociali nel Lazio tra l’VIII e il V secolo, DdA, 4–5: 37–68.
Ampolo C. (1980) “Le condizioni materiali della produzione. Agricoltura e paesaggio agrario,” DialArch2 1: 15–46.
Ampolo C. (1981) “Le cave di pietra dell’Attica: problemi giuridici ed economici,” Opus 1: 251–60.
Amyx D. A. (1958) “The Attic stelai, part III: vases and other containers,” Hesperia 27: 163–310.
Amyx D. A. (1988) Corinthian Vase-Painting of the Archaic Period. (3 vols.) Berkeley.
Anderson J. D. (1992) Roman Military Supply in North-East England: An Analysis of and an Alternative to the Piercebridge Formula. Oxford.
Andreades M. (1933) A History of Greek Public Finance. Cambridge, MA.
Andreau J. (1987) La vie financière dans le monde romain: les métiers des manieurs d’argent (IV e siècle av. J.-C. – IIIe siècle ap. J.-C.). Rome.
Andreau J. (1988) “Recherches récentes sur les mines à l’époque romaine. 1. Propriété et mode d’exploitation,” RN VIee s., 30: 86–112.
Andreau J. (1989) “Recherches récentes sur les mines à l’époque romaine. II. Nature de la main d’oeuvre; histoire des techniques et de la production,” RN IIe s., 31: 85–108.
Andreau J. (1994) “La cité romaine dans ses rapports à l’échange et au monde de l’échange,” in Andreau , Briant , and Descat , eds. (1994): 83–98.
Andreau J. (1995) “Vingt ans d’après l’économie antique de Moses I. Finley,” Annales ESC 50: 947–60.
Andreau J. (1999) Banking and Business in the Roman World. Cambridge.
Andreau J. (2001) “Markets, fairs and monetary loans. Cultural history and economic history in Roman Italy and Hellenistic Greece,” in Cartledge , Cohen , and Foxhall , eds. (2001): 113–29.
Andreau J., Briant P., and Descat R., eds. (1994) Economie Antique. Les échanges dans l’antiquité: le rôle de l’état. Saint-Bertrand-de-Comminges.
Andreau J., Briant P., and Descat R., eds. (1997) Economie Antique. Prix et formation des prix dans les économies antiques. Saint-Bertrand-de-Comminges.
Andreau J., Briant P., and Descat R., eds. (2000) Economie Antique. La guerre dans les économies antiques. Saint- Bertrand-de-Comminges.
Andreou S. (2001) “Exploring the patterns of power in the Bronze Age settlements of northern Greece,” in Branigan , ed. (2001b): 160–73.
Andreou S., Fotiadis , M., and Kotsakis K. (2001) “The Neolithic and Bronze Age of northern Greece,” in Cullen, ed. (2001): 259–327.
Andreyev V. N. (1967) “ATTИческое обЩественное землевладенИе IV–III ВВ.ДО Н.з.,” VDI 2: 48–76.
Andrieu-Ponel V., Ponel P., Bruneton H., Leveau P., and Beaulieu J.-L. (2000) “Palaeoenvironments and cultural landscapes of the last 2000 years reconstructed from pollen and Coleopteran records in the Lower Rhône Valley, southern France,” The Holocene 10: 341–55.
Angel L. (1971) Lerna. A Preclassical Site in the Argolid. Vol. II: The People. Princeton.
Angel L. (1972) “Genetic and social factors in a Cypriot village,” Human Biology 44: 53–88.
Angel L. (1977) “Anemias of antiquity: eastern Mediterranean,” in Porotic Hyperostosis: An Inquiry : 1–5. Detroit, MI.
Angel L. (1978) “Porotic hyperostosis in the eastern Mediterranean,” Medical College of Virginia Quarterly 15: 10–16.
Aperghis G. G. (1997) “Surplus, exchange and price in the Persepolis fortification texts,” in Andreau , Briant , and Descat , eds. (1997): 277–90.
Aperghis G. G. (1998) “The Persepolis fortification texts – another look,” in Brosius M. and Kuhrt A., eds., Studies in Persian History: Essays in Memory of David M. Lewis : 35–62. Leiden.
Aperghis G. G. (2000) “War captives and economic exploitation: evidence from the Persepolis fortification tablets,” in Andreau , Briant , and Descat , eds. (2000): 127–44.
Aperghis G. G. (2001) “Population-production-taxation-coinage: a model for the Seleukid economy,” in Archibald et al., eds. (2001): 69–102.
Aperghis G. G. (2004) The Seleukid Royal Economy. The Finances and Financial Administration of the Seleukid Economy. London.
Apicella C. (2005) “L’économie de Sidon à l’époque séleucide: commerce international et commerce régional,” in Chankowsky and Duyrat , eds. (2005): 229–40.
Applebaum S. (1989) “The Roman villa in Judaea: a problem,” in Judaea in Hellenistic and Roman Times : 124–31. Leiden.
Aquilué X., Burés L., Castanyer P., Esteba Q., Pons E., Santos M., and Tremoleda J. (2000) “Els assentaments indígenes I l’ocupacío grega arcaica de Sant Martí d’Empúries (L’Escala, Alt Empordà). Resultats del projecte d’intervencions arqueològiques de 1994 I 1995,” in Buxó R. and Pons E., eds., L’hàbitat protohistòric a Catalunya, Rosselló I Llenguadoc Occidental. Actualitat de l’arqueologia de l’edat del Fero: 19–32. Girona.
Aquilué X., Castanyer P., Santos M., and Tremoleda J. (2002) “Nuevos datos acerca del hábitat arcaico de la Palaia Polis de Ampurias,” Pallas 58: 301–28.
Araus J. L., Slafer G. A., Buxó R., and Romagosa I. (2003) “Productivity in prehistoric agriculture: physiological models for the quantification of cereal yields as an alternative to traditional approaches,” JArchSc 30: 681–93.
Aravantinos V. L., Godart L., and Sacconi A., eds. (2001) Thèbes: fouilles de la Cadmée I: les tablettes en linéaire B de la Odos Pelopidou, édition et commentaire. Pisa and Rome.
Aravantinos V. L., Godart L., and Sacconi A., eds.(2002) Thèbes, fouilles de la Cadmée III: corpus des documents d’archives en linéaire B de Thèbes (1–433). Pisa and Rome.
Arcelin P. (1986) “Le territoire de Marseille grecque dans son contexte indigène,” in Bats M. and Tréziny H., eds., Le Territoire de Marseille Grecque : 43–104. Aix-en-Provence.
Arcelin P. (1990) “Arles,” in Voyage en Massalie: 100 ans d’archéologie en Gaule du Sud : 194–201. Marseille.
Arcelin P. (1992) “Société indigène et propositions culturelles massaliotes en basse Provence occidentale,” in Bats et al., eds. (1992): 305–36.
Arcelin P. (1993) “Céramique non tournée des ateliers de la région de Marseille,” in Py M., ed., Lattara 6: DIOCER. Dictionnaire des céramiques antiques (VIIe s. av. n.è. – VIIe s. de n.è.) en Méditerranée nord-occidentale (Provence, Languedoc, Ampurdan): 307–10. Lattes.
Arcelin P. (1995) “Arles protohistorique, centre d’échanges économiques et culturels,” in Arcelin et al., eds. (1995): 325–38.
Arcelin P., Arcelin-Pradelle C., and Gasco Y. (1982) “Le village protohistorique du Mont-Garou (Sanary, Var). Les premières manifestations de l’impérialisme marseillais sur la côte provençale,” Documents d’Archéologie Méridionale 5: 53–137.
Arcelin P., Bats M., Garcia D., Marchand G., and Schwaller M., eds. (1995) Sur les pas des Grecs en Occident. Paris and Lattes.
Arcelin-Pradelle C. (1984) La céramique grise monochrome en Provence. (Supplément 10 of the Révue Archéologique de Narbonnaise.) Paris.
Archer L., ed. (1988) Slavery and Other Forms of Unfree Labour. London and New York.
Archibald Z. H. (2001) “Setting the scene,” in Archibald et al., eds. (2001): 1–9.
Archibald Z. H., Davies J. K., and Gabrielsen V., eds. (2005) Making, Moving and Managing: The New World of Ancient Economies, 323–31 B.C.E. Oxford.
Archibald Z. H., Davies J. K., Gabrielsen V., and Oliver G. J., eds. (2001) Hellenistic Economies. London and New York.
Argoud G. (1987) “Eau et agriculture en Grèce,” in Louis et al., eds. (1987): 25–42.
Armstrong P., Cavanagh W. G., and Shipley G. (1992) “Crossing the river: observations on routes and bridges in Laconia from the Archaic to Byzantine periods,” BSA 87: 293–303.
Arnaoutoglou I. (1998) Ancient Greek Laws. London and New York.
Arribas PalauA., Trias M. G., Cerdà D., and Hoz J. (1987) El Barco de El Sec (Calvià, Mallorca). Estudio de los Materiales. Palma de Majorque.
Arribas A. (1987) “El Sec: presentación,” REA 89: 15–20.
Asenio D., Belarte C., Sanmarti J., and Santacana J. (2000) “L’expansion phénicienne sur la côte orientale de la Péninsule ibérique,” in Janin T., ed., Mailhac et le Premier Age du fer en Europe occidentale: hommages à Odette et Jean Taffanel : 249–60. Lattes.
Asheri D. (1969) Leggi greche sul problema dei debiti. Pisa.
Ashmole B. (1972) Architect and Sculptor in Classical Greece. London.
Ashton S.-A. (2003) Petrie’s Ptolemaic and Roman Memphis. London.
Aston T. H. and Philpin C. H. E., eds. (1985) The Brenner Debate: Agrarian Class Structure and Economic Development in Pre-Industrial Europe. Cambridge.
Atkinson K. M. T. (1972) “A Hellenistic land-conveyance: the estate of Mnesimachus in the plain of Sardes,” Historia 21: 45–74.
Aubert J.-J. (1994) Business Managers in Ancient Rome: A Social and Economic Study of Institores, 200 B.C.–A.D. 250. Leiden.
Aubert J.-J. ed. (2003) Tâches publiques et entreprise privée dans le monde romain. Geneva.
Aubert J.-J. and Sirks B., eds. (2002) Speculum Iuris: Roman Law as a Reflection of Social and Economic Life in Antiquity. Ann Arbor.
Aubet M. E. (1993) The Phoenicians and the West: Politics, Colonies and Trade. Cambridge.
Aubet M. E. (2001) The Phoenicians and the West: Politics, Colonies, and Trade. 2nd edn. Cambridge.
Audouze F. and Büchsenschütz O. (1991) Towns, Villages and Countryside of Celtic Europe. London.
Augapfel J. (1917) Babylonische Rechtsurkunden aus der regierungszeit Artaxerxes I und Darius II. Vienna.
Ault B. A. (1994) “Koprones and oil presses: domestic installations related to agricultural productivity and processing at classical Halieis,” in Doukellis and Mendoni , eds. (1994): 197–206.
Aura JorroF. (1985–93) Diccionario micénico 1–11. Madrid.
Aurell M., Dumoulin O., and Thélamon F., eds. (1992) La sociabilité et convivialité à travers les âges. Rouen.
Austin M. M. (1986) “Hellenistic kings, war, and the economy,” CQ 80 n.s. 36: 450–66.
Austin M. M. (1994) “Society and economy,” in Boardman J. et al., eds., The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume VI: The Fourth Century BC: 527–64. 2nd edn. Cambridge.
Austin M. M., and Vidal-Naquet P. (1977) Economic and Social History of Ancient Greece. Revised edn. London.
Aykroyd R. G., Lucy D., Pollard A. M., and Roberts C. A. (1999) “Nasty, brutish, but not necessarily short,” American Antiquity 64: 55–70.
Azuar R., Rouillard P., Gailledrat E., Moret P., Sala F., and Badie A. (1998) “El asentamiento orientalizante e ibérico antiguo de ‘La Rabita’, Guardamar del Segura (Alicante). Avance de las excavaciones 1996–1998,” Trabajos de Prehistoria 55: 111–26.
Badian E., ed. (1966) Ancient Society and Institutions. Studies Presented to V. Ehrenberg. Oxford.
Baehrel R. (1961) Une croissance: la Basse-Provence rurale (fin du XVIe siècle –1789). Paris.
Baer K. (1962) “The low price of land in ancient Egypt,” JARCE 1: 25–45.
Bagnall R. S. (1985) “The camel, the wagon and the donkey in later Roman Egypt,” BASP 22: 1–6.
Bagnall R. S. (1988) “Archaeology and papyrology,” JRA 1: 197–202.
Bagnall R. S. (1992) “Landholding in late Roman Egypt: the distribution of wealth,” JRS 82: 128–49.
Bagnall R. S. (1993) Egypt in Late Antiquity. Princeton.
Bagnall R. S. (1995) Reading Papyri, Writing Ancient History. London.
Bagnall R. S. (1999) Review of Cadell H. and Rider G., ” Prix du blé et numéraire dans l’ Égypte Lagide de 305 à 173 (Brussels 1997), Swiss Numismatic Revue 78: 197–203.
Bagnall R. S. (2001) “Archaeological work on Hellenistic and Roman Egypt, 1995–2000,” AJA 105: 227–43.
Bagnall R. S. (2002) “The effects of plague: model and evidence,” JRA 15: 114–20.
Bagnall R. S. and Frier B. W. (1994) The Demography of Roman Egypt. Cambridge.
Bagnall R. S., Frier B. W., and Rutherford I. C. (1997) The Census Register P. Oxy. 984: The Reverse of Pindar’s Paeans. Brussels.
Bailey D. M. (1991) Excavations at El-Ashmunein IV: Hermopolis Magna, Buildings of the Roman Period. London.
Bailey D. M. (1996) “Honorific columns, cranes and the Tuna epitaph,” in Bailey D. M., ed., Archaeological Research in Roman Egypt. JRA Suppl. 19: 155–68. Ann Arbor.
Bailey D. M. (2007) “Architectural blocks from the great theatre at Oxyrhynchus,” in Oxyrhynchus: a City and its Texts, forthcoming.
Bairoch P. (1989) “Urbanization and the findings of two decades of research,” Journal of European Economic History 18: 239–90.
Bakels C. and Jacomet S. (2003) “Access to luxury foods in Central Europe during the Roman period,” World Archaeology 34: 542–57.
Baker H. D. (2001) “Degrees of freedom: slavery in mid-first millennium BC Babylonia,” World Archaeology 33: 18–26.
Baker H. D. (2003a) “Record-keeping practices as revealed by the neo-Babylonian private archival documents,” in Brosius , ed. (2003b): 241–63.
Baker H. D. (2003b) “Warfare,” in Erskine A., ed., A Companion to the Hellenistic World: 373–88. Oxford.
Ball W. (2000) Rome in the East: The Transformation of an Empire. London and New York.
Ballet P. (1992) Ateliers de potiers et productions céramiques en Egypte. Cahiers de la céramique égyptienne 3. Cairo.
Balot R. (2001) Greed and Injustice in Classical Athens. Princeton.
Banaji J. (2001) Agrarian Change in Late Antiquity. Gold, Labour and Aristocratic Dominance. Oxford.
Bandi L. (1937) “I conti privati nei papiri dell’Egitto greco-romano,” Aegyptus 17: 349–451.
Banerjee A. and Iyer L. (2002) “History, institutions and economic performance: the legacy of colonial land tenure systems in India,” Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Economics, Working Paper Series: 02–27.
Bang P. F. (2002) “Romans and Mughals. Economic integration in a tributary empire,” in Blois and Rich , eds. (2002): 1–27.
Bannon C. (1997) The Brothers of Romulus: Fraternal Pietas in Roman Law, Literature, and Society. Princeton.
Bar D. (2002) “Was there a 3rd-c. economic crisis in Palestine?” in Humphrey J. H., ed., The Roman and the Byzantine Near East 3 : 43–54. Portsmouth, R. I.
Barber E. W. (1991) Prehistoric Textiles: the Development of Cloth in the Neolithic and Bronze Ages with Special Reference to the Aegean. Princeton.
Barker G., Gilbertson D., Jones B., and Mattingly D. (1996) Farming the Desert: The UNESCO Libyan Valleys Survey Project. 2 vols. Paris and London.
Barker G. W. and Hunt C. O. (1995) “Quaternary valley floor erosion and alluviation in the Biferno valley, Molise, Italy: the role of tectonics, climate, sea level change, and human activity,” in Lewin J., Macklin M. G., and Woodward J. C., eds.,Mediterranean Quaternary River Environments: 145–57. Rotterdam.
Barker G. W. and Lloyd J., eds. (1991) Roman Landscapes: Archaeological Survey in the Mediterranean Region. London.
Barnish S. (1989) “The transformation of classical cities,” JRA 2: 385–400.
Barrett J. C., Fitzpatrick A. P., and Macinnes L., eds. (1989) Barbarians and Romans in North-West Europe: From the Later Republic to Late Antiquity. Oxford.
Barrett J. C. and Halstead P., eds. (2004) The Emergence of Civilisation Revisited. Sheffield Studies in Aegean Archaeology 6. Oxford.
Barruol G. (1973) “Les Elisyques et leur capitale Naro/ Narbo,” in Narbonne. Archéologie et Histoire. XLVe Congrès de la Fédération Historique du Languedoc méditerranéen et du Roussillon (Narbonne, 14–16 avril 1972): 49–55. Montpellier.
Barruol G. (1975) Les peuples préromains du sud-est de la Gaule. Étude de géographie historique. Paris.
Barruol G. (1980) “Le pays des Sordes,” in Barruol G., ed., Ruscino. Château-Roussillon, Perpignan (Pyrénées-Orientales). I-État de travaux et recherches en 1975: 29–35. Paris.
Barzel Y. (1997) Economic Analysis of Property Rights. 2nd edn. Cambridge.
Bass G. (1967) Cape Gelidonya: a Bronze Age Shipwreck. Philadelphia.
Bass G. (1991) “Evidence of trade from Bronze Age shipwrecks,” in Gale ed. (1991a): 69–82.
Bastomsky S. J. (1990) “Rich and poor: the great divide in ancient Rome and Victorian England,” G&R 37: 37–43.
Bats M. (1986) “Le territoire de Marseille grecque: réflexions et problèmes,” in Bats and Tréziny , eds. (1986): 17–42.
Bats M. (1988a) “La logique de l’écriture d’une société à l’autre en Gaule méridionale protohistorique,” Revue Archéologique de Narbonnaise 21: 121–48.
Bats M. (1988b) “Les inscriptions et graffites sur vases céramiques de Lattara protohistorique (Lattes, Hérault),” in Lattara 1: 147–60. Lattes.
Bats M. (1988c) “Le territoire de Marseille grecque: réflexions et problèmes,” Vaisselle et alimentation à Olbia de Provence (v. 350–v. 50 av. J.-C.). Modèles culturels et catégories céramiques. Paris.
Bats M. (1989) “La Provence protohistorique,” in La Provence des origines à l’an mil: histoire et archéologie: 169–256. Evreux.
Bats M. (1992) “Marseille, les colonies massaliètes et les relais indigènes dans le trafic le long du littoral méditerranéen gaulois (VIe–Ier s. av. J.-C.),” in Bats et al., eds. (1992): 263–78.
Bats M. (1993) “Céramique à pâte claire massaliète et de tradition massaliète,” in Py M., ed., Lattara 6: DIOCER. Dictionnaire des céramiques antiques (VIIe s. av. n.è. – VIIIe s. de n.è.) en Méditerranée nord-occidentale (Provence, Languedoc, Ampurdan): 206–21. Lattes.
Bats M. (1995) “La tour d’angle sud-est d’Olbia de Provence et son dépotoir (v. 200–175 av. J.-C.),” in Arcelin et al., eds. (1995): 371–92. Paris and Lattes.
Bats M. (1998) “Marseille archaïque: Étrusques et Phocéens en Méditerranée nordoccidentale,” MEFRA 110: 609–33.
Bats M. (2000) “Les Grecs en Gaule au Premier Age du fer et le commerce emporique en Méditerranée occidentale,” in Janin T., ed., Mailhac et le Premier Age du fer en Europe occidentale: hommages à Odette et Jean Taffanel: 243–48. Lattes.
Bats M., ed. (1990) Les amphores deMarseille grecque. Chronologie et diffusion (VIe–Ier s. av. J.-C.). Lattes.
Bats M., Bertucchi G., Congès G., and Tréziny H., eds. (1992) Marseille grecque et la Gaule. Actes du Colloque international d’Histoire et d’Archéologie et du Ve Congrès archéologique de Gaule méridionale (Marseille, 1990). Lattes and Aix-en-Provence.
Bats M. and Tréziny H., eds. (1986) Le territoire de Marseille grecque (Actes de la Table-Ronde d’Aix-en-Provence, mars 1985). Aix-en-Provence.
Baumann H. (1993) Greek Wild Flowers and Plant Lore in Ancient Greece, translated and augmented by Stearn W. T. and Stearn E. R.. London.
Bazant J. (1985) Les citoyens sur les vases athéniens. Prague.
Baziotopoulou-Valabani E. (1994) “Aνασκαφές σε αθηναικά κεραμικά εργαστήρια αρχαϊκών και κλασικών χρόνων” in Coulson et al., eds. (1994): 45–54.
Beaud M. and Dostaler G. (1995) Economic Thought Since Keynes: A History and Dictionary of Major Economists, translated by Cauchemez V.. London and New York.
Beaulieu P.-A. (2000) “A finger in every pie: the institutional connections of a family of entrepreneurs in neo-Babylonian Larsa,” in Bongenaar , ed. (2000): 43–72.
Beck C. W. (1966) “Analysis and provenience of Minoan and Mycenaean amber,” GRBS 7: 191–211.
Beck C. W., Southard G. C., and Adams A. B. (1968) “Analysis and provenience of Minoan and Mycenaean amber, II: Tiryns,” GRBS 9: 5–19.
Becker G. S. (1988) “Family economics and macro behavior,” American Economic Review 78: 1–13.
Becker G. S. (1992) “On the new institutional economics: comments,” in Werin L. and Wijkander H., eds., Contract Economics: 66–71. Cambridge, MA, and Oxford.
Becker G. S. (1993) Human Capital: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis, with Special Reference to Education, 3rd edn. Chicago.
Becker G. S., Murphy K. M., and Tamura R. (1990) “Human capital, fertility, and economic growth,” Journal of Political Economy 98: S12–S37.
Beckman G. (1996) Hittite Diplomatic Texts. Society for Biblical Literature, Writings from the Ancient World 7. Atlanta.
Bedford P. (2005) “The economy of the Near East in the first millennium BC,” in Manning and Morris , eds. (2005): 58–83.
Begg D. J. I. (2000) “Tebtunis, 1934–1999: the two insulae,” Echos du monde classique/Classical Views 19: 225–54.
Begley V. and Puma R., eds. (1991) Rome and India. Madison.
Behre K. E. (1988) “The role of man in European vegetation history,” in Huntley B. and Webb T., eds., Vegetation History: 633–72. Dordrecht.
Behrend D. (1979) Attische Pachturkunden. Vestigia, XII. Munich.
Behrend D. (1990) “Die Pachturkunden der Klytiden,” in Nenci and Thür , eds. (1990): 231–50.
Bekker-Nielsen T. (1989) The Geography of Power: Studies in the Urbanization of Roman North-West Europe. Oxford.
Belarte FrancoM. C. (1997) Arquitectura domèstica i estructura social a la Catalunya protohistòrica. Barcelona.
Bellotti P., Milli S., Tortora P., and Valeri P. (1995) “Physical stratigraphy and sedimentology of the late Pleistocene-Holocene Tiber delta depositional sequence,” Sedimentology 42: 617–34.
Beloch K. J. (1886) Die Bevölkerung der griechisch-römischen Welt. Leipzig.
Bémont C. and Jacob J.-P., eds. (1986) La terre sigillée gallo-romaine. Lieux de production du Haute Empire: implantations, produits, relations. Paris.
Bendall L. M. (1998–9) “A time for offerings: dedications of perfumed oil at Pylos festivals,” in Bennet and Driessen , eds. (1998–9): 1–9.
Bendall L. M. (2001b) “The economics of potnia in the Linear B documents: palatial support for Mycenaean religion,” in Laffineur R. and Hägg R., eds., POTNIA: Deities and Religion in the Aegean Bronze Age. Proceedings of the 8th International Aegean Conference, Göteborg, Göteborg University, 12–15 April 2000: 445–52. Liège and Austin, TX.
Bendall L. M. (2003) “A reconsideration of the Northeastern Building at Pylos: evidence for a Mycenaean redistributive center,” AJA 107: 181–231.
Bendall L. M. (2004) “Fit for a king? Hierarchy, exclusion, aspiration and desire in the social structure of Mycenaean banqueting,” in Halstead and Barrett , eds. (2004): 105–35.
Bengtsson T., Campbell C., Lee J. Z., et al. (2004) Life under Pressure: Standards of Living in Europe and Asia, 1700–1900. Cambridge, MA and London.
Bengtsson T. and Saito O., eds. (2000) Population and Economy: From Hunger to Modern Economic Growth. Oxford.
Bennet J. (1985) “The structure of the Linear B administration at Knossos,” AJA 89: 231–49.
Bennet J. (1988a) “Approaches to the problem of combining Linear B textual data and archaeological data in the Late Bronze Age Aegean,” in French E. B. and Wardle K. A., eds., Problems in Greek Prehistory: Papers Presented at the Centenary Conference of the British School of Archaeology at Athens, Manchester, April 1986: 509–18. Bristol.
Bennet J. (1988b) “Outside in the distance: problems in understanding the economic geography of Mycenaean palatial territories,” in Olivier and Palaima , eds. (1988): 19–41.
Bennet J. (1990) “Knossos in context: comparative perspectives on the Linear B administration of LM 11–111 Crete,” in American Journal of Archaeology 94: 193–211.
Bennet J. (1992) “‘Collectors’ or ‘owners’: some thoughts on their likely functions within the palatial economy of LM III Crete,” in Olivier , ed. (1992): 65–101.
Bennet J. (1995) “Space through time: diachronic perspectives on the spatial organization of the Pylian state,” in Niemeier and Laffineur , eds. (1995): 587–602.
Bennet J. (1997) “Homer and the Bronze Age,” in Morris and Powell , eds. (1997): 513–36.
Bennet J. (1998–9) “RE-U-KO-TO-RO ZA-WE-TE: Leuktron as a secondary capital in the Pylos kingdom?,” in Bennet and Driessen , eds. (1998–9): 11–30.
Bennet J. (1999a) “The Mycenaean conceptualization of space or Pylian geography … yet again,” in Deger-Jalkotzy , Hiller , and Panagl , eds. (1999): 131–57.
Bennet J. (1999b) “Pylos: the expansion of a Mycenaean palatial center,” in Galaty and Parkinson , eds. (1999): 9–18.
Bennet J. (2001) “Agency and bureaucracy: thoughts on the nature and extent of administration in Bronze Age Pylos,” in Voutsaki and Killen , eds. (2001): 25–37.
Bennet J. (2004) “Iconographies of value: words, people and things in the Late Bronze Age Aegean,” in Barrett and Halstead , eds. (2004): 90–106.
Bennet J. and Driessen J., eds. (1998–9) A-NA-QO-TA: Studies Presented to J. T. Killen. Minos 33–34. Salamanca.
Bennet J. and Galaty M. L. (1997) “Ancient Greece: recent developments in Aegean archaeology and regional studies,” Journal of Archaeological Research 5: 75–120.
Bennet J., and Shelmerdine C. W. (2001). “Not the palace of Nestor: the development of the ‘Lower Town’ and other non-palatial settlements in LBA Messenia,” in Branigan , ed. (2001b): 135–40.
Bennett E. L. Jr. (1956) “The landholders of Pylos,” AJA 60: 103–33.
Bennett E. L. Jr. (1992) “A selection of Pylos tablet texts,” in Olivier , ed. (1992): 103–27.
Bennett E. L. Jr. and Olivier J.-P. (1973) The Pylos Tablets Transcribed, I. Incunabula Graeca 51. Rome.
Bennett E. L. Jr., Melena J. L., Olivier J.-P., and Palmer R. (forthcoming) The Palace of Nestor at Pylos in Western Messenia IV: the Inscribed Documents. Cincinnati, OH.
Benoit F. (1965) Recherches sur l’hellénisation du Midi de la Gaule. Aix-en-Provence.
Benson J. L. (1989) Earlier Corinthian Workshops: A Study of Geometric and Protocorinthian Stylistic Groups. Amsterdam.
Bernal M. (1987) Black Athena: the Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilization, I: The Fabrication of Ancient Greece 1785–1985. London.
Bernal M. (1991) Black Athena: the Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilization, 2: The Archaeological and Documentary Evidence. London.
Bernardi M., ed. (1992) Archeologia del paesaggio (IV ciclo di lezioni sulla Ricerca applicata in Archeologia, Certosa di Pontignano (Siena), 1991). 2 vols. Florence.
Berry C. J. (1994) The Idea of Luxury: A Conceptual and Historical Investigation. Cambridge.
Bertucchi G. (1982) “Fouilles d’urgence et ateliers de potiers sur la butte des Carmes à Marseille. Les amphores,” RAN 15: 135–60.
Bertucchi G. (1992) Les amphores et le vin de Marseille, VIe s. avant J.-C – IIe s. après J.-C. Paris.
Bertucchi G., Gantès L. F., and Tréziny H. (1995) “Un atelier de coupes ioniennes à Marseille,” in Arcelin et al., eds. (1995): 367–70.
Berve H. and Gruben H. (1963) Greek Temples, Theatres, and Shrines. London.
Beschi L. (1992–3). “Nuovi iscrizioni da Efestia,” AnnuarioSAA 54–55: 259–74.
Betancourt P., Muhly J., Farrand W., Stearns C., Onyshkevych L., Hafford W., and Evely D. (1999) “Research and excavation at Chrysokamino, Crete, 1995–1998,” Hesperia 68: 343–70.
Bettalli M. (1981) “Note sulla produzione tessile ad Atene in età classica,” Opus 1: 261–78.
Bettalli M. (1985) “Case, botteghe, ergasteria: note sui luoghi di produzione e di vendità nell’Atene classica,” Opus 4: 29–42.
Bevan A. (2002) “The rural landscape of Neopalatial Kythera: a GIS perspective,” Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 15: 217–55.
Beyer F. (1995) Geldpolitik in der Römischen Kaiserzeit. Von der Währungsreform des Augustus bis Septimius Severus. Wiesbaden.
Bezeczky T. (1995) “Amphorae and amphora stamps from the Laecanius workshop,” JRA 8: 41–64.
Bianchi G. G. and McCave I. N. (1999) “Holocene periodicity in north Atlantic climate and deep-ocean flow south of Iceland,” Nature 397: 515–17.
Bichler R. (1983) “Hellenismus.” Geschichte und Problematik eines Epochenbegriffs. Darmstadt.
Bieber M. (1928) Griechische Kleidung. Berlin.
Bielenstein H. (1947) “The census of China during the period 2–742 AD,” Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities 19: 125–63.
Bienkowski P. (2001) “The Persian period,” in McDonald B., Adams R., and Bienkowski P., eds., The Archaeology of Jordan: 347–65. Sheffield.
Bienkowski P. and Steen E. (2001) “Tribes, trade, and towns: a new framework for the late Iron Age in southern Jordan and the Negev,” BASOR 323: 21–47.
Bietak M., ed. (2000) The Synchronisation of Civilisations in the Eastern Mediterranean in the Second Millennium B. C. Vienna.
Biezunska-Malowist I. (1977) L’esclavage dans l’Egypte gréco-romaine. Seconde parties: période romaine. Wroclaw.
Bikerman E. (1938) Institutions des Séleucides. Paris.
Bikerman E. (1939) “Sur une inscription grecque de Sidon,” in Festschrift R. Dussaud: 91–9. Paris.
Billot M. F. (1992) “Le Cynosarges, Antiochos, et les tanneurs: questions de topographie,” BCH 116: 119–56.
Billows R. A. (1990) Antigonos the One-Eyed and the Creation of the Hellenistic State. Berkeley.
Billows R. A. (1995) Kings and Colonists. Aspects of Macedonian Imperialism. Leiden.
Bingen J. (1952) Papyrus Revenue Laws. Göttingen.
Bingen J. (1978) Le papyrus Revenue-Laws. Tradition grecque et Adaptation hellénistique. Opladen.
Bingen J. (1984) “Les tensions structurelles de la société ptolémäique,” in Atti del XVII Congresso internazionale di papirologia: 921–37. Naples.
Bingen J., Bulow-Jacobsen A., Cockle W. E. H., Cuvigny H., Rubinsten L., and Rengen W. (1992) Mons Claudianus. Ostraca Graeca et Latina I (O. Claud. 1–190). Le Caire.
Bingen J., Bulow-Jacobsen A., Cockle W. E. H., Cuvigny H., Keyser F., and Rengen W. (1997) Mons Claudianus. Ostraca Graeca et Latina II (O. Claud. 191–414). Le Caire.
Bintliff J. L. (1994) “Territorial behaviour and the natural history of the Greek polis,” in Olshausen and Sonnabend , eds. (1994): 207–49.
Bintliff J. L. (1997a) “Further considerations on the population of ancient Boeotia,” in Bintliff J. L., ed., Recent Developments in the History and Archaeology of Central Greece: 231–52. Oxford.
Bintliff J. L. (1997b) “Regional survey, demography, and the rise of complex societies in the ancient Aegean: core-periphery, neo-Malthusian, and other interpretive models,” JFA 24: 1–38.
Bintliff J., Howard P., and Snodgrass A. M. (1999) “The hidden landscape of prehistoric Greece,” Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 12: 139–68. [with response, Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 13 (2000), 100–23.]
Bintliff J. L. and Sbonias K., eds. (1999) Reconstructing Past Population Trends in Mediterranean Europe (3000 B.C.–A.D. 1800). Oxford.
Bintliff J. L. and Snodgrass A. M. (1988) “The Cambridge/Bradford Boeotia expedition: the first four years,” Journal of Field Archaeology 12: 123–61.
Bintliff J. L. and Snodgrass A. M. (1998) “The end of the Roman countryside: a view from the east,” in Jones R. F. J. et al., eds. (1998): 175–217.
Biraben J.-N. (1975) Les hommes et la peste en France et dans les pays européens et méditerranéens, I: La peste dans l’histoire. Paris and La Haye.
Birley A. (2002) Garrison Life at Vindolanda. A Band of Brothers. Stroud.
Birley A. R. (1981) “The economic effects of Roman frontier policy,” in King A. and Henig M. The Roman West in the Third Century: Contributions from Archaeology and History: 39–53. Oxford.
Bisel S. (1990) “Die Menschenknochen aus dem Grab der Messenier,” in Kovcsovics W. K., ed., Kerameikos XIV. Die Eckterrasse aus der Gräberstrasse des Kerameikos: 151–9. Berlin.
Bisel S. C. and Angel L. (1985) “Health and nutrition in Mycenaean Greece,” in Wilkie N. and Coulson W., eds., Contributions to Aegean Archaeology: 197–210. Minneapolis, MN.
Bisel S. C. and Bisel J. F. (2002) “Health and nutrition at Herculaneum. An examination of human skeletal remains,” in Jashemski W. F. and Meyer F. G., eds., The Natural History of Pompeii: 451–75. Cambridge.
Bisi A. M. (1991) “L’economia fenicia tra Oriente e Occidente,” in Acuaro E., ed., Atti del II Congresso internazionale di studi fenici e punici (vol. 1): 259–7. Rome.
Blackman D. (2001) “Archaeology in Greece 2000–2001,” JHS-Archaeological Reports 47: 1–144.
Blagg T. F. C. and King A. C., eds. (1984) Military and Civilian in Roman Britain: Cultural Relationships in a Frontier Province. Oxford.
Blanton R. E. (1996) “A consideration of causality in the growth of empire: a comparative perspective,” in Berdan F., Blanton R. E., Boone E. H., Hodge M. G., Smith M. E., and Umberger E., eds., Aztec Imperial Strategies: 219–25. Washington, DC.
Blavatskaja T. V., Golubcova E. S., Pavlovskaja A. I. (1972) Die Sklaverei in hellenistischen Staaten im 3. – 1. Jh. v. Chr. Wiesbaden.
Blegen C. W. and Rawson M. (1966) The Palace of Nestor at Pylos in Western Messenia. Volume I: the Buildings and their Contents. 2 vols. Princeton.
Blegen C. W., Rawson M., Taylour W., and Donovan W. P. (1973) The Palace of Nestor at Pylos in Western Messenia. Volume III: Acropolis and Lower Town, Tholoi, Grave Circles and Chamber Tombs, Discoveries outside the Citadel. Princeton.
Bloemers J. H. F. (1989) “Acculturation in the Rhine/Meuse basin in the Roman period: some demographical considerations,” in Barrett , Fitzpatrick , and Macinnes , eds. (1989): 175–97.
Blois L. and Rich J., eds. (2002) The Transformation of Economic Life under the Roman Empire. Amsterdam.
Blondé F. P., Ballet P., and Salles J.-F., eds. (2002) Céramiques hellénistiques et romaines. Productions et diffusion en Méditerranée orientale. Lyon.
Blondel J. and Aronson J. (1999) Biology and Wildlife of the Mediterranean Region. Oxford.
Blümner H. (1912) Technologie und Terminologie der Gerwerbe und Künste bei Griechen und Römern, 2nd edn. Leipzig and Berlin.
Boak A. E. R. (1937) “The organization of gilds in Greco-Roman Egypt,” TAPA 68: 212–20.
Boardman J. (1988a) “Trade in Greek decorated pottery,” OJA 7: 27–33.
Boardman J. (1988b) “The trade figures,” OJA 7: 371–3.
Boardman J. (1990) “Al Mina and history,” OJA 9: 169–90.
Boardman J. (1991) “The sixth-century potters and painters of Athens and their public,” in Rasmussen T. and Spivey N., eds., Looking at Greek Vases: 79–102. Cambridge.
Boardman J. (1994) “Orientalia and orientals on Ischia,” Istituto Universitario Orientale, Annali. Archeologia e Storia Antica n. s. 1: 95–100.
Boardman J. (1998) Early Greek Vase Painting: 11th to 6th Centuries B. C.: A Handbook. London.
Boardman J. (1999) The Greeks Overseas, 4th edn. London.
Boardman J. and Vaphopoulou-Richardson C. E., eds. (1986) Chios. A Conference at the Homereion in Chios, 1984. Oxford.
Boardman J., Hammond N. G. L., Lewis D. M. and Ostwald M. (1988) The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume IV: Persia, Greece and the Western Mediterranean, c. 525 to 479 BC. 2nd edn. Cambridge.
Bocock R. (1993) Consumption. London.
Boeckh A. (1842) Public Economy of Athens, 2nd edn. London.
Boeckh A. (1886) Die Staatshaushaltung der Athener, 3rd edn. Berlin.
Boersma J. S. (1970) Athenian Building Policy from 561/0 to 405/4 B.C. Groningen.
Bogaert R. (1968) Banques et banquiers dans les cités grecques. Leiden.
Bogaert R. (1986) “La banque à Athènes au IVe siècle avant J.-C. Etat de la question,” MH 43: 19–49.
Bogaert R. (1994) Trapezitica Aegyptiaca. Recueil de Recherches sur la Banque en Egypte Gréco-Romaine. Papyrologica Florentina (vol. 25). Florence.
Bogaert R. (1995) “Liste géographique des banques et des banquiers de l’Egypte romaine, 30A–284,” ZPE 109: 133–73.
Bogaert R. (1998–9) “Les opérations des banques de l’Égypte ptolémaïque,” Ancient Society 29: 49–145.
Bogaert R. (2000) “Les opérations des banques de l’Egypte romaine,” Anc.Soc. 30: 135–269.
Bogaert R. (2001) “Les documents bancaires de l’Egypte gréco-romaine et byzantine,” Anc.Soc. 31: 173–288.
Bohannan P. and Dalton G., eds. (1962) Markets in Africa. Evanston, IL.
Boissinot P. (1995) “L’empreinte des paysages helléniques dans les formations holocènes de Saint-Jean du Désert (Marseille),” Méditerranée 82: 33–40.
Boiy T. (2004) Late Achaemenid and Hellenistic Babylon. Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 126 (Leuven).
Boiy T. and Verhoeven K. (1998) “Arrian, Anabasis VII 21.1–4 and the Pallukkatu Channel,” in Gasche H. and Tanret M., eds., Changing Watercourses in Babylonia. Towards a Reconstruction of the Ancient Environment in Lower Mesopotamia (vol. 1): 147–58. Gent and Chicago.
Bol P. C. (1985) Antike Bronzetechnik. Kunst und Handwerk antiker Erzbildner. Munich.
Bolkestein H. (1958) Economic Life in Greece’s Golden Age, revised by Jonkers E. J.. Leiden.
Bondí S. F. (1991) “Elementi di storia fenicia nell’ età dell’ espansione mediterranea,” in Acuaro E., ed., Atti del II Congresso internazionale di studi fenici e punici (vol. 1): 51–8. Rome.
Bongenaar A. C. V. M. (2000a) “Private archives in neo-Babylonian Sippar and their institutional connections,” in Bongenaar , ed. (2000b): 73–94.
Bongenaar A. C. V. M., ed. (2000b) Interdependency of Institutions and Private Entrepreneurs. Leiden.
Bonneau D. (1971) Le Fisc et le Nil. Incidences des irrégularités de la crue du Nil sur la fiscalité foncière dans l’Egypte grecque et romaine. Paris.
Bonneau D. (1993) Le Régime administratif de l’eau du Nil dans l’Egypte grecque, romaine et byzantine. Leiden.
Bonney R., ed. (1995) Economic Systems and State Finance. Oxford.
Boserup E. (1965) The Conditions of Agricultural Growth. The Economics of Agrarian Change under Population Pressure. London and Chicago.
Boserup E. (1970) Woman’s Role in Economic Development. London.
Boserup E. (1981) Population and Technological Change: A Study of Long-Term Trends. Chicago.
Boswell J. (1988) The Kindness of Strangers: The Abandonment of Children in Western Europe from Late Antiquity to the Renaissance. New York.
Boswinkel E. and Pestman P. W. (1982) Les archives privées de Dionysios, fils de Kephalas. P. L. Bat.22. Textes grecs et démotiques. Leiden.
Bosworth A. B. (1988) Conquest and Empire: The Reign of Alexander the Great. Cambridge.
Bottema S. and Zeist W. (1985) “A palaeobotanical examination of waterlogged sediments at Carthage,” Cahiers ligures de Préhistoire et de Protohistoire, n. s. 2: 225–37.
Bottema S., Entjes-Nieborg G., and Zeist W., eds. (1990) Man’s Role in the Shaping of the Eastern Mediterranean Landscape. Rotterdam.
Bouckaert B. (2000) “Original assignment of private property,” in Bouckaert and Geest , eds. (2000) (vol. II): 1–17.
Bouckaert B. and Geest G., eds. (2000) Encyclopedia of Law and Economics. (5 vols.) Cheltenham, UK, and Northampton, MA. Online edition (1999): http: //∼gdegeest/generali.htm
Bouiron M. and Tréziny H., eds. (2001) Marseille: trames et paysages urbains de Gyptis au Roi René. Aix-en-Provence.
Boulotis C. (1990) “Villes et palais dans l’art égéen du IIe millénaire,” in Darcque and Treuil , eds. (1990): 421–59.
Boulotis C. (1998) “Les nouveaux documents en linéaire A d’Akrotiri (Théra): remarques préliminaires,” BCH 122: 407–11.
Bouloumié B. (1982a) L’épave étrusque d’Antibes et le commerce en Méditerranée occidentale au VIe siècle av. J.-C. Marburg.
Bouloumié B. (1982b) “Saint-Blaise et Marseille au vie siècle avant J.-C.: l’hypothèse étrusque,” Latomus 41: 74–91.
Bouloumié B. (1987) “Le rôle des Etrusques dans la diffusion des produits étrusques et grecs en milieu préceltique et celtique,” in Hallstatt-Studien (Tübinger Kolloquium zur westeuropäischen Hallstatt-Zeit, 1980) : 20–43. Weinheim.
Bouloumié B. (1989) “L’Etrurie et les ressources de la Gaule,” in Atti: Secondo Congresso Internazionale Etrusco, Firenze 26 Maggio–2 Giugno 1985: 813–92. Rome.
Bouloumié B. (1992) Saint-Blaise (fouilles H. Rowland). L’habitat protohistorique, les céramiques grecques. Aix-en-Provence.
Bouloumié B. and Lagrand C. (1977) “Les bassins à rebord perlé et autres basins de Provence,” RAN 10: 1–31.
Bounni A. (1989) “Palmyre et les Palmyréniens,” in Dentzer J.-M. and Orthmann W., eds., Archéologie et histoire de la Syrie II: 251–66. Saarbrücken.
Bouscaras A. and Hugues C. (1967) “La cargaison des bronzes de Rochelongue, Agde, Hérault,” RELig 33: 173–84.
Boussac M.-F. et al., eds. (2002) Autour de Coptos. Topoi Suppl. 3. Paris.
Bowden W. (2003) Epirus Vetus. The Archaeology of a Late Antique Province. London.
Bowersock G. W. (1983) Roman Arabia. Cambridge, MA.
Bowersock G. W. (1989) “Social and economic history of Syria under the Roman empire,” in Dentzer J.-M. and Orthmann W., eds., Archéologie et histoire de la Syrie II : 63–80. Saarbrücken.
Bowman A. K. (1994) Life and Letters on the Roman Frontier: Vindolanda and Its People. London and New York.
Bowman A. K., Champlin E., and Lintott A., eds. (1996) The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume X: The Augustan Empire, 43BC–AD69. 2nd edn. Cambridge.
Bowman A. K., Garnsey P., and Rathbone D., eds. (2000) The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume XI: The High Empire. 2nd edn. Cambridge.
Bowman A. K. and Rathbone D. W. (1992) “Cities and administration in Roman Egypt,” JRS 82: 107–27.
Bowman A. K. and Rogan E., eds. (1999) Agriculture in Egypt from Pharaonic to Modern Times. Oxford.
Bowman A. K. and Thomas J. D. (1983) Vindolanda: The Latin Writing-Tablets, Britannia Monograph 4. London.
Bowman A. K. and Thomas J. D. (1994) The Vindolanda Writing-Tablets. Tabulae Vindolandenses 2. London.
Bowman A. K. and Thomas J. D. (2003) The Vindolanda Writing-Tablets. Tabulae Vindolandenses 3. London.
Bowra C. M. (1964) Pindar. Oxford.
Boyd T. D. and Jameson M. H. (1981) “Urban and rural land division in ancient Greece,” Hesperia 50: 327–42.
Bradley K. R. (1987) “On the Roman slave supply and slavebreeding,” in Finley M. I., ed., Classical Slavery: 42–64. London (reprinted 1999: 53–81).
Bradley K. R. (1991) Discovering the Roman Family. Oxford.
Bradley R. (1999) Paleoclimatology. 2nd edn. New York.
Brandt J. R. (1985) “Ostia, Minturno, Pyrgi. The planning of three Roman colonies,” in Torp H., Sande S., Brandt J. R., and Østby E., eds., Institutum Romanum Norvegiae, Acta ad archaeologiam et artium historiam pertinentia, series altera in 8° (vol. V): 25–87. Rome.
Branigan K. (2001a) “Aspects of Minoan urbanism,” in Branigan , ed. (2001b): 38–50.
Branigan K. ed. (2001b) Urbanism in the Aegean Bronze Age. Sheffield Studies in Aegean Archaeology 4, Sheffield.
Braudel F. (1966) La Méditerranée et le monde méditerranéen à l’époque de Philippe II. 2nd edn. Paris.
Braudel F. (1979) Les structures du quotidien: le possible et l’impossible. Paris.
Braudel F. (1980) On History, trans. Matthews S.. Chicago.
Braudel F. (1981–4) Civilization and Capitalism, 15th–18th Century. Translated by Reynolds S.. 3 vols. London.
Braudel F. (1990) The Identity of France. Vol. II. People and Production. Translated by Reynolds S.. London.
Bräuer G. and Fricke R. (1980) “Zur Phänomenologie osteoporotischer Veränderungen bei Bestehen systematischer hämatologischen Affektionen,” Homo 31: 198–211.
Braund D. (1989) “Ideology, subsidies and trade: the king on the northern frontier revisited,” in Barrett , Fitzpatrick , and Macinnes , eds. (1989): 14–26.
Braund D. (1995) “Fish from the Black Sea: Classical Byzantium and the Greekness of trade,” in Wilkins , Harvey , and Dobson , eds. (1995): 162–70.
Braunert H. (1964) Die Binnenwanderung. Studien zur Sozialgeschichte Ägyptens in der Ptolemäer- und Kaiserzeit. Bonn.
Bravo B. (1974) “Une lettre de plomb de Berezan. Colonisation et modes de contact dans le Pont,” DHA 1: 111–87.
Breeze D. (1984) “Demand and supply on the northern frontier,” in Micket R. and Burgess C., eds., Between and Beyond the Walls: Essays on the Prehistory and History of Northern Britain in Honour of G. Jobey : 264–86. Edinburgh.
Breeze D. (1989) “The impact of the Roman army on north Britain,” in Barrett , Fitzpatrick , and Macinnes , eds. (1989): 227–34.
Brenner R. (1976) “Agrarian class structure and economic development in pre-industrial Europe,” P & P 70: 30–75.
Brenot C. (1990) “Le monnayage de Marseille de la fin du IIIe siècle à 49 avant J.-C.,” in Duval A., Morel J. P., and Roman Y., eds., Gaule interne et Gaule méditerranéenne aux IIe et Ier siècles avant J.-C.: confrontations chronologiques: 27–35. Paris.
Brenot C. (1992) “Une étape du monnayage de Marseille: les émissions du ve s. av. J.-C.,” in Bats et al., eds. (1992): 245–53.
Bresson A. (1993) “Les cités grecques et leurs emporia,” in Bresson and Rouillard , eds. (1993): 163–226.
Bresson A. (2000) La cité marchande. Paris.
Bresson A. and Descat R., eds. (2001) Les cités d’Asie Mineure occidentale au IIesiècle. Bordeaux.
Bresson A. and Rouillard P., eds. (1993) L’Emporion. Paris.
Briant P. (1973) “Remarques sur ‘laoi’ et esclaves ruraux en Asie Mineure hellénistique,” in Actes du Colloque 1971 sur l’esclavage. Paris; reprinted in Briant (1982): 95–136.
Briant P. (1978) “Colonisation hellénistique et populations indigènes. La phase d’installation,” Klio 60: 57–92; reprinted in Briant (1982): 175–225.
Briant P. (1982) Rois, tributs et paysans. Paris.
Briant P. (1986a) “Alexandre et les ‘katarraktes’ du Tigre,” in Pailler J-M., ed., Mélanges offerts à Mr Michel Labrousse: 11–22. Toulouse.
Briant P. (1986b) “Polythéisme et empire unitaire (Remarques sur la politique religieuse des Achéménides),” in Lévêque P. and Mactoux M. M. Les grandes figures religieuses: fonctionnement pratique et symbolique dans l’antiquité: 425–43. Paris.
Briant P. (1994) “Prélèvements tributaires et échanges en Asie Mineure achéménide et hellénistique,” in Andreau , Briant , and Descat , eds. (1994): 69–81.
Briant P. (1996) Histoire de l’empire Perse. De Cyrus à Alexandre. Paris.
Briant P. (2001) Irrigation et drainage dans l’Antiquité, qanāts et canalisations souterraines en Iran, en Égypte et en Grèce. Paris.
Briant P. (2002) From Cyrus to Alexander: A History of the Persian Empire. Translated by Daniels P.. Winona Lake, IN.
Briant P. and Descat R. (1998) “Un registre douanier de la satrapie d’Egypte à l’époque archéménide (TAD C3, 7),” in Grimal N. and Menu B., eds., Le commerce en Egypte ancienne: 59–104. Cairo.
Briant P. and Herrenschmidt C., eds. (1989) Le tribut dans l’Empire perse. Louvain and Paris.
Brien-Poitevin F. (1990) “Tauroeis”, in Voyage en Massalie: 100 ans d’archéologie en Gaule du Sud: 202–5. Marseille.
Brien-Poitevin F. (1992) “Collecte, consommation et réutilisation des coquillages marins sur le site de Lattes (ive s. av. n. è.–IIe s. de n. è.),” in Py , ed., (1992a): 125–38.
Bringmann K. and Steuben H. (1995) Schenkungen hellenistischer Herrscher an griechische Städte und Heiligtümer. Teil I: Zeugnisse und Kommentare. Berlin.
Brinkman J. A. (1984) Prelude to Empire: Babylonian Society and Politics, 747–626 BC. Philadelphia.
Brock R. (1994) “The labour of women in classical Athens,” CQ 44: 336–46.
Brock R. and Hodkinson S., eds. (2000) Alternatives to Athens. Varieties of Political Organization and Community in Ancient Greece. Oxford.
Brockmeyer N. (1979) Antike Sklaverei. Darmstadt.
Broodbank C. (1999a) “Colonization and configuration in the insular Neolithic of the Aegean,” in Halstead P., ed., Neolithic Society in Greece: 15–41. Sheffield Studies in Aegean Archaeology 2, Sheffield.
Broodbank C. (1999b) “Kythera survey: preliminary report on the 1998 season,” BSA 94: 191–214.
Broodbank C. (2000) An Island Archaeology of the Early Cyclades. Cambridge.
Broodbank C. (2004) “Minoanisation,” PCPhS 50: 46–91.
Broodbank C. and Strasser T. F. (1991) “Migrant farmers and the Neolithic colonization of Crete,” Antiquity 65: 233–45.
Broshi M. (2001) Bread, Wine, Walls and Scrolls. Sheffield.
Broshi M. and Finkelstein I. (1992) “The population of Palestine in Iron Age II,” BASO 287: 47–60.
Brosius M. (2003a) “Reconstructing an archive: account and journal texts from Persepolis,” in Brosius , ed. (2003b): 264–83.
Brosius M. ed. (2003b) Ancient Archives and Archival Traditions: Concepts of Record-Keeping in the Ancient World. Oxford.
Broughton T. R. S. (1934) “Roman landholding in Asia Minor,” TAPA 65: 207–39.
Broughton T. R. S. (1938) “Roman Asia Minor,” in Frank T., ed., An Economic Survey of Ancient Rome IV: 499–918. Baltimore.
Brown A., ed. (2001) Arthur Evans’s Travels in Crete 1894–1899. British Archaeological Reports International Series 1000. Oxford.
Brown A. G., Meadows I., Turner S. D., and Mattingly D. J. (2001) “Roman vineyards in Britain: stratigraphic and palynological data from Wollaston in the Nene Valley, England,” Antiquity 75: 745–57.
Brown P. (1997a) The World of Late Antiquity from Marcus Aurelius to Muhammad. London.
Brown P. (1997b) “Report,” in The World of Late Antiquity Revisited, SO 72: 5–30.
Brown P. (2002) Poverty and Leadership in the Later Roman Empire. Hanover and London.
Brulé P. (1992) “Infanticide et abandon d’enfants: pratiques grecques et comparaisons anthropologiques,” DHA 18: 53–90.
Brun A. (1983) “Etude palynologique des sédiments marins Holocènes de 5000 B.P. à l’actuel dans le Golfe deGabès(Mer Pélagienne),” Pollen et Spores 25: 437–60.
Brun J.-P. (1986) L’oléiculture antique en Provence. Les huileries du département du Var. Revue archéologique de Narbonnaise Suppl. 15. Paris.
Brun J.-P. (1991) “Le village massaliote de La Galère (Ile de Porquerolles, Hyères, Var),” Documents d’Archéologie Méridionale 14: 239–76.
Brun J.-P. (1992) “Le village massaliote de La Galère à Porquerolles (Var) et la géographie des Stoechades au Ier s. av. J.-C.,” in Bats et al., eds. (1992): 279–88.
Brun J.-P. (1993) “L’oléiculture et la viticulture antique en Gaule: instruments et installations de production,” in Amouretti M. C. and Brun J. P., eds., La production du vin et de l’huile en Méditerranée: 307–41. Paris.
Brun J.-P. (1999) “Laudatissimum fuit antiquitus in Delos insula. La maison IB du Quartier du stade et la production des parfums à Délos,” BCH 123: 87–155.
Brun J.-P. (2003) Le vin et l’huile dans la Méditerranée antique. Viticulture, oléiculture et procédés de transformation. Paris.
Brun J.-P. (2004) Archéologie du vin et de l’huile: de la préhistoire à l’époque hellénstique. Paris.
Brun J.-P. and Laubenheimer F., eds. (2001) “La viticulture en Gaule,” Gallia 58: 1–260.
Brun P. (1983) Eisphora Syntaxis Stratiotika. Recherches sur les finances militaries d’Athènes au IVe siècle av. J.-C. Paris.
Brun P. (1987) Princes et princesses de la Celtique: le Premier Age du Fer en Europe, 850–450 av. J.-C. Paris.
Brun P. (1992) “L’influence grecque sur la société celtique non méditerranéenne,” in Bats et al., eds. (1992): 389–99.
Brunt P. A. (1971) Italian Manpower, 225 B.C.–A.D. 14. Oxford.
Brunt P. A. (1975) “Two great Roman landowners,” Latomus 34: 619–35.
Brunt P. A. (1980) “Free labour and public works at Rome,” JRS 70: 81–100.
Brunt P. A. (1987) Italian Manpower 225 B.C.–A.D. 14. Rev. edn. Oxford.
Brunt P. A. (1988) The Fall of the Roman Republic and Related Essays. Oxford.
Bruun C. (2003) “The Antonine plague in Rome and Ostia,” JRA 16 426–34.
Buchanan J. J. (1962) Theorika: A Study of Monetary Distributions to the Athenian Citizenry during the Fifth and Fourth Centuries B.C. Locust Valley, NY.
Buckland P. C., Dugmore A. J., and Edwards K. J. (1997) “Bronze Age myths? Volcanic activity and human response in the Mediterranean and north Atlantic regions,” Antiquity 71: 581–93.
Buckland W. W. (1908) The Roman Law of Slavery. Cambridge.
Buckler W. H. (1932) Sardis VII. Leiden.
Bugh G. R. (1988) The Horsemen of Athens. Princeton.
Bulatao R. A. and Lee D. R., eds. (1983) Determinants of Fertility in Developing Countries. 2 vols. New York.
Bunnens G., ed. (2000) Essays on Syria in the Iron Age. Louvain and Paris.
Buraselis K. (1982) Das hellenistische Makedonien und die Ägäis. Munich.
Burford A. (1965) “The economics of Greek temple building,” PCPhS n.s. 11: 21–34.
Burford A. (1965) “The economics of Greek temple building,” (1969) The Greek Temple Builders at Epidauros. Liverpool.
Burford A. (1972) Craftsmen in Greek and Roman Society.London.
Burford A. (1993) Land and Labor in the Greek World. Baltimore, MD, and London.
Burford A. (1994) “Greek agriculture in the classical period,” in Boardman J. et al., eds. The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume VI. 2nd ed.: 661–77. Cambridge.
Burillo MozotaF. (1991) “The evolution of Iberian and Roman towns in the middle Ebro Valley,” in Barker and Lloyd , eds. (1991): 37–46.
Burke E. M. (1985) “Lycurgan Finances,” GRBS 26: 251–64.
Burke E. M. (1992) “The economy of Athens in the classical era: some adjustments to the primitivist model,” TAPhA 122: 199–226.
Burkhalter F. and Picard O. (2004) “Le vocabulaire financier dans les papyrus et l’évolution des monnayages lagides en bronze,” Etudes alexandrines 10.
Burnett A., Amandry M., and Ripollès P. P. (1992) Roman Provincial Coinage. Volume I. From the Death of Caesar to the Death of Vitellius (44BC–AD69).London.
Burnett A., Amandry M., and Carradice I. (1999) Roman Provincial Coinage. Volume II. From Vespasian to Domitian (AD69–96).London.
Burnett J. (1986) A Social History of Housing, 1815–1970. 2nd edn.London.
Burstein S. M. (1999) “IG I3 61 and the Black Sea grain trade,” in Mellor R. and Tritle L., eds., Text and Tradition: Studies in Greek History and Historiography in Honor of Mortimer Chambers: 93–104. Claremont, CA.
Buttrey T. V. (1979) “The Athenian currency law of 375/4 bc,” in Mørkholm O. and Waggoner N. M., eds., Greek Numismatics and Archaeology: Essays in Honor of Margaret Thompson: 33–45. Wetteren.
Buttrey T. V. (1981) “More on the Athenian coinage law of 375/4 bc,” NAC 10: 71–94.
Buttrey T. V. (1993) “Calculating ancient coin production: facts and fantasies,” Numismatic Chronicle 153: 335–51.
Butzer K. (1976) Early Hydraulic Civilization in Egypt. A Study in Cultural Ecology. Chicago.
Butzer K. (1999) “Irrigation,” in K. A.Bard, ed., Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt: 381–2.London.
Buxó i Capdevila R. (1992) “Cueillette et agriculture à Lattes: les ressources végétales d’après les semences et les fruits,” in Py , ed. (1992a): 45–90.
Buxó i Capdevila R. (1996) “Evidence for vines and ancient cultivation from an urban area, Lattes (Hérault), southern France,” Antiquity 70: 393–407.
Buxó i Capdevila R. (1997) Arqueología de las Plantas. La explotación económica de las semillas y los frutos en el marco mediterráneo de la Península Ibérica. Barcelona.
Buxó i Capdevila R. (2001) L’origen i l’expansió de l’agricultura a l’empordà: del Neolític a la Romanització. Girona.
Buxó i Capdevila R., Pons E., and Vargas A. (1998) El graner de l’Empordà. Mas Castellar de Pontós a l’edat del Ferro. Girona.
Cabrera P. and Sánchez C. (2000) “El commercio griego con el mundo ibérico durante la época clásica,” in Bonet P.Cabrera and Sánchez Fernández C., eds., Los Griegos en España: Tras la huellas de Heracles: 133–48. Madrid.
Cadell H. (1994) “Le prix de vente des terres dans l’Egypte ptolémaïque d’après les Papyrus grecs,” in Allam S. ed., Grund und Boden in Altägypten. (Rechtliche und Sozio-Ökonomische Verhältnisse). Akten des internationalen Symposions Tübingen 18–20 Juni 1990: 289–305. Tübingen.
Cadell H. and Rider G. (1997) Prix du blé et numéraire dans l’Egypte de 305 à 173. Brussels.
Cadogan G., Hatzaki E., and Vasilakis A., eds. (2004) Knossos: Palace, City, State. British School at Athens Studies 12. London.
Cagni L., Fusaro G., and Graziani S. (1999) “Die Nutzung des Ackerbodens im Mesopotamien der achaemenidischen Zeit: Die Pachtauflage (imittu),” in Klengel and Renger , eds. (1999): 197–212.
Cahill N. (2002) Household and City Organization at Olynthos. New Haven, CT, and London.
Cain M. (1981) “Risk and insurance: perspectives on fertility and agrarian change in India and Bangladesh,” Population and Development Review 7: 435–74.
Cain M. and McNicoll G. (1988) “Population growth and agrarian outcomes,” in Lee R. D. et al., eds., Population, Food, and Rural Development: 101–17. Oxford.
Caldwell J. C. (1982) Theory of Fertility Decline.London.
Caldwell J. C. (2004) “Fertility control in the classical world: was there an ancient fertility transition?Journal of Population Research 21: 1–17.
Callot O. (1989) “Failaka à l’époque hellénistique,” in Fahd T., ed., L’Arabie préislamique et son environnement historique et culturel. Actes du colloque de Strasbourg 24–27 juin 1987: 127–43. Leiden.
Cambi F. (2001) “Calabria romana. Paesaggi tardo repubblicani nel territorio brindisino,” in Cascio Lo and Marino Storchi, eds. (2001): 363–90.
Cambitoglou A., Birchall A., Coulton J. J., and Green J. R. (1988) Zagora II: Excavation of a Geometric Town on the Island of Andros. 2 vols. Athens.
Cambitoglou A., Birmingham J., Coulton J. J., and Green J. R. (1971) Zagora I: Excavation of a Geometric Settlement on the Island of Andros. Sydney.
Cambitoglou A. and Papadopoulos J. (1993) “The earliest Mycenaeans in Macedonia,” in Zerner , ed. (1993): 289–302.
Cameron A. (1992) “Synesius and late Roman Cyrenaica,” JRA 5: 419–30.
Cameron Av. (1993) The Mediterranean World in Late Antiquity, A.D. 395–600. London and New York.
Cameron Av. (2001) “A response,” in Lavan L., ed., Recent Research in Late-Antique Urbanism: 238–39. Portsmouth, RI.
Cameron Av. and Garnsey P., eds. (1998) The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume VIII : The Late Empire, AD 337–425. 2nd edn. Cambridge.
Cameron Av., Ward-Perkins B., and Whitby M., eds. (2000) The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume XIV: Empire and Successors, AD 425–600. 2nd edn. Cambridge.
Camp J. M. (1992) The Athenian Agora. Revised edn.London.
Camp J. M. (2001) The Archaeology of Athens. New Haven, CT, and London.
Campbell C. D. and Lee J. Z. (2000) “Price fluctuations, family structure, and mortality in two rural Chinese populations: household responses to economic stress in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Liaoning,” in Bengtsson and Saito , eds. (2000): 371–419.
Campo M. (1976) Las monedas de Ebussus. Barcelona.
Camporeale G. (1992) “La vocation maritime des Etrusques,” in Les Etrusques et l’Europe (exposition, Paris, 1992): 44–52. Paris.
Cancik H. and Schneider H., eds. (2001) Der Neue Pauly. Enzyklopädie der Antike. Stuttgart and Weimar.
Cantimori D. (1971) “La periodizzazione dell’età del Rinascimento,” in Storici e storia: 553–77. Turin.
Capasso L. (1999) “Brucellosis at Herculaneum (79 AD),” International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 9: 277–88.
Capasso L. (2000) “Indoor pollution and respiratory diseases in ancient Rome,” Lancet 356: 1774.
Capdetrey L. (2005) “Le basilikon et les cités grecques dans le royaume séleucide: modalités de redistribution de la richesse royale et formes de dépendance des cités,” in Chankowsky and Duyrat , eds. (2005): 105–29.
Capogrossi ColognesiL. (1992–3) “Il regime degli affitti agrari,” Scienze dell’antichità, Storia, Archeologia, Antropologia 6–7: 163–253.
Capogrossi ColognesiL. (1995) Ai margini della proprietà fondiaria. Rome.
Carandini A. (1969–70) “Produzione agricola e produzione ceramica dell’Africa di età imperiale,” Studi Miscellanei 15: 95–119.
Carandini A. (1979) L’anatomia della scimmia. La formazione economica della società prima del capitale. Turin.
Carandini A. (1983a) “Columella’s vineyard and the rationality of the Roman economy,” Opus 2: 177–204.
Carandini A. (1983b) “Pottery and the African economy,” in Garnsey P., Hopkins K. and Whittaker C. R., eds., Trade in the Ancient Economy: 145–62. London.
Carandini A. (1985) Settefinestre: una villa schiavistica nell’Etruria romana. 3 vols. Modena.
Carandini A. (1989a) “La villa romana e la piantagione schiavistica,” in Storia di Roma, Caratteri e morfologie IV: 101–30. Turin.
Carandini A. (1989b) “L’economia italica fra tarda repubblica e medio impero considerata dal punto di vista di una merce: il vino,” in Amphores 1989: 505–21
Carandini A. (1990) “Il Palatino e il suo sistema di montes,” in Cristofani M., ed., La grande Roma dei Tarquini (Catalogo della Mostra, Roma, 1990): 79–85. Rome.
Carandini A. (1993) “L’ultima civiltà sepolta o del massimo oggetto desueto, secondo un archeologo,” in Storia di Roma, L’età tardoantica, 2, I luoghi e le culture III: 11–38. Turin.
Cardon D. and Feugère M., eds. (2000) Archéologie des textiles des origines au Ve siècle. Montagnac.
Cargill J. (1981) The Second Athenian League: Empire or Free Alliance? Berkeley.
Carlier P. (1984) La royauté en Grèce avant Alexandre. Strasbourg.
Carlier P. (1992) “Les collecteurs sont-ils des fermiers?,” in Olivier , ed. (1992): 159–66.
Carlier P. (1995) “Qa-si-re-u et qa-si-re-wi-ja,” in Niemeier and Laffineur , eds. (1995): 355–64.
Carlier P. (1998) “Wa-na-ka derechef. Nouvelles réflexions sur les royautés mycéniennes,” BCH 122: 411–15.
Carlsen J. (1993) “The vilica and Roman estate management,” in Sancisi-Weerdenburg H. et al., eds., De agricultura: in memoriam Pieter Willem de Neeve: 197–205. Amsterdam.
Carlson D. N. (2003) “The classical Greek shipwreck at Tekkas Burnu, Turkey,” AJA 107: 551–600.
Carmichael A. G. (1985) “Infection, hidden hunger and history,” in Rotberg and Rabb , eds. (1985): 51–66.
Carr K. (2000) “Women’s work: spinning and weaving in the Greek home,” in Cardon and Feugère , eds. (2000): 163–6.
Carra VauxB. (1988) Héron d’Alexandrie. Les Mécaniques ou l’élévateur des corps lourds. Texte arabe de Qusta ibn Luqa, établi et traduit par B. Carra de Vaux. Introduction par D. B. Hill. Commentaires par A. G. Drachmann. Paris.
Carreras MonfortC. (2002) “The Roman military supply during the Principate. Transportation and staples,” in Erdkamp , ed. (2002a): 70–89.
Carrié J.-M. (1994) “Les échanges commerciaux et l’Etat antique tardif,” in Andreau et al., eds. (1994): 175–211.
Carrié J.-M. (1997) “‘Colonato del Basso Impero’: la resistenza del mito,” in Cascio Lo, ed. (1997): 75–61.
Carrié J.-M. (2002) “Les associations professionnelles à l’époque tardive: entre munus et convivialité,” in Carrié J.-M. and Testa R.Lizzi, eds., “Humana sapit”: études d’antiquité tardive offertes à Lellia Cracco Rugini: 309–32. Turnhout.
Carrié J.-M. and Rousselle A. (1999) L’Empire romain en mutation. Des Sévères à Constantin 192–337. Paris.
Carroll D. L. (1985) “Dating the foot-powered loom: the Coptic evidence,” AJA 89: 168–73.
Carson A. (1999) Economy of the Unlost: Reading Simonides of Keos with Paul Celan. Princeton.
Carter C. E. (1999) The Emergence of Yehud in the Persian Period: A Social and Demographic Study. Sheffield.
Carter J. C. (1990a) “Metapontum – land, wealth, and population,” in Descoeudres , ed. (1990): 405–41.
Carter J. C. (1990b) “Sanctuaries in the Chora of Metaponto” in Alcock and Osborne , eds. (1994): 161–98.
Carter J. C. (2001) “La chora di Metaponto. Risultati degli ultimi 25 anni di ricerca archeologica,” in Problemi della chora coloniale dall’Occidente al Mar Nero. Atti del quarantesimo Convegno di studi sulla Magna Grecia (Taranto, 2000): 771–92. Taranto.
Cartledge P. (1988) “Serfdom in classical Greece,” in Archer , ed. (1988): 33–41.
Cartledge P. (1998) “The economies of ancient Greece,” Dialogus 5: 4–24.
Cartledge P. (1998 = 2002) “The economy (economies) of ancient Greece,” in Scheidel W. and Reden S., eds., The Ancient Economy: 11–32. Edinburgh.
Cartledge P. and Harvey F. D., eds. (1985) Crux. Essays Presented to G.E.M. de Ste. Croix on his 75th Birthday. Exeter.
Cartledge P. and Spawforth A. (1989) Hellenistic and Roman Sparta: A Tale of Two Cities. London and New York.
Cartledge P., Cohen E. E., and Foxhall L., eds. (2002) Money, Labour and Land. Approaches to the Economies of Ancient Greece. London and New York.
Cary M. (1949) The Geographic Background of Greek and Roman History. Oxford.
Casson L. (1971) Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World. Princeton.
Casson L. ed. (1984a) Ancient Trade and Society. Detroit.
Casson L. (1984b) “Energy and technology in the ancient world,” in Casson , ed. (1984a): 130–52.
Casson L. (1989) The Periplus Maris Erythraei. Princeton.
Casson L. (1990) “Documentary evidence for Graeco-Roman shipbuilding (P. Flor. I 69),” BASP 27: 15–19.
Casson L. (1995) Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World. 2nd edn. Baltimore.
Castanyer P., Py M., Sanmartí E., and Tremoleda J. (1993) “Amphores ibériques,” in Py M., ed., Lattara 6: DIOCER. Dictionnaire des céramiques antiques (VIIe s. av. n.è. – VIIe s. de n.è.) en Méditerranée nord-occidentale (Provence, Languedoc, Ampurdan): 49–52. Lattes.
Castro MartínezP. V., Lull V., and Mico R. (1996) Cronología de la Prehistoria Reciente de la Península Ibérica y Baleares (c. 2800–900 cal ANE). Oxford.
Catalli F. (1984) Numismatica etrusca e italica. Rome.
Catalli F. (2000) “Coins,” in Torelli M., ed., The Etruscans: 89–96. New York.
Catling H., Carington SmithJ., and Hughes-Brock H. (1983) “The small finds,” in McDonald et al., eds. (1983): 273–315.
Catling H., Cherry J. F., Jones R. E., and Killen J. T. (1980) “The Linear B inscribed stirrup jars and west Crete,” BSA 75: 49–113.
Catling R. (1984) “New archaeology,” CR n.s. 34: 98–103.
Catling R. and Lemos I. (1990) Lefkandi 11.1. London.
Cavalli-Sforza L. L., Menozzi P., and Piazza A. (1994) The History and Geography of Human Genes. Princeton.
Cavanagh W. G., Crouwel J., Catling R., and Shipley G., eds. (1996) Continuity and Change in a Greek Rural Landscape: The Laconia Survey II. London.
Cavanagh W. G., Crouwel J., Catlingz R., and Shipley G., eds. (2003) Continuity and Change in a Greek Rural Landscape: The Laconia Survey I.London.
Cavanagh W. G., and Mee C. B. (1998) A Private Place: Death in Prehistoric Greece. Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology 125. Jonsered.
Cavanaugh M. B. (1996) Eleusis and Athens: Documents in Finance, Religion, and Politics in the Fifth Century BC. Atlanta, GA.
Chadwick J. (1958) “The Mycenaean filing system,” BICS 5: 1–5.
Chadwick J. (1976) The Mycenaean World. Cambridge.
Chadwick J. (1988) “The women of Pylos,” in Olivier and Palaima , eds. (1988): 43–95.
Chadwick J. (1990) The Decipherment of Linear B. 2nd edn. Cambridge.
Chadwick J., Godart L., Killen J. T., Olivier J.-P., Sacconi A., and Sakellarakis I. A. (1987–98) Corpus of Mycenaean inscriptions from Knossos I–IV. Rome and Cambridge.
Champlin E. J. (1991) Final Judgments: Duty and Emotion in Roman Wills, 200 B.C.–A.D. 250. Berkeley.
Chandezon C. (2003) L’élevage en Grèce (fin Ve – fin Ier s. a. C.). L’apport des sources épigraphiques. Paris and Bordeaux.
Chaniotis A. (1988) “Vinum Creticum excellens: Zum Weinhandel Kretas,” Münstersche Beiträge zur antiken Handelsgeschichte 7: 62–89.
Chaniotis A. (1991) “Von Hirten, Kräutsammlern, Epheben und Pilgern. Leben auf den Bergen im antiken Kreta,” Ktema 16: 93–109. Reprinted in Siebert , ed. (1996): 91–107.
Chaniotis A. (1995) “Problems of ‘pastoralism’ and ‘transhumance’ in classical and Hellenistic Crete,” Orbis Terrarum 1: 39–89.
Chaniotis A. (1996) Die Verträge zwischen kretischen Poleis in der hellenistischer Zeit. Stuttgart.
Chaniotis A. ed. (1999a) From Minoan Farmers to Roman Traders. Sidelights on the Economy of Ancient Crete, with Shaler L., Cowey J., and Hoover O.. Stuttgart.
Chaniotis A. (1999b) “Milking the mountains: economic activities on the Cretan uplands in the classical and Hellenistic period,” in Chaniotis , ed. (1999a): 181–220.
Chankowski V. (1999) “Pistiros (Bulgarie),” CH 123: 581–8.
Chankowski V. and Domaradzka L. (1999) “Réédition de l’inscription de Pistiros et problèmes d’interprétation,” BCH 123: 247–58.
Chankowski V. and Duyrat F. eds. (2005) Le roi et l’économie. Autonomies locales et structures royales dans l’économie de l’empire séleucide. Actes des rencontres de Lille (23 juin 2003) et d’Orléans (29–30 janvier 2004). Paris: Topoi, suppl. 6.
Chantraine P. (1940) “Conjugaison et histoire des verbes signifiant vendre (pernemi, poleo, apodidomai, empolo),” RPh 14: 11–24.
Charlesworth M. P. (1970) Trade-Routes and Commerce of the Roman Empire. 2nd edn. New York.
Chaudhuri K. N. (1990) Asia before Europe. Economy and Civilisation of the Indian Ocean from the Rise of Islam to 1750. Cambridge.
Chayanov A. V. (1986) The Theory of Peasant Economy. Madison.
Cherry D. (1993) “Hunger at Rome in the late Republic,” EMC n.s. 12: 433–50.
Cherry J. F. (1981) “Pattern and process in the earliest colonization of the Mediterranean islands,” Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 47: 41–68.
Cherry J. F. (1983) “Frogs around the pond: perspectives on current archaeological survey projects in the Mediterranean region,” in Keller D. R. and Rupp D. W., eds., Archaeological Survey in the Mediterranean Area: 375–416. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports International Series 155.
Cherry J. F. (1988) “Pastoralism and the role of animals in the pre- and protohistoric economies of the Aegean,” in Whittaker , ed. (1988): 6–34.
Cherry J. F. (1990) “The first colonization of the Mediterranean islands: a review of recent research,” Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 3: 145–221.
Cherry J. F. (1994) “Regional survey in the Aegean: the ‘new wave’ (and after),” in Kardulias , ed. (1994): 91–112.
Cherry J. F. (2003) “Archaeology beyond the site: regional survey and its future,” in Papadopoulos J. K. and Leventhal R. M., eds., Theory and Practice in Mediterranean Archaeology: Old World and New World Perspectives: 137–59. Los Angeles.
Cherry J. F., and Davis J. L. (2001) “‘Under the sceptre of Agamemnon’: the view from the hinterlands of Mycenae,” in Branigan , ed. (2001b): 141–59.
Cherry J. F., Davis J. L., and Mantzourani E., eds. (1991) Landscape Archaeology as Long-Term History. Northern Keos in the Cycladic Islands from Earliest Settlement until Modern Times. Los Angeles.
Chesnais J.-C. (1992) The Demographic Transition: Stages, Patterns, and Economic Implications. Oxford.
Cheung S. (1969) The Theory of Share Tenancy, with Special Application to Asian Agriculture and the First Phase of Taiwan Land Reform. Chicago.
Chevallier R. (1976) Roman Roads. London.
Chevallier R. (1993) Sciences et techniques à Rome. Paris.
Chouquer G. and Favory F. (2001) L’arpentage. Histoire des textes, droits, techniques. Paris.
Christakis K. S. (2004) “Palatial economy and storage in Late Bronze Age Knossos,” in Cadogan et al., eds. (2004): 299–309.
Christensen T. (2003) “P. Haun. inv. 407 and cleruchs in the Edfu nome,” in Vandorpe K. and Clarysse W., eds., Edfu, an Egyptian Provincial Capital in the Ptolemaic Period: 11–16. Brussels.
Christiansen E. (1985) “The Roman coins of Alexandria (30 BC to ad 296): an inventory of hoards,” Coin Hoards 7: 77–140.
Christiansen E. (1988) The Roman Coins of Alexandria. Quantitative Studies. Aarhus.
Christiansen J. and Melander T., eds. (1988) Proceedings of the Third Symposium on Ancient Greek and Related Pottery. Copenhagen.
Christie N. (1996) “Barren fields? Landscapes and settlements in late Roman and post-Roman Italy,” in Shipley G. and Salmon J., eds., Human Landscapes in Classical Antiquity: Environment and Culture: 254–83. London and New York.
Christie N. and Loseby S., eds. (1996) Towns in Transition. Urban Evolution in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages. Aldershot.
Christien J. (1989) “Les liaisons entre Sparte et son territoire malgré l’encadrement montagneux,” in Bergier J.-F., ed., Montagnes, fleuves, forêts dans l’histoire. Barrières ou lignes de convergence?: 18–44. St. Katharinen.
Chu C. Y. C. and Lee R. D. (1994) “Famine, revolt, and the dynastic cycle: population dynamics in historic China,” Journal of Population Economics 7: 351–78.
Ciarallo A. and Carolis E., eds. (1999) Homo Faber. Natura, scienza e tecnica nell’antica Pompei. Milan.
Cintas P. (1950) Céramique punique. Paris.
Cipolla C. M. (1988) “Prolusione,” in Guarducci , ed. (1988): 7–17.
Cipolla C. M. (1994) Before the Industrial Revolution, 3rd edn. New York.
Cipriano M. T. and Carré B. (1989) “Production et typologie des amphores sur la côte adriatique de l’Italie,” in Amphores romaines et histoire économique: dix ans de recherche (Actes du colloque de Sienne, 1986): 67–104. Rome.
Clague C. (1997) “The new institutional economics and economic development,” in Clague C., ed., Institutions and Economic Development: 13–36. Baltimore and London.
Clark C. and Haswell M. (1967) The Economics of Subsistence Agriculture, 3rd edn. London.
Clark M. H. (1976) “The pursuit of wild edibles, present and past,” Expedition 19: 12–18.
Clarysse W. (1980) “A royal visit to Memphis and the end of the Second Syrian War,” in Studies on Ptolemaic Memphis: 85–89. Leuven.
Clarysse W. (1988) “A new fragment for a Zenon papyrus from Athens,” Proceedings of the XVIII International Congress of Papyrology. Vol. 11: 77–81. Athens.
Clarysse W. (1995) “Greeks in Ptolemaic Thebes,” in Vleeming S. P., ed., Hundred-Gated Thebes. Acts of a Colloquium on Thebes and the Theban Area in the Graeco-Roman Period: 1–19. Leiden.
Clarysse W. (1997) “Nomarchs and toparchs in the third century Fayum,” in Archeologia e papiri nel Fayyum. Storia della ricerca, problemi e prospettive. Atti del convegno internazionale, Siracusa, 24–25 Maggio 1996: 69–76. Siracusa.
Clarysse W. (2000) “The Ptolemies visiting the Egyptian chora,” in Mooren L., ed., Politics, Administration, and Society in the Hellenistic and Roman Worlds: 29–53. Bertinoro.
Clarysse W. (2003) “The archive of the praktor Milon,” in Vandorpe K. and Clarysse W., eds., Edfu, an Egyptian Provincial Capital in the Ptolemaic Period: 17–27. Brussels.
Clarysse W. and Thompson D. J. (2006) Counting the People in Hellenistic Egypt. 2 vols. Cambridge.
Clarysse W. and Vandorpe K. (1997) “Viticulture and wine consumption in the Arsinoite nome (P. Köln v 221),” AncSoc 28: 67–73.
Clarysse W. and Vandorpe K. (1998) “The Ptolemaic Apomoira,” in Melaerts H., ed., Le Culte du Souverain dans l’Egypte ptolémaïque au IIIe Siècle avant notre ère. Actes du colloque international, Bruxelles 10 mai 1995: 5–42. Leuven.
Clavel-Lévêque M. (1977) Marseille grecque: la dynamique d’un impérialisme marchand. Marseille.
Clavel-Lévêque M. (1982) “Un cadastre grec en Gaule: la chora d’Agde (Hérault),” Klio 64: 21–8.
Cleland J. and Wilson C. (1987) “Demand theories of the fertility transition: an iconoclastic view,” Population Studies 41: 5–30.
Clerc M. (1927) Massalia: histoire de Marseille dans l’antiquité, des origines à la fin de l’empire romain d’Occident 1. Marseille.
Cline E. H. (1994) Sailing the Wine-Dark Sea: International Trade and the Aegean Late Bronze Age. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports International Series 591.
Cline E. H. and Harris-Cline D., eds. (1998) The Aegean and the Orient in the Second Millennium. Liège and Austin, TX: Aegaeum 18.
Clover F. M. and Humphreys R. S., eds. (1989) Tradition and Innovation in Late Antiquity. Madison, WI.
Coale A. J. (1973) “The demographic transition reconsidered,” in International Population Conference, Liège, 1973 1: 53–72. Liège.
Coale A. J. and Demeny P. (1983) Regional Model Life Tables and Stable Populations. 2nd edn. Princeton.
Coale A. J. and Watkins S., eds. (1986) The Decline of Fertility in Europe. Princeton.
Coarelli F. (1977) “Public building in Rome between the Second Punic War and Sulla,” PBSR 45: 1–23.
Coarelli F. (1981) “La Sicilia tra la fine della Guerra annibalica e Cicerone,” in Giardina and Schiavone , eds. (1981), vol. 1: 1–18.
Coarelli F. (1982a) “L’≪Agora des Italiens≫ a Delo: il mercato degli schiavi?” in Coarelli F., Musti D., and Solin H., eds., Delo e l’Italia: 119–45. Rome: Opuscula Instituti Romani Finlandiae 11.
Coarelli F. (1982b) Lazio (Guide archeologiche Laterza). Rome and Bari.
Coarelli F. (1988) “Colonizzazione romana e viabilità,” DdA, 3rd serie, 6: 35–48.
Coarelli F. (1996) “Il commercio delle opere d’arte in età tardo-repubblicana,” in Revixit Ars. Arte e ideologia a Roma. Dai modelli ellenistici alla tradizione repubblicana.: 312–26. Rome.
Coase R. H. (1988) The Firm, the Market, and the Law. Chicago.
Cockle H. (1981) “Pottery manufacture in Roman Egypt: a new papyrus,” JRS 71: 87–97.
Cocquerillat D. (1968) Palmeraies et cultures de l’Eanna d’Uruk (559–520). Berlin.
Cogan M. and Eph’al I., eds. (1991) Ah, Assyria … Studies in Assyrian History and Ancient Near Eastern Historiography Presented to Hayim Tadmor. Jerusalem.
Cohen D. and Saller R. (1994) “Foucault on sexuality in Greco-Roman antiquity,” in Goldstein J., ed., Foucault and the Writing of History: 35–60. Cambridge, MA.
Cohen E. E. (1973) Ancient Athenian Maritime Courts. Princeton.
Cohen E. E. (1992) Athenian Economy and Society: A Banking Perspective. Princeton.
Cohen E. E. (2000) The Athenian Nation. Princeton.
Cohen G. M. (1978) The Seleucid Colonies. Studies in Founding, Administration and Organization. Wiesbaden.
Cohen G. M. (1995) The Hellenistic Settlements in Europe, the Islands, and Asia Minor. Berkeley.
Coldstream J. N. (1968) Greek Geometric Pottery: A Survey of Ten Local Styles and Their Chronology. London.
Coleman J. L. (1988) “Efficiency, utility, and wealth maximization,” in Coleman J. L., ed., Markets, Morals, and the Law: 95–132. London.
Colomer A. and Gardeisen A. (1992) “La consommation des animaux d’élevage et de chasse dans la ville de Lattara,” in Py , ed. (1992a): 91–110. Lattes.
Colonna G. (1980) “Graffiti etruschi in Linguadoca,” SE 48: 181–5.
Colonna G., ed. (1985) Santuari d’Etruria. Milan.
Columeau P. (1978) “La faune de la Vaunage pendant l’Age du Fer,” Revue Archéologique de Narbonnaise 11: 215–42.
Columeau P. (1980) “Etude de la faune,” in Dedet B., ed., Premières recherches sur l’oppidum du Plan de la Tour à Gailhan, Gard, Sondages 1975–1977: 123–32. Caveirac.
Columeau P. (1984) “Etude de la faune,” in Py M., ed., La Liquière, Calvisson, Gard: Village du Premier Age du Fer en Languedoc Oriental: 335–48. Paris.
Columeau P. (1985) “La faune des gisements lagunaires (Bronze final, 1er Age du Fer),” in Dedet B. and Py M., eds., L’Occupation des rivages de l’Etang de Mauguio (Hérault) au Bronze final et au Premier Age du Fer 111: 123–30. Caveirac.
Columeau P. (1987) “Etude de la faune,” in Dedet B., ed., Habitat et vie quotidienne en Languedoc au milieu de l’Age du Fer: l’unité domestique no. 1 de Gailhan, Gard: 215–23. Paris.
Conche F. (2001) “Les fouilles du 9, rue Jean-François Leca,” in Bouiron M. and Tréziny H., eds., Marseille: trames et paysages urbains de Gyptis au Roi René: 131–6. Aix-en-Provence.
Conophagos C. (1980) Le Laurium antique. Athens.
(1976) Contributi introduttivi allo studio della monetazione etrusca (Atti del v Convegno del Centro internazionale di Studi numismatici, Napoli 1975). Naples.
Cook R. M. (1949) “The distribution of Chiot pottery,” BSA 44: 154–61.
Cook R. M. (1959) “Die Bedeutung der bemalten Keramik für den griechischen Handel,” JdAI 74: 114–23.
Cook R. M. (1972) Greek Painted Pottery. 2nd edn. London.
Cooper-Burford A. (1977–8) “The family farm in Greece,” CJ 73: 162–75.
Cooter R. and Ulen T. (2000) Law and Economics. 3rd edn. Reading, MA.
Cormack S. (1997) “Funerary monuments and mortuary practice in Roman Asia Minor,” in Alcock S. E., ed., The Early Roman Empire in the East: 137–56. Oxford.
Cornell T. and Matthews J. (1982) Atlas of the Roman World. London.
Corsten T. (1999) Vom Stamm zum Bund. Gründung und territoriale Organisation griechischer Bundesstaaten. Munich.
Corvisier J.-N. (1985) Santé et Société en Grèce ancienne. Paris.
Corvisier J.-N. (1991) Aux origines du miracle grec: Peuplement et population en Grèce du Nord. Paris.
Corvisier J.-N. and Suder W. (1996) Polyanthropia – oliganthropia: Bibliographie de la démographie du monde grec. Wroclaw.
Corvisier J.-N. and Suder W. (2000) La population de l’antiquité classique. Paris.
Cosmopoulos M. B. (2001) The Rural History of Ancient Greek City-States: The Oropos Survey Project. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports International Series 1001.
Costin C. L. (1996) “Exploring the relationship between gender and craft in complex societies: methodological and theoretical issues of gender attribution,” in Wright R. P., ed., Gender and Archaeology: 112–40. Philadelphia.
Cotterell B. and Kamminga J. (1990) Mechanics of Pre-Industrial Technology. Cambridge.
Cotton H. (2003) “The Roman census in the papyri from the Judaean Desert and the Egyptian kat’ oikian apographen,” in Schiffman L. A., ed., A Climate of Creativity: Semitic Philology in Context: 105–22. Leiden and Boston.
Coubray S. (1994) “Etude paléobotanique des macrorestes végétaux provenant de Ischia,” in D’Agostino B. and Ridgway D., eds., APOIKIA. I più antichi insediamenti greci in Occidente: funzioni e modi dell’organizzazione politica e sociale. Scritti in onore di Giorgio Buchner: 205–9. Naples.
Coulson W. (1983) “The pottery,” in McDonald et al., eds. (1983) 61–259.
Coulson W. (1986) The Dark Age Pottery of Messenia. Göteborg.
Coulson W., Palagia O., Shear T. L. Jr., Shapiro H. A., and Frost F. J., eds. (1994) The Archaeology of Athens and Attica under the Democracy. Oxford.
Coulton J. J. (1974) “Lifting in early Greek architecture,” JHS 94: 1–19.
Coulton J. J. (1976) The Architectural Development of the Greek Stoa. Oxford.
Coulton J. J. (1977) Greek Architects at Work: Problems of Structure and Design. London.
Coulton J. J. (1987) “Roman aqueducts in Asia Minor,” in Macready S. and Thompson F. H., eds., Roman Architecture in the Greek World: 72–84. London.
Coulton J. J. (1993) “The Toumba building: its architecture,” in Popham et al., eds. (1993): 33–70.
Courtin J. (1974) “Aperçu sur l’agriculture préhistorique dans le Sud-Est de la France,” Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française 71: 321–34.
Courtin J., Guilaine J., and Mohen J. P. (1976) “Les débuts de l’agriculture en France: les documents archéologiques,” in Guilaine J., ed., La Préhistoire française II: 172–9. Paris.
Cox C. A. (1998) Household Interests. Property, Marriage Strategies, and Family Dynamics in Ancient Athens. Princeton.
Crawford D. J. (1971) Kerkeosiris. An Egyptian Village in the Ptolemaic Period. Cambridge.
Crawford D. J. (1973) “The opium poppy. A study in Ptolemaic agriculture,” in Finley M. I., ed., Problèmes de la terre en Grèce ancienne: 223–51. Paris.
Crawford D. J. (1976) “Imperial estates,” in Finley M. I., ed., Studies in Roman Property: 35–70. Cambridge.
Crawford M. H. (1969) Roman Republican Coin Hoards. London.
Crawford M. H. (1970) “Money and exchange in the Roman world,” JRS 60: 40–8.
Crawford M. H. (1974) Roman Republican Coinage. Cambridge.
Crawford M. H. (1976) “The early Roman economy, 753–280 BC,” in Mélanges offerts à Jacques Heurgon: L’Italie préromaine et la Rome républicaine 1: 197–207. Rome.
Crawford M. H. (1977a) “Rome and the Greek world: economic relationships,” Economic History Review 30: 42–52.
Crawford M. H. (1977b) “Republican denarii in Romania: the suppression of piracy and the slave-trade”, JRS 67: 117–24.
Crawford M. H. (1980) “Economia imperiale e commercio estero,” in Tecnologia Economia e Società nel Mondo Romano: 207–17. Como.
Crawford M. H. (1985) Coinage and Money under the Roman Republic. Italy and the Mediterranean Economy. London.
Crawford M. H. (1986) “The monetary system of the Roman Empire,” in Crawford M. H., ed., L’impero romano e le strutture economiche e sociali delle province: 61–8. Como.
Crégut E. and Gagnière S. (1980) “Les sondages 1b-Nord des Baou de Saint-Marcel à Marseille, iv. Étude préliminaire de la faune,” Documents d’Archéologie Méridionale 3: 91–2.
Cremer M.-L. (1991)Hellenistisch-römische Grabstelen im nordwestlichen Kleinasien I. Mysien. Bonn.
Cremer M.-L. (1992) Hellenistisch-römische Grabstelen im nordwestlichen Kleinasien II. Bithynien. Bonn.
Crielaard J-P., ed. (1995) Homeric Questions. Amsterdam.
Crielaard J. P., Stissi V., and Wijngaarden G. J., eds. (1999) The Complex Past of Pottery. Amsterdam.
Cristofani M. (1986) “Economia e società,” in Rasenna. Storia e civiltà degli Etruschi: 77–156. Milan.
Cristofani M., ed. (1990) La grande Roma dei Tarquini: Roma, Palazzo delle esposizioni, 12 guigno–30 settembre 1990. Rome.
Crook J. A. (1967) “Patria potestas,” CQ n. s. 17: 113–22.
Crook J. A. (1986a) “Feminine inadequacy and the Senatusconsultum Velleianum,” in Rawson B., ed. (1986): 83–92.
Crook J. A. (1986b) “Women in Roman succession,” in Rawson , ed. (1986): 58–82.
Crook J. A. (1990) “His and hers: what degree of financial responsibility did husband and wife have for the matrimonial home and their life in common, in a Roman marriage?” in Andreau J. and Bruhns H., eds., Parenté et stratégies familiales dans l’Antiquité romaine: 153–72. Paris–Rome.
Crook J. A. (1994) “The development of Roman private law,” in Crook , Lintott and Rawson , eds. (1994): 531–63.
Crook J. A., Lintott A., and Rawson E., eds. (1994) The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume IX: The Last Age of the Roman Republic 146–43BC. 2nd edn. Cambridge.
Crosby M. (1950) “The leases of the Laureion mines,” Hesperia 19: 189–312.
Crouch D. P. (1993) Water Management in Ancient Greek Cities. New York.
Culican W. (1991) “Phoenicia and Phoenician colonization,” in Boardman J. et al., eds., The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume III part 2: 461–546. Cambridge
Cullen T., ed. (2001) Aegean Prehistory: A Review. Boston.
Cunliffe B. (1988) Greeks, Romans, and Barbarians: Spheres of Interaction. London.
Cunningham T. and Driessen J. (2004) “Site by site: combining survey and excavation data to chart patterns of socio-political change in Bronze Age Crete,” in Alcock and Cherry , eds. (2004): 101–13.
Curchin L. A. (1991) Roman Spain: Conquest and Assimilation. London and New York.
Curtis J. (1999) “Late Assyrian agricultural tools: the archaeological evidence,” in Klengel and Renger , eds. (1999): 249–58.
Curtis J. E., Wheeler T. S., Muhly J. D., and Maddin R. (1979) “Neo-Assyrian ironworking technology,” PAPhS 123: 369–90.
Curty O. (1995) Les parentés légendaires entre cités grecques. Geneva.
Cuvigny H. (2000) Mons Claudianus. Ostraca Graeca et Latina III. Les reçus pour avance à la familia (O. Claud. 417 à 631). Cairo.
Cuvigny H. ed. (2003) La route de Myos Hormos. L’armée romaine dans le désert Oriental d’Egypte. Cairo.
D’Agata A. L. (2000) “Interactions between Aegean groups and local communities in Sicily in the Bronze Age: the evidence from pottery,” SMEA 42: 61–83.
D’Altroy T. (1992) Provincial Power in the Inka Empire. Washington, DC.
D’Arms J. H. (1981) Commerce and Social Standing in Ancient Rome. Cambridge, MA.
D’Arms J. H. and Kopff E. C., eds. (1980) The Seaborne Commerce of Ancient Rome. Rome.
Dagron G. (1974) Naissance d’une capitale: Constantinople et ses institutions de 330 à 451. Paris.
Daguet-Gagey A. (1997) Les ‘opera publica’ à Rome (180–305 ap. J.-C.). Construction et administration. Paris.
Dakouri-Hild A. (2001) “Plotting fragments: a preliminary assessment of the Middle Helladic settlement in Boeotian Thebes,” in Branigan , ed. (2001b): 103–18.
Dalby A. (1996) Siren Feasts: A History of Food and Gastronomy in Greece. London.
Dalfes H. N., Kukla G., and Weiss H., eds. (1997) Third Millennium BC Climate Change and Old World Collapse. Berlin: NATO Scientific Affairs Division ASI Series Volume 1.49.
Dalton G. (1965) “Primitive money,” American Anthropologist 67: 44–65.
Dalton G. (1975) “Karl Polanyi’s analysis of long distance trade and his wider paradigm,” in Sabloff J. A. and Lamberg-Karlovsky C. C., eds., Ancient Civilization and Trade: 63–132. Albuquerque, NM.
Dandamaev M. A. (1971) “Die Rolle des tamkarum in Babylonien im 2. und 1. Jahrtausand v.u.Z.,” in Klengel H., ed., Schriften zur Geschichte und Kultur des Alten Orients, I. Beiträge zur sozialen Struktur des Alten Vorderasien: 69–78. Berlin.
Dandamaev M. A. (1974) “Social stratification in Babylonia (7th–4th centuries bc),” Acta Antiqua 22: 433–44.
Dandamaev M. A. (1976) “State and temple in Babylonia in the first millennium BC”, in Lipinski E., ed., State and Temple Economy in the Ancient Near East II: 589–96. Leuven.
Dandamaev M. A. (1981) “The neo-Babylonian citizens,” Klio 63: 45–9.
Dandamaev M. A. (1983) “Aliens and the community in Babylonia in the 6th–5th centuries bc,” Recueils de la Société Jean Bodin 41: 133–45.
Dandamaev M. A. (1984) Slavery in Babylonia from Nabopolassar to Alexander the Great (626–331 B.C.), Revised edn., translated by Powell V.. De Kalb, IL.
Dandamaev M. A. (1987) “Free hired labor in Babylonia during the sixth through fourth centuries BC,” in Powell M. A., ed., Labor in the Ancient Near East: 271–9. New Haven, CT.
Dandamaev M. A. (1996) “An age of privatization in ancient Mesopotamia,” in Hudson M. and Levine B. A., eds., Privatization in the Ancient Near East and Classical World: 197–221. Cambridge, MA.
Dandamaev M. A. (1999) “Land use in the Sippar region during the neo-Babylonian and Achaemenid periods,” in Hudson and Levine , eds. (1999): 363–89.
Dandamaev M. A. and Lukonin V. G. (1989) The Culture and Social Institutions of Ancient Iran, translated by Kohl P. L.. Cambridge.
Daniels C. (1987) “The frontiers: Africa,” in Wacher J. S., ed., The Roman World I: 223–65. London and New York.
Darcque P. and Treuil R., eds. (1990) L’habitat égéen préhistorique. Paris: BCH supp. vol. 19.
Dark K. and Dark P. (1997) The Landscape of Roman Britain. Stroud.
Daubigney A. (1983) “Relations marchandes méditerranéennes et procès des rapports de dépendance (magu- et ambactes) en Gaule protohistorique,” in Modes de contacts et processus de transformation dans les sociétés anciennes: 659–83. Rome.
Daumas J. C. and Laudet R. (1981–2) “L’habitat du Bronze Final des Gandus à Saint-Ferréol-Trente-Pas (Drôme),” Etudes Préhistoriques 16: 1–32.
Davidson J. N. (1993) “Fish, sex and revolution at Athens,” CQ 43: 53–66.
Davidson J. N. (1995) “Opsophagia: revolutionary eating at Athens,” in Wilkins , Harvey , and Dobson , eds. (1995): 204–13.
Davidson J. N. (1997) Courtesans and Fishcakes. The Consuming Passions of Classical Athens. London.
Davies J. K. (1967) “Demosthenes on liturgies: a note,” JHS 87: 33–40.
Davies J. K. (1971) Athenian Propertied Families. Oxford.
Davies J. K. (1981) Wealth and the Power of Wealth in Classical Athens. Salem, NH, and New York.
Davies J. K. (1984) “Cultural, social and economic features of the Hellenistic world,” in Walbank et al., eds. (1984): 257–320.
Davies J. K. (1992) “Society and economy,” in Lewis et al., eds. (1992): 287–305.
Davies J. K. (1998a) “Ancient economies: models and muddles,” in Parkins and Smith , eds. (1998): 225–56. London and New York.
Davies J. K. (1998b) “Finance, administration and realpolitik: the case of 4th-century Delphi,” in Smith C. J., Harris J., and Austin M. M., eds., Modus Operandi: Essays in Honour of Geoffrey Rickman: 1–14. London: BICS Suppl. 7.
Davies J. K. (2001a) “Hellenistic economies in the post-Finley era,” in Archibald et al., eds. (2001): 11–62.
Davies J. K. (2001b) “Temples, credit, and the circulation of money,” in Meadows and Shipton , eds. (2001): 117–28.
Davies J. K. (2001c) “The strategies of Mr. Theopompos,” in Cartledge et al., eds. (2001): 200–8.
Davies J. K. (2001d) “Rebuilding a temple: the economic effects of piety,” in Mattingly and Salmon , eds. (2001a): 209–229.
Davies J. K. (2005) “The Gortyn laws,” in Gagarin and Cohen , eds. (2005): 305–27.
Davis J. L., ed. (1998) Sandy Pylos: An Archaeological History from Nestor to Navarino. Austin, TX.
Davis J. L., (2001) “The islands of the Aegean,” in Cullen , ed. (2001): 19–94.
Davis J. L., (2004) “Are the landscapes of Greek prehistory hidden? A comparative approach,” in Alcock and Cherry , eds. (2004): 22–35.
Davis J. L., Alcock S. E., Bennet J., Lolos Y. G., and Shelmerdine C. W. (1997) “The Pylos regional archaeological project. Part I: overview and the archaeological survey,” Hesperia 66: 391–494.
Davis J. L. and Bennet J. (1999) “Making Mycenaeans: warfare, territorial expansion, and representations of the other in the Pylian kingdom,” in Laffineur R., ed., POLEMOS. Le contexte guerrier en Egée à l’âge du Bronze: 105–20. Liège and Austin: Aegaeum 19.
Davoli P. (2001) Saft el-Henna. Archeologia e storia di una città del Delta orientale. Bologna.
Day P. M. (1988) “The production and distribution of storage jars in Neopalatial Crete,” in French E. B. and Wardle K. A., eds., Problems in Greek Prehistory: 499–508. Bristol.
Day P. M. (1997) “Ceramic exchange between towns and outlying settlements in Neopalatial East Crete,” in Hägg , ed. (1997): 219–28.
Day P. M. and Haskell H. W. (1995) “Transport stirrup jars from Thebes as evidence of trade in Late Bronze Age Greece,” in Gillis C., Risberg C., and Sjöberg B., eds., Trade and Production in Premonetary Greece: 87–109. Jonsered.
Day P. M. and Wilson D. E. (2002) “Landscapes of memory, craft and power in Pre-Palatial and Proto-Palatial Knossos,” in Hamilakis ed. (2002): 143–66.
Day P. M., Wilson D. E., and Kiriatzi E. (1997) “Reassessing specialization in Prepalatial Cretan ceramic production,” in Laffineur and Betancourt , eds. (1997): 275–89.
De Angelis F. (2000) “Estimating the agricultural base of Greek Sicily,” PBSR 68: 111–48.
De Angelis F. (2002) “Trade and agriculture at Megara Hyblaia,” OJA 21: 299–310.
De Angelis F. (2003) Megara Hyblaea and Selinous. Oxford.
De Blois L. (2002) “The crisis of the third century ad in the Roman empire: a modern myth?” in Blois and Rich , eds. (2002): 204–217.
De Blois L., Pleket H. W., and Rich J. (2002) “Introduction,” in De Blois and Rich , eds. (2002): IX–XXII.
De Blois L. and Rich J., eds. (2002) The Transformations of Economic Life under the Roman Empire. Amsterdam.
De Callataÿ F. (1989a) “L’or perse et l’histoire grecque,” REA 91: 259–71.
De Callataÿ F. (1989b) “Les trésors achéménides et les monnayages d’Alexandre: espèces immobilisées et espèces circulantes?REA 91: 259–76.
De Callataÿ F. (1993) “Le monde grec hellénistique,” in Callataÿ F., Depeyrot G., and Villaronga L., eds., L’argent monnayé d’Alexandre le Grand à Auguste: 13–46. Brussels.
De Callataÿ F. (1997) Recueil quantitatif des émissions monétaires hellénistiques. Wetteren.
De Callataÿ F. (2000a) “Le taux de survie des émissions monétaires antiques, médiévales et modernes. Essai de mise en perspective et conséquences quant à la productivité des coins dans l’antiquité,” RN 155: 87–109.
De Callataÿ F. (2000b) “Guerre et monnayage à l’époque hellénistique. Essai de mise en perspective suivi d’une annexe sur le monnayage de Mithridate VI Eupator,” in Andreau , Briant , and Descat , eds. (2000): 337–64.
De Callataÿ F. (2005a) “A quantitative survey of Hellenistic coinages: what has been recently achieved,” in Archibald , Davies , and Gabrielsen , eds. (2005): 73–91.
De Callataÿ F. (2005b) “La richesse des rois séleucides et le problème de la taxation en nature,” in Chankowsky and Duyrat , eds. (2005): 23–47.
De Callataÿ F. (forthcoming, a) “L’instauration par Ptolémée Ier Sôter d’une économie monétaire fermée et la question de l’approvisionnement intentionnel en numéraire,” in Duryat F. and Picard O., eds., L’exception égyptienne? Production et échanges monétaires en Egypte hellénistique et romaine.
De Callataÿ F. (forthcoming, b), “Monetary policy of the Seleucids: on two opposite models,” review of Aperghis (2004), in Mnemosyne.
De Callataÿ F., Depeyrot G., and Villaronga L. (1993) L’argent monnayé d’Alexandre le Grand à Auguste. Brussels.
De Cenival F. (1972) Les associations religieuses en Egypte d’après les documents démotiques. Cairo.
De Fidio P. (1977) I dosmoi pilii a Poseidon: una terra sacra di età micenea. Rome: Incunabula Graeca 65.
De Fidio P. (1982) “Fiscalità, redistribuzione, equivalenze: per una discussione sull’economia micenea,” SMEA 23: 83–136.
De Fidio P. (1987) “Palais et communautés de village dans le royaume mycénien de Pylos,” in Ilievski P. H. and Crepajac L., eds., Tractata mycenaea: 129–49. Skopje.
De Fidio P. (1992) “Mycènes et Proche-Orient, ou le théorème des modèles,” in Olivier , ed. (1992): 173–96.
De Fidio P. (1998–9) “On the routes of Aegean Bronze Age wool and weights,” in Bennet and Driessen , eds. (1998–9): 39–63.
De Gandt F. (1982) “Force et science des machines,” in Barnes J., ed., Science and Speculation. Studies in Hellenistic Theory and Practice: 96–127. Cambridge.
De Kleijn G. (2001) The Water Supply of Ancient Rome. City Area, Water and Population. Amsterdam.
De Laet S. (1949) Portorium. Etude sur l’organisation douanière chez les Romains. Bruges.
De Ligt L. (1990) “Demand, supply, distribution: the Roman peasantry between town and countryside, I,” MBAH 9: 24–56.
De Ligt L. (1991) “Demand, supply, distribution: the Roman peasantry between town and countryside, II,” MBAH 10: 33–77.
De Ligt L. (1993a) Fairs and Markets in the Roman Empire: Economic and Social Aspects of Periodic Trade in a Pre-Industrial Society. Amsterdam.
De Ligt L. (1993b) “The nundinae of L. Bellicus Sollers,” in Sancisi-Weerdenburg et al., eds. (1993): 238–62.
De Ligt L. (1998/9) “Studies in legal and agrarian history I: the inscription from Henchir-Mettich and the Lex Manciana,” AncSoc 29: 219–39.
De Ligt L. (1999) “Legal history and economic history: the case of the actiones adiecticiae qualitatis,” Tijdschrift voor Rechtsgeschiedenis 47: 205–26.
De Ligt L. (2002) ‘Tax transfers in the Roman Empire’, in De Blois and Rich , eds. (2002): 48–66.
De Ligt L. (2004) “Poverty and demography: the case of the Gracchan land reforms,” Mnemosyne 57: 725–57.
De Ligt L. and Neeve P. W. (1988) “Ancient periodic markets, festivals, and fairs,” Athenaeum 66: 391–416.
De Meza D. (1998) “The Coase theorem,” in Newman P., ed., The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics and the Law: 270–82. London and New York.
De Miro E., Godart L., and Sacconi A., eds. (1996) Atti e memorie del secondo congresso internazionale di micenologia, Roma–Napoli, 14–20 ottobre 1991. Rome.
De Neeve P. W. (1984a) Colonus: Private Farm-Tenancy in Roman Italy during the Republic and the Early Principate. Amsterdam.
De Neeve P. W. (1984b) Peasants in Peril: Location and Economy in Italy in the Second Century B. C. Amsterdam.
De Polignac F. (1995) “Repenser ‘la cité’?”, in Hansen M. and Raaflaub K., eds., Studies in the Ancient Greek Polis: 7–19. Stuttgart.
De Romanis F. 1996. Cassia, cinnamomo, ossidiana. Uomini e merci tra Oceano indiano e Mediterraneo. Rome.
De Ruyt C. (1983) Macellum: marché alimentaire des Romains. Louvain.
De Siena A. and Giardino L. (2001) “Trasformazioni delle aree urbane e del paesaggio agrario in età romana nella Basilicata sudorientale,” in Lo Cascio and Marino Storchi, eds. (2001): 129–67.
De Ste. Croix G. E. M. (1970) “Some observations on the property rights of Athenian women,” CR n.s. 20: 273–8.
De Ste. Croix G. E. M. (1972) The Origins of the Peloponnesian War. London.
De Ste. Croix G. E. M. (1975) “Political pay outside Athens,” CQ 2nd ser., 25: 48–52.
De Ste. Croix G. E. M. (1981) The Class Struggle in the Ancient Greek World. London and Ithaca, NY.
De Ste. Croix G. E. M. (1988) “Slavery and other forms of unfree labour,” in Archer , ed. (1988): 19–32.
De Ste. Croix G. E. M. (2004) Athenian Democratic Origins, and Other Essays, eds. Harvey D. and Parker R., with Thonemann P.. Oxford.
De Vos M. (2001) Rus Africum: Terra acqua olio nell’Africa settentrionale. Scavo e ricognizione nei dintorini di Dougga (Alto Tell tunisino). Trento.
De Vries J. (1984) European Urbanization 1500–1800. London and Cambridge, MA.
De Vries J. (1990) “Problems in the measurement, description, and analysis of historical urbanization,” in Woude , Hayami , and Vries , eds. (1990): 43–60.
De Vries J. and Woude A. (1997) The First Modern Economy: Success, Failure, and Perseverance of the Dutch Economy, 1500–1815. Cambridge.
Debord P. (1982) Aspects sociaux et économiques de la vie religieuse dans l’Anatolie gréco-romaine. Leiden.
Debord P. (1999) L’Asie Mineure au IVe siècle (412–323 a.C.). Pouvoirs et jeux politiques. Bordeaux.
Dedet B. (1995) “Etrusques, Grecs et indigènes dans les Garrigues du Languedoc oriental au premier Age du fer. Habitats et sépultures,” in Arcelin et al., eds. (1995): 277–307.
Degeest R. (2000) The Common Wares of Sagalassos: Typology and Chronology. Turnhout.
Deger-Jalkotzy S. (1978) E-QE-TA: Zur Rolle des Gefolgschaftwesens in der Sozialstruktur mykenischer Reich. Vienna.
Deger-Jalkotzy S., Hiller S., and Panagl O., eds. (1999) Floreant Studia Mycenaea. Vienna.
Delage R. (2001) “Les structures de production des ateliers de potiers de Lezoux du Ier au IVe s., reflets de l’évolution des stratégies commerciales et de l’organisation du travail,” in Polfer , ed. (2001): 114–36.
DeLaine J. (1997) The Baths of Caracalla. A Study in the Design, Construction and Economics of Large-Scale Building Projects in Imperial Rome. Portsmouth, RI.
Delia D. (1988) “The population of Roman Alexandria,” TAPA 118: 275–92.
Delorme J. (1960) Gymnasion. Paris.
Demakopoulou K. and Divari-Valakou N. (1994–5) “New finds with Linear B inscriptions from Midea,” Minos 29–30: 323–8.
Deng K. G. (2000) “A critical survey of recent research in Chinese economic history,” Economic History Review 53: 1–28.
Dentzer J.-M. (1985) “Les villages de la Syrie romaine dans une tradition d’urbanisme oriental,” in De l’Indus aux Balkans: Recueil Jean Deshayes: 213–48. Paris.
Dentzer J.-M. ed. (1985–6) Hauran I. Recherches archéologiques sur la Syrie du sud à l’époque hellénistique et romaine. 2 vols. Paris.
Dercksen J. G., ed. (1999) Trade and Finance in Ancient Mesopotamia. Leiden.
Dercon S. and Krishnan P. (2000) “In sickness and in health: risk sharing within households in rural Ethiopia,” Journal of Political Economy 108: 688–727.
Desborough V. (1952) Protogeometric Pottery. Oxford.
Descat R. (1985) “Mnésimachos, Hérodote et le système tributaire achéménide,” REA 87: 97–112.
Descat R. (1998) “Public et privé dans l’économie de la cité grecque,” Ktêma 23: 229–41.
Descoeudres J.-P., ed. (1990) Greek Colonists and Native Populations. Oxford.
Di Vita A. (1990) “Town planning in the Greek colonies of Sicily from the time of the foundation to the Punic Wars,” in Descoeudres , ed. (1990): 343–63.
Dickinson O. (1977) The Origins of Mycenaean Civilisation. Göteborg: Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology 47.
Dickinson O. (1994) The Aegean Bronze Age. Cambridge.
Diels H. (1920) Antike Technik. Leipzig.
Dietler M. (1989) “Greeks, Etruscans and thirsty barbarians: early Iron Age interaction in the Rhône basin of France,” in Champion T. C., ed., Centre and Periphery: Comparative Studies in Archaeology: 127–41. London.
Dietler M. (1990b) “Driven by drink: the role of drinking in the political economy and the case of early Iron Age France,” Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 9: 352–406.
Dietler M. (1995) “The cup of Gyptis: rethinking the colonial encounter in early Iron Age western Europe and the relevance of world-systems models,” JEA 3: 89–111.
Dietler M. (1996) “Feasts and commensal politics in the political economy: food, power, and status in prehistoric Europe,” in Wiessner P. and Schiefenhövel W., eds., Food and the Status Quest: An Interdisciplinary Perspective: 87–125. Oxford.
Dietler M. (1998) “Consumption, agency, and cultural entanglement: theoretical implications of a Mediterranean colonial encounter,” in Cusick J., ed., Studies in Culture Contact: Interaction, Culture Change, and Archaeology: 288–315. Carbondale, IL.
Dietler M. (1999) “Consumption, cultural frontiers, and identity: anthropological approaches to Greek colonial encounters,” in Confini e frontiera nella Grecità d’Occidente (Atti del XXXVII Convegno di Studi sulla Magna Grecia, Taranto, 3–6 ottobre, 1997:) 475–501. Naples.
Dietler M. (2005) “The archaeology of colonization and the colonization of archaeology: theoretical challenges from an ancient Mediterranean colonial encounter,” in Stein G., ed., The Archaeology of Colonial Encounters: Comparative Perspectives: 33–68. Santa Fe, NM.
Dietler M. (in preparation) Archaeologies of Colonialism: Disentangling an Ancient Mediterranean Encounter.
Dillon M., ed. (1996) Religion in the Ancient World: New Themes and Approaches. Amsterdam.
Dinsmoor W. B. Sr. (1975) The Architecture of Ancient Greece. 4th edn. London.
Dion P.-E. (1997) Les araméens à l’âge du fer: histoire politique et structures sociales. Paris.
Dionisotti A. C. (1982) “From Ausonius’ schooldays? A schoolbook and its relatives,” JRS 72: 83–125.
Dixon S. (1986) “Family finances: Terentia and Tullia,” in Rawson , ed. (1986): 96–120.
Dixon S. (2001) Reading Roman Women. London.
Docter R. (1997) Archaische Amphoren aus Karthago und Toscanos. Fundspektrum und Formentwicklung. Ein Beitrag zur phönizischen Wirtschaftsgeschichte. Amsterdam.
Docter R., and Niemeyer H. D. (1994) “Pithekoussai: the Carthaginian connection.” Istituto Universitario Orientale, Annali. Archeologia e Storia Antica n. s. I: 101–15.
Dodge H. (1991) “Ancient marble studies: recent research,” JRA 4: 28–50.
Domar E. D. (1970) “The causes of slavery or serfdom: a hypothesis,” Journal of Economic History 30: 18–32.
Domergue C. (1983) La mine antique d’Aljustrel (Portugal) et les tables de bronze de Vipasca. Paris: Conimbriga 22.
Domergue C. (1990) Les mines de la péninsule ibérique dans l’antiquité romaine. Paris and Rome.
Domergue C. (1994) “L’Etat romain et le commerce des métaux à la fin de la République et sous le Haut-Empire,” in Andreau et al., eds. (1994): 99–113.
Domínguez A. J. (1987) “El vino y los pueblos del Norte de la Peninsula Ibérica: aproximación historico-arqueológica,” in El vi a l’Antiguitat, economia, producció I comerç al Mediterrani Occidental: 376–82. Badalona.
Domínguez A. J. (2002) “Greeks in Iberia: colonialism without colonization,” in Lyons C. and Papadopolous J., eds., The Archaeology of Colonialism: 65–95. Los Angeles.
Donker Van Heel K. (1995) Abnormal Hieratic and Early Demotic Texts Collected by the Theban Choachytes in the Reign of Amasis. Papyri from the Louvre Eisenlohr Lot. Leiden.
Donlan W. (1985) “The social groups of Dark Age Greece,” CPh 80: 293–308.
Donlan W. (1989) “The unequal gift exchange between Glaucus and Diomedes in the light of the Homeric gift-economy,” Phoenix 43: 1–15.
Donlan W. (1997) “The Homeric economy,” in Morris and Powell (1997): 649–67.
Doty L. T. (1978/9) “A cuneiform tablet from Tell ‘Umar,” Mesopotamia 13–14: 91–8.
Doty L. T. (1979) “The archive of the Nanâ-iddin family from Uruk,” Journal of Cuneiform Studies 30: 65–90.
Douglas M. and Isherwood D. (1980) The World of Goods. London.
Doukellis P. N. and Mendoni L. G., eds. (1994) Structures rurales et sociétés antiques. Paris.
Downey G. (1958) “The size of the population of Antioch,” TAPhA 89: 84–91.
Downey S. (1988) Mesopotamian Religious Architecture: Alexander through the Parthians. Princeton.
Drachmann A. G. (1932) Ancient Oil Mills and Presses. Copenhagen.
Drachmann A. G. (1963) The Mechanical Technology of Greek and Roman Antiquity. Copenhagen.
Drachmann A. G. (1967) Grosse griechische Erfinder. Zürich.
Dreher M. (1995) Hegemon und Symmachoi: Untersuchungen zum Zweiten Athenischen Seebund. Berlin.
Drexhage H.-J. (1982) “Beitrag zum Binnenhandel im römischen Ägypten aufgrund der Torzollquittungen und Zollhausabrechnungen des Faijums,” MBAH 1: 61–84.
Drexhage H.-J. (1991) Preise, Miete/Pachten, Kosten und Löhne im römischen Ägypten bis zum Regierungsantritt Diokletians. St. Katharinen.
Drexhage H.-J., Konen H., and Ruffing K. (2002a) Die Wirtschaft des Römischen Reiches (1.-3. Jahrhundert). Eine Einführung. Berlin.
Drexhage H.-J. (2002b) “Die Wirtschaft der römischen Kaiserzeit in der modernen Deutung: Einige Überlegungen,” in Strobel K., ed. (2002a): 1–66.
Dreyer B. (2000) “Roms Ostpolitik, Athen und der Beginn der Neustil-Silberprägung,” ZPE 129: 77–83.
Driessen J. M. (1990) An Early Destruction in the Mycenaean Palace at Knossos: A New Interpretation of the Excavation Field-Notes of the South-East Area of the West Wing. Leuven: Acta Archaeologica Lovaniensia, Monograph 2.
Driessen J. M. (1992) “‘Collector’s Items’. Observations sur l’élite mycénienne de Cnossos,” in Olivier , ed. (1992): 197–214.
Driessen J. M. (1994–5) “Data storage for reference and prediction at the dawn of civilization?Minos 29–30: 239–56.
Driessen J. M. (1997) “Le palais de Cnossos au MR II–III: combien de destructions?,” in Driessen J. and Farnoux A., eds., La Crète mycénienne: 113–34. Athens: BCH supplement 30.
Driessen J. M. (2000) The Scribes of the Room of the Chariot Tablets. Salamanca: Minos Supp. volume 15.
Driessen J. M. (2001a) “Centre and periphery: some observations on the administration of the kingdom of Knossos,” in Voutsaki and Killen , eds. (2001): 96–112.
Driessen J. M. (2001b) “History and hierarchy: preliminary observations on the settlement pattern of Minoan Crete,” in Branigan , ed. (2001b): 51–71.
Driessen J. and Macdonald C. (1997) The Troubled Island. Minoan Crete Before and After the Santorini Eruption. Liège and Austin: Aegaeum 17.
Driessen J., Schoep I., and Laffineur R., eds. (2002) Monuments of Minos: Rethinking the Minoan Palaces. Liège: Aegaeum 23.
Drinkwater J. F. (2001) “The Gallo-Roman woollen industry and the great debate: the Igel column revisited,” in Mattingly and Salmon (2001a): 297–308.
Drummond S. K. and Nelson L. H. (1994) The Western Frontiers of Imperial Rome. London.
Dubois L. (1996) Inscriptions Grecques Dialectales d’Olbia du Pont. Geneva.
Ducat J. (1971) Les Kouroi du Ptoion: le sanctuaire d’Apollon Ptoieus à l’époque archaïque. Paris.
Ducat J. (1982) “Antipolis et Nikaia: implantations et activités économiques,” Ktema 7: 89–99.
Duchêne H., and Fraisse P. (2001) Le paysage portuaire de la Délos antique. Recherches sur les installations maritimes, commerciales et urbaines du littoral délien. Paris and Athens.
Dufkova M. and Pecirka J. (1970) “Excavations of farms and farmhouses in the chora of Chersonesos in the Crimea,” Eirene 8: 123–74.
Duhoux Y. (1976) Aspects du vocabulaire économique mycénien (cadastre – artisanat – fiscalité). Amsterdam.
Dumont J.-C. (1987) Servus. Rome et l’esclavage sous la République. Rome.
Duncan-Jones R. P. (1963) “Wealth and munificence in Roman North Africa,” PBSR 31: 159–77.
Duncan-Jones R. P. (1982) The Economy of the Roman Empire. Quantitative Studies, 2nd edn. Cambridge.
Duncan-Jones R. P. (1990) Structure and Scale in the Roman Economy. Cambridge.
Duncan-Jones R. P. (1994) Money and Government in the Roman Empire. Cambridge.
Duncan-Jones R. P. (1996) “The impact of the Antonine plague,” JRA 9: 108–36.
Duncan-Jones R. P. (2004) “Economic change and the transition to late antiquity,” in Swain and Edwards , eds. (2004): 20–52.
Dupont P. (1998) “Archaic east Greek trade amphoras,” in Cook R. M. and Dupont P., East Greek Pottery: 142–90. London.
Dupont P. (2000) “Trafics méditerranéens archaïques: quelques aspects,” in Krinzinger F., ed., Die Agäis und das westliche Mittelmeer. Beziehungen und Wechselwirkungen 8. bis 5. Jh. v. Chr.: 445–60. Vienna.
Durand A. and Leveau P. (2004) “Farming in Mediterranean France and rural settlement in the late Roman and early medieval periods,” in Barceló M. and Sigaut F., eds., The Making of Feudal Agricultures?: 177–253. Leiden.
Dusinberre E. R. M. (2003) Aspects of Empire in Achaemenid Sardis. Cambridge.
Duyrat F. (2005) “La circulation monétaire dans l’Orient séleucide (Syrie, Phénicie, Mésopotamie, Iran),” in Chankowsky and Duyrat , eds. (2005): 381–424.
Dyson S. L. (1992) Community and Society in Roman Italy. Baltimore and London.
Earle T. (2002)Bronze Age Economics: the Beginnings of Political Economies. Boulder, CO.
Easterlin R. A. (1976) “Population change and farm settlement in the northern United States,” Journal of Economic History 36: 45–75.
Easterlin R. A. and Crimmins E. (1985) The Fertility Revolution. Chicago.
Eck W. (1979) Die staatliche Organisation Italiens in der hohen Kaiserzeit. München.
Economokakis R., ed. (1994) Acropolis Restoration: The CCAM Intervention. London.
Edgar C. C. (1931) Zenon Papyri in the University of Michigan Collection. Ann Arbor, MI.
Edwards C. (1993) The Politics of Immorality in Ancient Rome. Cambridge.
Edwards C. and Woolf G., eds. (2003) Rome the Cosmopolis. Cambridge.
Eggertsson T. (1990) Economic Behavior and Institutions. Cambridge.
Eginitis D. (1908) “Le climat de l’Attique,” Annales de Géographie 17: 413–32.
Ehrenberg V. (1943) The People of Aristophanes. Oxford; reprinted (1974), London and New York.
Eiring J. (2000) “Knossos at the turn of the millennium: Romanitas and pottery,” Rei Cretariae Romanae Fautorum Acta 36: 197–203.
Elat M. (1991) “Phoenician overland trade within the Mesopotamian empires,” in Cogan and Eph’al , eds. (1991): 21–35.
Elayi J. (1989) Sidon, cité autonome de l’Empire perse. Paris.
Elayi J. (1990) Economie des cités phéniciennes sous l’Empire perse. Naples.
Elayi J. (2000) “Les sites phéniciens de Syrie au Fer III/Perse: Bilan et perspectives de recherche,” in Bunnens , ed. (2000): 307–48.
Ellis F. (1993) Peasant Economics. Farm Households and Agrarian Development. 2nd edn. Cambridge.
Elton H. (1996) Frontiers of the Roman Empire. London.
Elvin M. (1973) The Pattern of the Chinese Past: A Social and Economic Interpretation. Stanford.
Empereur J.-Y., ed. (1999) Commerce et artisanat dans l’Alexandrie hellénistique et romaine. Athens: BCH supp. vol. 33.
Empereur J.-Y. and Garlan Y., eds. (1986) Recherches sur les amphores grecques. Athens and Paris.
Empereur J.-Y. and Hesnard A. (1987) “Les amphores hellénistiques,” in Lévêque P. and Morel J.-P., eds., Céramiques hellénistiques et romaines II: 9–71. Besançon and Paris.
Empereur J.-Y., Kritzas C., and Marangou A. (1991) “A la recherche des ateliers d’amphores en Crète centrale,” BCH 115: 481–523.
Empereur J.-Y. and Picon M. (1989) “Les régions de production d’amphores impériales en Méditerranée orientale,” in Amphores romaines et histoire économique: dix ans de recherche: 223–48. Paris and Rome.
Endfield G. H. (1997) “Myth, manipulation and myopia in the study of Mediterranean soil erosion,” in Sinclair A., Slater E. and Gowlett J., eds., Archaeological Sciences 1995: 241–8. Oxford: Oxbow Monograph 64.
Eng R. Y. and Smith T. C. (1976) “Peasant families and population control in eighteenth-century Japan,” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 6: 417–45.
Engelmann H. and Knibbe D. (1989) Das Zollgesetz der Provinz Asia. Bonn.
Engels D. (1990) Roman Corinth: An Alternative Model for the Classical City. Chicago and London.
Engels D. W. (1978) Alexander the Great and the Logistics of the Macedonian Army. Berkeley.
Engels J. (2000) “Das Athenische Getreidesteuer-Gesetz des Agyrrhios und angebliche ‘sozialstaatliche’ Ziele in den Maßnahmen zur Getreideversorgung spätklassischer und hellenistischer Poleis,” ZPE 132: 97–124.
Engen D. T. (2001) “Trade, traders, and the economy of Athens in the fourth century BCE,” in Tandy D. W., ed., Prehistory and History: Ethnicity, Class and Political Economy: 179–98. Montreal.
Engerman S. L. (1986) “Slavery and emancipation in comparative perspective: a look at some recent debates,” Journal of Economic History 46: 317–39.
England P. and Folbre N. (2005) “Gender and economic sociology,” in Smelser and Swedberg , eds. (2005): 627–49.
Eph’al I. (1978) “The western minorities in Babylonia in the sixth-fifth centuries BC: maintenance and control,” Orientalia n.s. 47: 74–90.
Eph’al I. (1984) The Ancient Arabs: Nomads on the Borders of the Fertile Crescent, Ninth– Fifth Centuries BC. Jerusalem.
Erdkamp P. (1999) “Agriculture, underemployment, and the cost of rural labor in the Roman world,” CQ 49: 556–72.
Erdkamp P. (2001) “Beyond the limits of the ‘consumer city’: a model of the urban and rural economy in the Roman world,” Historia 50.3: 332–56.
Erdkamp P. ed. (2002a) The Roman Army and the Economy. Amsterdam.
Erdkamp P. (2002b) “The corn supply of the Roman armies during the Principate (27 BC–235AD),” in Erdkamp , ed. (2002a): 47–69.
Erdkamp P. (2005) The Grain Market in the Roman Empire: A Social, Political and Economic Study. Cambridge.
Erroux J. (1976) “Les débuts de l’agriculture en France: les céréales,” in Guilaine J., ed., La Préhistoire française 11: 187–91. Paris.
Etienne R. (1990) Ténos II. Ténos et les Cyclades du milieu du IVe siècle av J.-C. au milieu du IIIe siècle ap. J.-C. Paris.
Etienne R. and Migeotte L. (1998) “Colophon et les abus des fermiers des taxes,” BCH 122: 143–57.
Euzennat M. (1980) “Ancient Marseilles in the light of recent excavations,” AJA 84: 133–40.
Euzennat M. (1992) “Marseille et son passé. Histoire des découvertes,” in Bats et al., eds. (1992): 65–9.
Evans J. K. (1980) “Plebs rustica: the peasantry of classical Italy,” AJAH 5: 19–47.
Eyben E. (1980/1) “Family planning in Graeco-Roman antiquity,” AncSoc 11/12: 5–82.
el-Fakharani Fawzi (1983) “Recent excavations at Marea in Egypt,” in Grimm C., Heinen H., and Winter E., eds., Das römisch-byzantinische Ägypten: 175–86, pls.34–7. Aegyptiaca Treverensia 2, Mainz.
Fales F. M. (1973) Censimenti e catasti di epoca neo-assira. Rome.
Fales F. M. (1984) “A survey of neo-Assyrian land sales,” in Khalidi , ed. (1984): 1–13.
Fales F. M. (1990) “The rural landscape of the neo-Assyrian empire: a survey,” State Archives of Assyria Bulletin 4: 81–142.
Fales F. M. (1993) “River transport in neo-Assyrian letters,” in Zablocka J. and Zawadzki S., eds., Sulmu IV: Everyday Life in the Ancient Near East: 79–92. Poznan.
Falkenstein A. (1941) Topographie von Uruk. i. Teil. Uruk zur Seleukidenreich. Ausgrabungen der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft in Uruk-Warka, Band 3. Leipzig.
Fant J. C., ed. (1988) Ancient Marble Quarrying and Trade. Oxford.
Fant J. C. (1989a) Cavum antrum Phrygiae: The Organization and Operations of the Roman Imperial Marble Quarries in Phrygia. Oxford.
Fant J. C. (1989b) “Poikiloi lithoi: the anomalous economics of the Roman imperial marble quarry at Teos,” in Walker S. and Cameron A., eds., The Greek Renaissance in the Roman Empire: 206–17. London.
Fant J. C. (1993) “Ideology, gift, and trade: a distribution model for the Roman imperial marbles,” in Harris V., ed., The Inscribed Economy: Production and Distribution in the Roman Empire in the Light of Instrumentum Domesticum: 145–70. Ann Arbor, MI.
Fant J. C. (2001) “Rome’s marble yards,” JRA 14: 167–98.
Faraguna M. (1992) Atene nell’ età di Alessandro. Problemi politici, economici, finanziari. Rome.
Faraguna M. (1999) “Intorno alla nuova legge ateniese sulla tassazione del grano,” Dike 2: 63–97.
Favory F., Fiches J.-L., and Leeuw S., eds. (2003) Archéologie et systèmes socio-environnementaux. Etudes multiscalaires sur la vallée du Rhône dans le programme Archaeomedes. Paris.
Fedeli P. (1990) La natura violata: ecologia e mondo romano. Palermo.
Federici N., Mason K. O., and Segner S., eds. (1993) Women’s Position and Demographic Change. Oxford.
Felber H. (1997) Demotische Ackerpachtverträge der Ptolemäerzeit. Wiesbaden.
Fenoaltea S. (1984) “Slavery and supervision in comparative perspective: a model,” Journal of Economic History 44: 635–68.
Fentress E. (1979) Numidia and the Roman Army: Social, Military and Economic Aspects of the Frontier Zone. Oxford.
Feuer B. A. (1983) The Northern Mycenaean Border in Thessaly. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports International Series 176.
Feugère M. (1992) “Les instruments de chasse, de pêche et d’agriculture,” in Py , ed. (1992a): 139–64.
Field A. J. (1991) “Do legal systems matter?Explorations in Economic History 28: 1–35.
Figueira T. J. (1981) Aegina. Society and Politics. New York.
Figueira T. J. (1986) “Sitopolai and sitophylakes in Lysias’ ‘Against the graindealers’: Governmental intervention in the Athenian economy,” Phoenix 40: 149–71.
Figueira T. J. (1998) The Power of Money: Coinage and Politics in the Athenian Empire. Philadelphia.
Figueira T. J. (2003) “The demography of the Spartan helots,” in Luraghi and Alcock , eds. (2003): 193–239.
Fine B. and Leopold E., eds. (1993) The World of Consumption. London.
Fink R. O. (1971) Roman Military Records on Papyrus. Ann Arbor, MI.
Finkbeiner U. (1982) “Seleukidische und parthische Gräber in Uruk,” Baghdader Mitteilungen 13: 155–62.
Finkbeiner U. (1987) “Uruk-Warka. The late periods,” Mesopotamia 22: 233–50.
Finkbeiner U. (1991) Uruk. Kampagne 35–37, 1982–1984. Die archäologische Oberflächenuntersuchung (survey). Mainz am Rhein.
Finkelberg M. (1988) “From Ahhiyawa to Akhaioí,” Glotta 66: 127–34.
Finley M. I. (1935) “Emporos, naukleros, and kapelos: a prolegomena to the study of Athenian trade,” CPh 30: 320–36.
Finley M. I. (1952) Studies in Land and Credit in Ancient Athens, 500–200 B. C. New Brunswick, NJ.
Finley M. I. (1957) “The Mycenaean tablets and economic history,” Economic History Review 10: 128–41.
Finley M. I. (1959) “Was Greek civilization based on slave labour?Historia 8: 145–64; reprinted in Finley ed. (1960/68): 53–72 and Finley (1981): 97–115.
Finley M. I. ed. (1960) Slavery in Classical Antiquity. Cambridge and New York; reprinted with bibliographical supplement, 1968.
Finley M. I. (1962) “The slave trade in antiquity: the Black Sea and Danubian regions,” Klio 40: 51–9; reprinted in Finley (1981): 167–75.
Finley M. I. (1965a) “Classical Greece,” in Second International Conference of Economic History, Aix-en-Provence 1962: 11–35. Paris.
Finley M. I. (1965b) “Technical innovation and economic progress in the ancient world,” Economic History Review 18: 29–45.
Finley M. I. (1970) Early Greece. London.
Finley M. I. (1973a) The Ancient Economy. 1st edn. Berkeley and Los Angeles.
Finley M. I. ed. (1973b) Problèmes de la terre en Grèce ancienne. Paris and La Haye.
Finley M. I. ed. (1979a) The Bücher-Meyer Controversy. New York.
Finley M. I. (1979b) The World of Odysseus. 2nd edn. Harmondsworth.
Finley M. I. (1980) Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology. London.
Finley M. I. (1981) Economy and Society in Ancient Greece, eds. Shaw B. D. and Saller R. P.. London. Repr. Harmondsworth 1983.
Finley M. I. (1983) Politics in the Ancient World. Cambridge.
Finley M. I. (1985) The Ancient Economy. 2nd edn. London.
Finley M. I. (1999) The Ancient Economy, updated edn. with foreword by Morris Ian. Berkeley.
Firth R. J. (2000–1) “A review of the find-places of the Linear B Tablets from the palace of Knossos,” Minos 35–36: 63–290.
Fischer H. (1993) “Zu Problemen von Stadt und Stadtentwicklung im Römischen Reich während des 3. Jahrhunderts,” in Johne K.-P., ed., Gesellschaft und Wirtschaft des Römischen Reiches im 3. Jahrhundert: 135–85. Berlin.
Fisher N. (1989) “Drink, hybris and the promotion of harmony in Sparta,” in Powell A., ed., Classical Sparta: Techniques behind Her Success: 26–50. London.
Fisher N. (1993) Slavery in Classical Greece. Bristol.
Fisher N. and Wees H., eds. (1998) Archaic Greece. London.
Fitton J. L. (1996) The Discovery of the Greek Bronze Age. London.
Flach D. (1979) “Die Bergwerksordnungen von Vipasca,” Chiron 9: 398–448.
Flach D. (1996) Marcus Terentius Varro. Gespräche über die Landwirtschaft. Buch 1. Darmstadt.
Fleming S. J. (1999) Roman Glass. Reflections on Cultural Change. Philadelphia.
Flemming N. C. (1996) “Sea level, neotectonics and changes in coastal settlements: threat and response,” in Rice , ed. (1996): 23–52.
Flinn M. W. (1981) The European Demographic System, 1500–1820. Baltimore.
Flint-Hamilton K. B. (1999) “Legumes in ancient Greece and Rome: food, medicine, or poison?Hesperia 68: 371–85.
Floud R. (1994) “The heights of Europeans since 1750: a new source for European economic history,” in Komlos J., ed., Stature, Living Standards, and Economic Development: 9–24. Chicago.
Floud R., Wachter K., and Gregory A. (1990) Height, Health and History: Nutritional Status in the United Kingdom, 1750–1980. Cambridge.
Fogel R. W. (1985) “Nutrition and the decline in mortality since 1700: some preliminary findings,” in Engerman S. L. and Gallmann R. E., eds., Long-Term Factors in American Economic Growth: 439–555. Chicago.
Fogel R. W. (1989) Without Consent or Contract: The Rise and Fall of American Slavery. New York.
Fogel R. W. (1993) “New sources and new techniques for the study of secular trends in nutritional status, health, mortality, and the process of aging,” Historical Methods 26: 5–43.
Fogel R. W. (2000) The Fourth Great Awakening and the Future of Egalitarianism. Chicago.
Fogel R. W. (2004) The Escape from Hunger and Premature Death, 1700–2100: Europe, America and the Third World. Cambridge.
Foraboschi D. (1976) “Fattori economici nella transizione dall’antichità al feudalesimo,” StudStor 17: 65–100.
Foraboschi D. (1981) “Note sulla produttività della terra,” in Scritti in onore di O. Montevecchi: 155–61. Rome.
Foraboschi D. and Gara A. (1982) “L’economia dei crediti in natura (Egitto),” Athenaeum 60: 69–83.
Forbes H. A. (1992) “The ethnoarchaeological approach to ancient Greek agriculture. Olive cultivation as a case study,” in Wells , ed. (1992): 87–101
Forbes H. A. (1994) “Pastoralism and settlement structures in ancient Greece,” in Doukellis and Mendoni , eds. (1994): 187–96
Forbes H. A. (1996) “The uses of the uncultivated landscape in modern Greece: a pointer to the value of the wilderness in antiquity?” in Shipley and Salmon , eds. (1996): 68–97
Forsén J. (1992) Twilight of the Early Helladics: A Study of the Disturbances in East-Central and Southern Greece Towards the End of the Early Bronze Age. Jonsered: Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology and Literature-Pocket Book 116.
Forsén J. and Forsén B., eds. (2003) The Asea Valley Survey: An Arcadian Mountain Valley from the Palaeolithic Period until Modern Times. Stockholm.
Foss C. (1995) “The Near Eastern countryside in late antiquity: a review article,” in The Roman and Byzantine Near East: Some Recent Archaeological Research: 214–34. Ann Arbor, MI.
Fossey J. M. (1979) “The cities of the Kopaïs in the Roman period,” ANRW II.7.1: 549–91
Foster E. D. (1977) “An administrative department at Knossos concerned with perfumery and offerings,” Minos 16: 19–51.
Foster E. D. (1981) “The flax impost at Pylos and Mycenaean landholding,” Minos 17: 67–121.
Fox C. A. (1998) Household Interests: Property, Marriage Strategies, and Family Dynamics in Ancient Athens. Princeton.
Foxhall L. (1989) “Household, gender, and property in classical Athens,” CQ 39: 22–44.
Foxhall L. (1990) “The dependent tenant: land leasing and labour in Italy and Greece,” JRS 80: 97–114.
Foxhall L. (1992) “The control of the Attic landscape,” in Wells B., ed., Agriculture in Ancient Greece: 155–60. Stockholm.
Foxhall L. (1993) “Farming and fighting in ancient Greece,” in Rich and Shipley , eds. (1993): 134–45
Foxhall L. (1995) “Women’s ritual and men’s work in ancient Athens,” in Hawley R. and Levick B., eds., Women in Antiquity: New Assessments: 97–110. London and New York.
Foxhall L. (1996) “Feeling the earth move: cultivation techniques on steep slopes in classical antiquity,” in Shipley and Salmon , eds. (1996): 44–67
Foxhall L. (1997) “A view from the top: evaluating the solonian property classes,” in Mitchell L. and Rhodes P. J., eds., The Development of the Polis in Archaic Greece: 113–36. London.
Foxhall L. (1998) “Cargoes of the heart’s desire: the character of trade in the archaic Mediterranean world,” in Fisher and Wees , eds. (1998): 295–309
Foxhall L. (2001) “Access to resources in classical Greece: the egalitarianism of the polis in practice,” in Cartledge et al., eds. (2001): 209–20
Foxhall L. (forthcoming) Olive Cultivation in Ancient Greece: Seeking the Ancient Economy.
Foxhall L. and Forbes H. A. (1982) “Sitometreia. The role of grain as a staple food in classical antiquity,” Chiron 12: 41–90.
Foxhall L., Gill D., and Forbes H. (1997) “Inscriptions in Methana,” in Mee and Forbes , eds. (1997): 269–77
Foxhall L. and Stears K. (2000) “Redressing the balance: dedications of clothing to Artemis and the order of life stages,” in Donald M. and Hurcombe L., eds., Gender and Material Culture in Historical Perspective: 3–16. London.
Francotte H. (1900–1) L’industrie dans la Grèce ancienne. 2 vols. Brussels.
Frank A. G. (1998) ReOrient: The Silver Age in Asia and the World Economy. Berkeley.
Frank T. (1927) An Economic History of Rome, 2nd edn. Baltimore.
Frank T. (1933–40) An Economic Survey of Ancient Rome, Vols. I-V. Baltimore (= repr. Paterson, N. J., 1959).
Frankenstein S. (1979a) Arqueología del colonialismo: el impacto fenicio y griego en el sur de la Península Ibérica y el suroeste de Alemania. Barcelona.
Frankenstein S. (1979b) “The Phoenicians in the far west: a function of neo-Assyrian imperialism,” in Larsen , ed. (1979): 263–94
Frankenstein S. and Rowlands M. J. (1978) “The internal structure and regional context of early Iron Age society in southwestern Germany,” BIAL 15: 73–112.
Fraser P. M. (1960) “Inscriptions from Ptolemaic Egypt,” Berytus 13: 123–61.
Fraser P. M. (1972) Ptolemaic Alexandria. 3 vols. Oxford.
Fraser P. M. (1996) Cities of Alexander the Great. Oxford.
Frayn J. M. (1984) Sheep-Rearing and the Wool Trade in Italy during the Roman Period. Liverpool.
Frayn J. M. (1993) Markets and Fairs in Roman Italy: Their Social and Economic Importance from the Second Century BC to the Third Century AD. Oxford.
Frederiksen M. W. (1966) “Caesar, Cicero and the problem of debt,” JRS 56: 128–41.
Frederiksen M. W. (1970–1) “The contribution of archaeology to the agrarian problem in the Gracchan period,” Dial.Arch. 4–5: 330–57
Frederiksen M. W. (1975) “Theory, evidence, and the ancient economy,” JRS 65: 164–71.
Frederiksen M. W. (1981) “I cambiamenti delle strutture agrarie nella tarda repubblica: la Campania,” in Giardina and Schiavone , eds. (1981), vol. I: 265–87
Fregoni M. (1991) Origini della vite e della viticoltura: contributo dei popoli antichi. Aosta.
French D. H. (1980) “The Roman road-system of Asia Minor,” ANRW II.7.2: 698–729
French E. B. (2002) Mycenae, Agamemnon’s Capital: the Site in its Setting. Stroud.
Frenzel B., ed. (1994) Evaluation of Land Surfaces Cleared from Forests in the Mediterranean Region during the Time of the Roman Empire. Stuttgart.
Frere S. S. (1978) Britannia: A History of Roman Britain, revised edition. London.
Friedman M. (1953) “The methodology of positive economics,” in Essays in Positive Economics. Chicago: 3–43
Friedmann J. (1973) Urbanization, Planning, and National Development. London.
Friedrich W. L. (2000) Fire in the Sea. The Santorini Volcano: Natural History and the Legend of Atlantis. Cambridge.
Frier B. W. (1982) “Roman life expectancy: Ulpian’s evidence,” HSCPh 86: 213–51.
Frier B. W. (1983a) “Roman law and the wine trade: the problem of ‘vinegar sold as wine,’ZRG 100: 257–95.
Frier B. W. (1983b) “Roman life expectancy: the Pannonian evidence,” Phoenix 37: 328–44.
Frier B. W. (1985) The Rise of the Roman Jurists. Princeton.
Frier B. W. (1993a) “Law, economics, and disasters down on the farm: Remissio mercedis revisited,” BIDR 31/32: 237–70
Frier B. W. (1993b) “Subsistence annuities and per capita income in the early Roman Empire,” CPh 88: 222–30.
Frier B. W. (1994) “Natural fertility and family limitation in the Roman family,” CPh 89: 318–33.
Frier B. W. (2000) “Demography,” in Bowman A., Garnsey P., and Rathbone D., eds., The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume XI, The High Empire, AD 70–192: 2nd edn. 787–816. Cambridge.
Frier B. W. (2001) “More is worse: observations on the population of the Roman empire,” in Scheidel , ed. (2001d): 139–59
Fuks A. (1951) “Kolonos agoraios: labour exchange in classical Athens,” Eranos 49: 71–3; reprinted in Fuks (1984): 303–5
Fuks A. (1984) Social Conflict in Ancient Greece. Jerusalem and Leiden.
Fulford M. (1984) “Demonstrating Britannia’s economic dependence in the first nd second centuries,” in Blagg T. F. C. and King A. C., eds., Military and Civilian in Roman Britain: Cultural Relationships in a Frontier Province: 129–42. Oxford.
Fulford M. (1987) “Economic interdependence among urban communities of the Roman Mediterranean,” World Archaeology 19: 58–75.
Fulford M. (1989a) “The economy of Roman Britain,” in Todd , ed. (1989): 175–201
Fulford M. (1989b) “Roman and barbarian: the economy of Roman frontier systems,” in Barrett et al., eds.(1989): 81–95
Fulford M. (1991) “Britain and the Roman Empire: the evidence for regional and long distance trade,” in Jones , ed. (1991a): 35–47
Fulford M. (1992) “Territorial expansion and the Roman Empire,” World Archaeology 23: 294–305.
Fulford M. (2000) “Britain,” in Bowman et al., eds. (2000): 559–76
Fülle G. (1997) “The internal organization of the Arretine terra sigillata industry: problems of evidence and interpretation,” JRS 87: 111–55.
Funck B. (1984) Uruk zur Seleukidenzeit. Berlin.
Furtwängler A. E. (1978) Monnaies grecques en Gaule. Le trésor d’Auriol et le monnayage de Massalia 525/520–460 av. J-C. Fribourg.
Furubotn E. G. and Richter R. (1998) Institutions and Economic Theory: The Contribution of the New Institutional Economics. Ann Arbor, MI.
Gabba E. (1979) “Sulle strutture agrarie dell’Italia romana,” in Gabba and Pasquinucci (1979): 13–73. Pisa.
Gabba E. (2001) “Hannibal’s Legacy trenta anni dopo,” in Cascio Lo and Marino Storchi, eds. (2001): 15–18
Gabba E. and Pasquinucci M. (1979) Strutture agrarie e allevamento transumante nell’Italia romana (III–I) Sec. a. C.). Pisa.
Gabrielsen V. (1981) Remuneration of State Officials in Fourth Century BC Athens. Odense.
Gabrielsen V. (1994) Financing the Athenian Fleet: Public Taxation and Social Relations. Baltimore and London.
Gabrielsen V. (1997) The Naval Aristocracy of Hellenistic Rhodes. Aarhus.
Gabrielsen V. (2001) “The Rhodian associations and economic activity,” in Archibald et al., eds. (2001): 215–44
Gabrielsen V. (2005) “Banking and credit operations in the Hellenistic world,” in Archibald et al., eds. (2005): 136–64
Gagarin M. and Cohen D. (2005) Companion to Greek Law and Culture. Cambridge.
Gailledrat E. (1993) “Les céramiques peintes ibériques au Ve siècle avant J.-C. en Languedoc occidental et en Roussillon,”Documents d’Archéologie Méridionale 16: 64–79.
Gailledrat E. (1997) Les Ibères de l’Ebre à l’Hérault (Vie-IVe s. avant J.-C.). Lattes.
Gailledrat E. (2000) “Courants commerciaux et partenaires méditerranéens entre Languedoc occidental et la Péninsule ibérique au Premier Âge du fer (VIIème-vème s. av. J.C.),” in Janin T., ed., Mailhac et le Premier Age du fer en Europe occidentale: hommages à Odette et Jean Taffanel: 261–70. Lattes.
Galaty M. L. (1999) Nestor’s Winecups: Investigating Ceramic Production and Distribution in a Late Bronze Age “Mycenaean” State. Oxford: BAR International Series 766.
Galaty M. L. and Parkinson W. A., eds. (1999) Rethinking Mycenaean Palaces: New Interpretations of an Old Idea. Los Angeles: Monumenta Archaeologica 41.
Gale N. H., ed. (1991a) Bronze Age Trade in the Mediterranean. Jonsered: Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology 90.
Gale N. H., ed. (1991b) “Copper oxhide ingots: their origin and their place in the Bronze Age metals trade in the Mediterranean,” in Gale , ed. (1991a): 197–239
Gale N. H., Gentner W., and Wagner G. A. (1980) “Mineralogical and geographical silver sources of archaic Greek coinage,” Metallurgy in Numismatics 1: 2–49.
Gallant T. W. (1982) “Agricultural systems, land tenure, and the reforms of Solon,” BSA 77: 111–24.
Gallant T. W. (1985) A Fisherman’s Tale: An Analysis of the Potential Productivity of Fishing in the Ancient Mediterranean. Gent.
Gallant T. W. (1989) “Crisis and response: risk-buffering behavior in Hellenistic Greek communities,” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 19: 393–413.
Gallant T. W. (1991) Risk and Survival in Ancient Greece: Reconstructing the Rural Domestic Economy. Stanford.
Gallazzi C. and Hadji-Minaglou G. (2000) Tebtynis I, La reprise des fouilles et le quartier de la Chapelle d’ lsis-Thermouthis. Cairo.
Galloway P. R. (1986) “Long-term fluctuations in climate and population in the preindustrial era,” Population and Development Review 12: 1–24.
Gallant T. W. (1988) “Basic patterns in annual variation in fertility, nuptiality, mortality, and prices in pre-industrial Europe,” Population Studies 42: 275–303.
Gallant T. W. (1994) “Secular changes in the short-term preventive, positive, and temperature checks to population growth in Europe, 1460 to 1909,” Climatic Change 26: 3–63.
Galsterer H. (1994) “Kunstraub und Kunsthandel im republikanischen Rom,” in Hellenkemper G.Salies, ed., Das Wrack: der antike Schiffsfund von Mahdia II: 857–66. Cologne.
Gantès L.-F. (1990) “Massalia retrouvée,” Les Dossiers d’Archéologie 154: 14–21.
Gantès L.-F. (1992a) “La topographie de Marseille grecque. Bilan des recherches (1829–1991),” in Bats et al., eds. (1992): 71–88
Gantès L.-F. (1992b) “L’apport des fouilles récentes à l’étude quantitative de l’économie massaliète,” in Bats et al., eds. (1992): 171–8
Gantès L.-F. (2001) “Les espaces artisanaux dans l’antiquité,” in Bouiron and Tréziny , eds. (2001): 299–306
Gantès L.-F. and Moliner M. (1990) Marseille, itinéraire d’une mémoire. Cinq années d’archéologie municipale. Marseille.
Gara A. (1988) “Aspetti di economia monetaria dell’Egitto romano,” ANRW II. 2: 912–51
Gara A. (1994) Tecnica e tecnologia nelle società antiche. Rome.
Garcia D. (1987a) “Le dépôt de bronzes launacien de Roque-Courbe (Saint-Saturnin, Hérault),” Documents d’Archéologie Méridionale 10: 9–29.
Garcia D. (1987b) “Observations sur la production et le commerce des céréales en Languedoc méditerranéen durant l’Age du Fer: les formes de stockage des grains,” RAN 20: 43–98.
Garcia D. (1992a) “Du grain et du vin, à propos des structures de stockage de l’agglomération portuaire de Lattes,” in Py , ed. (1992a): 165–82
Garcia D. (1992b) “Les éléments de pressoirs de Lattes et l’oléiculture antique en Languedoc méditerranéen,” in Py , ed. (1992a): 237–58
Garcia D. (1993a) Entre Ibères et Ligures. Lodévois et moyenne vallée de l’Hérault protohistorique. Paris.
Garcia D. (1993b) “La place de la vallée de l’Hérault dans ‘l’ibérisation’ du Languedoc méditerranéen,” Documents d’Archéologie Méridionale 16: 47–56.
Garcia D. (1995) “Le territoire d’Agde grecque et l’occupation du sol en Languedoc central durant l’Age du fer,” in Arcelin et al., eds. (1995): 137–67
Garcia D. (1997) “Les structures de conservation des céréales en Méditerranée nord occidentale au Ier millénaire avant J.-C.: innovation technique et rôle économique,” in Garcia D. and Meeks D., eds., Techniques et économie antiques et médiévales. Le temps de l’innovation: 88–95. Paris.
Garcia D. (2002) “Epave de Rochelongue (Cap d’Agde),” in Long L., Pomey P., and Sourisseau J. C., eds., Les Etrusques en mer. Epaves d’Antibes à Marseille: 38–41. Aix-en-Provence.
García-Bellido M. P. and Ripollès P. (1997) “La monnaie: prestige et espace économique des Ibères,” in Gascó C.Aranegui, Éluère C., Mohen J. P., and Rouillard P., eds., Les Ibères: 205–15. Barcelona.
Gardeisen A. (1999a) “Economie de productionanimale et exploitation du milieu à Lattes au cours du ive siècle avant notre ère,” in Py , ed. (1999a): 537–68.
Gardeisen A. (1999b) “Découpe et consommation de viande au début du IVe siècle avant notre ère,” in Py , ed. (1999a): 569–88.
Gardner J. F. (1986) Women in Roman Law and Society. Bloomington, IN.
Gardner J. F. (1995) “Gender-role assumptions in Roman law,” EMC 39: 377–400.
Gardner J. F. (1998) “Women in business life. Some evidence from Puteoli,” Acta Instituti Romani Finlandiae: 11–27.
Garlan Y. (1974) Recherches de poliorcétique grecque. Paris.
Garlan Y. (1980) “Le travail libre en Grèce ancienne,” in Garnsey , ed. (1980a): 6–22.
Garlan Y. (1988) Slavery in Ancient Greece, translated by Lloyd J.. Ithaca, NY, and London.
Garland R. (1987) The Piraeus from the Fifth to the First Century BC. London.
Garnsey P. (1970) Social Status and Legal Privilege in the Roman Empire. London.
Garnsey P. (1976) “Urban property investment,” in Finley M. I., ed., Studies in Roman Property: 123–36. Cambridge.
Garnsey P. (1978) “Rome’s African empire under the Principate,” in Garnsey P. and Whittaker C. R., eds., Imperialism in the Ancient World: 223–54. Cambridge.
Garnsey P. ed. (1980a) Non-Slave Labour in the Greco-Roman World. Cambridge: PCPhS Suppl. 6.
Garnsey P. (1980b) “Non-slave labour in the Roman world,” in Garnsey , ed. (1980a): 34–47.
Garnsey P. (1981) “Independent freedmen and the economy of Roman Italy under the Principate,” Klio 63: 359–71.
Garnsey P. (1983) “Grain for Rome,” in Garnsey et al., eds. (1983): 118–30.
Garnsey P. (1985) “Grain for Athens,” in Cartledge P. and Harvey F. D., eds., Crux: Studies Presented to G. E. M. de Ste. Croix on his 75th Birthday: 62–75. Exeter.
Garnsey P. (1988) Famine and Food Supply in the Graeco-Roman World: Responses to Risk and Crisis. Cambridge.
Garnsey P. (1989a) “Malnutrition in classical antiquity, or was the ancient world a ‘third world’?” in Garnsey , ed. (1989c).
Garnsey P. (1989b) “Food consumption in antiquity: towards a quantitative account,” in Garnsey , ed. (1989c).
Garnsey P. ed. (1989c) Food, Health, and Culture. Cambridge.
Garnsey P. (1992a) “La fève: substance et symbole,” in Aurell et al., eds. (1992): 317–23; republished as “The bean: substance and symbol,” in Garnsey (1998): 214–25.
Garnsey P. (1992b) “The yield of the land in ancient Greece,” in Wells , ed. (1992): 147–53; reprinted in Garnsey (1998): 201–13.
Garnsey P. (1998) Cities, Peasants, and Food in Classical Antiquity: Essays in Social and Economic History, ed. Scheidel W.. Cambridge.
Garnsey P. (1999) Food and Society in Classical Antiquity. Cambridge.
Garnsey P. (2000) “The land,” in Bowman A., Garnsey P. and Rathbone D., eds., The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume XI, The Last Age of the Roman Republic, 146–43 bc, 2nd edn.: 679–709. Cambridge.
Garnsey P., Gallant T. W., and Rathbone D. (1984) “Thessaly and the grain supply of Rome during the second century bc,” JRS 74: 30–44.
Garnsey P., Hopkins K., and Whittaker C. R., eds. (1983) Trade in the Ancient Economy. London.
Garnsey P. and Morris I. (1989) “Risk and the polis: the evolution of institutionalised responses to food supply problems in the ancient Greek state,” in Halstead and O’Shea , eds. (1989): 98–105.
Garnsey P. and Rathbone D. (1985) “The background to the grain law of Gaius Gracchus,” JRS 75: 20–5.
Garnsey P. and Saller R. (1987) The Roman Empire: Economy, Society, and Culture. Berkeley.
Garnsey P. and Whittaker C. R., eds. (1983) Trade and Famine in Classical Antiquity. Cambridge.
Garnsey P. and Whittaker C. R., (1998) “Trade, industry, and the urban economy,” in Cameron and Garnsey , eds. (1988): 312–37.
Gassner V. (1996) “Zur Entstehung des Typus der ionisch-massaliotischen Amphoren,” in Blakolmer F. et al., eds., Fremde Zeiten, Festschrift für Jürgen Borchhardt zum sechzigsten Geburtstag II: 165–76. Vienna.
Gates C. (2003) Ancient Cities: The Archaeology of Urban Life in the Ancient Near East and Egypt, Greece, and Rome. London and New York.
Gauthier P. (1972) Symbola. Les étrangers et la justice dans les cités grecques. Nancy.
Gauthier P. (1981) “De Lysias à Aristote (Ath. pol. 51, 4): Le commerce du grain à Athènes et les fonctions des sitophylakes,” RD 59: 5–28.
Gauthier P. (1985) Les cités grecques et leur bienfaiteurs. Paris.
Gauthier P. (1989) Nouvelles inscriptions de Sardes II. Geneva.
Gauthier P. (2001) “Les Pidaséens entrent en sympolitie avec les Milésiens: la procédure et les modalités institutionnelles,” in Bresson and Descat , eds. (2001): 117–27.
Gawantka W. (1975) Isopolitie. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der zwischenstaatlichen Beziehungen in der griechischen Antike. Munich.
Gawlikowski M. (1997) “The Syrian desert under the Romans,” in Alcock S. E., ed., The Early Roman Empire in the East: 37–54. Oxford.
Gayraud M. (1981) Narbonne antique des origines à la fin du IIIe siècle. Paris.
Gehrke H.-J. (1986) Jenseits von Athen und Sparta: das dritte Griechenland und sein Staatenwelt. Munich.
Gelb I. J. (1965) “The ancient Mesopotamian ration system,” JNES 24: 230–43.
Geller M. J. and Maehler H., eds. (1995) Legal Documents of the Hellenistic World. London.
Gelzer M. (1968) Caesar, Politician and Statesman, translated by Needham P.. Cambridge.
Gentric G. (1981) Circulation monétaire dans la basse vallée du Rhône (IIe–Ier s. av. J.-C.) d’après les monnaies de Bollène (Vaucluse). Caveirac.
Georgoudi S. (1974) “Quelques problèmes de la transhumance dans la Grèce ancienne,” RÉG 87: 155–85.
Gernet L. (1909) “L’approvisionnement d’Athènes en blé,” Melanges d’histoire ancienne 25: 271–391.
Gernet L. (1955) “Sur les actions commerciales en droit athénien,” in Gernet L., Droit et société dans la Grèce ancienne: 173–200. Paris.
Gesell G., Day L., and Coulson W. (1995) “Excavations at Kavousi, Crete, 1989 and 1990,” Hesperia 64: 67–120.
Ghadban C. (1987) “Observations sur le statut des terres et l’organisation des villages dans la Beqa’ hellénistique et romaine,” in Frézouls E., ed., Sociétés urbaines, sociétés rurales dans l’Asie Mineure et la Syrie hellénistiques et romaines: 217–38. Strasbourg.
Gialanella C. (1994) “Pithecusa: gli insediamenti di Punta Chiarito. Relazione preliminare,” in D’Agostino B. and Ridgway D., eds., APOIKIA. I più antichi insediamenti greci in Occidente: funzioni e modi dell’organizzazione politica e sociale. Scritti in onore di Giorgio Buchner: 169–204. Naples.
Giardina A. (1981) “Allevamento ed economia della selva in Italia meridionale: trasformazioni e continuità,” in Giardina and Schiavone , eds. (1981), Vol. I: 87–113.
Giardina A. ed. (1986) Società romana e impero tardoantico. Rome and Bari.
Giardina A. (1988) “Amor civicus. Formule e immagini dell’evergetismo romano nella tradizione epigrafica,” in La terza età dell’epigrafia: 67–86. Faenza.
Giardina A. ed. (1989) Anonimo, Le cose della guerra. Milan.
Giardina A. (1991) “Il tramonto dei valori ciceroniani (ponos ed emporia tra paganesimo e cristianesimo),” in Pani M., ed., Continuità e trasformazioni fra repubblica e principato. Istituzioni, politica, società. Bari.
Giardina A. (1997) L’Italia romana. Storie di un’identità incompiuta. Rome and Bari.
Giardina A. (1999) “Esplosione di tardoantico,” StudStor 40: 157–80.
Giardina A., and Schiavone A., eds. (1981) Società romana e produzione schiavistica. 3 Vols. Rome and Bari.
Gibbins D. (2001) “Shipwrecks and Hellenistic trade,” in Archibald et al., eds. (2001): 273–312.
Gibson M. (1972) The City and Area of Kish. Miami, FL.
Gibson M. (1992) “Patterns of occupation at Nippur,” in Jong-Ellis M., ed., Nippur at the Centennial. Papers Read at the 35e Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale, Philadelphia, 1988: 33–54. Philadelphia.
Gill D. W. J. (1991) “Pots and trade: spacefillers or objets d’art?JHS III: 29–47.
Gill D. W. J. (1994) “Positivism, pots, and long-distance trade,” in Morris , ed. (1994d): 99–107.
Gille B. ed. (1978) Histoire des Techniques. Technique et civilisations. Technique et sciences. Paris.
Gille B. ed. (1980) Les mécaniciens grecs. La naissance de la technologie. Paris.
Gillis C., Risberg C., and Sjöberg B., eds. (1997) Trade and Production in Premonetary Greece: Productions and the Craftsman. Jonsered.
Ginouvès R. (1962) Balaneutikè. Recherches sur le bain dans l’antiquité grecque. Paris.
Giovannini A. (1995) “Catilina et le problème des dettes,” in Malkin I. and Rubinsohn Z. W., eds., Leaders and Masses in the Roman World: Studies in Honor of Zvi Yavetz: 15–32. Leiden and New York.
Gitin S. (1997) “The neo-Assyrian empire and its western periphery: the Levant, with a focus on Philistine Ekron,” in Parpola S. and Whiting R. M., eds., Assyria 1995: Proceedings of the 10th Anniversary Symposium of the Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project Helsinki, September 7–11, 1995: 77–103. Helsinki.
Gitin S., Mazar A., and Stern E., eds. (1998)Mediterranean Peoples in Transition. Jerusalem.
Given M., and Knapp A. B. (2003) The Sydney Cyprus Survey Project: Social Approaches to Regional Archaeological Survey. Los Angeles: Monumenta Archaeologica 21.
Gli Etruschi (forthcoming) Gli Etruschi da Genova ad Ampurias dal VII sec. al IV sec. a.C. Atti del XXIV Convegno internazionale di Studi etruschi ed italici (Marsiglia-Lattes, 2002), Florence.
Glodariu I. (1976) Dacian Trade with the Hellenistic and Roman World. Oxford.
Glotz G. (1926) Ancient Greece at Work. London and New York.
Godart L. (1992) “Les collecteurs dans le monde égéen,” in Olivier , ed. (1992): 257–83.
Godart L. and Olivier J.-P. (1976–85) Recueil des inscriptions en linéaire A, I–V. Paris: Études Crétoises 21.
Goette H. R. (2001) Athens, Attica, and the Megarid: An Archaeological Guide. London and New York.
Gold B. K., ed. (1982) Literary and Artistic Patronage in Ancient Rome. Chapel Hill, NC.
Golden M. (1990) Children and Childhood in Classical Athens. Baltimore.
Golden M. (2000) “Adecade of demography: recent trends in the study of Greek and Roman populations,” in Flensted-Jensen P., Nielsen T. H., and Rubinstein L., eds., Polis and Politics: Studies in Ancient Greek History: 25–40. Copenhagen.
Goldsmith R. W. (1984) “An estimate of the size and structure of the national product of the early Roman empire,” Review of Income and Wealth 30: 263–88.
Goldsmith R. W. (1987) Premodern Financial Systems. A Historical Comparative Study. Cambridge.
Goldstone J. A. (1991) Revolution and Rebellion in the Early Modern World. Berkeley.
Goldstone J. A. (2000) “The rise of the west – or not? A revision to socio-economic history,” Sociological Theory 18: 175–92.
Goldstone J. A. (2002) “Efflorescences and economic growth in world history: rethinking the rise of the West and the British Industrial Revolution,” Journal of World History 13: 323–89.
Golenko V. K. (1993) “Notes on the coinage and currency of the early Seleucid state,” Mesopotamia 28: 71–167.
Gómez Bellard C. and Guérin P. (1993) “Témoignage d’une production de vin dans l’Espagne préromaine,” in Amouretti and Brun , eds. (1993): 379–96.
Gomme A. W. (1933) The Population of Athens in the Fifth and Fourth Centuries BC. Oxford.
González Prats A. (1991) “Quince años de excavaciones en la ciudad protohistórica de Herna (la Peña Negra, Crevillente, Alicante),” Saguntum 26: 181–8.
González Prats A., Garcia MenárguezA., and Ruiz SeguraE. (1997) “La Fonteta, una ciudad fenicia en occidente,” Revista de Arqueología 190: 8–13.
Goodman M. (1991) “Babatha’s story,” JRS 81: 169–75.
Goody J. (1982) Cooking, Cuisine, and Class: A Study in Comparative Sociology. Cambridge.
Goody J. (1983) The Development of the Family and Marriage in Europe. Cambridge.
Goudineau C. (1974) “La céramique dans l’économie de la Gaule”, in Les potiers gaulois: 103–9.
Goudriaan K. (1988) Ethnicity in Ptolemaic Egypt. Amsterdam.
Gould J. (1991) Give and Take in Herodotus. Oxford. Reprinted in Gould J. (2001) Myth, Ritual, Memory, and Exchange. Essays in Greek Literature and Culture: 283–303. Oxford.
Gould J. D. (1972) Economic Growth in History: Survey and Analysis. London.
Gowers E. (1993) The Loaded Table: Representations of Food in Roman Literature. Oxford.
Gracia AlonsoF. (1995) “Producción y commercio de cereal en el N. E. de la península ibérica entre los siglos VI–II a.C.,” Pyrenae 26: 91–113.
Graf D. F. (1985) “Greek tyrants and Achaemenid politics,” in Eadie J. and Ober J., eds., The Craft of the Ancient Historian: Essays in Honor of Chester G. Starr: 79–123. Lanham, MD.
Graf D. F. (1994) “The Persian royal road system,” in Sancisi-Weerdenburg H., Kuhrt A., and Root M. C., eds., Continuity and Change (Achaemenid History 8): 167–89. Leiden.
Grainger J. D. (1990) The Cities of Seleukid Syria. Leiden.
Grainger J. D. (1991) Hellenistic Phoenicia. Oxford.
Grainger J. D. (1999a) The League of the Aitolians. Leiden.
Grainger J. D. (1999b) “Prices in Hellenistic Babylonia,” JESHO 42: 303–50.
Gralfs B. (1988) Metallverarbeitende Produktionsstäten in Pompeji. Oxford.
Granovetter M. (1985) “Economic action and social structure: the problem of embeddedness,” American Journal of Sociology 91: 481–510.
Gras M. (1985a) “Aspects de l’économie maritime étrusque,” KTEMA 10: 149–59.
Gras M. (1985b) Trafics tyrrhéniens archaïques. Rome.
Gras M. (1995) La Méditerranée archaïque. Paris.
Gras M. (2000) “Les Etrusques et la Gaule méditerranéenne,” in Janin T., ed., Mailhac et le Premier Age du fer en Europe occidentale: hommages à Odette et Jean Taffanel: 229–42. Lattes.
Gras M., Rouillard P., and Teixidor J. (1995) L’univers phénicien. Paris.
Graziadio G. (1998) “Trade circuits and trade-routes in the Shaft Grave period,” SMEA 40: 29–76.
Greco E. (1996) “La città e il territorio”, in Carratelli G.Pugliese, ed., I Greci in Occidente: 233–42. Venice.
Green P. (1990) Alexander to Actium. The Historical Evolution of the Hellenistic Age. Berkeley.
Green S. W. (1979) “The agricultural colonization of temperate forest habitats: an ecological model,” in Savage W. and Thompson S. I., eds., The Frontier: Comparative Studies II: 69–103. Norman, OK.
Greenberg A. S. (1951) “The ancient lineage of trade-marks,” Journal of the Patent Office Society 33: 876–87.
Greenberg J. (2003) “Plagued by doubt: reconsidering the impact of a mortality crisis in the 2nd c. AD,” JRA 16: 413–25.
Greene K. (1979) “Invasion and response: pottery and the Roman army,” in Burnham B. C. and Johnson H. B., eds., Invasion and Response: The Case of Roman Britain: 99–106. Oxford.
Greene K. (1986) The Archaeology of the Roman Economy. London.
Greene K. (1990) “Perspectives on Roman technology,” Oxford Journal of Archaeology 9: 209–19.
Greene K. (2000) “Technological innovation and economic progress in the ancient world: M. I. Finley re-considered,” Economic History Review 53: 29–59.
Gren E. (1941) Kleinasien und der Ostbalkan in der wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung der römischen Kaiserzeit. Uppsala.
Grenfell B. P. and Mahaffy J. P. (1896) The Revenue Laws of Ptolemy Philadelphus. Oxford.
Grenier J.-Y. (1997) “Economie du surplus, économie du circuit. Les prix et les échanges dans l’Antiquité gréco-romaine et dans l’Ancien Régime,” in Andreau et al., eds. (1997): 385–404.
Grierson P. (1978) “The origins of money,” Research in Economic Anthropology 1: 1–35.
Griffin J. (1986) “Heroic and unheroic ideas in Homer,” in Boardman J. and Vaphopoulou-Richardson C., eds., Chios. A Conference at the Homereion in Chios, 1984: 3–13. Oxford.
Griffith G. T. (1935) The Mercenaries of the Hellenistic World. Cambridge; reprinted Groningen, 1968.
Grigg D. B. (1980) Population Growth and Agrarian Change. Cambridge.
Grmek M. D. (1989) Diseases in the Ancient Greek World. Baltimore.
Groenman-van Waateringe W. (1983) “The disastrous effect of the Roman occupation,” in Brandt R. and Slofstra J., eds., Roman and Native in the Low Countries: Spheres of Interaction: 147–57. Oxford.
Groenman-van Waateringe W. (1989) “Food for soldiers, food for thought,” in Barrett et al., eds. (1989): 96–107.
Gros P. (1996) L’architecture romaine du début du IIIe siècle av. J.-C. à la fin du Haut-Empire. I. Les monuments publics. Paris.
Gros P. (2000a) “Carthage romaine: résurrection d’une capitale,” in Nicolet et al., eds. (2000): 534–44.
Gros P. (2000b) “La construction d’un espace méditerranéen et les premièresmégapoles (VIIIe s. av. J.-C. – VIe s. ap. J.-C.),” in Nicolet , Ilbert , and Depeaule , eds. (2000): 64–89.
Gros P. (2001) L’architecture romaine du début du IIIe siècle av. J.-C. à la fin du Haut-Empire. 2, Maisons, palais, villas et tombeaux. Paris.
Grove A. T. and Rackham O. (2001) The Nature of Mediterranean Europe. An Ecological Essay. New Haven and London.
Guarducci A., ed. (1988) Prodotto lordo e finanza pubblica, secoli XIII–XIX. Firenze.
Guenette-Beck B. and Villa J.-M. (2002) “Über die Bleiversorgung der römischen Westschweiz,” Helvetia Archaeologica 131–132: 151–62.
Guérin P. and Gómez Bellard C. (1999) “La production du vin dans l’Espagne préromaine,” in Buxó and Pons E., eds., Els productes alimentaris d’origen vegetal a l’etat del Ferro de l’Europa Occidental: de la producció al consum: 379–88. Girona.
Guéry R. (1990) “La terre sigillée en Gaule,” JRA 3: 361–75.
Guéry R. (1992) “Le port antique de Marseille,” in Bats et al., eds. (1992): 109–21. Lattes.
Guichard C. and Rayssiguier G. (1993) “Les Baou de Saint-Marcel à Marseille. Etude stratigraphique du secteur III (VIe–IIe siècles avant J.-C.),” Documents d’Archéologie Méridionale 16: 231–56.
Gunderson G. (1976) “Economic change and the demise of the Roman empire,” Explorations in Economic History 13: 43–68.
Gunderson G. (1982) “Economic behavior in the ancient world,” in Ransom R. L., Sutch R., and Walton G. M., eds., Explorations in the New Economic History: Essays in Honor of Douglass C. North: 235–56. New York and London.
Günther L.-M. (1992) “Zur Familien- und Haushaltsstruktur im hellenistischen Kleinasien (am beispiel zweier Inschriften aus Milet und Ilion)” in Studien zum antiken Kleinasien 2: 23–42. Bonn.
Gupta A. K., Anderson D. M., and Overpeck J. T. (2003) “Abrupt changes in the Asian southwest monsoon during the Holocene and their links to the North Atlantic Ocean,” Nature 421: 354–57.
Gürler B. (2000) “A tomb group of Roman ceramics from the village Uzgur in Tire,” Rei Cretariae Romanae Fautorum Acta 36: 113–18.
Guy M. (1995) “Cadastres en bandes de Métaponte à Agde. Questions et méthodes,” in Arcelin et al., eds. (1995): 427–44.
Haas C. (1997) Alexandria in Late Antiquity. Topography and Social Conflict. Baltimore.
Habermann W. (1998) “Zur chronologischen Verteilung der papyrologischen Zeugnisse,” ZPE 122: 144–60.
Habermann W. (2000) Zur Wasserversorgung einer Metropole im kaiserzeitlichen Ägypten. Munich.
Habermann W. and Bernhard T. (forthcoming) “Der Wirtschaftsstil der Ptolemäer,” in Schefold B., eds., Wirtschaftssysteme im historischen Vergleich 10. Frankfurt.
Habicht C. (1975) “New evidence on the province of Asia,” JRS 65: 64–91.
Habicht C. (1985) Pausanias’ Guide to Ancient Greece. Berkeley.
Hägg R. ed. (1997) The Function of the “Minoan Villa.” Stockholm.
Hägg R. (1998) “Osteology and Greek sacrificial practice,” in Hägg R., ed., Ancient Greek Cult Practice from the Archaeological Evidence: 49–56. Stockholm.
Hägg R. and Marinatos N., eds. (1987) The Function of the Minoan Palaces. Stockholm.
Hajnal J. (1965) “European marriage patterns in perspective,” in Glass V. D. and Eversley D. E. C., eds., Population in History: Essays in Historical Demography: 101–43. London.
Hajnal J. (1982) “Two kinds of pre-industrial household formation systems,” Population and Development Review 8: 449–94.
Haldane C. (1993) “Direct evidence for organic cargoes in the Late Bronze Age,” World Archaeology 24: 348–60.
Haley E. W. (2003) Baetica Felix: People and Prosperity in Southern Spain from Caesar to Septimius Severus. Austin, TX.
Hall J. (1997) Ethnic Identity in Greek Antiquity. Cambridge.
Hall J. (2002) Hellenicity: Between Ethnicity and Culture. Chicago.
Hallager B. P. and McGeorge P. J. P. (1992) Late Minoan III Burials at Khania. Göteborg: Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology 93.
Hallager E. (1985) The Master Impression. Göteborg: Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology 69.
Hallager E. (1990) “Upper floors in LM I houses.” In Darcque and Treuil , eds. (1990): 281–92.
Hallager E. (1996) The Minoan Roundel and Other Sealed Documents in the Neopalatial Linear A Administration. Aegaeum 14. Liège/Austin.
Hallager E., Vlasaki M., and Hallager B. P. (1992) “New Linear B tablets from Khania,” Kadmos 31: 61–87.
Hallett C. H. and Coulton J. J. (1993) “The east tomb and other tomb buildings at Balboura,” Anatolian Studies 42: 41–8.
Halleux R. (1977) “Problèmes de l’énergie dans le monde ancien,” LEC 45: 49–61.
Hallock R. T. (1969) Persepolis Fortification Tablets. Chicago.
Hallof K. (1990) “Der Verkauf konfiszierten Vermögens vor den Poleten in Athen,” Klio 72: 402–26.
Halperin R. H. (1994) Cultural Economies Past and Present. Austin, TX.
Halsall G. (1995) “The Merovingian period in north-east Gaul: transition or change?” in Bintliff J. and Hamerow H., eds., Europe Between Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Recent Archaeological and Historical Research in Western and Southern Europe: 38–57. Oxford.
Halstead P. (1977) “The Bronze Age demography of Crete and Greece – a note,” BSA 72: 107–11.
Halstead P. (1981) “From determinism to uncertainty: social storage and the rise of the Minoan palace,” in Sheridan A. and Bailey G., eds., Economic Archaeology: 187–213. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, International Series 96.
Halstead P. (1987) “Traditional and ancient rural economy in Mediterranean Europe: plus ça change?JHS 107: 77–87. Reprinted in Scheidel and Reden , eds. (2002): 53–70.
Halstead P. (1989) “The economy has a normal surplus: economic stability and social change among early farming communities in Thessaly, Greece,” in Halstead and O’Shea , eds. (1989): 68–80.
Halstead P. (1990) “Quantifying Sumerian agriculture – some seeds of doubt and hope,” Bulletin on Sumerian Agriculture 5: 187–95.
Halstead P. (1990–1) “Lost sheep? On the Linear Bevidence for breeding flocks at Mycenaean Knossos and Pylos,” Minos 25–26: 343–65.
Halstead P. (1992) “Agriculture in the Bronze Age Aegean,” in Wells B., ed., Agriculture in Ancient Greece: 105–17. Stockholm.
Halstead P. (1994) “The north-south divide: regional paths to complexity in prehistoric Greece,” in Mathers C. and Stoddart S., eds., Development and Decline in the Mediterranean Bronze Age: 195–219. Sheffield.
Halstead P. (1995a) “Late Bronze Age grain crops and Linear B ideograms *65, *120 and *121,” BSA 90: 229–34.
Halstead P. (1995b) “Plough and power: the economic and social significance of cultivation with the ox-drawn ard in the Mediterranean,” Bulletin on Sumerian Agriculture 8: 11–22.
Halstead P. (1996) “The development of agriculture and pastoralism in Greece: when, how, who and what?,” in Harris D. R., ed., The Origins and Spread of Agriculture and Pastoralism in Eurasia: 296–309. London.
Halstead P. (1998–9) “Texts, bones and herders: approaches to animal husbandry in Late Bronze Age Greece,” in Bennet and Driessen , eds. (1998–9): 149–89.
Halstead P. (1999a) “Missing sheep: on the meaning and wider significance of o in Knossos SHEEP records,” BSA 94: 145–66.
Halstead P. (1999b) “Towards a model of Mycenaean palatial mobilization,” in Galaty and Parkinson , eds. (1999): 35–42.
Halstead P. (2001) “Mycenaean wheat, flax and sheep: palatial intervention in farming and its implications for rural society,” in Voutsaki and Killen , eds. (2001): 38–50.
Halstead P. (2002) “Traditional and ancient rural economy in Mediterranean Europe: plus ça change?” in Scheidel and Reden eds. (2002): 53–70.
Halstead P. (2004) “Life after Mediterranean polyculture: the subsistence subsystem and the emergence of civilisation revisited,” in Barrett and Halstead , eds. (2004): 189–206.
Halstead P. and Barrett J. C., eds. (2004) Food, Cuisine and Society in Prehistoric Greece. Oxford: Sheffield Studies in Aegean Archaeology 5.
Halstead P. and Jones G. (1989) “Agrarian ecology in the Greek islands: time stress, scale, and risk,” JHS 109: 41–55.
Halstead P. and O’Shea J., eds. (1989) Bad Year Economics. Cultural Responses to Risk and Crisis. Cambridge.
Hamilakis Y. (1996) “Wine, oil and the dialectics of power in Bronze Age Crete: a review of the evidence,” Oxford Journal of Archaeology 15: 1–32.
Hamilakis Y. (1997–8) “Consumption patterns, factional competition and political development in Bronze Age Crete,” BICS 42: 233–4.
Hamilakis Y. (1999) “Food technologies/technologies of the body: the social context of wine and oil production and consumption in Bronze Age Crete,” World Archaeology 31: 38–54.
Hamilakis Y., ed. (2002) Labyrinth Revisited: Rethinking “Minoan” Archaeology. Oxford.
Hamilakis Y., and Konsolaki E. (2004) “Pigs for the gods: animal burnt sacrifices at a Mycenaean sanctuary,” Oxford Journal of Archaeology 23: 135–51.
Hamilton C. D. (1979) Sparta’s Bitter Victories. Politics and Diplomacy in the Corinthian War. Ithaca, NY, and London.
Hammond N. G. L. (1967) Epirus. The Geography, the Ancient Remains, the History and Topography of Epirus and Adjacent Areas. Oxford.
Handwerker W. P. (1991) “Women’s power and fertility transition: the cases of Africa and the Caribbean,” Population and Environment 13: 55–78.
Hanfmann G. M. A. (1983) Sardis from Prehistoric to Roman Times. Results of the Archaeological Exploration of Sardis 1958–1975. Cambridge.
Hankey V. (1993) “Pottery as evidence for trade: Egypt,” in Zerner , ed. (1993): 109–15.
Hanley S. B. (1987) “Urban sanitation in pre-industrial Japan,” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 18: 1–26.
Hannestad L. (1988) “The Athenian potter and the home market,” in Christiansen and Melander , eds. (1988): 222–30.
Hansen J. M. (1985) “Palaeoethnobotany in Greece: past, present and future,” in Wilkie N. C. and Coulson W. D. E., eds., Contributions to Aegean Archaeology: Studies in Honor of William A. McDonald: 171–81. Minneapolis, MN.
Hansen J. M. (1988) “Agriculture in the prehistoric Aegean: data versus speculation,” AJA 92: 39–52.
Hansen M. H. (1979) “Misthos for magistrates in classical Athens,” SO 54: 5–22.
Hansen M. H. (1985) Demography and Democracy: The Number of Athenian Citizens in the Fourth Century BC. Herning.
Hansen M. H. (1988) Three Studies in Athenian Demography. Copenhagen.
Hansen M. H. (1990) “Review of Ober 1989,” CR 104: 348–56.
Hansen M. H. (1991) The Athenian Democracy in the Age of Demosthenes. Oxford.
Hansen M. H. (1997) “Emporion: a study of the use and meaning of the term in the archaic and classical periods,” in Nielsen T. H., ed., Yet More Studies in the Ancient Greek Polis: 83–105. Stuttgart.
Hansen M. H. (2004) “The concept of the consumption city applied to the Greek polis,” in Nielsen T. H., ed., Once Again: Studies in the Ancient Greek Polis: 9–47. Stuttgart.
Hansen M. H. (2006) The Shotgun Method: The Demography of the Ancient Greek City-State Culture. Columbia and London.
Hansen M. H. and Nielsen T. H., eds. (2004) An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis. Oxford.
Hansen M. V. (1984) “Athenian maritime trade in the 4th century BC. Operation and finance,” C&M 35: 71–92.
Hanson V. D. (1992) “Practical aspects of grape-growing and the ideology of Greek viticulture,” in Wells , ed. (1992): 161–6.
Hanson W. S. and Macinnes L. (1991) “Soldiers and settlement in Wales and Scotland,” in Jones , ed. (1991): 85–92.
Harding A. and Hughes-Brock H. (1974) “Amber in the Mycenaean world,” BSA 69: 145–72.
Harl K. W. (1996) Coinage in the Roman Economy, 300 BC to AD 700. Baltimore and London.
Harper G. M. (1928) “Village administration in the Roman province of Syria,” Yale Classical Studies 1: 105–68.
Harries J. (1999) Law and Empire in Late Antiquity. Cambridge.
Harris D. (1995) The Treasuries of the Parthenon and Erechtheion. Oxford.
Harris E. M. (1992) “Women and lending in Athenian society: a horos reexamined,” Phoenix 46: 309–21.
Harris E. M. (1999) “Notes on the new grain-tax law,” ZPE 128: 269–72.
Harris E. M. (2000) Review of Bresson 2000, BMCR 2001: 2001.09.40.
Harris E. M. (2002) “Workshop, marketplace, and household: the nature of technical specialization in classical Athens and its influence on economy and society,” in Cartledge et al., eds. (2002): 67–99.
Harris W. V. (1971) Rome in Etruria and Umbria. Oxford.
Harris W. V. (1980a) “Roman terracotta lamps: the organization of an industry,” JRS 70: 126–45.
Harris W. V. (1980b) “Towards a study of the Roman slave trade,” in D’Arms and Kopff , eds. (1980): 117–40.
Harris W. V. (1988) “On the applicability of the concept of class in Roman history,” in Yuge T. and Doi M., eds., Forms of Control and Subordination in Antiquity: 598–610. Tokyo and Leiden.
Harris W. V. ed. (1993a) The Inscribed Economy. Production and Distribution in the Roman Empire in the Light of Instrumentum Domesticum. Ann Arbor, MI.
Harris W. V. (1993b) “Between archaic and modern: some current problems in the history of the Roman economy,” in Harris , ed. (1993a): 11–29.
Harris W. V. (1994) “Child-exposure in the Roman empire,” JRS 84: 1–22.
Harris W. V. (1999) “Demography, geography, and the sources of Roman slaves,” JRS 89: 62–75.
Harris W. V. (2000) “Trade,” in Bowman et al., eds. (2000): 710–40.
Harris W. V. (2003) “Roman governments and commerce, 300 bc–ad 300,” in Zaccagnini , ed. (2003): 275–305.
Harris W. V. (2005) “The Mediterranean and ancient history,” in Harris W. V., ed., Rethinking the Mediterranean: 1–42. Oxford.
Harris W. V. (2006) “A revisionist view of Roman money,” JRS 96: 1–24.
Harrison A. R. W. (1968) The Law of Athens: The Family and Property. Oxford.
Hart G. R. (1965) “The grouping of place-names in the Knossos tablets,” Mnemosyne 18: 1–28.
Hartman M. (2004) The Household and the Making of History. Cambridge.
Harvey F. D. (1976) “The maritime loan in Eupolis’ Marikas (P.Oxy. 2741),” ZPE 23: 231–3.
Harvey F. D. (1985) “Dona ferentes: some aspects of bribery in Greek politics,” in Cartledge P. A. and Harvey F. D., eds., Crux. Essays in Greek History Presented to G. E. M. de Ste. Croix: 76–117. London.
Hasebroek J. (1928) Staat und Handel im alten Griechenland: Untersuchungen zur antiken Wirtschaftsgeschichte. Tübingen; reprint 1966.
Haselgrove C. (1987) “Culture process on the periphery: Belgic Gaul and Rome during the late republic and early empire,” in Rowlands et al., eds. (1985): 104–59.
Hassall M. (2000) “The army,” in Bowman et al., eds. (2000): 320–43.
Hatzfeld J. (1919) Les Trafiquants italiens dans l’orient hellénique. Paris.
Hatzopoulos M. B. (1988) Une donation du roi Lysimache. Athens.
Hatzopoulos M. B. (1996) Macedonian Institutions under the Kings. I. A Historical and Epigraphical Study. II. Epigraphic Appendix. Athens.
Hatzopoulos M. B. (2001) L’organisation de l’armée macédonienne sous les Antigonides. Problèmes anciens et documents nouveaux. Athens.
Hauken T. (1998) Petition and Response: An Epigraphic Study of Petitions to Roman Emperors 181–249. Bergen: Monographs from the Norwegian Institute at Athens 2.
Hawke G. R. (1980) Economics for Historians. Cambridge.
Hawkins J. D. (1998) “Tarkasnawa king of Mira: ‘Tarkondemos,’ Boǧazköy sealings and Karabel,” Anatolian Studies 48: 1–31.
Hawley R. and Levick B. (1995) Women in Antiquity: New Assessments. London.
Hayami Y. (2001) Development Economics: From the Poverty to the Wealth of Nations. 2nd edn. Oxford.
Hayden B. (1987) “Crete in transition: LM IIIA–IIIB architecture,” Studi micenei ed egeo-anatolici 26: 199–234.
Hayden B. (1990) “Aspects of village architecture in the Cretan postpalatial period,” in Darcque and Treuil , eds. (1990): 203–13.
Hayes J. W. (1997) Handbook of Mediterranean Roman Pottery. Norman, OK.
Hayes J. W. (2001) “Les sigillées orientales,” in Geny E., ed., Céramiques hellénistiques et romaines III: 145–60. Paris.
Haynes I. (2002) “Britain’s first information revolution. The Roman army and the transformation of economic life,” in Erdkamp , ed. (2002a): 111–26.
Hazzard R. A. (1995) Ptolemaic Coins. An Introduction for Collectors. Toronto.
Healy J. F. (1978) Mining and Metallurgy in the Greek and Roman World. London.
Healy J. F. (1999) Pliny the Elder on Science and Technology. Oxford.
Hedeager L. (1978) “A quantitative analysis of Roman imports in Europe north of the Limes (0–400 ad), and the question of Roman-Germanic exchange,” in Kristiansen K. and Paluden-Müller C., eds., New Directions in Scandinavian Archaeology: 191–216. Copenhagen.
Hedeager L. (1987) “Empire, frontier, and barbarian hinterland: Rome and northern Europe from ad 1–400,” in Rowlands et al., ed. (1985): 125–40.
Heichelheim F. (1935) “Sitos,” RE Suppl. 6: 819–92.
Heichelheim F. (1938) “Roman Syria,” in Frank T., ed., An Economic Survey of Ancient Rome IV: 121–257. Baltimore.
Heichelheim F. (1958–70) An Ancient Economic History. 3 vols. Leiden.
Helck W. (1995) Die Beziehungen Ägyptens und Vorderasiens zur ÄgÄis bis zur 7. Jahrhundert V. Chr. 2nd edn. Darmstadt.
Helen T. (1975) Organization of Roman Brick Production: An Interpretation of Roman Brick Stamps. Helsinki.
Helms M. W. (1988) Ulysses’ Sail: An Ethnographic Odyssey of Power, Knowledge, and Geographical Distance. Princeton.
Heltzer M. (1988) “Sinaranu, Son of Siginu, and the trade relations between Ugarit and Crete,” Minos 23: 7–14.
Heltzer M. (1989) “The trade of Crete and Cyprus with Syria and Mesopotamia and their eastern tin-sources in the xviii–xvii centuries bc,” Minos 24: 7–28.
Hendy M. F. (1991) “East and west: divergent models of coinage and its use,” in Il secolo di ferro: mito e realtà del secolo X: 637–74. Spoleto.
Henneberg M. and Henneberg R. J. (1998) “Biological characteristics of the population based on analysis of skeletal remains,” in Carter J. C., ed., The Chora of Metaponto. The Necropolis II: 503–62. Austin, TX.
Henneberg M., Henneberg R., and Carter J. C. (1992) “Health in colonial Metaponto,” National Geographic Research and Exploration 8: 446–59.
Hennig D. (1967) Untersuchungen zur Bodenpacht im ptolemäisch-römisch Ägypten. Munich.
Henry L. (1961) “Some data on natural fertility,” Eugenics Quarterly 8: 81–91.
Herbert S. C. and Berlin A. (2003) Excavations at Coptos (Qift) in Upper Egypt, 1987–1992. JRA suppl. 53. Portsmouth RI.
Herfst P. (1922) Le travail de la femme dans la Grèce ancienne. Utrecht.
Herman G. (1987) Ritualised Friendship and the Greek City. Cambridge.
Hermary A., Hesnard A., and Tréziny H., eds. (1999) Marseille grecque: la cité phocéenne (600–49 av. J.-C.). Paris.
Herrmann P. (1990) Hilferufe aus römischen Provinzen: ein Aspekt der Krise des römischen Reiches im 3. Jht. n. Chr. Göttingen.
Hérubel F. (2000) “Mobilier étrusque en Languedoc occidental (vie–ve s. av. J.-C.),” Documents d’Archéologie Méridionale 23: 87–112.
Herz N. and Waelkens M., eds. (1988) Classical Marble: Geochemistry, Technology and Trade. Dordrecht.
Herz P. (1988) Studien zur römischen Wirtschaftsgesetzgebung. Die Lebensmittelversorgung. Stuttgart.
Hesnard A. (1980) “Un dépôt augustéen d’amphore à La Longarina, Ostia,” in D’Arms and Kopff , eds. (1980): 141–56.
Hesnard A. (1992) “Nouvelles recherches sur les épaves préromaines en baie de Marseille,” in Bats et al., eds. (1992): 235–43.
Hesnard A. (1994) “Une nouvelle fouille du port de Marseille, place Jules-Verne,” Comptes rendus de l’Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres janvier–mars (1994): 195–217.
Hesnard A. (1995) “Les ports antiques de Marseille, Place Jules-Verne,” JRA 8: 65–77.
Hesnard A., Bernardi P., and Maurel C. (2001) “La topographie du port de Marseille de la fondation de la cité à la fin du Moyen Âge,” in Bouiron M. and Tréziny H., eds., Marseille: trames et paysages urbains de Gyptis au Roi René: 159–202. Aix-en-Provence.
Hesnard A., Moliner M., Conche F., and Bouiron M., eds. (1999) Marseille: 10 ans d’archéologie, 2600 ans d’histoire. Aix-en-Provence.
Higham N. J. (1989) “Roman and native in England north of the Tees: acculturation and its limitations,” in Barrett et al. (1989): 153–74.
Hill D. (1984) A History of Engineering in Classical and Medieval Times. London and Sydney.
Hiller S. (1987) “Discussion,” in HÄgg and Marinatos , eds. (1987): 38.
Hindess B. and Hirst P. Q. (1975) Pre-Capitalist Modes of Production. London.
Hirschfeld N. (1992) “Cypriot marks on Mycenaean pottery,” in Olivier , ed. (1992): 315–19.
Hirschfeld N. (1993) “Incised marks (post-firing) on Aegean wares,” in Zerner , ed. 1993: 311–18.
Hirschfeld N. (1996) “Cypriots in the Mycenaean Aegean,” in Miro et al., eds. (1996), vol. I: 289–97.
Hirschfeld Y. (1997) “Jewish rural settlement in Judaea in the early Roman period,” in Alcock , ed. (1997b): 72–88.
Hirschmann C. (1994) “Why fertility changes,” Annual Review of Sociology 20: 203–33.
Hitchner B. (1988) “The Kasserine archaeological survey, 1982–1986,” Antiquités africaines 24: 7–41.
Hitchner B. (1990) “The Kasserine archaeological survey, 1987,” Antiquités africaines 26: 231–59.
Hitchner B. (1993) “Olive production and the Roman economy: the case for intensive growth in the Roman empire,” in Amouretti and Brun , eds. (1993): 499–503.
Hitchner B. (2005) “‘The advantages of wealth and luxury’: the case for economic growth in the Roman Empire,” in Manning and Morris , eds. (2005): 207–22.
Höbenreich E. (1997) Annona. Juristische Aspekte der stadtrömischen Lebensmittelversorgung im Prinzipat. Graz.
Hobson D. (1993) “Receipt for cheironaxia,” JJP 23: 75–92.
Hodge A. T. (1960) The Woodwork of Greek Roofs. Cambridge.
Hodge A. T. (1992) Roman Aqueducts and Water Supply. London.
Hodges H. (1970) Technology in the Ancient World. London.
Hodgson G. M. (1994) “The return of institutional economics,” in Smelser N. J. and Swedberg R., eds., The Handbook of Economic Sociology: 56–76. Princeton.
Hodgson G. M. (1999) Evolution and Institutions: On Evolutionary Economics and the Evolution of Economics. Cheltenham and Northampton, MA.
Hodkinson S. (1988) “Animal husbandry in the Greek polis,” in Whittaker , ed. (1988): 35–73.
Hodkinson S. (1998) “Lakonian artistic production and the problem of Spartan austerity,” in Fisher and Wees , eds. (1998): 93–118.
Hodkinson S. (2000) Property and Wealth in Classical Sparta. London.
Hoepfner W. and Schwandner E.-L. (1994) Haus und Stadt im klassischen Griechenland. Wohnen in der klassischen Polis. 2nd edn. Munich.
Hoffman G. L. (1997) Imports and Immigrants: Near Eastern Contacts with Iron Age Crete. Ann Arbor, MI.
Hoffmann A., Schwandner E.-L., Hoepfner W., and Brands G., eds. (1991) Bautechnik der Antike. Mainz.
Hölbl G. (1994) Geschichte des Ptolemäerreiches. Darmstadt. English translation by Saavedra T. (2001) A History of the Ptolemaic Empire. London.
Hölkeskamp K.-J. (2000a) “Zwischen Agon und Argumentation,” in Neumeister C. and Raeck W., eds., Rede und Redner: Bewertung und Darstellung in den antiken Kulturen: 17–43. Möhnsee.
Hölkeskamp K.-J. (2000b) “(In-)Schrift und Monument. Zum Begriff des Gesetzes im archaischen und klassischen Griechenland,” ZPE 132: 73–96.
Holt F. (2003) Alexander the Great and the Mystery of the Elephant Medallions. Berkeley.
Holum K., Hohlfelder R. L., Bull R. J., and Raban A. (1988) King Herod’s Dream: Caesarea on the Sea. New York and London.
Hong S., Candelone J.-P., Patterson C. C., and Boutron C. F. (1994) “Greenland evidence of hemispheric lead pollution two millennia ago by Greek and Roman civilizations,” Science 265: 1841–3.
Hong S., Candelone J.-P., Patterson C. C., and Boutron C. F. (1996) “History of ancient copper smelting pollution during Roman and medieval times recorded in Greenland ice,” Science 272: 246–9.
Hong S., Candelone J.-P., Soutif M., and Boutron C. F. (1996) “A reconstruction of changes in copper production and copper emissions to the atmosphere during the past 7000 years,” The Science of Total Environment 188: 183–93.
Hooper F. A. (1961) Funerary Stelae from Kom Abou Billou. Ann Arbor.
Hope SimpsonR. (1981) Mycenaean Greece. Park Ridge, NJ.
Hope SimpsonR. and Dickinson O. T. P. K. (1979) A Gazetteer of Aegean Civilisation in the Bronze Age, Vol. I: The Mainland and Islands. Göteborg: Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology 52.
Hopkins D. (1997) “Agriculture,” in Myers E. M., ed., Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East I: 22–30. New York.
Hopkins K. (1965) “Contraception in the Roman empire,” CSSH 8: 124–51.
Hopkins K. (1966) “On the probable age structure of the Roman population,” Population Studies 20: 245–64.
Hopkins K. (1978a) Conquerors and Slaves. Cambridge.
Hopkins K. (1978b) “Economic growth and towns in classical antiquity,” in Abrams P. and Wrigley E. A., eds., Towns in Societies: Essays in Economic History and Historical Sociology: 35–77. Cambridge.
Hopkins K. (1980) “Taxes and trade in the Roman empire (200 bc–ad 400),” JRS 70: 101–25.
Hopkins K. (1983a) “Models, ships, and staples,” in Garnsey and Whittaker , eds. (1983): 84–109.
Hopkins K. (1983b) “Introduction,” in Garnsey et al., eds. (1983): IX–XXV.
Hopkins K. (1995/6) “Rome, taxes, rents, and trade,” Kodai 6/7: 41–75; reprinted in Scheidel and Reden , eds. (2002): 190–230.
Hopkins K. (2000a) “Rents, taxes, trade, and the city of Rome,” in Cascio Lo, ed. (2000c): 253–67.
Hopkins K. (2000b) “On the political economy of the Roman empire,”
Hopper R. J. (1953) “The Attic silver mines in the fourth century,” BSA 48: 200–54.
Hopper R. J. (1979) Trade and Industry in Classical Greece. London.
Horden P. and Purcell N. (2000) The Corrupting Sea. A Study of Mediterranean History. Oxford.
Hornblower J. (1981) Hieronymus of Cardia. Oxford.
Hornblower S. (1982) Mausolus. Oxford.
Hornblower S. (1991) A Commentary on Thucydides I. Oxford.
Hornblower S. (1994) “Persia,” in Lewis D. M. et al., eds., The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume VI: The Fourth Century BC: 45–96. 2nd edn. Cambridge.
Horrocks G. C. (1980) “The antiquity of the Greek epic tradition: some new evidence,” PCPhS 206: 1–11.
Horsfall N. (2001) “The Moretum decomposed,” C&M 52: 303–15.
Horstkotte H. J. (1988) Die “Steuerhaftung” im spätrömischen “ Zwangsstaat.” Frankfurt am Mein.
Hoselitz B. F. (1954/5) “Generative and parasitic cities,” Economic Development and Cultural Change 3: 278–94.
Houghton A. (1991) “The Antioch project,” in Metcalf W. E., ed., Mnemata: Papers in Memory of Nancy M. Waggoner: 73–97. New York.
Houghton A. (2005), “Seleucid coinage and monetary policy of the 2nd century bc (reflections on the monetization of the Seleucid economy),” in Chankowsky and Duyrat , eds. (2005): 49–79.
Houghton A. and Lorber C. (2002) Seleucid Coins. AComprehensive Catalogue Part 1. Seleucus I through Antiochus III. Vol. I: Introduction, Maps, and Catalogue; Vol. ii: Appendices, Indices, and Plates. New York.
Houston G. W. (1988) “Ports in perspective: some comparative materials on Roman merchant ships and ports,” AJA 92: 553–64.
Howgego C. (1990) “Why did ancient states strike coins?Num.Chron. 150: 1–26.
Howgego C. (1992) “The supply and use of money in the Roman world, 200 bc to ad 300,” JRS 82: 1–31.
Howgego C. (1994) “Coin circulation and the integration of the Roman economy,” JRA 7: 5–21.
Howgego C. (1995) Ancient History from Coins. London and New York.
Hoz J. (1987) “El Sec: les graffites mercantiles en Occident et l’épave d’El Sec,” REA 89: 117–30.
Hudson L. (1997) To Have and to Hold. Slave Work and Family Life in Antebellum South Carolina. Athens, GA.
Hudson M. and Levine B. A., eds. (1999) Urbanization and Land Ownership in the Ancient Near East. Cambridge, MA.
Hudson M. and Mieroop M., eds. (2002) Debt and Economic Renewal in the Ancient Near East. Bethesda, MD.
Hughes G. R. (1952) Saite Demotic Land Leases. Chicago.
Hughes J. D. (1983) “How the ancients viewed deforestation,” JFA 10: 436–45.
Hughes J. D. (1994) Pan’s Travail: Environmental Problems of the Ancient Greeks and Romans. Baltimore.
Hughes-Brock H. (1993) “Amber in the Aegean in the Late Bronze Age: some problems and perspectives,” in Beck C. W. and Bouzek J., eds., Amber in Archaeology: 219–29. Prague.
Hughes-Brock H. (1998) “Greek beads of the Mycenaean period (ca. 1650 – 1100 bc): the age of the heroines of Greek tradition and mythology,” in Sciama L. D. and Eicher J. B., eds., Beads and Beadmakers: Gender, Material Culture and Meaning: 247–71. Oxford.
Hughes-Brock H. (1999) “Mycenaean beads: gender and social context,” Oxford Journal of Archaeology 18: 277–96.
Humphrey J. W., Oleson J. P., and Sherwood A. N., eds. (1998) Greek and Roman Technology: A Sourcebook. London and New York.
Humphreys S. C. (1970) “Economy and society in classical Athens,” ASNP2 39: 1–26; reprinted in Humphreys (1978): 136–58.
Humphreys S. C. (1978) Anthropology and the Greeks. London.
Hunt D. (1998) “The church as a public institution,” in Cameron and Garnsey , eds. (1988): 238–76.
Huntington E. (1910) “The burial of Olympia: a study in climate and history,” Geographical Journal 36: 657–86.
Huntington E. (1917) “Climatic change and agricultural exhaustion as elements in the fall of Rome,” Quarterly Journal of Economics 31: 173–208.
Huβ W. (2001) Ägypten in hellenistischer Zeit 332–30 v. Chr. Munich.
Husson G. and Valbelle D. (1992) L’Etat et les Institutions en Egypte des premiers pharaons aux empereurs romains. Paris.
Hviid M. (2000) “Long-term contracts and relational contracts,” in Bouckaert and Geest , eds. (2000), vol. III: 46–72.
Iakovides S. (1983) Late Helladic Citadels on Mainland Greece. Leiden.
Iakovides S. (1990) “Mycenaean roofs: form and construction.” In Darcque and Treuil , eds. (1990): 147–60.
Iakovides S. (2001) Gla and the Kopais in the 13th Century. Athens.
Iakovides S. E. and French E. B. (2003) Archaeological Atlas of Mycenae. Athens.
Il capitolo delle entrate nelle finanze municipali in occidente ed in oriente. Actes de lav Xe Rencontre Franco-Italienne sur l’épigraphie du monde romain. Rome 1999.
Immerwahr S. A. (1990) Aegean Painting in the Bronze Age. University Park, PA.
Invernizzi A. (1993) “Seleucia on the Tigris: centre and periphery in Seleucid Asia,” in Bilde P., ed., Centre and Periphery in the Hellenistic World: 230–50. Aarhus.
Irwin D. (2002) Free Trade Under Fire. Princeton.
Isaac B. (1990) The Limits of Empire: The Roman Army in the East. (Rev. edn. 1992.) Oxford.
Isaac B. (1998a) “The Babatha archive,” in The Near East under Roman Rule: Selected Papers: 159–81. Leiden.
Isaac B. (1998b) “Bandits in Judaea and Arabia,” in The Near East under Roman Rule: Selected Papers: 122–58. Leiden.
Isaac B. (1998c) “The founding of Aelia Capitolina,” in The Near East under Roman Rule: Selected Papers: 87–111. Leiden.
Isaac B. (1998d) “Tax collection in Roman Arabia,” in The Near East under Roman Rule: Selected Papers: 322–33. Leiden.
Isaakidou V., Halstead P., Davis J., and Stocker S. (2002) “Burnt animal sacrifice at the Mycenaean ‘Palace of Nestor’, Pylos,” Antiquity 76: 86–92.
Isager S. (1992) “Sacred and profane ownership of land,” in Wells ed. (1992): 119–22.
Isager S. and Hansen M. H. (1975) Aspects of Athenian Society in the Fourth Century BC. Odense.
Isager S. and Skydsgaard J. E. (1992) Ancient Greek Agriculture. London.
Israeli Y. (1991) “The invention of blowing,” in Newby M. and Painter K., eds., Roman Glass: Two Centuries of Art and Invention: 46–55. London.
Issar A. S. (2003) Climate Changes during the Holocene and Their Impact on Hydrological Systems. Cambridge.
Jablonka M. (1996) “Ausgrabungen im Süden der Unterstadt von Troia:Grabungsbericht 1995,” Studia Troica 6: 65–96.
Jackes M. (2000) “Building the bases for paleodemographic analysis: adult age determination,” in Katzenberg M. and Saunders S., eds., Biological Anthropology of the Human Skeleton: 407–56. New York.
Jacobsen T. (1982) Salinity and Irrigation Agriculture in Antiquity. Diyala Basin Archaeological Projects: Report on Essential Results, 1957–58. Malibu.
Jacobsthal P. and Neuffer E. (1933) “Gallia Graeca. Recherches sur l’hellénisation de la Provence,” Préhistoire 2: 1–64.
Jaïdi H. (2003) “L’annone de Rome au Bas-Empire: difficultés structurelles, contraintes nouvelles et volonté impériale,” in Marin B. and Virlouvet C., eds., Nourrir les cités de Méditerranée. Antiquité-Temps modernes: 83–102. Paris.
Jameson M. H. (1977/8) “Agriculture and slavery in ancient Greece,” CJ 72: 122–45.
Jameson M. H. (1982) “The leasing of land in Rhamnous,” in Studies in Attic Epigraphy, History, and Topography Presented to Eugene Vanderpool: 66–74. Princeton.
Jameson M. H. (1987) “Agriculture and Greek inscriptions: Rhamnous and Amorgos,” in Proceedings of the 7th International Congress of Greek and Latin Epigraphy Athens II: 290–2.
Jameson M. H. (1988) “Sacrifice and animal husbandry in classical Greece,” in Whittaker , ed. (1988): 87–119. Cambridge.
Jameson M. H. (1989) “Mountains and the Greek city states,” in Bergier J.-F., ed., Montagnes, fleuves, forêts dans l’histoire: 7–17. St. Katharinen.
Jameson M. H. (1990a) “Private space and the Greek city,” in Murray and Price , eds. (1990): 171–95.
Jameson M. H. (1990b) “Domestic space in the Greek city-state,” in Kent , ed. (1990): 92–113.
Jameson M. H. (1992) “Agricultural labor in ancient Greece,” in Wells , ed. (1992): 135–46.
Jameson M. H., Runnels C. N., and Andel T. H. (1994) A Greek Countryside.v The Southern Argolid from Prehistory to the Present. Stanford.
Janin T. (2000) “Nécropoles et sociétés Elysiques: les communautés du Premier Age du fer en Languedoc occidental,” in Janin T., ed., Mailhac et le Premier Age du fer en Europe occidentale: hommages à Odette et Jean Taffanel: 117–32. Lattes.
Jansen A. G. (2002) A Study of the Remains of Mycenaean Roads and Stations of Bronze-Age Greece. New York.
Janushevitch Z. V., Nikolaenko G. M., and Kuzminova N. (1985) “La viticulture à Chersonèse de Tauride aux ive–iie s. av. n. è. d’après les recherches archéologiques et paléoethnobotaniques,” RA 1985: 115–22.
Jardé A. (1925) Les céréales dans l’antiquité grecque. Paris.
Jashemski W. F. and Meyer F. G. (2002) The Natural History of Pompeii. Cambridge.
Jeffery L. H. (1961/90) The Local Scripts of Archaic Greece, revised edn. with supplement by Johnston A. W.. Oxford.
Joannès F. (1989) Archives de Borsippa, la Famille Ea-ilûta-bâni: étude d’un lot d’archives familiales en Babylonie du VIIIe au Ve siècle av J.-C. Geneva.
Joannès F. (1995) “Private commerce and banking in Achaemenid Babylonia,” in Sasson , ed. (1995), vol. III: 1, 475–85.
Joannès F. (1999) “Structures et opérations commerciales en Babylonie à l’époque néobabylonienne,” in Dercksen , ed. (1999): 175–94.
Joannès F. (2004) The Age of Empires:Mesopotamia in the First Millennium BC. Edinburgh.
Johansson S. R. (1987) “Status anxiety and demographic contraction of privileged populations,” Population and Development Review 13: 439–70.
Johansson S. R. (1994) “Food for thought: rhetoric and reality in modern mortality history,” Historical Methods 27: 101–25.
Johnson A. C. (1936) Roman Egypt to the Reign of Diocletian, Economic Survey of Ancient Rome II, ed. Frank T.. Baltimore.
Johnson D. G. (2000) “Population, food, and knowledge,” American Economic Review 90: 1–14.
Johnston A. W. (1979) Trademarks on Greek Vases. Warminster.
Johnston A. W. (1990) “The vase trade: a point of order,” Acta Hyperborea 3: 403–9.
Johnston A. W. and Jones R. E. (1978) “The ‘SOS’ amphora,” BSA 73: 103–41.
Johnston D. (1999) Roman Law in Context. Cambridge.
Johnstone S. (1994) “Virtuous toil, vicious work: Xenophon on aristocratic style,” CP 89: 219–40.
Jones A. H. M. (1937) The Cities of the Eastern Roman Provinces. Oxford.
Jones A. H. M. (1940) The Greek City from Alexander to Justinian. Oxford.
Jones A. H. M. (1956) “Slavery in the ancient world,” EconHR 9: 185–99; reprinted in Finley (1960/8): 1–15.
Jones A. H. M. (1957) Athenian Democracy. Oxford.
Jones A. H. M. (1960) “The cloth industry under the Roman Empire,” Economic History Review 13: 183–92.
Jones A. H. M. (1964) The Later Roman Empire 284–602. A Social, Economic and Administrative Survey. Oxford.
Jones A. H. M. (1974) The Ancient Economy. London.
Jones C. P. (1970) “A leading family from Roman Thespiae,” HSCP 74: 223–55.
Jones A. H. M. (1999) Kinship Diplomacy in the Ancient World. Cambridge, MA.
Jones D. (2000) External Relations of Iron Age Crete, 1100–600 BC. Philadelphia.
Jones E. L. (1988) Growth Recurring: Economic Change in World History. Oxford.
Jones G. (1987) “Agricultural practice in Greek prehistory,” BSA 82: 115–24.
Jones G., Wardle K., Halstead P., and Wardle D. (1986) “Crop storage at Assiros,” Scientific American 254: 96–103.
Jones G. D. B. (1980) “The Roman mines at Riotinto,” JRS 70: 146–65.
Jones G. D. B. (1984) “‘Becoming different without knowing it’: the role and development of vici,” in Blagg and King , eds. (1984): 75–91.
Jones J. E. (1975) “Town and country houses of Attica in classical times,” in Mussche et al., eds. (1975): 63–144.
Jones J. E., Graham A. J., and Sackett L. H. (1973) “An Attic country house below the cave of Pan at Vari,” BSA 68: 355–452.
Jones J. E., Sackett L. H., and Graham A. J. (1962) “The Dema house in Attica,” BSA 57: 75–114.
Jones M. (1982) “Crop production in Roman Britain,” in Miles D., ed., The Romano-British Countryside: Studies in Rural Settlement and Economy I: 97–108. Oxford.
Jones M. (1989) “Agriculture in Roman Britain: the dynamics of change,” in Todd , ed. (1989): 127–34.
Jones M. (1991b) “Food production and consumption – plants,” in Jones , ed. (1991a): 21–7.
Jones R. E. (1986) Greek and Cypriot Pottery: A Review of Scientific Studies. London: Fitch Laboratory Occasional Papers 1.
Jones R. E., and Vagnetti L. (1991) “Traders and craftsmen in the central Mediterranean. Archaeological evidence and archaeometric research,” in Gale , ed. (1991a): 122–47.
Jones R. F. J. (1990) “Natives and the Roman army: three model relationships,” in Vetters H. and Kandler M., eds., Internationalen Limeskongresses 1986 in Carnuntum: 99–110. Vienna.
Jones R. F. J. ed. (1991) Britain in the Roman Period: Recent Trends. Sheffield.
Jones R. F. J., Bloemers J. H. F., Dyson S. L., and Biddle M., eds. (1988) First Millennium Papers: Western Europe in the First Millennium AD. Oxford.
Jones S. C. (1994) “The Toledo bronze youth and east Mediterranean bronze workshops,” JRA 7: 243–56.
Jongman W. (1988a) The Economy and Society of Pompeii. Amsterdam.
Jongman W. (1988b) “Adding it up,” in Whittaker , ed. (1988): 210–12.
Jongman W. (1988c) Review of Goldsmith (1987) in Economic History Review 2nd ser. 41: 500–1.
Jongman W. (1990) “Het romeins imperialisme en de verstedelijking van Italie,” Leidschrift 7: 43–58.
Jongman W. (1997) “Cura annonae,” in Cancik H. and Schneider H., eds., Der Neue Pauly. Enzyclopädie der Antike 111: 234–6. Stuttgart and Weimar.
Jongman W. (2000a) “Hunger and power. Theories, models, and methods in Roman economic history,” in Bongenaar A. C. V. M., ed., Interdependency of Institutions and Private Entrepreneurs: 259–84. Leiden.
Jongman W. (2000b) “Wool and the textile industry of Roman Italy: a working hypothesis,” in Lo Cascio , ed. (2000c): 187–97. Bari.
Jongman W. (2001a) “Roma II: Bevölkerung und Wirtschaft der Stadt Rom, A. Bevölkerung,” in Cancik and Schneider , eds. (2001), vol. III: 1,077–9.
Jongman W. (2001b) “Roma II: Bevölkerung und Wirtschaft der Stadt Rom, B. Wirtschaft,” in Cancik and Schneider , eds. (2001), vol. III: 1,079–81.
Jongman W. (2001c) “Roma II: Bevölkerung und Wirtschaft der Stadt Rom, C. Lebensmittelversorgung,” in Cancik and Schneider , eds. (2001), vol. III: 1,081–3.
Jongman W. (2002) “Beneficial symbols. Alimenta and the infantilization of the Roman citizen,”in Jongman W. and Kleijwegt M., eds., After the Past. Essays in Ancient History in Honour of H. W. Pleket: 47–80. Leiden.
Jongman W. (2003a) “Slavery and the growth of Rome. The transformation of Italy in the second and first centuries bce,” in Edwards and Woolf , eds. (2003): 100–22.
Jongman W. (2003b) “A golden age.Death, money supply and social succession in the Roman Empire,” in Lo Cascio , ed. (2003d): 181–96.
Jongman W. (2003c), “Rome: the political economy of a world-empire” in Bayly C. A. and Bang P. F., eds., Tributary Empires in History: Comparative Perspectives from Antiquity to the Late Medieval: 303–26 (special issue of The Medieval History Journal 6).
Jongman W. (2006) “The rise and fall of the Roman economy: population, rents, and entitlement,” in Bang P., Ikeguchi M., and Ziche H., eds., Ancient Economies and Modern Methodologies. Archaeology, Comparative History, Models and Institutions. Bari.
Jongman W. (forthcoming, a) “Roman meat consumption.”
Jongman W. (forthcoming, b) “An economic model of Roman slavery.”
Jongman W. and Dekker R. (1989) “Public intervention in the food supply in pre-industrial Europe,” in Halstead and O’Shea , eds. (1989): 114–22.
Jongste P. F. B. (1995) Het Gebruik van Marmer in de Romeinse Samenleving. Leiden.
Jonnes L., and Ricl M. (1997) “A new royal inscription from Phrygia Paroreios: Eumenes II grants Tyriaion the status of a polis,” EA 29: 1–30.
Jördens A. (1995) “Sozialstrukturen im Arbeitstierhandel des kaiserzeitlichen Ägypten.” Tyche 10: 37–100.
Joshel S. R. (1992) Work, Identity, and Legal Status at Rome. A Study of the Occupational Inscriptions. Norman, OK.
Jouffroy H. (1977) “Le financement des constructions publiques en Italie: initiative municipale, initiative impériale, évérgetisme privé,” Ktema 1: 329–37.
Jouffroy H. (1986) La construction publique en Italie et dans l’Afrique romaine. Strasbourg.
Jouguet P. (1901) “Rapport sur les fouilles de Médinet-Mâdi et Médinet-Ghôran,” BCH 25: 380–411.
Jouguet P. (1911) La vie municipale dans l’Egypte romaine. Paris.
Jovino M. B., ed. (1993) Produzione artigianale ed esportazione nel mondo antico il bucchero etrusco. Milan.
Judeich W. (1931) Topographie der Stadt Athen, 2nd edn. Munich.
Judson S. (1968) “Erosion rates near Rome, Italy,” Science 160: 1, 444–6.
Junkelmann M. (1997) Panis Militaris: Die Ernährung des römischen Soldaten oder der Grundstoff der Macht. Mainz.
Junqua-Naveau D. (2003) Maîtres de la mer: les Phéniciens et les Grecs. London.
Jursa M. (1998) Der Tempelzehnt in Babylonien vom siebentem bis zum dritten Jahrhundert v. Chr. Münster.
Jursa M. (1999) Das Archiv des Bēl-Rēmanni. Leiden.
Jursa M. (2002a) “Debts and indebtedness in the neo-Babylonian period: evidence from institutional archives,” in Hudson and Mieroop , eds. (2002): 197–220.
Jursa M. (2002b) “Florilegium babyloniacum: Neue Texte aus hellenistischer und spätachämenidischer Zeit,” in Wunsch C., ed., Mining the Archives. Festschrift for Christopher Walker on the Occasion of His 60th Birthday: 107–30. Dresden.
Kallet-Marx L. (1993) Money, Expense, and Naval Power in Thucydides’ History 1–5.24. Berkeley.
Kallet-Marx L. (1994) “Money talks: rhetor, demos, and the resources of the Athenian Empire,” in Osborne and Hornblower , eds. (1994): 227–51.
Kallet-Marx L. (1998) “Accounting for culture in fifth-century Athens,” in Boedeker D. and Raaflaub K. A., eds., Democracy, Empire, and the Arts in Fifth-Century Athens: 43–58. Cambridge, MA.
Kampen N. (1981) Image and Status: Roman Working Women in Ostia. Berlin.
Kaplan S. L. (1984) Provisioning Paris: Merchants and Millers in the Grain and Flour Trade During the Eighteenth Century. Ithaca, NY.
Kaplony-Heckel U. (2000) “Demotic ostraca from Thebes. Percentages and relations between pharaoh and the temple,” JARCE 37: 75–80.
Karageorghis V. and Stampolidis N. C., eds. (1998) Eastern Mediterranean: Cyprus – Dodecanese – Crete 16th – 6th cent. BC. Athens.
Kardulias P. N., ed. (1994) Beyond the Site. Regional Studies in the Aegean Area. Lanham, MD.
Karnava A. (2007) “Written and stamped records in the Late Bronze Age Cyclades: the sea journeys of an administration,” in Brodie N. J., Doole J., Gavalas G., and Renfrew C., eds., Orizon: a Colloquium on the Prehistory of the Cyclades. Cambridge.
Karnezis J. E. (1972) H επίκγηρος. Athens.
Kase E.W. and Szemler G. J. (1991) The Great Isthmus Corridor Route. Explorations of the Phokis-Doris Expedition 1. Dubuque, IA.
Kaser M. (1971) Das römische Privatrecht. Erster Abschnitt, Das altrömische, das vorklassische und klassische Recht. 2nd edn. Munich.
Kassianidou V. and Knapp A. B. (2004) “Archaeometallurgy in the Mediterranean: the social context of mining, technology, and trade,” in Blake E., and Knapp A. B., eds., The Archaeology of Mediterranean Prehistory: 215–51. Oxford.
Kayan I. (1999) “Holocene stratigraphy and geomorphological evolution of the Aegean coastal plains of Anatolia,” Quaternary Science Reviews 18: 541–8.
Kayser B. and Thompson F. (1964) Economic and Social Atlas of Greece. Athens.
Kearlsey R. (1995) “The Greek Geometric wares from Al Mina levels 10–8,” Mediterranean Archaeology 8: 7–81.
Keay S. (1996) “Tarraco in late antiquity,” in Christie and Loseby , eds. (1996): 18–44.
Keen A. G. (1993) “‘Grain for Athens’: notes on the importance of the Hellespontine route in Athenian foreign policy before the Peloponnesian War,” Electronic Antiquity 1.6: keen.html
Keenan J. G. and Shelton J. C. (1976) The Tebtunis Papyri IV. London.
Kehoe D. P. (1988a) The Economics of Agriculture on Roman Imperial Estates in North Africa. Göttingen.
Kehoe D. P. (1988b) “Allocation of risk and investment on the estates of Pliny the younger,” Chiron 18: 15–42.
Kehoe D. P. (1992) Management and Investment on Estates in Roman Egypt during the Early Empire. Bonn.
Kehoe D. P. (1997) Investment, Profit, and Tenancy: The Jurists and the Roman Agrarian Economy. Ann Arbor, MI.
Kehoe D. P. (2007) Law and the Rural Economy in the Roman Empire. Ann Arbor.
Keller D. R. and Rupp D. W., eds. (1983) Archaeological Survey in the Mediterranean Area. Oxford.
Kelly M. (n.d.) “Division of labor in the long run: evidence from small change,”∼economic/staff/mkelly/papers/copper.pdf
Kemp B. J. and Merrillees R. S. (1980) Minoan Pottery in Second Millennium Egypt. Mainz.
Kennedy D. and Riley D. (1990) Rome’s Desert Frontier from the Air. Austin, TX.
Kent J. H. (1948) “The temple estates of Delos, Rheneia, and Mykonos,” Hesperia 17: 243–338.
Kent S., ed. (1990) Domestic Architecture and the Use of Space: An Interdisciplinary Cross-Cultural Study. Cambridge.
Keppie L. (1983) Colonisation and Veteran Settlement in Italy (47–14 BC). London.
Khalidi T., ed. (1984) Land Tenure and Social Transformation in the Middle East. Beirut.
Kiderlen M. (1995) Megale Oikia. Untersuchungen zur Entwicklung aufwendiger griechischer Stadthausarchitektur von der Früharchaik bis ins 3.Jh. v. Chr. Hürth.
Kiechle F. (1969) Sklavenarbeit und technischer Fortschritt im römischen Reich. Wiesbaden.
Kilian K. (1988) “The emergence of the wanax ideology in the Mycenaean palaces,” Oxford Journal of Archaeology 7: 291–302.
Kilian K. (1990) “Mykenische Fundamentierungsweisen in Tiryns,” in Darcque and Treuil , eds. (1990): 95–113.
Kilian-Dirlmeier I. (1985) “Fremde Weihungen in griechische Heiligtümern vom 8. bis zum Beginn des 7. Jahrhunderts v. Chr.,” Jahrbuch des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums Mainz 32: 215–54.
Kilian-Dirlmeier I. (1997) Das mittelbronzezeitliche Schachtgrab von Ägina. Mainz.
Killen J. T. (1963) “Some adjuncts to the SHEEP ideogram on Knossos tablets,” Eranos 61: 69–93.
Killen J. T. (1964) “The wool industry of Crete in the Late Bronze Age,” BSA 59: 1–15.
Killen J. T. (1966) “The Knossos Lc (CLOTH) tablets,” BICS 13: 105–9.
Killen J. T. (1974) “A problem in the Knossos Lc(1) (CLOTH) tablets,” Hermathena 118: 82–90.
Killen J. T. (1976) “Linear B a-ko-ra-ja/-jo,” in Morpurgo-Davies A., and Meid W., eds., Studies in Greek, Italic, and Indo-European Linguistics: 117–25. Innsbruck: Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft 16.
Killen J. T. (1979) “The Knossos Ld(1) tablets,” in Risch and Mühlestein , eds. (1979): 151–81.
Killen J. T. (1984a) “The textile industries at Pylos and Knossos,” in Shelmerdine and Palaima , eds. (1984): 49–63.
Killen J. T. (1984b) “Last year’s debts on the Pylos Ma tablets,” SMEA 25: 173–88.
Killen J. T. (1985) “The Linear B tablets and the Mycenaean economy,” in Davies A.Morpurgo and Duhoux Y., eds., Linear B: A 1984 Survey: 241–305. Louvain-la-Neuve.
Killen J. T. (1994) “Thebes sealings, Knossos tablets and Mycenaean state banquets,” BICS 39: 67–84.
Killen J. T. (1994–5) “A-ma e-pi-ke-re,” Minos 29–30: 329–33.
Killen J. T. (1995) “Some further thoughts on ‘Collectors’,” in Niemeier and Laffineur , eds. (1995): 213–26.
Killen J. T. (1996) “Administering a Mycenaean kingdom: some taxing problems,” BICS 41: 147–8.
Killen J. T. (1998a) “The Pylos Ta tablets revisited,” BCH 122: 421–2.
Killen J. T. (1998b) “The rôle of the state in wheat and olive production in Mycenaean Crete,” Aevum 72: 19–23.
Killen J. T. (1999a) “Critique: a view fromthe tablets,” in Galaty and Parkinson , eds. (1999): 87–90.
Killen J. T. (1999b) “Mycenaean o-pa,” in Deger-Jalkotzy et al., eds. (1999): 325–41.
Killen J. T. (2001) “Some thoughts on ta-ra-si-ja,” in Voutsaki and Killen , eds. (2001): 161–80.
Killen J. T. (2004) “Wheat, barley, flour, olives and figs on Linear B tablets,” in Halstead and Barrett , eds. (2004): 155–73.
Killen J. T. (2007) “Economy”, in Duhoux Y. and Davies A.Morpurgo, eds., A Companion to Linear B: Mycenaean Greek Texts and Their World. Louvain-la-Neuve.
Kim H. S. (2001) “Archaic coinage as evidence for the use of money,” in Meadows and Shipton , eds. (2001): 7–21.
Kim H. S. (2002) “Small change and the moneyed economy,” in Cartledge et al., eds. (2002): 44–51.
King A. (1999) “Diet in the Roman world: a regional inter-site comparison of the mammal bones,” JRA 12: 168–202.
King A. and Henig M., eds. (1981) The Roman West in the Third Century. Contributions from Archaeology and History. Oxford.
King R., Proudfoot L., and Smith B., eds. (1997) The Mediterranean: Environment and Society. London.
Kingsley S. and Decker M., eds. (2001a) Economy and Exchange in the East Mediterranean during Late Antiquity. Oxford.
Kingsley S. and Decker M., (2001b) “New Rome, new theories on the inter-regional exchange. An introduction to the east Mediterranean economy in late antiquity,” in Kingsley and Decker , eds. (2001a): 1–27.
Kippenberg H. G. (1978) Religion und Klassenbildung im antiken Judäa. Göttingen.
Kippenberg H. G. (1981) Religion und Klassenbildung im antiken Judäa, 2nd edn. Göttingen.
Kiriatzi E. (2000) “Pottery technologies and people at LBA Toumba Thessalonikis,” BICS 44: 222.
Kiriatzi V., Andreou S., Dimitriadis S., and Kotsakis K. (1997) “Co-existing traditions: handmade and wheelmade pottery in Late Bronze Age Central Macedonia,” in Laffineur and Betancourt , eds. (1997): 361–6.
Kirk D. (1996) “Demographic transition theory,” Population Studies 50: 361–87.
Kirwan L. P. (1977) “Rome beyond the southern Egyptian frontier,” PBA 53: 13–31.
Kissel T. (1995) Untersuchungen zur Logistik des römischen Heeres in den Provinzen des griechischen Ostens (27 v. Chr. – 235 n. Chr.). St. Katharinen.
Kitchen K. A. (2000) “Regnal and genealogical data of ancient Egypt,” in Bietak M., ed., The Synchronisation of Civilisations in the Eastern Mediterranean in the Second Millennium BC: 39–52. Vienna.
Kleberg T. (1957)Hôtels, Restaurants et Cabarets dans l’Antiquité Romaine. Uppsala.
Klein P. G. (2000) “New institutional economics,” in Bouckaert and Geest , eds. (2000) vol. 1: 456–89.
Klein GoldewijkG. M. and Jongman W. M. (forthcoming) “They never had it so good: Roman stature and the biological standard of living.”
Klemm R. and Klemm D. D. (1994) “Chronologischer Abriß der antiken Goldgewinnung in der Ostwüste Ägyptens,” MDAIK 50: 189–222.
Klengel H. and Renger J., eds. (1999) Landwirtschaft im Alten Orient. Berlin.
Klippel W. and Snyder L. (1991) “Dark Age fauna from Kavousi, Crete,” Hesperia 60: 179–86.
Kluwe E., ed. (1985a) Kultur und Fortschritt in der Blütezeit des griechischen Polis. Berlin.
Kluwe E., (1985b) “Produktion, Produktionsniveau, Lebensweise, Kunst und Kultur im Griechenland des 5. Jahrhunderts v. u. Z.,” in Kluwe , ed. (1985a): 18–42.
Knapp A. B. (1997) The Archaeology of Late Bronze Age Cypriot Society: The Study of Settlement, Survey and Landscape. Glasgow.
Knapp A. B., and Cherry J. F. (1994) Provenience Studies and Bronze Age Cyprus. Production, Exchange and Politico-Economic Change. Madison, WI.
Knappett C. (1999) “Assessing a polity in Proto-Palatial Crete: the Malia–Lasithi state,” AJA 103: 615–39.
Knappett C. and Schoep I. (2000) “Continuity and change in Minoan palatial power,” Antiquity 74: 365–71.
Knauss J. (1990)Wasserbau und Geschichte: Minysche Epoche – Bayerische Zeit: vier Jahrhunderte, ein Jahrzehnt. Munich.
Knauss J. (1996) “Arkadian and Boiotian Orchomenos, centres of Mycenaean hydraulic engineering,” in Miro , Godart and Sacconi , eds. (1996): 1,211–19.
Knoepfler D. (1997) “Alexandreion nomisma. l’Apparition et la disparition de l’Argent d’Alexandre dans les inscriptions grecques. Quelques réflexions complémentaires,” Topoi 7: 33–50.
Knorringa H. (1926) Emporos: Data on Trade and Traders in Greek Literature from Homer to Aristotle. Amsterdam.