Skip to main content
×
×
Home
The Cambridge History of Africa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Maurel, Chloé 2014. L’histoire générale de l’Afrique de l’Unesco. Cahiers d'études africaines, p. 715.

    ×
  • Volume 2: From c.500 BC to AD 1050
  • Edited by J. D. Fage

  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    The Cambridge History of Africa
    • Volume 2: From c.500 BC to AD 1050
    • Edited by J. D. Fage
    • Online ISBN: 9781139054560
    • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521215923
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to *
    ×
  • Buy the print book

Book description

After the prehistory of Volume I, Volume II of The Cambridge History of Africa deals with the beginnings of history. It is about 500 BC that historical sources begin to embrace all Africa north of the Sahara and, by the end of the period, documentation is also beginning to appear for parts of sub-Saharan Africa. North of the Sahara, this situation arises since Africans were sharing in the major civilizations of the Mediterranean world. It is shown that these northern Africans were not simply passive recipients of Phoenician, Greek, Roman and Arab influences, or of the great religions and cultures of Judaism, Christianity and Islam coming from the Semitic world. They adapted these things to their own particular needs and purposes, and sometimes too contributed to their general development. But the North African civilization failed to make headway south of the Sahara.

Reviews

‘… a work of elegant scholarship and an invaluable research tool.’

Source: The American Historical Review

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send
    ×

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
×
  • 1 - The legacy of prehistory: an essay on the background to the individuality of African cultures
    pp 11-86
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521215923.003
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Palaeoanthropology is the means whereby the developmental stages in man's intellectual and cultural evolution are investigated and interpreted and, on the evidence as it exists today, it would appear that man the tool-maker was a product of the African tropical savannas. The basic stock was perhaps as variable as are the Kibish crania from Omo in East Africa, and became differentiated during the 40-50,000 years' duration of the later Pleistocene, that culture became differentiated, coincidently with the genetic changes that followed increasing identification of the populations with specific geographical regions and ecosystems. The extent of Middle Palaeolithic/Middle Stone Age variability will serve to demonstrate the degree of environmental adaptation that had been achieved by the early Homo sapiens populations. Between 16,000 and 10,000 BC there is evidence for much local variation in the forms of the stone industries in Nubia and Upper Egypt.
  • 2 - North Africa in the period of Phoenician and Greek colonization, c. 800 to 323 BC
    pp 87-147
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521215923.004
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter discusses that Greek and Phoenician colonization had a different character from that of the European nations in recent times. Egyptian control over Syria and over Kush to the south had been lost. The history of Egypt during the 'period of colonization' was still the history of the Egyptian state, that of the rest of North Africa has to be treated as the history of the new states established by the Greek and Phoenician immigrants. The Greek colonists occupied the area known, from the name of their principal city Cyrene, as Cyrenaica. The relative isolation of Cyrenaica was ended when the Greek army under Alexander occupied Egypt in 332 BC. The Phoenicians colonized a much greater area of North Africa than the Greeks, and their influence on Africa was probably more profound as well as being more widespread. The Phoenicians were established on the coast of North Africa considerably earlier than the Greeks.
  • 3 - North Africa in the Hellenistic and Roman periods, 323 BC to AD 305
    pp 148-209
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521215923.005
  • View abstract
    Summary
    By the end of the fourth century BC, the two colonizing nations, Greeks and Phoenicians, appeared to be securely established in control of the Mediterranean, and northern Africa was effectively divided between a Greek and a Phoenician state. The official cult of Alexander and the Ptolemies at Alexandria was designed to legitimize the dynasty in the eyes of its Greek subjects. The bulk of the bureaucracy continued to be recruited from Greeks and Hellenized Egyptians, and Greek remained the principal language of the Egyptian administration. Alexandria continued to be an important centre of Greek literature and learning, and with the spread of Christianity among the Egyptian Greeks it became also a principal intellectual centre for the Greek speaking section of the Christian Church. During the third century AD the Roman empire suffered a prolonged period of political and economic crisis.
  • 4 - The Nilotic Sudan and Ethiopia, c. 660 bc to c. ad 600
    pp 210-271
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521215923.006
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The ancient Egyptians had entered what is now the northern Sudan, known to them as Kush, in about 1500 BC and had rapidly occupied it as far upstream as Kurgus, near to the modern Abu Hamed. Tanwetamani was the last of the kings of Kush to be buried in the ancestral cemetery at Kurru. By the middle of the fourth century, Aksum had become a considerable power and the court of the king had been Christianized. The inscriptions of Ezana, both in Greek and Ge'ez, the indigenous language and the forerunner of Amharic and Tigrinya, the main Semitic tongues of modern Ethiopia, are the main sources for knowledge of contact between Aksum and Meroe. Meroitic was the written language of the whole stretch of river over which the Meroitic kings ruled from at least as early as 200 BC until the fourth century AD.
  • 5 - Trans-Saharan contacts and the Iron Age in West Africa
    pp 272-341
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521215923.007
  • View abstract
    Summary
    From about 3000 BC onwards, the Sahara began to exert a constraining influence on the freedom of human movement. This chapter considers the problem of the origins and the development of agriculture and animal husbandry in Africa south of the Tropic of Cancer, than to try and establish the situation relating to food production in the Sahara and in the sub-Saharan western Sudan towards the beginning of the Christian era. The most important material evidence for a North- West African Bronze Age has begun to come to light far to the south of Morocco, in Mauritania. Most West African peoples passed directly from the Neolithic to the Iron Age, in the Sahel and the Sudan from the fifth century BC, and in the forest lands after the beginning of the Christian era, with 'paleonigritic' peoples in their mountain or island fastnesses catching up between about the fifth and eleventh centuries AD.
  • 6 - The emergence of Bantu Africa
    pp 342-409
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521215923.008
  • View abstract
    Summary
    In Africa south of the Equator the period from 500 BC until AD 1000 was first and foremost the period which saw the change to food production. The transition to food production coincided with the transition from the Stone to the Iron Age. This chapter considers the historical implications of recent work on the classification of the Bantu languages at the end of the Stone Age. The archaeological evidence surveyed suggests that the Iron Age entered Bantu Africa across the western half of its northern frontier. The introduction of the South-East Asian food-plants was the most significant event of Early Iron Age times in the forest region. This must presumably have been a process which started on the east coast of Africa with the oceanic voyages of Indonesian traders and migrants. A scatter of exotic objects, such as glass beads and seashells, has come from Early Iron Age sites in the southern half of Bantu Africa.
  • 7 - The Christian period in Mediterranean Africa, c. ad 200 to 700
    pp 410-489
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521215923.009
  • View abstract
    Summary
    For more than three centuries, from the reign of Constantine to the Arab invasions of the 630s, Mediterranean Africa was the scene of a Christian civilization. The Christian leaders, Augustine of Hippo and Cyril of Alexandria moulded the teaching of the Latin and Greek Churches respectively in a way that has survived for centuries. This chapter outlines the history of Christian civilization from its beginnings to its collapse before the Arabs, partial in Egypt but complete in North Africa. Inevitably Christianity itself must take the centre of the stage. The Church in North Africa west of the Gulf of Syrtis was separated from that in Egypt and Cyrenaica by geography, language and theological tradition. The Church in Egypt and Cyrenaica was, Greek-speaking and outward-looking, responsible for missions to Nubia, Ethiopia and south India, and while not denying the importance of ecclesiastical discipline, directed its energies towards arriving at an understanding of the mystery of human salvation through the Incarnation.
  • 8 - The Arab conquest and the rise of Islam in North Africa
    pp 490-555
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521215923.010
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The Arab conquests, which created a great new empire and led to the establishment of Islam as one of the great religions of the world, are one of the traditional landmarks of history. The Egyptian papyri form an invaluable record; they also demonstrate that the written tradition, when it made its appearance in Egypt from the middle of the eighth century onwards, was indebted to an archive going back to the establishment of a regular administration under Arab control. The movement of soldiers, slaves and tribute to and fro along the North African coast from Egypt to Spain had revived the market economy after the lapse into subsistence of the late Roman and Byzantine period. In the ninth century, all the great mosques of Egypt and North Africa which dated from the early days of the conquest were enlarged to their present size, while new ones were founded.
  • 9 - Christian Nubia
    pp 556-588
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521215923.011
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The strong influence of Christianity in Egypt is likely to have been felt in Nubia and, though the First Cataract marked a political, religious and linguistic frontier as it had done since pharaonic times, it was not impassable. This chapter examines the fact of the existence of a Christian Church and a Christian ruler became the dominant feature of Nubian history and culture for about 800 years, from the first formal missionary activity in the mid sixth century until the taking of power by a Muslim ruler in the mid fourteenth. Christian buildings, Christian symbols and Christian belief formed the characteristic culture of the period. From the time of Merkurios, there is evidence for the full political and cultural development of Christian Nubia. There is some historical data to be gained from Arab writers, while the archaeological material is rich and much is now known of the material culture.
  • 10 - The Fatimid revolution (861–973) and its aftermath in North Africa
    pp 589-636
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521215923.012
  • View abstract
    Summary
    In AD 861 the 'Abbasid Caliph Mutawakkil was murdered by the Turkish guard in the imperial capital of Samarra on the Tigris at the instigation of the heir to the throne, his son Muntasir. The Muslim population, including the beduin tribes and the army, was susceptible to agitation on behalf of Shi'ite pretenders. If Ibn Mudabbir's achievements were more than legendary, however, they are obscured by political events. The Fatimids had turned their attention to the west, even though, in 921, the Mahdi had taken up residence in a city built to promote the eastern enterprise. By the middle of the tenth century AD, the troubles which had afflicted both Islam and Christendom over the past hundred years had resulted in a new political order. The efforts of the Ifriqiyan navy had been directed against the western extremity of the Byzantine empire, in southern Italy.
  • 11 - The Sahara and the Sudan from the Arab conquest of the Maghrib to the rise of the Almoravids
    pp 637-684
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521215923.013
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The Saharan trade and the introduction of Islam were the two principal external factors in the history of West Africa before 1500. The journey across the Sahara with slaves must have been extremely difficult and exhausting. This is fully borne out in an anecdote about an Ibāḍī from Wargla in the eleventh century. The Umayyad government sought to encourage the flow of gold from the Sudan. But direct imperial involvement in the organization of the gold-trade was short-lived. In 750, when the Umayyad caliphate was overthrown, the Maghrib was in the throes of a Berber revolt under the banners of different sects of the Kharijiyya. In the tenth and eleventh centuries, Kairouan was an important centre of Islamic learning, and almost all the important fuqahāʾ of the Maghrib studied there for some time. The Almoravids left their impact in the Sudan, where their intervention brought about the islamization of Ghana and eradicated traces of Ibadi influence.
  • Bibliographical essays
    pp 685-718
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521215923.014
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This bibliography presents a list of titles that help the reader to understand African prehistory. The initial and main impetus for the study of African prehistory has come from two directions: on the one hand from French geologists, palaeontologists and archaeologists working in the Maghrib and later in the Sahara, who applied the western European terminology; and, on the other hand, from investigators in South Africa who introduced their own terminology because of the morphological differences between the artefact assemblages from Africa and Europe and the lack of reliable means of dating and making correlations over such great distances. For the various geographic regions of the continent there are a number of monographs providing detailed and/or specialized information. The development of food production is more generally associated with the so-called 'neolithic' occurrences in northern and West Africa and in the East African Rift.
Bibliography
Abdelgadir, Mahmoud Abdulla, ed. Studies in ancient languages of the Sudan. Khartoum, 1974.
Abu, Saleh al-Armani. Churches and monasteries of Egypt, trans, by Evetts, B. T. A.. Oxford, 1893.
Adams, W. Y.Post pharaonic Nubia in the light of Archaeology’, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Pt I, 1964, 50, 102–20; Pt II, 1965, 51, 160–78.
Adams, W. Y. Nubia: corridor to Africa. London, 1977.
Adams, W. Y.A re-appraisal of Nubian culture history’, Orientalia, 1970, 39, 2, 269–77.
Adams, W. Y.The Nubian campaign: retrospect and prospect’, in Mélanges K. Michalowski. Warsaw, 1967, 13–30.
Adams, W. Y.The Christian potteries at Faras’, Kush, 1961, 9, 30–43.
Adams, W. Y.An introductory classification of Christian Nubian pottery’, Kush, 1962, 10, 245–88.
Adams, W. Y.Sudan Antiquities Service excavations in Nubia’, Kush, 1964, 12, 216–48.
Adams, W. Y.Architectural evolution of the Nubian church’, Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt, 1965, 4, 87–139 [1965a].
Adams, W. Y.Sudan Antiquities Service excavations at Meinarti, 1963–4’, Kush, 1965, 13, 148–76 [1965b].
Adams, W. Y.Post-pharaonic Nubia in the light of archaeology’, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Pt. 11, 1965, 51, 160–78; Pt. III, 1966, 52, 147–62.
Adams, W. Y.Progress report on Nubian pottery’, Kush, 1967–8, 15, 1–56.
Adams, W. Y.Settlement pattern in microcosm: the changing aspect of a Nubian village during twelve centuries’, in Chang, K., ed., Settlement archaeology. Palo Alto, 1968, 174–207.
Addison, F. Jebel Moya [The Wellcome excavations in the Sudan; Vol. 1, text, Vol. 11, plates]. London, 1949.
*Histoire de la Tunisie, Vol. 1, L' Antiquité, by Mahjoubi, A., Slim, H. and Belkhodja, K.; Vol. II, Le Moyen Âge, by Dachraoui, F., Djaït, H., M'rabet, M. and Talbi, M.. Tunis, 1973–4.
Ajayi, J. F. A. and Crowder, M. eds. History of West Africa, Vol. 1, 2nd edn. London, 1976.
Akhbār al-Zamān, ed. by Ḥanafī, ‘Abd al-Ḥamīd Aḥmad. Cairo, 1938.
al-Bakrī, . French trans, by Slane, M. G., Description de l'Afrique septentrionale. Algiers, 1911–13; reprinted Paris, 1965.
al-Bakrī, . Kitāb al-masālik wa'l mamālik, ed. by Slane, M. G.. Algiers, 1911.
al-Bakrī, . See also Monteil, V., ‘Routier de l'Afrique blanche et noir de nord-ouest: al-Bakrī (Cordova, 1068)’, Bulletin de l'IFAN, 1968, 30 (sér. B), 39–116.
al-Balādhurī, . Kitāb futūḥ al-Buldān, ed. by Goeje, M. J.. Leiden, 1863–6.
al-Istakhrī, . Kitāb al-masālik wa'l-mamālik, ed. by Goeje, M. J.. Leiden, 1870.
al-Idrīsī, . Kitāb nuzhat al-mushtāq fī ikhtirāq al-āfāq, ed. and trans, by Dozy, R. and Goeje, M. J. [Description de l'Afrique du Nord et de l'Espagne]. Leiden, 1866.
al-Khwārizmī, . Ṣūrat al-arḍ, ed. by Mžik, H.. Vienna, 1926.
*al-Kindi, . Governors and judges of Egypt, ed. by Guest, R.. Leiden and London, 1912.
al-Malīkī, . Riyāḍ al-nufūs fī tabaqāt ‘ulamāʾ al-Qayrawān wa Ifrīqiya, ed. by Monès, H.. Cairo, 1951.
al-Maqrīzī, . Kitāb al-Mawā‘iẓ wa 'l-I'tibār fī dhikr al-khitat wa 'l-āthār [Khitat], ed. by Wiet, Gaston. Cairo, 1911–27. 4 vols.
al-Mas‘ūdī, . Kitāb murūj al-dhahab wa-ma‘ādin al-jawhar, ed. and trans, by Meynard, C. Barbier and Courteille, Pavet [Les Prairies d'or]. Paris 1864–77. Revised edn trans, by Pellat, C.. Paris, 1965.
al-Nakar, U.Takrūr: the history of a name’, Journal of African History, 1969, 10, 365–74.
al-Nuwayrī, . Nihāyat al-'Arab. Granada, 1919.
al-Qāḍī, ‘Iyād. Tartīb al-madārik wa-taqrīb al-masālik li-ma‘rifat a‘lām madhhab Mālik, ed. by Maḥmūd, Aḥmad Bakīr. Beirut, 1967.
al-Qāḍī, ‘l-Nu‘mān [al-Nu'mān, Abū Ḥanīfa]. Iftitāḥ al–Da'wa wa ibtidāʾ al-Dawla, ed. by al-Qāḍī, W.. Beirut, 1970.
al-Sa‘dī, . Ta'rīkb al-Sūdān, ed. and trans, by Houdas, O.. Paris, 1900.
al-Shammākhī, . Kitāb al-siyar [lithograph edn], Cairo, 1883–4.
al-Tādilī, . Kitāb al-tashawwuf ilā rijāl al-tasawwuf, ed. by Faure, A.. Rabat, 1958.
al-Ya‘qūbī, . Kitāb al-Buldān, Bibliotheca geographicorum arabicorum, VII, ed. by Goeje, M. J.. Leiden, 1892. French trans, by Wiet, Gaston, Le Livre des pays. Cairo, 1937; Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientate.
al-Ya‘qūbī, . Kitāb al-Ta'rīkh, ed. by Houtsma, H. T.. Leiden, 1863–6.
al-Zuhrī, . Kitāb al-Ja'rāfiyya, ed. by Sadok, M. Hadj, Bulleiin d'Études Orientates, 1968, 21, 1–312. Also (as al-Zouhri) in Kamal, Y., Monumenta cartograpbica… (see under General works), Vol. III.
Albertini, E. L'Afrique romaine. Algiers, 1949.
Albertini, E., in Bulletin Archéologique du Comité des Travaux Historiques, 1922, 26–32.
Albertini, E., in Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres, 1939, 100.
Alexandre, P.Proto-histoire du groupe beti-bulu-fang’, Cahiers d'études africaines, 1965, 5, 503–60.
Alimen, H. The prehistory of Africa. London, 1957.
Alimen, M. H.Les “Isthmes” Hispano-Marocain et Siculo-Tunisien aux temps acheuléens’, L'Anthropologie, 1975, 79, 399–436.
Allais, Y. Djemila. Paris, 1938.
Allen, W. The African husbandman. Edinburgh, 1965.
Altaner, B. and Stuiber, A. Patrologie (Leben, Schriften und Lehre der Kirchen-väter), 7th edn. Freiburg, 1964. [Bibliography.]
Altaner, B. and Stuiber, A. Patrologie (Leben, Schriften und Lehre der Kirchenväter), 7th edn. Freiburg, 1966.
*Amari, M. Storia dei Musulmani di Sicilia, 2nd edn. Catania, 1933–5.
Andrae, T. Die Person Muhammads in Lehre und Glaube seine Gemeind. Stockholm, 1918.
Anfray, F.Aspects de l'archéologie éthiopienne’, Journal of African History, 1968, 9, 345–66.
Anfray, F.L'Archéologie d'Axoum en 1972’, Paideuma, 1972, 18, 60–78.
Appian, . Roman history, ed. and with an English trans, by White, H.. London, 1912–13. 4 vols.
Apuleius, . The golden ass, ed. and with an English trans, by Gaselee, S.. London, 1915.
Aristotle, . Politics, ed. by Ross, W. D.. Oxford, 1957.
Arkell, A. J. Early Khartoum. Oxford, 1949.
Arkell, A. J. Shaheinab. Oxford, 1953.
Arkell, A. J. The prehistory of the Nile Valley. Leiden–Cologne, 1975; Handbuch der Orientalistik, I (2,A).
Arkell, A. J. A history of the Sudan to 1821, 2nd edn. London, 1961.
Arkell, A. J. A history of the Sudan to AD 1821. London, 1955; 2nd edn, 1961; reprinted 1973.
Arkell, A. J.Gold Coast copies of Vth–VIIIth-century bronze lamps’, Antiquity, March 1950, 38–40.
Armstrong, A. L.Rhodesian archaeological expedition, 1929: excavation in Bambata Cave and researches on prehistoric sites in Southern Rhodesia’, Journal of the Royal Anthrolological Society of London, 1931, 120, 715–21.
Arrian, . The Anabasis of Alexander, ed. and with an English trans, by Robson, E. I.. London, 1929–33. 2 vols.
Athenaios, . Deipnosophistai, ed. and with an English trans, by Gulick, C. B.. London, 1927–41. 7 vols.
Aurigemma, S.L'Elefante di Leptis Magna e il commercio dell'avorio e delle “Libycae ferae” negli Emporia Tripolitani’, Africa Italiana, 1940, 7, 67–86.
Austin, M. M. Greece and Egypt in the Archaic age. Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society, Supplement 2, 1970.
Bailloud, G.Dans les tiroirs du Tchad’, Le Nouvel Observateur (Paris), 1965, 14, 1.
Bailloud, G.L'Évolution des styles céramiques en Ennedi’, Actes du première colloque international d'archéologie africaine (Fort-Lamy, 1966), 1969, 31–45.
Baker, H. G.Comments on the thesis that there was a centre of plant domestication near the headwaters of the river Niger’, Journal of African History, 1962, 3, 2, 229–33.
Balout, L. Préhistoire de l'Afrique du Nord: essai de chronologie. Paris, 1955.
Balout, L. Algérie préhistorique. Paris, 1958.
Baradez, J. Vue-Aérienne de l'organisation romaine dans le sud-Algérien: Fossatum Africae. Paris, 1949.
Barnes, T. D. Tertullian, a historical and literary study. Oxford, 1971.
Basset, R.Recherches historiques sur les Maures’, in Mission au Senegal. Paris, 1909.
Bates, O. The eastern Libyan. London, 1914.
Bathily, A.A discussion of the traditions of Wagadu with some reference to ancient Ghana’, Bulletin de l'IFAN, 1975, 37, 1–94.
Baumann, H., Thurnwald, R. and Westermann, D. Völkerkunde Afrikas. Essen, 1940. French trans., Les peuples et les civilisations de l'Afrique. Paris, 1948.
Baumann, H. and Westermann, D. Les Peuples et les civilisations de l'Afrique. Paris, 1948. [Translation of Baumann, R. Thurnwald and Westermann, , Völkerkunde Afrikas, Essen, 1940.]
Becker, C. H. Beiträge zur Geschichte Ägyptens. Strasburg, 1902–3. 2 vols.
Becker, C. H. Islamstudien. Leipzig, 1924. 2 vols. [Vol. 1 is relevant.]
Becker, C. H.Papyrusstudien’, Zeitschrift für Assyriologie, 1909, 22, 137–54.
Bell, H. I.Anti-Semitism at Alexandria’, Journal of Roman Studies, 1931, 21, 1–18.
Bell, H. I.The Constitutio Antoniana and the Egyptian poll-tax’, Journal of Roman Studies, 1947, 37, 17–23.
Bell, H. I. Egypt from Alexander the Great to the Arab conquest: a study in the diffusion and decay of Hellenism. Oxford, 1948.
Bell, H. I. Cults and creeds in Graeco-Roman Egypt. Liverpool, 1957.
Bell, H. I. Jews and Greeks in Egypt. Oxford, 1924.
Bell, H. I. and Skeat, T. C. eds. Fragments of an unknown gospel. London, 1935.
Bell, H. I.The Aphrodito Papyri’, Journal of Hellenic Studies, 1908, 28, 97–120.
Bell, H. I.The administration of Egypt under the Umayyad Khalifs’, Byzantinische Zeitschrift, 1928, 28.
Bell, H. I.Egypt and the Byzantine empire’, in Glanville, S. R. K., ed., The legacy of Egypt, 1st edn. Oxford, 1942, 332–47.
Bell, H. I. ed. Aphrodito Papyri. (Vol. iv of Greek Papyri in the British Museum), London, 1917.
Bellefonds, Linant. Journal d'un voyage à Méroé dans les années 1821 et 1822. Khartoum, 1958.
Berchem, M.Deux campagnes de fouilles sur la site de l'ancienne cité musulmane de Sedrata’, Actes des Congrès Nationaux des Sociétés Savantes (Section d'Archéologie, Congrés 79, Algiers, 1954). Paris, 1957.
Berthier, A. Tiddis. Algiers 1954.
Berthier, A., Logeart, F. and Martin, M. Les Véstiges du Christianisme antique dans la Numidie centrale. Algiers, 1942.
Besa, . Life of Shenute, ed. by Wiesman, H.. Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium, Scriptores Coptici, II. Paris, 1931.
Beschouach, A.Une stèle consacrée à Saturne le 8 Novembre 323’, Bulletin Archéologique du Comité des Travaux Historiques, N.S., 1968, 4 (Paris 1969), 253–68.
Bevan, E. R. The house of Ptolemy: a history of Egypt under the Ptolemaic dynasty. London, 1927.
Birley, A. Septimius Severus, the African emperor. London, 1971.
Bishop, W. W. and Miller, J. A. eds. Calibration of hominoid evolution. Edinburgh, 1972.
Bishop, W. W. and Clark, J. D. eds. Background to evolution in Africa. Chicago, 1967.
Blaudin de Thé, Cdt. Essai de bibliographie du Sahara français et des régions avoisinantes. Paris, 1960.
Boardman, J.Evidence for the dating of Greek settlements in Cyrenaica’, Annual of the British School at Athens, 1966, 61, 149–56.
Boardman, J. The Greeks overseas: the archaeology of their early colonies and trade, 2nd edn. London, 1973.
Bordes, F.Considérattons sur la typologie ee les techniquee dans le Paléolithique’, Quartar, 1967, 18, 25–55.
Bouchier, E. S. Life and letters in Roman Africa. Oxford, 1913.
Bouveignes, O.Note sur quelques monnaies trouvées au Congo belge’, Brousse (Leopoldville), 1966, 1–2, 20–6.
Bovill, E. W.The camel and the Garamantes’, Antiquity, 1956, 30, 19–21.
Bovill, E. W. The golden trade of the Moors, 2nd edn. Oxford, 1968.
Brain, C. K. The Transvaal ape-man-bearing cave deposits. Pretoria, 1958; Transvaal Museum Memoirs, II, 1–131.
Brasseur, Paule. Bibliographie générale du Mali, Dakar, 1964
Breasted, J. H. Ancient records of Egypt: historical documents from the earliest times to the Persian conquest. Chicago, 1906–7. 5 vols.
Brett, Michael.The Zughba at Tripoli, 429H (AD 1037–8)’, Society for Libyan Studies, Sixth Annual Report, 1974–5, 41–7.
Brett, Michael.Sijill al-Mustansir’, paper presented to the Premier Congrès d'Histoire et de Civilisation du Maghreb (Tunis, December 1974); in Actes du Congrès, 1974.
*Brett, Michael. ‘Ifrīqiya as a market for Saharan trade, from the tenth to the twelfth century AD’, Journal of African History, 1969, 10, 3, 347–64.
Breuil, H., Cabu, F. and Riet Lowe, C.Le Paléolithique au Congo Belge d'après les recherches du docteur Cabu’, Transactions, Royal Society of South Africa, 1944, 30, 2, 143–74.
Breuil, H. Abbé Les roches peintes du Tassili n-Ajjer. Paris, 1964.
Briggs, L. C. The living races of the Sahara desert. Cambridge, Mass., 1958.
*Brignon, J., Amin, A. and others. Histoire du Maroc. Casablanca, 1967.
Brisson, J. P. Autonomisme et Christianisme dans l'Afrique romaine de Septime Sévère à l'invasion vandale. Paris, 1958.
Brogan, O.The camel in Roman Tripolitania’, Papers of the British School at Rome, 1954, 22, 126–31.
Brooks, C. E. P. Climate through the ages. London, 1949.
Brooks, E. W. ed. and trans. Vitae virorum apud Monophysitarum celeberrimorun. Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium, Scriptores Syri, III, 25. Paris, 1907.
Brooks, E. W. Ioannis Ephesin; Historiae Ecclesize. Pars Tertia. Louvain, 1936.
Broom, R. Findnng the Missing Link. London, 1950.
Broughton, T. R. S. The romanization of Africa Proconsularis. Baltimore, 1929.
Brown, P. R. L. Augustine of Hippo, a biography. London, 1967.
Brown, P. R. L. Religion and society in the age of St Augustine. London, 1972.
Brunschvig, Robert, ‘Un texte arabe du IXe siècle intéressant le Fezzan’, Revue Africaine, 1945, 89, 21–5.
Brunschvig, Robert.Ibn Abdal’ hakam et la conquête de I'Afrique du Nord par les Arabes: étude critique’, Annates de l'Instutut des Études Orientales (Algiers), 1942–7, 6, 108–55.
Buonaiuti, E. Il Christianesimo nell' Africa romana. Bari, 1928.
Burkitt, F. C.The Christian Church in the East’, in Cambridge ancient history, Vol. XII. Cambridge, 1939, 476ff.
Burkitt, M. C. South Africa's past in stone and paint. London, 1928.
Burton, J.“Those are the high-flying cranes”’, Journal of Semitic Studies, 1970, 15, 246–65.
Bury, J. B. History of the later Roman Empire, Vol. II. London, 1923.
Butler, A. J. The Arab conquest of Egypt and the last thirty years of the Roman dominion. Oxford, 1902.
Butzer, K. W. and Isaac, G. L. eds. After the Australopithecines: stratigraphy, ecology and culture change in the Middle Pleistocene. The Hague, 1975.
Butzer, K. W., Isaac, G. L., Richardson, J. L. and Washbourn-Kamau, C. K.Radiocarbon dating of East African lake levels’, Science, 1972, 175, 1069–76.
Butzer, K. W. Studien zum vor- und Frühgeschichtlich Landschaftwandel der Sahara. Wiesbaden, 1958–9.
Buxton, D. The Abyssinians. London, 1970.
Bynon, J.The contribution of linguistics to history in the field of Berber studies’, in Dalby, D., ed., Language and history in Africa. London, 1970.
Caesar, . Commentarii, ed. by Pontet, R.. Oxford, 1908. 2 vols.
Caetani, L. Annaii dell'Islam. Milan, from 1905. 10 vols.
Cagnat, R. and Merlin, A. Inscriptions latines d'Afrique. Paris, 1923.
Cagnat, R. L'Armée romaine d'Afrique et l'occupation militaire de l'Afrique sous les Empereurs, 2nd edn. Paris, 1913.
Cahen, Daniel. Le site archéologique de la Kamoa [Shaba, Zaīre]. Tervuren, Kon. Museum voor Midden-Afrika, 1975, 84.
Caillaud, F. Voyage à Méroé, au Fleuve Blanc, au delà de Fazoqli. Paris, 1826; reprinted 1972.
Calderone, S., in La Parola del Passato, 1967, 113, 94–109.
Calonne Beaufaict, A. Azande. Brussels, 1921.
Cambridge history of Islam, ed. by Lewis, B., Holt, P. M. and Lambton, A. K. S.. Cambridge, 1972. 2 vols.
Campbell, B. G. Human evolution, 2nd edn. Chicago, 1972.
Camps, G. Les civilisations préhistoriques de l'Afrique du Nord et du Sahara. Paris, 1974.
Camps, G.Les traces d'un âge du bronze en Afrique du Nord’, Revue Africaine, 1960, 104, 31–55.
Camps, G.Massinissa, ou les débuts de l'histoire’, Libyca, 1960, 8.
Camps, G. Amekni, Néolithique ancien du Hoggar. Centre de Recherches Anthropologiques, Préhistoriques et Ethnographiques (Algiers), 1969, Mémoire 10, 230.
Canard, M.L'impérialisme des Fatimides et leur propagande’, Annales de l'Institut d'Études Orientales (Algiers), 1942–7, 6, 156–93.
Capot-Rey, R. Le Sahara français. Paris, 1953.
Carcopino, J. Le Maroc antique. Paris, 1943.
Carcopino, J.Les Castella de la plaine de Setif’, Revue Africaine, 1918, 62, 1ff.
Carpenter, Rhys.A trans-Saharan caravan route in Herodotus’, American Journal of Archaeology, 1956, 60, 231–42.
Carpenter, Rhys.Phoenicians in the West’, American journal of Archaeology, 1958, 62, 35–53.
Carter, P. L. and Vogel, J. C.The dating of industrial assemblages from stratified sites in eastern Lesotho’, Man, N.S., 1974, 9, 557–70.
Cary, M. and Warmington, E. H. The ancient explorers, revised edn. London, 1963.
Cassius, Dio. Roman history, ed. and with an English trans, by Cary, E.. London, 1914–27. 9 vols.
Caton-Thompson, G. Kharga Oasis in prehistory. London, 1952.
Caton-Thompson, G.The camel in dynastic Egypt’, Man, 1934, 34, 21.
Chamla, M.-C. Les populations anciennes du Sahara et des régions limitrophes. Paris, 1968; Centre de Recherches Anthropologiques, Préhistoriques et Ethnographiques (Algiers), Mémoire 9.
Chamoux, C. Cyrène sous la monarchie des Battiades. Paris, 1953.
Chapelle, J. Nomades noirs du Sahara. Paris, 1957.
Chapman, S. E. Decorated chapels of the Meroitic pyramids at Meroe and Barkal [with text by Dunham, Dows], Vol. iii of Royal cemeteries of Kush. Cambridge, Mass., 1952.
Charles-Picard, G. Les Religions de l'Afrique antique. Paris, 1954.
Charles-Picard, G. Carthage, trans, by , M. and Kochan, L.. London, 1964.
Charles-Picard, G. and , C. Daily life in Carthage at the time of Hannibal, trans, by Hamilton, A.. London, 1958.
Charles-Picard, G. and , C. The life and death of Carthage: a survey of Punic culture from its birth to the final tragedy, trans, by Colon, D.. London, 1968.
Charles-Picard, G. La Civilisation de l'Afrique romaine. Paris, 1959.
Chavaillon, J. Les formations quaternaires du Sahara nord-occidental. Paris, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1964.
Chavaillon, J. and , N.Présence éventuelle d'un abrr oldowayen dans le gisement de Melka-Kontouré (Éthiopie)’, Comptes rendus, Académie des sciences de Paris, 1971, D-273, 623–5.
Chevalier, A. ‘Le Sahara, centre d'origine des plantes cultivées’, in ‘La Vie dans les régions désertiques nord-tropicales de l'ancien monde’, Mémoire de la Société de Biogéographie de Paris, 1938, 6, 307–22.
Childe, V. G. New light on the most ancient East. London, 1954.
Christophe, Marcel. Le Tombeau de la Chrétienne. Paris, 1951.
Cintas, J. and Fenille, G. L.Église et Baptistère de Thibiuca’, Karthago, 1953, 2.
Cintas, Pierre. Contribution à l'étude de l'expansion Carthaginoise au Maroc. Paris, 1954; Publications de l'Institut des Hautes-Études Marocaines, 56.
Clark, J. D.Further excavations (1939) at Mumbwa Caves, Northern Rhodesia’, Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa, 1942, 29, 133–201.
Clark, J. D. The Stone Age cultures of northern Rhodesia. Cape Town, 1950 [1950a].
Clark, J. D.The newly-discovered Nachikufu culture of Northern Rhodesia and the possible origin of certain elements of the South African Smith-field culture’, South African Archaeological Bulletin, 1950, 5, 19, 2–15 [1950b].
Clark, J. D. The prehistoric cultures of the Horn of Africa. Cambridge, 1954; reprinted New York, 1972.
Clark, J. D. The prehistory of southern Africa. Harmondsworth, 1959.
Clark, J. D. Prehistoric cultures of north-east Angola and their significance in tropical Africa. Lisbon, Companhia de Diamantes de Angola, 1963. 2 vols.
Clark, J. D. Further palaeo-anthropological studies in northern Lunda. Lisbon, Companhia de Diamantes de Angola, 1968.
Clark, J. D. Kalambo Falls prehistoric site. Cambridge, 1969 and 1974. 2 vols.
Clark, J. D.Human behavioural differences in southern Africa during the late Pleistocene’, American Anthropologist, 1971, 73, 1211–36 [1971a].
Clark, J. D.Problems of archaeological nomenclature and definition in the Congo basin’, South African Archaeological Bulletin, 1971, 26, 67–78 [1971b].
Clark, J. D., ‘The British expedition to the Air mountains’, Geographical Journal, 1971, 137 (4), 455–7.
Clark, J. D.Africa in prehistory: peripheral or paramount?’, Man, N.S., 1975, 10, 175–98.
Clark, J. D. ed. Atlas of African prehistory. Chicago, 1967.
Clark, J. D., Haynes, C. V. and Mawby, J. E.Interim report on palaeo-anthropological investigations in the Lake Malawi Rift’, Quaternaria, 1970, 13, 305–53.
Clark, J. D. and Kurashina, H.New Pilo-Pleistocene archaeological occurrences from the Plain of Gabed, upper Webi Shebele basin, Ethiopia, and a statistical comparison of the Gadeb sites with other Early Stone Age assemblages’, Union Internationale des Sciences Préhistoriques et Proto-historiques, IXe:Congrès, Nice, Sept. 1976, Colloque V, The earliest stone industries of Africa [preprint vol.].
Clark, J. D., Williams, M. A. J. and Smith, A. B.The geomorphology and archaeology of Adrar Bous, central Sahara: a preliminary report’, Quaternaria, 1975, 17 [1973]. 245–97.
Clark, J. D. The prehistory of Africa. London and New York, 1970.
Clark, J. D.A note on the pre-Bantu inhabitants of Rhodesia and Nyasaland’, South African Journal of Science, 1950, 47, 80–5.
Clark, J. D. and Fagan, B. M.Charcoals, sands and channel-decorated pottery from northern Rhodesia’, American Anthropologist, 1965, 67, 354–71.
Clark, W. E. Le Gros. The fossil evidence for human evolution. Chicago, 1955.
Clark, W. E. Le Gros. ‘Observations on the anatomy of the fossil Australo-pithecinae’, Journal of Anatomy, 1947, 81, 300–33.
Cohen, D. The historical tradition of Busoga, Mukama and Kintu. Oxford, 1972.
Cohen, M.A reassessment of the Stone Bowl culture of the Rift Valley, Kenya’, Azania, 1970, 5, 27–38.
Cole, G. H.The later Acheulian and Sangoan of southern Africa’ in Bishop, and Clark, eds., Background to evolution … (see under ‘General’ section, Prehistory), 481–528 [1967a].
Cole, G. H.A reinvestigation of Magosi and the Magosian’, Quaternaria, 1967, 9, 153–68 [1967b].
Cole, S. Prehistory of East Africa. London, 1963.
Cole-King, P. A. Kukumba Mbiri mu Malawi: a summary of archaeological research to Macch 1973. Zomba, Malawi, 1973; Department of Antiquities Publication, 15.
Colette, J. R. F.Essai biométrique sur la station préhistorique de Kalina (Congo beige)’, Comptes rendus, XVe Congrès International d'Anthropologie et d'Archélogie Préhistorique. Paris, 1931, 278–85.
Cook, R. M.Amasis and the Greeks in Egypt’, Journal of Hellenic Studies, 1937, 57, 227–37.
Cooke, C. K.A bibliography of Rhodesian archaeology from 1874’, Arnoldia, 1974, 6, 38, 1–56.
Cooke, C. K.The Waterworks site at Khami, Southern Rhodesia: Stone Age and proto-historic’, Occasional Papers, National Museum, Southern Rhodesia, 1957, 3, 1–60.
Cooke, C. K.Report on excavattons at Pomongwe and Tshangula caves, Matopo Hills, Southern Rhodesia’, South African Archaeological Bulletin, 1963, 18, 63–151.
Cooke, C. K.Re-appraisal of the industry hitherto named Proto-Stillbay’, Arnoldia, 1966, 2, 7–14.
Cooke, C. K.A re-examination of the “Middle Stone Age” industries of Rhodesia’, Arnoldia, 1969, 4, 7, 1–21.
Cooke, C. K.Excavation at Zombepata Cave, Sipolilo District, Mashonaland, Rhodesia’, South African Archaeological Bulletin, 1971, 26, 104–27.
Cooke, C. K. and Robinson, K. R.Excavations at Amadzimba Cave, located in the Matopos Hills, Southern Rhodesia’, Occasional Papers, National Museum, Southern Rhodesia, 1954, 2, 699–728.
Cooke, C. K., Summers, R. and Robinson, K. R.Rhodesian prehistory re-examined; Part I, the Stone Age’, Arnoldia, 1966, 2, 1–7.
Cooke, H. B. S.Evolution of mammals in southern continents: II, The fossil mammal fauna of Africa’, Quarterly Review of Biology, 1968, 43, 234–64.
Cooley, W. D. The Negroland of the Arabs. London, 1841.
Coppens, Y., Howell, F. C, Isaac, G. L. and Leakey, R. E. F. eds Earliest man and environments in the Lake Rudolf basin. Prehistoric archeology and ecology, 2. Chicago, 1976.
Coppens, Y.L'Époque haddadienne: une page de la protohistoire du Tchad’, Publicações da Faculdade de Letras (Lisbon), In Memoriam do Abode H. Breuil, 1965, 1, 207–16.
Coppens, Y.Les Cultures protohistoriques et historiques du Djourab’, Actes du premrère colloque international d'archéologie africaine (Fort-Lamy, 1966), 1969, 129–46.
Coulson, N. J. A history of Islamcc Law. Edinburgh, 1964.
Courtin, J.Le Néolithique de Borkou’, Actes du premier colloque international d'archéologie africaine (Fort-Lamy, 1966), 1969, 147–59.
Courtois, C.Saint Augustin et le problème de la survivance du Punique’, Revue Africaine, 1950, 94, 259–82.
Courtois, C. Les Vandales et l'Afrique. Algiers and Paris, 1955.
Courtois, C. Victor de Vita et son oeuvre. Algiers, 1954.
Courtois, G., Leschi, L., Perrat, C. and Saumagne, C. Tablettes Albertini, actes privés de l'époque vandale. Algiers and Paris, 1952.
Cowley, A. E. ed. Aramaic papyri of the fifth century BC. Oxford, 1923.
Crawford, O. G. S. and Addison, F. Abu Geili, Saqadi and Dar el Mek [The Wellcome Excavations in the Sudan, Vol. iii]. London, 1951.
Crawford, O. G. S. Castles and churches in the Middle Nile region. Khartoum, 1953; Sudan Antiquities Service, Occasional Paper, 2.
Crazzolara, J. P. The Lwoo. Verona, 1950–4. 3 vols.
Cresswell, K. A. C. A short account of early Muslim architecture. London, 1958.
Cresswell, K. A. C. Early Muslim architecture. 2nd edn. Oxford, 1970.
Cross, F. L. ed. The Jung codex. Oxford, 1955.
Crowfoot, J. W.Some Red Sea ports in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan’, Geographical Journal, 1911, 37, 523–50.
Crowfoot, J. W.Christian Nubia’, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, 1927, 13 141–50.
Cuoq, J. Med. Recueil des sources arabes concernant l'Afrique occidentale du 8e au I6e sièle (Bilād al-Sūdān), trans, with notes by Cuoq, J.. Paris, 1975.
Curtis, G. H., Drake, T., Cerling, T. E. and , B. L. and Hempel, J. H.Age of KBS tuff in Koobi Fora Formation, East Rudolf, Kenya’, Nature, 1975, 258, 395–8.
Cyprian, . Ad Demetrianum, Letters, Works, ed. by Hartel, W.. Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum, III, 1. Vienna, 1868.
Dalby, D. ed. Language and history in Africa. London, 1970.
Dalziel, J. M. The useful plants of west tropical Africa. London, 1937.
Danielou, J. Origène. Paris, 1955.
Daniels, C. The Garamantes of southern Libya. Madison, 1970.
Dart, R. A. and Beaumont, P.Ratification and retrocession of earlier Swaziland iron ore mining radiocarbon datings’, South African Journal of Science, 1968, 64, 6.
Dart, R. A.Australopithecus africanus, the man-ape of South Africa’, Nature, 1925, 115, 195–9.
Dart, R. A. The osteodontokeratic culture of Australopithecus prometheus. Pretoria, 1957; Transvaal Museum Memoir, 10.
Dart, R. A.The bone-tool manufacturing ability of Australopithecus prometheus’, American Anthropologist, 1960, 62, 134–43.
Dart, R. A. and Grande, N.The ancient iron-smelting cavern at Mumbwa’, Transactions, Royal Society of South Africa, 1931, 29, 379–427.
Davidson, B. Africa: history of a continent. London, 1966.
Davies, Oliver, Hugot, H. J. and Seddon, D.The origins of African agriculture’, Current Anthropology, 1968, 9, 5, 478–509.
Davies, Oliver. West Africa before the Europeans. London, 1967.
Davies, Oliver. The Quaternary in the coastlands of Guinea. Glasgow, 1964.
Davies, Oliver. ‘The Iron Age in sub-Saharan Africa’, Current Anthropology, 1966, 7, 4, 470–1.
Davis, S. Race relations in Ancient Egypt: Greek, Egyptian, Hebrew, Roman. London, 1951.
Day, M. H.Omo human skeletal remains’, Nature, 1969, 222, 1135–8.
De Beer, G. Hannibal: the struggle for power in the Mediterranean. London, 1969.
De Vaal, J. B.ʾN Soutpansbergse Zimbabwe: ʾn voorlopige ondersoek van ʾn bouval op die Plaas Solvent’;, South African Journal of Science, 1943, 40, 303–18.
De Villiers, H. The skull of the South African Negro. Johannesburg, 1968.
Deacon, H. J.The Acheulian occupation at Amanzi Springs, Uitenhage District,Cape Province’, Annals of the Cape Provincial Museum (Cape Town), 1970, Natural History, 8, 89–189.
Deacon, H. J.A review of the post-Pleistocene in South Africa’, South African Archaeological Society, Goodwin Series, 1972, 1, 26–45.
Deacon, J.Wilton: an assessment after fifty years’, South African Archaeological Bulletin, 1972, 27, 10–48.
Debénath, A.Découverte de restes humains probablement atériens à Dar es Soltan (Maroc)’, Comptes Rendus de l'Académic des Sciences (Paris), 1975, 281, 875–6.
Delafosse, M. Haut-Sénégal-Niger (Soudan françai.). Paris, 1912.
Delafosse, M.Traditions musulmanes relatives à l'origine des Peuls’, Revue du Monde Musulman, 1912, 20
Delafosse, M.Le Ghana et le Mali et l'emplacement de leurs capitales’, Bulletin du Comitié d'Études Historiques et Scientifiques de l'AOF, 1924, 7, 479–542.
Delehaye, H.Contributions récentes à l'hagiographie de Rome et de l'Afrique’, Analecta Bollandinaa, 1936, 54, 313–16.
Dennett, Daniel C. Conversion and the poll-tax in early Islam. Cambridge, Mass., 1950.
Desanges, J.Le Triomphe de Cornelius Balbus (19 BC)’, Revue Africaine (Algiers), 1957, 101, 5–43.
Desanges, J.Catalogue des tribus africaines de l'antiquité classique à l'ouest du Nil’, Publications de la Section d'Histoire de la Faculté des Lettres de Dakar, 1962, 4, 297f.
Desanges, J.Note sur la datation de l'expédition de Julius Maternus au pays d'Agyisymba’, Latomus, Revue d'Études Latines, 1964, 23, 4, 713–15.
Deschamps, H. Traditions orales et archives au Gabon. Paris, 1962.
Diehl, E. L'Afrique byzantine. Paris, 1896.
Diesner, H. J. Kirche und Staat im spätrömischen Reich. Berlin, 1963.
Diesner, H. J. Der Untergang der römischen Herrschaft in Nordafrika. Weimar, 1964.
Diesner, H. J. Fulgentius von Ruspe als Theolog und Kirchenpolitiker. Berlin, 1966.
Dinkler, E. ed. Kunst und Geschichte Nubiens in Christlicher Zeit. Recklinghausen, 1970.
Dio, Chrysostom. Discourses, ed. and with an English trans, by Cohoon, J. W. and Crosby, H. L.. London, 1932 and 1951. 2 vols.
Diodorus, Siculus. Library of history, ed. and with English trans, by Oldfather, C. H., Welles, C. B., Greer, R. M. and Walton, F. F.. London, 1933–67. 12 vols.
Diop, C. A. Le Laboratoire de Radiocarbone de l'IFAN. Dakar, 1968.
Diop, C. A.La métallurgie du fer sous l'ancien empire égyptien’, Bulletin del'IFAN, 1973, 35, 3 (sér. B), 532–47.
Diop, L.-M.Métallurgie traditionnelle de l'âge du fer en Afrique’, Bulletin de l'IFAN, 1968, 30, 1 (sér. B), 10–38.
Djaït, H.La Wilāya d'Ifrīqiya au Ile–VIIIe siècle: étude institutionnelle’, Studia Islamica, Pt. 1, 1967, 27, 77–121; Pt. 2, 1968, 28, 79–105.
Doresse, J. L'Empire du Prêtre-Jean. Paris, 1957. 2 vols.
Dorey, T. A. and Dudley, D. R. Rome against Carthage. London, 1971.
Douglas, M. and Kaberry, P. eds. Man in Africa. London, 1969.
Drioton, E. and Vandier, J. L'Égypte, Vol. 11 of Les Peuples de l'Orient, 4th edn. Paris, 1962.
Du Puigaudeau, O. La route du l'ouest (Maroc-Mauritanie). Paris, 1945.
Dubief, J. Le Climat du Sahara. Algiers, 1959 and 1963. 2 vols.
Ducos, P.The Oriental Institute excavation at Mureybit, Syria: preliminary report of the 1965 campaign; Part IV, Les restes d'équidés’, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 1970, 29.
Duignan's, P. Guide to research and reference works on sub-Saharan Africa, Stanford, 1971.
Dunham, D. El Kurru, Vol. i of Royal cemeteries of Kush. Cambridge, Mass., 1950.
Dunham, D. Nuri, Vol. ii of Royal cemeteries of Kush. Cambridge, Mass., 1955.
Dunham, D. Royal tombs at Meroe and Barkal, Vol. iv of Royal cemeteries of Kush. Cambridge, Mass., 1957.
Dunham, D. The West and South Cemeteries at Meroe, Vol. v of Royal Cemeteries of Kush. Cambridge, Mass., 1963.
East, R. Akiga's story. London, 1965.
Ebeid, R. Y. and Wickham, L. R.A collection of unpublished Syriac letters of Timothy Achirus’, Journal of Theological Studies, N.S., 1970, 21, 321–69.
Ebeid, R. Y. and Wickham, L. R.An unknown letter of Cyril of Alexandria in Syriac’, Journal of Theological Studies, N.S., 1971, 22, 420–34.
Ebeid, R. Y. and Wickham, L. R.A note on the Syriac version of Athanasius’ Ad Epictetum in Ms BM Add. 145 57’, Journal of Theological Studies, N.S, 1972, 23, 144–54.
Ecclesiastical history of John of Ephesus, trans, by Payne-Smith, R.. Oxford, 1860.
Ehret, C. Southern Nilotic history. Evanston, 1971.
Ehret, C.Patterns of Bantu and Central Sudanic settlement in Central and southern Africa’, Trans-African Journal of History, 1974, 4, 1–27.
Elgood, P. G. The later dynasties of Egypt. Oxford, 1951.
Evetts, B. T. A. ed. and trans. Patrologia Orientalis. Paris, from 1901. 4 pts.
,F.A.O. [Food and Agricultural Organization]. Food composition tables for use in Africa. Maryland and Rome, 1968.
Fagan, B. M.Radiocarbon dates for sub-Saharan Africa’, Journal of African History: 1961, 2, 137–9; 1963, 4, 127–8; 1965, 6, 107–16; 1966, 7, 495–506; 1967, 8, 513–27; 1969, 10, 149-69.
Fagan, B. M. and Noten, F.. The hunter-gatbersrs of Gwisho. Tervuren, 1971.
Fagan, B. M.The Iron Age sequence in the Southern Province of Zambia’, Journal of African History, 1963, 4, 2, 157–78.
Fagan, B. M.The Greefswald sequence: Bambandyanalo and Mapungubwe’, Journal of African History, 1964, 5, 3, 337–61.
Fagan, B. M. Southern Africa in the Iron Age. London, 1966.
Fagan, B. M. Iron Age cultures of Zambia, Vol. 1. London, 1967.
Fagan, B. M.Early trade and raw materials in south central Africa’, Journal of African History, 1969, 10, 11–15.
Fagan, B. M., Phillipson, D. W. and Daniels, S. G. H. Iron Age cultures in Zambia, Vol. 11. London, 1969.
Fagan, B. M. and Yellen, J. E.Ivuna; ancient salt-working in southern Tanzania’, Azania, 1968, 3, 1–44.
Fage, J. D. and Oliver, Roland eds. Papers in African prehistory. Cambridge, 1970.
Fage, J. D.Anthropology, botany and the study of Africa’ [review of Murdock, Africa], Journal of African History, 1961, 2, 2, 299–309.
Fage, J. D.Ancient Ghana, a review of the evidence’, Transactions of the Historical Society of Ghana, 1957, 3, 77–98.
Fage, J. D.Some thoughts on state formation in the western Sudan before the seventeenth century’ in Butler, J., ed., Boston University papers in African history, i Boston, 1964, 17–34
Fagg, B., Eyo, E., Rosenfeld, A. and Fagg, A.Four papers on the Rop rockshelter, Nigeria’, West African Journal of Archaeology, 1972, 2, 1–38.
Farand, P.Early Muslim relations with Nubia’, Der Islam, 1971, 48, 111–21.
Farias, P.Silent trade: myth and historical evidence’, History in Africa, 1974, 1, 9–24.
Farias, P. F. Moraes. ‘The Almoravids: some questions concerning the character of the movement during its period of closest contact with the western Sudan’, Bulletin de l'IFAN, 1967 29, 794–878.
Farias, P. F. Moraes. ‘Silent trade: myth and historical evidence’, History in Africa, 1974, 1, 9–24.
Faure, A.Le tasawwuf et l'école ascetique marocaine des 11e–13e siècles’, Mélanges Louis Massignon (Damascus), 1957, 2, 119–31.
Ferembach, D.Les restes humains atériens de Temara (Campagne 1975)’, Bull.et Mem. de la Soc.d'Anthrop. de Paris, 3, Series xiii, 1976, 175–80.
Ferembach, D.Les restes humains de la Grotte de Dar-es-Soltane 2 (Maroc), Campagne 1975’, Bull, et Mem. de la Soc. d'Anthrop. de Paris, 1976, 3, Series xiii, 183–93.
Fernandes, V. Description de la côte occidentale d'Afrique, Vol. 1 ed. by Cenival, P. and Monod, T., Paris, 1938; Vol. 11 ed. by Monod, T., Mota, A. Texeira and Mauny, R., Bissau, 1951.
Février, P. A. Le développement urbain en Afrique du Nord. Cahiers archaéologiques, 14, Paris, 1964.
Février, P. A. and Duval, Y.Inscription martyrologique sur plomb de la région de Telergma (AD 637)’, Mélanges de l'école française à Rome, 1961, 81, 257–320.
Flight, Colin. ‘A survey of recent results in the radiocarbon chronology of northern and western Africa’, Journal of African History, 1973, 14, 4, 531–54.
Flight, Colin. ‘Kintampo, 1967’, West African Archaeological Newsletter, 1968, 8, 15–19.
Foerster, W. A selection of Gnostic texts. Vol. 11. Oxford, 1974.
Fosbrooke, H. A. and others. ‘Tanganyika rock paintings: a guide and record’, Tanganyika Notes and Records, 1950, 29, 1–61.
Fouché, L. Mapungubwe. Cambridge, 1937.
Frank, T. ed. An economic survey of Ancient Rome. Baltimore, 1933–40. 5 vols.
Fraser, P. M. Ptolemaic Alexandria. Oxford, 1972. 3 vols.
Fraser, P. M.Hadrian and Cyrene’, Journal of Roman Studies, 1950, 40, 77–90.
Freeman-Grenville, G. S. P. The East African coast. Oxford, 1962.
Freeman-Grenville, G. S. P. The medieval history of the Tanganyika coast. London, 1962.
Frend, W. H. C.Open questions concerning the Christians and the Roman Empire in the age of the Severi’, Journal of Theological Studies, N.S., 1974, 25, 2, 333–52.
Frend, W. H. C. The Donatist Church, 2nd edn. Oxford, 1971. [Bibliography.]
Frend, W. H. C. The rise of the Monophysite movement. Cambridge, 1972. [Bibliography.]
Frend, W. H. C.Note on the Berber background in the life of Augustine’, Journal of Theological Studies, 1942, 43, 188–91.
Frend, W. H. C.North Africa and Europe in the early Middle Ages’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 1955, 5, 5, 61–81.
Frend, W. H. C., ‘Circumcellions and Monks’, Journal of Theological Studies, N.S., 1969, 20, 2, 542–49.
Frend, W. H. C. Religion popular and unpopular in the early Christian centuries. London, 1976.
Frisk, H. ed. Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. Göteborg, 1927.
Gabel, C. Stone Age hunters of the Kafue. Boston, 1965.
Gadallah, E.Meroitic problems and a comprehensive Meroitic bibliography’, Kush, 1963, 11, 196–216.
Galloway, A. The skeletal remains of Bambandyanalo. Johannesburg, 1959.
Gardiner, A. Egypt of the Pharaohs: an introduction. Oxford, 1961.
Gardner, G. A. Mapungubwe II. Pretoria, 1963.
Gardner, T. Wells, L. H. and Schofield, J. F.The recent archaeology of Gokomere, Southern Rhodesia’, Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa, 1940, 28, 219–53.
Garlake, P. S.Rhodesian ruins – a preliminary assessment of their styles and chronology’, Journal of African History, 1970, 11, 4, 495–514.
Garlake, P. S.The value of imported ceramics in the dating and interpretation of the Rhodesian Iron Age’, Journal of African History, 1968, 9, 13–34.
Garlake, P. S. Great Zimbabwe. London, 1973.
Garstang, J. Meroe – the city of the Ethiopians. Oxford, 1911.
Garstang, J.Interim report on the excavations at Meroe’, Liverpool Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology: 2nd report, 1911, 4, 45–71; 3rd report, 1912, 5, 73–83; 4th report, 1913, 6, 1–21; 5th report, 1914, 7, 1–24.
Gast, M. Alimentation des populations de l'Ahaggar, étude ethnographique. Algiers, 1968; Centre de Recherches Anthropologiques, Préhistoriques et Ethno-graphiques,Mémoire 8.
Gautier, E. F. Le passé de l'Afrique du Nord: les sièles obscurs du Maghreb. Paris, 1927.
Gautier, E.-F. Le Passé de l'Afrique du Norḍ: les siècles obscurs, 2nd edn. Paris, 1952.
Germain, G.Qu'est-ce que le Périple d'Hannon? Document, amplification littéraire, ou faux intégral?’, Hespéris, 1957, 44, 205–48.
Gibb, H. A. R. and Kramers, J. H. eds. The shorter encyclopaedia of Islam. Leiden and London, 1961.
Gibb, H. A. R.The fiscal rescript of'Umar II’, Arabica, 1955, 2, 1, 1–16.
Giustolisi, V. Le Origine della Dea Tanit e dei suoi simboli. Parlemo, 1970.
Goitein, S. D. F. Studies in Islamic history and institutions. Leiden, 1966.
Goitein, S. D. F. A Mediterranean society. Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1967 [in progress]. 2 vols.
Goldziher, Ignaz. Muhammadanische Studien. Halle, 1888–9. 2 vols. English trans, by Barber, C. R. and Stern, S. M., Muslim studies. London, 1967–71.
Goodchild, R. G.The Limes Tripolitanus’, Pt II, Journal of Roman Studies, 1950, 40, 30–8.
Goodchild, R. G.Oasis forts of Legio III Augusta on the routes to the Fezzan’, Papers of the British School at Rome, 1954, 22, 56–68.
Goodchild, R. G. and Ward-Perkins, J. B.The Limes Tripolitanus in the light of recent discoveries’, Journal of Roman Studies, 1949, 39, 81–95.
Goodchild, R. G.Byzantines, Berbers and Arabs in 7th-century Libya’, Antiquity, 1967, 41, 115–24.
Goodwin, A. J. H. and Riet Lowe, C. The Stone Age cultures of South Africa. Cape Town, 1929; Annals of the South African Museum, 27.
Graham, A. J.The authenticity of the ‘OPKION TΩN OIKIΣTHPΩN of Cyrene’, Journal of Hellenic Studies, 1960, 80, 94–111.
Gray, R. and Birmingham, D. eds. Precolonial African trade. London, 1970.
Green, D. L. and Armelagos, G. The Wadi Halfa Mesolithic population. Research Report no. 11, Dept of Anthropology, University of Massachusetts (Amherst), 1972.
Greenberg, Joseph H. Studies in African linguistic classification. New Haven, 1955.
Greenberg, Joseph H. The languages of Africa. The Hague, 1963. Rev. edn Bloomington, 1966. Also printed in International Journal of American Linguistics, 1963, 29, 1, Pt 1.
Greenberg, Joseph H.Linguistic evidence regarding Bantu origins’, Journal of African History, 1972, 13, 2, 189–216.
Grenfell, B. P. and Hunt, A. S. eds. Oxyrhynchus papyri, ΛOΓA IHCOγ [‘Logia Jesu’]. London, 1897. ‘New sayings of Jesus’ and ‘Fragment of a lost gospel’. London, 1904.
Griffith, F. L. Karanog, the Meroitic inscriptions of Shabul and Karanog. Philadelphia, 1911.
Griffith, F. L.Oxford excavations in Nubia’, Liverpool Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology: 1922, 9, 37–124; 1923, 10, 73–171; 1924, 11, 115–25 and 141–80; 1925, 12, 57–172.
Griffith, F. L. The Nubian texts of the Christian period. Berlin, 1913.
Grillmeier, A. and Bacht, H. Das Konzil von Chalkedon. Würzburg, 1951–3. 2 vols.
Grindley, J. R., Speed, E. and Maggs, T. M. O'C. ‘The age of the Bonteberg Shelter deposits, Cape Province’, South African Archaeological Bulletin, 1970, 25, 97, 24.
Grünebaum, G. E. Islam: essays in the nature and growth of a cultural tradition. 2nd edn. London, 1961.
Grünebaum, G. E. Mediaeval Islam. 2nd edn. Chicago, 1953.
Gsell, S. Histoire ancienne de l'Afrique du Nord. Paris, 1913–29. 8 vols.
Gsell, S.La Tripolitaine et le Sahara au IIIe siècle de notre ère’, Mémoires de l'Académie d'Inscriptions et Belles Lettres (Paris), 1926, 43, 149–66.
Gsell, S., in Mélanges de l'école française de Rome, 1894, 14, 290ff.
Gsell, S. Atlas archéologique de l'Algérie. Algiers, 1911.
Gsell, S. and Pflaum, H. G. Inscriptions latines de l'Algérie. Paris, 1923–57.
*Gsell, S., Marçais, G. and Yver, G. Histoire de l'Algérie. Paris, 1927.
*Guest, Rhuvon. ‘The Delta in the Middle Ages’, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1912, 941–80.
Gurdler, R. W. and Styles, P.Two stage Red Sea floor spreading’, Nature, 1974, 247, 7–11.
Guthrie, Malcolm. ‘Languages and history’, Journal of African History, 1964, 5, 1, 135–6.
Guthrie, Malcolm. Comparative Bantu: an introduction to the comparative linguistics and prehistory of the Bantu languages. Farnborough, 1967–71. 4 vols.
Guthrie, Malcolm. ‘Some developments in the prehistory of the Bantu languages’, Journal of African History, 1962, 2, 2, 275–82.
Guthrie, Malcolm. ‘Some developments in the prehistory of the Bantu languages’, Journal of African History, 1962, 3, 261.
Gyles, M. F. Pharaonic policies and administration, 663–323 BC. Chapel Hill, 1959; James Sprunt Studies in History and Political Science, 41.
Hama, Boubou. Histoire des Songhay. Paris, 1968.
Harden, D.The Phoenicians on the West Coast of Africa’, Antiquity, 1948, 22, 141–50.
Harden, D. The Phoenicians, 2nd edn. London, 1971.
Hardy, E. R. Christian Egypt, church and people. New York and Oxford, 1952.
Hardy, E. R. The large estates of Byzantine Egypt. New York, 1931.
Harlan, J. R. Crops and man. Madison, 1975.
Harlan, J. R., Wet, J. M. J. and Stemler, A. B. L. eds. Origins of plant domestication in Africa. The Hague and Paris, 1976.
Harris, J. R. ed. The Acts of the Scillilan Martyrs, Vol. 1 no. 2 of Cambridge texts and studies. Cambridge, 1891.
Hawkes, J. and Woolley, Leonard Sir. Prehistory and the beginnings of civilization, Vol. 1 of UNESCO History of mankind. UNESCO and London, 1963.
Hay, R. L. Geology of the Olduvai Gorge. Berkeley, 1976.
Haycock, B. G.The kingship of Kush in the Sudan’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 1965, 7, 461–80 [1965a].
Haycock, B. G.Towards a date for King Ergamanes’, Kush, 1965, 13, 264–6 [1965b].
Haycock, B. G.Towards a better understanding of the kingdom of Cush (Napata-Meroe)’, Sudan Notes and Records, 1968, 49, 1–16.
Haycock, B. G.Landmarks in Cushite history’, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, 1972, 58, 225–44.
Hazard, H. W. The numismatic history of late mediaeval North Africa. New York, 1952.
Heine, B.Zur genetischen Gliederung der Bantu-Sprachen’, Afrika und Übersee, 1972–3, 56, 164–85.
Heinzelin de Braucourt, J. Sols, paléosols, et désertifications dans le secteur nord-oriental du bassin du Congo. Brussels, Institut National pour l'Étude Agronomique du Congo belge, 1952.
Heinzelin de Braucourt, J. Les fouilles d'Ishango. Brussels, Institut des Parcs Nationaux du Congo belge, 1957.
Henrici, Alick. ‘Numerical classification of Bantu languages’, African Language Studies, 1973, 14.
Herm, G. The Phoenicians: the purple empire of the ancient world, trans, by Hiller, C.. London, 1975.
Herodotus, . Histories, ed. by Hude, C.. Oxford, 1908. 2 vols.
Heussi, K. Der Ursprung des Mönchtums. Tübingen, 1936.
Hiernaux, J. The people of Africa. London, 1974.
Hiernaux, J.Note sur une ancienne population de Ruanda-Urundi: les Renga’, Zaire, 1956, 4, 351–60.
Hiernaux, J. La diversité humaine en Afrique subsaharienne: recherches biologiques. Brussels, 1968.
Hiernaux, J.Bantu expansion: the evidence from physical anthropology confronted with linguistic and archaeological evidence’, Journal of African History, 1968, 9, 505–15.
Hiernaux, J. and Maquet, E.Cultures préhistoriques de l'âge des métaux au Ruanda-Urundi et au Kivu’, Académie Royale des Sciences Coloniales, Bulletin des Séances, Pt 1, 1957, 1126–49; Pt II, 1959.
Hintze, F. Die Sprachliche Stellung des Meroitischen. Berlin, 1955.
Hintze, F. Studien der Meroitischen Chronologie und zu den Opfertafeln aus den Pyramiden von Meroe. Berlin, 1959.
Hintze, F.Preliminary report on the excavations at Musawwarat es Sufra, 1960–1’, Kush, 1962, 10, 177–8.
Hintze, F. Die Inschriften des Löwentempels von Musawwarat es Sufra. Berlin, 1962.
Hintze, F.The Latin inscription from Musawwarat es Sufra’, Kush, 1964, 12, 296–8.
Hintze, F. Musawwarat es Sufra: I. 2, Der Löwentempel. Berlin, 1971.
Hintze, F. ed. Meroitica I – Sudan im Altertum. Berlin, 1973.
Hirschberg, H. Z.The Berber heroine known as the Kāhina’ [in Hebrew], Tarbiz, 1957, 26, 4, 37–83.
*Hirschberg, H. Z.The problem of the Judaized Berbers’, Journal of African History, 1963, 4, 313–39.
*Hirschberg, H. Z. A history of the Jews in North Africa. 2nd, revised edn. [trans, from the Hebrew]. Vol. 1, Leiden, 1974.
Hitti, P. K. History of the Arabs. 7th edn. London and New York, 1960.
Hofman, I. Studien zum meroitischen Königtum. Brussels, 1971.
Holroyd, M.The Jugurthine war’, Journal of Roman Studies, 1928, 18, 1–20.
Holt, P. M.A Sudanese historical legend: the Funj conquest of Suba’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 1960, 23, 1–17.
Holt, P. M.Sultan Selim and the Sudan’, Journal of African History, 1967, 8, 19–23.
*Hopkins, J. F. P. Mediaeval Muslim government in Barbary. London, 1958.
Horowitz, J.Alter und Ursprung des Isnads’, Der Islam, 1918, 8, 39–47; 1921. 11, 264–5.
Howell, F. C. and Bourliére, F. eds. African ecology and human evolution. Chicago, 1963.
Howell, F. C.European and North-West African Middle Pleistocene hominids’, Current Anthropology, 1960, 1, 195–232.
Hsü, K. J., Ryan, W. B. F. and Cita, M. B.Late Miocene desiccation of the Mediterranean’, Nature, 1973, 242, 240–4.
Huard, P.Contribution à l'étude du cheval, du fer, et du chameau au Sahara occidental’, Bulletin de l'IFAN, 1960, 22 (sér. B), 134–78.
Huard, P.Nouvelle contribution à l'étude du fer au Sahara et au Tchad’, Bulletin de l'IFAN, 1964, 26 (sér. B), 297–396.
Huard, P.Introduction et diffusion du fer au Tchad’, Journal of African History, 1966, 7, 3, 377–404.
Huard, P.Contribution à l'étude des premiers travaux agraires au Sahara tchadien’, Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française, Études et Travaux, 1970, 67, 2, 539–58.
Hubac, P. Carthage. Paris, 1952.
Huffman, T. N.The Early Iron Age and the spread of the Bantu’, South African Archaeological Bulletin, 1970, 25, 3–21.
Huffman, T. N.The rise and fall of Zimbabwe’, Journal of African History, 1972, 13, 3, 353–66.
Huffman, T. N.Test excavations at Makuru, Zambia’, Arnoldia, 1973, 39, 5.
Huffman, T. N.The linguistic affinities of the Iron Age in Rhodesia’, Arnoldia, 1974, 7, 7.
Hugot, H. J. ed. Actes du VIe congrès panafricain de préhistoire et de l'étude du Quaternaire (Dakar, 1967). Chambéry, 1972.
Hugot, H. J. ed. Missions Berliet Tenéré-Tchad, Documents Scientifiques. Paris, 1962.
Hugot, H. J. Le Sahara avant le déser. Paris, 1974.
Hutchinson, James Sir, ed. Essays in crop plant evolution. London, 1965.
Ibn, ‘Abd al-ḥakam. Kitāb futūḥ Misr wa'l-Maghrib wa-akhbārihā, ed. by Torrey, C. C.. English trans., The history of the conquest of Egypt, North Africa and Spain. New Haven, 1922. Revised edn. and French trans, of the part dealing with the Maghrib by Gateau, A., Conquête de l'Afrique du Nord et de l'Espagn. Algiers, 1942; 2nd edn, 1948.
Ibn, ‘Abd al-ḤHalīm, in Lévi-Provençal, E., ‘Un Nouveau Récit de la conquête de l'Afrique du Nord par les Arabes’, Arabica Occidentalia, 1954, 1, 17–43.
Ibn, ‘Idhārī al-Marrākushī. Kitāb al-Bayān al-mugbrib fī akhbār al-Andalus wa'l-Maghrib, ed. by Colin, G. S. and Lévi-Provençal, E.. Leiden, 1948–51. French trans, by Fagnan, E., Histoire de l'Afrique du Nordet de l'Espagne intitulée Al-Bayano 'l-Moghrib. Algiers, 1901.
Ibn, ‘Idhārī al-Marrākushī. ‘Un fragmento inedito de Ibn Idhari sobre los Almorāvides’, Hespéris-Tamuda, 1961, 2, 43–111.
Ibn, Ḥammād. Akhbār mulūk Banī ‘Ubayd wa-sīratuhum, ed. by Vander-heyden, M.. Algiers and Paris, 1927.
Ibn, Ḥawqal. Kitāb sūrat al-arḍ, ed. by Kramers, J. H.. Leiden 1938–9. French trans by Kramers, J. H. and Wiet, Gaston, Configuration de la terre. Beirut and Paris, 1964.
Ibn, Ṣaghīr. Akhbār al-a'imma al-rustumiyyīn [‘Chronique d'Ibn Ṣaghīr sur les imāms rostémides de Tahert’], ed. by Motylinski, A. C.. Actes du 14e Congrès international des Orientalistes, Algiers, 1905. Paris, 1908, 3–132.
Ibn, Abī Zayd al-Qayrawānī. al-Risāla, ed. by Brecher, L.. Algiers, 1952.
Ibn, Abī Zar'. al-Anīs al-mu'rib bi-rawḍ al-qir᛭ās fī akhbār mulāk al-Maghrib wa-ta'rīkh madīnat Fās, ed. by Tornberg, C. J.. Uppsala, 1843–66.
Ibn, al-Athīr. Kitāb al-Kāmil fi 'l-ta'rikh, ed. by Tornberg, C. J.. Leiden, 1851–76 and Cairo, 1884–5.
Ibn, al-Athīr. French trans, by Fagnan, E., ‘Débuts de la dynastie almoravide’, Revue Africaine, 1900, 44, 175–9.
Ibn, al-Athīr. Also in Annales du Maghreb et de l'Espagne. Algiers, 1898.
Ibn, al-Faqīh. Mukhtasar kitāb al-buldān, ed. by Goeje, M. J.. Leiden, 1885.
Ibn, Battūta. Tuḥfat al-nuẓẓār fī gharāʾ'ib al-amsār wa-'ajāʾib al-asfār [Voyages], ed. and trans, by Defrémery, C. and Sanguinetti, R. B.. Paris, 1922.
Ibn, Khaldūn. Kitāb ta'rīkh al-duwal al-Islāmiya bi'l-Maghrib min Kitāb al-'Ibar, ed. and French trans, by Slane, M. G. [Histoire des Berbères et des dynasties musulmanes de l'Afrique septentrionale]. Paris, 1847. 2nd edn, ed. by Casanova, H. and Pérès, H., Paris, 1925–56.
Ibn, Khurdādhbih. Kitāb al-masālik wa'l-mamālik, ed. by Goeje, M. J.. Leiden, 1889.
Ibn, Qutayba. Kitāb al-Ma‘ārif, ed. by Wüstenfeld, F.. Göttingen, 1850.
Ibn, Sa‘īd. Kitāb al-mughrib fī ḥulā 'l-Maghrib, Book iv, ed. and trans, into German by Tallqvist, K. L., Geschichte der Ik̭šîden und Fustâtensisde Biographien. Leiden, 1899.
Ibn, Sa‘īd. Kitāb bast al-arḍ fi'l tūl wa'l-'arḍ, ed. by Gines, J. V.. Tetuan, 1958.
Idris, H. R. La Berbérie orientale sous les Zīrīdes, Xe–XIIe siècles. Paris, 1962.
Idris, H. R.Deux maitres de l'école juridique Kairouanaise sous les Zirides’, Annales de l'Institut d'Études Orientales (Algiers), 1955, 13, 30–60.
Idris, H. R.Contribution à 1'histoire de la vie religieuse en Ifrīqiya zīride’, Mélanges Louis Massignon (Damascus), 1957, 2, 327–59.
Ilevbare, J. A.The impact of the Carthaginians and the Romans on the administrative system of the Maghrib’, Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria, Pt I, 1974, 7, 2, 187–97.
Ilevbare, J. A.Impact of Carthaginians and Romans …’ (see under ch. 2), Pt II, 1974, 7, 3, 385–402.
Inskeep, R. R.A Late Stone Age camping site in the Upper Zambezi valley’, South African Archaeological Bulletin, 1959, 14, 91–6.
Isaac, G. L. and McCown, E. R. eds. Human origins: Louis Leakey and the East African evidence. Menlo Park, Calif., 1976.
Isaac, G. L.Studies of early culture in East Africa’, World Archaeology, 1969, 1, 1–28.
Isaac, G. L.The diet of early man: aspects of archaeological evidence from Lower and Middle Pleistocene sites in Africa’, World Archaeology, 1971, 2, 278–98.
Isaac, G. L.East Africa as a source of fossil evidence for human evolution’, in Isaac, and McCown, , eds., Human origins … (see under ‘General’ section, Prehistory), 121–37 [1976a].
Isaac, G. L.The activities of Early African Hominids: a review of archaeological evidence from the time span two and a half to one million years ago’, in Isaac, and McCown, , eds, Human origiins… (see under ‘General’ section, Prehistory), 483–514 [1976b].
Isaac, G. L. Olorgesailie. Prehistoric archaeology and ecology, 4. Chicago, 1977.
Isaac, G. L., Merrick, H. V. and Nelson, C. M.Stratigraphic and archaeological studies in the Lake Nakuru basin’, in Bakker, Zinderen, ed., Palaeoecology … (see under ‘General’ section, Prehistory), 1972, 6, 225–32.
Jackson, G., Gartlan, J. S. and Posnansky, M.Rock gongs and associated rock paintings from Lolui Island, Lake Victoria, Uganda’, Man, 1965, 65, 38–9.
Jacoby, F. Die Fragmente der griechischen Historiker. Berlin, from 1923. Several vols.
Jacquet-Gordon, H., Bonnet, C. and Jacquet, J.Pnubs and the Temple of Tabo on Argo Island’, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, 1969, 55, 103–11.
Jaffey, A. J. E.A reappraisal of the history of the Rhodesian Iron Age up to the fifteenth century’, Journal of African History, 1966, 7, 189–96.
Jakobielski, Stephan. A history of the Bishopric of Pachoras. Faras. Vol. 111. Warsaw, 1972.
Jameson, S.Chronology of the campaigns of Aelius Gallus and C. Petronius’, Journal of Roman Studies, 1968, 58, 71–84.
Janmart, J. Stations préhistoriques de l'Angola du nord-est: analyse géologique, climatologique et préhistorique d'un sondage fait en bordure de la rivière Luembe (Angola du nord-est). Lisbon, Companhia de Diamantes de Angola, 1947.
Jeffreys, M. D. W.Maize and the Mande myth’, Current Anthropology, 1971, 12, 3, 291–320.
Johanson, D. C. and Taieb, M.Plio-Pleistocene hominid discoveries in Hadar, Ethiopia’, Nature, 1976, 260, 293–7.
John, of Ephesus. Historia ecclesiastica, ed. by Brooks, E. W.. Corp. Script. Christ. Orient. Scriptores Syri. Louvain, 1935–6.
John, of Nikiou. Chronique de Jean, Évêque de Nikiou, ed. and trans. by Zotenberg, A.. Paris, 1883.
Johnson, A. C. Egypt and the Roman Empire. Ann Arbor, 1951.
Johnston, H. H.A survey of the ethnography of Africa: and the former racial and tribal migrations of that continent’, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 1913, 43, 391–425.
Jones, A. H. M. The later Roman Empire. Oxford and Norman, Oklahoma, 1964. [Bibliography, Vol. II, 1464–76.]
Jones, A. H. M.Census records of the later Roman Empire’, Journal of Roman Studies, 1963, 53, 49–64.
Jones, N. The Stone Age in Rhodesia. Oxford, 1926.
Jones, N. The prehistory of southern Rhodesia: an account of progress of the research from 1900–1946. Cambridge, 1949.
Josephus, . Works, ed. by Thackeray, H., Marcus, R., Wikgren, A. and Feldman, L. H.. London, from 1926. 9 vols.
Jouguet, P. La vie municipale dans l'Égypte romaine. Paris, 1968.
Julien, C-A. Histoire de l'Afrique du Nord. Paris, 1951 and 1952, 2 vols. English trans, by Petrie, J., ed. by Stewart, C. C.. London, 1970. [Bibliography by Stewart, C. C..]
Julien, C.-A. Histoire de l'Afrique du Nord, Vol. 1, Des origines à la ccnquête arabe, 2nd edn (revised by Courtois, C.). Paris, 1951
Julien, C.-A. Histoire de l'Afrique du Nord, Vol. ii, De la conquête arabe à 1830 (revised by Tourneau, R.), Paris, 1952.
Julien, C.-A. Histoire de l'Afrique du Nord, English trans, by Petrie, J., ed. by Stewart, C. C., History of North Africa from the Arab conquest to 1830. London, 1970.
Junod, H. A. The life of a South African tribe. London, 1927.
Justin, . Epitoma historiarum Philippicarum Pompeii Trogi, ed. by Seel, O.. Stuttgart, 1972.
Kalous, M.A contribution to the problem of Akori beads’, Journal of African History, 1966, 7, 1, 61–6.
Kalous, M.Akori beads’, Bässler Archiv., 1968, 16, 1, 89–97.
Kamal, Y. Monumenta cartographica Africae et Aegypti. Cairo and Leiden, 1926–51. 5 vols.
Karabacek, J. and others. Papyrus Erzherzog Rawer: Führer durch die Ausstel-lung. Vienna, 1894.
Keller, C. M. Montagu Cave in prehistory: a descriptive analysis. Berkeley, 1973; Anthropological Records, 28.
Kendall, R. L. and Livingstone, D. A.Paleoecological studies on the East African plateau’, in Hugot, H. J. (ed.), Actes du VIe Congrès Panafricain du Préhistoire, Chambéry, 1972, 386.
Kennett, J. P., Houtz, R. E. and others, eds. Initial reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, 39. Washington, 1975.
Kienitz, F. K. Die politische Geschichte Ägyptens vom 7 bis 4 Jahrhundert vor der Zeitwende. Berlin, 1953.
Kirkman, J. Men and monuments on the East African coast. London, 1964.
Kirwan, L. P.Rome beyond the southern Egyptian frontier’, Geographical Journal, 1957, 123, 13–19.
Kirwan, L. P.The decline and fall of Meroe’, Kush, 1960, 8, 163–73.
Kirwan, L. P.The Christian Topography and the kingdom of Axum’, Geographical Journal, 1972, 138, 166–77.
Kirwan, L. P.Notes on the topography of the Christian Nubian kingdoms’, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, 1935, 21, 57–62.
Kirwan, L. P.A contemporary account of the conversion of the Sudan to Christianity’, Sudan Notes and Records, 1937, 20, 289–99.
Klein, R. G.Preliminary report on the July through September 1970 excavation at Nelson Bay cave, Plettenberg Bay (Cape Province, South Africa)’, in Bakker, Zinderen, ed., Palaeoecology … (see under ‘General’ section, Prehistory), 1972, 6, 177–210.
Klein, R. G.Environment and subsistence of prehistoric man in the southern Cape Province, South Africa’, World Archaeology, 1974, 5, 249–84.
Klein, R. G.Middle Stone Age man-animal relationships in southern Africa: evidence from Die Kelders and Klasies River Mouth’, Science, 1975, 190, 265–7 [1975a].
Klein, R. G.Ecology of Stone Age Man at the southern tip of Africa’, Archaeology, 1975, 28, 238–47 [1975b].
Knipfing, J. P.The Libelli of the Decian persecution’, Harvard Theological Review, 1923, 16, 345–90.
Knopf, R. and Krueger, G. Ausgewählte Märtyrakten. 1901–.
Koubbel, L. E. and Mateev, V. V. eds. Arabskie istochniki VII–XII vekov po etnografii i istorii Afriki yuzhnee Sakhary. Moscow–Leningrad, 1963. 2 vols.
Koubbel, L. E.On the history of social relations in the West Sudan in the 8tḥ to the 16th centuries’, Africa in Soviet Studies (Moscow), 1968, 109–28.
Koubbel, L. E.Le problème de 1'apparition des structures étatiques au Soudan occidental’, Congrès International des Africanistes (Paris, 1972), 37–46.
Kraus, T.Der Kiosk von Naqa’, Archäologische Anzeiger, 1964, 834–68.
Kretzoi, M.New ramapithecines and Pliopithecus from Lower Pliocene of Rudabanya in north-eastern Hungary’, Nature, 1975, 257, 578–81.
Kronenberg, A.Parallel cousin marriage in mediaeval and modern Nubia – Part I’, Kush, 1965, 13, 256–60.
Kubinska, J. The Greek inscriptions, Faras. Vol. 111. Warsaw, 1975.
Kurth, G. ed. Evolution and hominisation, 2nd edn. Stuttgart, 1968.
La Chapelle, F.. ‘Esquisse d'une histoire du Sahara occidental’, Hespéris, 1930, 2, 35–95.
La Roncière, C.. La Dèouverte de l'Afrique au moyen âge. Cairo, 1924–7. 3 vols.
Labriolle, P.. ‘Les débuts du monachisme’, in Palanque, J. R., Bardy, G. et Labriolle, P., De la paix Constantinienne à la mort de Thédose, Vol. 111 of Fliche, A. and Martin, V., Histoire de l'église. Paris, 1947.
Lajoux, J.-D. Merveilles du Tassili n'Ajjer. Paris, 1962.
Lambert, N.Les industries sur cuivre dans l'ouest saharien’, West African Journal of Archaeology, 1971, 1, 9–21.
Lancel, Serge, ed. ‘Actes de la conférence de Carthage’, Sources chrétiennes (Paris), 1972, 195.
*Lane-Poole, S. A history of Egypt in the Middle Ages, 4th edn. Lond⊙n, 1921.
Lange, D. Le Dīwān des sultans du [Kānem.] Bornū: chronologie et histoire d'un royaume africain. Wiesbaden, 1977.
Laroui, A. L'Histoire du Maghrib: un essai de synthèse. Paris, 1970.
Law, R. C. C.The Garamantes and trans-Saharan enterprise in classical times’, Journal of African History, 1967, 8, 2, 181–200.
Le Tourneau, R. Fès avant le protectorat. Casablanca, 1949.
Le Tourneau, R.La révolte d'Abu Yazid au 10e siècle’, Cashiers de Tunisie, 1953, 1, 103–25.
Leakey, L. S. B. The Stone Age cultures of Kenya Colony. Cambridge, 1931.
Leakey, L. S. B. Stone Age Africa. London, 1936.
Leakey, L. S. B. Tentative study of the Pleistocene climatic changes and Stone Age sequence in north-eastern Angola. Lisbon, Companhia de Diamantes de Angola, 1949.
Leakey, L. S. B. and Owen, Archdeacon. A contribution to the study of the Tumbian culture in East Africa. Nairobi, 1945; Coryndon Memorial Museum Occasional Papers, 1.
Leakey, M. D.Stone artifacts from Swartkrans’, Nature, 1970, 225, 1221–5.
Leakey, M. D. Olduvai Gorge, Vol. iii, Excavations in Beds I and II, 1960–1963. Cambridge, 1971.
Leakey, M. D. and , L. S. B. Excavations at the Njoro River Cave. Oxford, 1950.
Leakey, M. D., Hay, R. L., Curtis, G. H., Drake, R. E. and Jackess, M. K.Fossil hominids from the Laetolil Beds’, Nature, 1976, 262, 460–6.
Leakey, M. D.Notes on the ground and polished axes of East Africa’, Journal of the East Africa and Uganda Natural History Society, 1943, 182–95.
Leakey, M. D., Owen, W. E. and Leakey, L. S. B.Dimple-based pottery from central Kavirondo, Kenya Colony’, Occasional Papers of the Coryndon Museum (Nairobi), 1948, 2.
Leakey, R. E. F.Further evidence of Lower Pleistocene hominids from East Rudolf, North Kenya, 1973’, Nature, 1974, 248, 653–6.
Leakey, R. E. F.New hominid fossils from the Koobi Fora Formation in northern Kenya’, Nature, 1976, 261, 574–6.
Leakey, R. E. F. and Walker, A. C.Australopithecus, Homo erectus and the single species hypothesis’, Nature, 1976, 261, 572–4.
Lebeuf, J.-P. Carte archéologique des abords du lac Tchad. Paris, Centre National des Recherches Scientifiques, 1969, 2 vols.
Leclant, J.Témoignage des sources antiques sur les pistes menant à l'Oasis d'Ammon’, Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale, 1950, 49, 193–253.
Leclant, J.Le Fer dans l'Égypte ancienne, le Soudan et l'Afrique’, Annales de l'Est, 1956, Mémoire 16, 83–91.
Leglay, M.La vie intellectuelle d'une cité africaine aux confins de l'Aurès’, Collection Latomus, 1960, 45.
Leglay, M. Saturne africaine: histoire. Paris, 1966.
Leipoldt, J.Schenute von Atripe und die Entstehung des national-aegyptischen Christentums’, in Texte und Untersuchungen, Vol. xxv. Leipzig 1904.
Leschi, L.Le Centenarium d'Aqua Viva’, Revue Africaine, 1943, 87, 5–22.
Leschi, L. Tipasa. Algiers, 1950.
Lesquier, J. Les institutions militaires de l'Égypte sous les Lagides. Paris, 1911.
Lesquier, J. L'armée romaine d'Égypte d'Auguste à Diocétien. Cairo, 1918; Mémoires de l'lnstitut Français d'Archéologie Orientale, 41.
Lessard, J. M.Sijilmassa – la ville et ses relations commerciales au XIe siècle d'après El-Bekri’, Hésperis-Tamuda, 1970, 11, 5–36.
Lévi-Provençal, E. ed. Textes Arabes Marocains. Rabat, 1934.
Lévi-Provençal, E.Un Nouveau Récit de la conquête de l'Afrique du Nord par les Arabes’, Arabica Occidentalia, 1954, 1, 17–43.
Lévi-Provençal, E.La Fondation de Marrakech (462/1070)’, Mélanges de l'histoire et d'archaéologie de l'Occident musulman, II: Hommage a G. Marçais. Algiers, 1957, 117–20.
Lévi-Provençal, , ed. Textes Arabes Marocaines. Rabat, 1934.
Levtzion, N. Ancient Ghana and Mali. London, 1973. [Bibliography.]
Levtzion, N.Ibn Ḥawqal, the cheque, and Awdaghost’, Journal of African History, 1968, 9, 2, 223–33.
Levtzion, N.Was royal succession in Ghana matrilineal?’, International Journal of African Historical Studies, 1972, 5, 91–3.
*Levy, R. The social structure of Islam. Cambridge, 1957.
Lewicki, T. Arabic external sourcss for the history of Africa south of the Sahara. London, 1969.
Lewicki, T. West African food in the Middle Ages according to the Arabic sources. Cambridge, 1974.
Lewicki, T.Quelques extraits inédits relatifs aux voyages des commerçants et des missionnaires ibāḍītes nord-africains au pays du Soudan occidental et central au moyen âge’, Folia Orientalia, 1960, 2, 1–27.
Lewicki, T. Études ibāḍites nord-africaines. Warsaw, 1955.
Lewicki, T.La répartition géographique de groupements ibāḍites dans l'Afrique du Nord au moyen âgeRocznik Orientalistyczny, 1957, 21, 304–43.
Lewicki, T.À propos d'une liste de tribus berbères d'Ibn Ḥawqal’, Folia Orientalia, 1955, 1, 203–55.
Lewicki, T.Pages d'histoire du commerce trans-Saharien: les commerçants et les missionnaires Ibāḍites au Soudan central et occidental aux 7e–12e siècles’, Pzeglad Orientalistyczny, 1961, 3–18.
Lewicki, T.L'État nord-africain de Tahert et ses relations avec le Soudan occidental à la fin du 6e et au 9e siècle’, Cahiers d'éitudes africains, 1962, 2, 513–35.
Lewicki, T.L'Afrique noire dans le Kitāb al-Masālik wa'l -mamālik d'Abū ‘Ubayd al-Bakrī (iie siècle)’, Africana Bulletin, 1965, 2, 9–14.
Lewicki, T.The Ibāḍites in Arabia and Africa’, Journal of World History, 1971, 13, 51–130.
Lewis, H. S.The origins of the Galla and Somali’, Journal of African History, 1966, 7, 38–9.
Lézine, A. Architecture d'Ifrīqiya. Paris, 1966.
*Lézine, A.Notes d'archéologie ifriqiyenne’, Revue des Études Islamiques, 1967, 35 53–101
Lhote, H. A la découverte des fresques du Tassili. Paris, 1958.
Lhote, H.Le cheval et le chameau dans les peintures et gravures rupestres du Sahara’, Bulletin de l'IFAN, 1953, 15, 3 (sér. B), 1138–1228.
Lhote, H. Les Touaregs du Hoggar, 2nd edn. Paris, 1955.
Lhote, H.Découverte de chars de guerre en Aïr’, Notes Africaines (Dakar), 1970, 127, 83–5.
Lietzmann, H. Geschichte der alten Kirche. Berlin, 4 vols., 1937–44.
Lindsay, J. Daily life in Roman Egypt. London, 1963.
Lindsay, J. Leisure and pleasure in Roman Egypt. London, 1965.
Lister, F. C. Ceramic studies of the historic periods in Ancient Nubia. University of Utah Anthropological Papers No 86, Nubian series no. 2. Salt Lake City, 1967.
Livingstone, D.Late Quaternary climatic change in Africa’, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 1975, 6, 249–80.
Livy, . Ab urbe condita, ed. and with an English trans, by Foster, B. O., Moore, F. G., Sage, E. T. and Schlesinger, A. C.. London, 1919–59. 14 vols.
Lombard, M. Les métaux dans l'ancien monde du Ve au XIe siècle. Paris and The Hague, 1974.
Lombard, M.Les bases monétaires d'une suprématie économique: l'or musulman du 7e au iie siècle’, Annales: Économies, Sociétés, Civivisations, 1947, 2, 143–60.
Lowe, C. Van Riet. The Pleistocene geology and prehistory of Uganda, Vol. 11, Prehistory. Uganda Geological Survey, 1952, Memoir 6.
Lucas, A. and Harris, J. R. Ancient Egyptian materials and industries, 4th edn. London, 1962.
Maḥmud, H. A. Qiyām dawlat al-Murābitīn. Cairo, 1957.
Macadam, M. F. L. The Temples of Kawa, Vol. 1, The inscriptions. London, 1949. Vol. 11, History and archaeology of the site. London, 1955.
Maggs, T. M. O'C.Some observations on the size of human groups during the Late Stone Age’, in Schoonraad, M., ed., Rock paintings of southern Africa, South African Journal of Science (Johannesburg), Special Publication 2, 1971, 49–53.
Malhomme, J.Les gravures préhistoriques du Grand Atlas de Marrrkech’, 7e congrès, Association Française pour l'Avancement des Sciences (Tunis, 1951), 1953, 149–53.
Malhomme, J.Ṛeprésentations de haches du bronze (Grand Atlas)’, Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique du Maroc, 1953, 105–9.
Manetho, . History of Egypt, ed. and with an English trans, by Waddell, W. G.. London, 1940.
Mann, A. E. Some palaeodemographic aspects of the South African Australopithecines. Philadelphia, 1975; Pennsylvania University Publications in Anthropology, 1, The palaeodemography of Australopithecus.
Marçais, G. Architecture musulmane d'Occident. Paris, 1954.
*Marçais, G. La Berbérie musulmane et l'Orient au moyen âge. Paris, 1946.
Marcillet-Jaubert, J. Les Inscriptions d'Altava. Paris, 1968.
Marec, E. Hippone. Algiers, 1950.
Markus, R. A.Donatism, the last phase’, in Cuming, C. J., ed., Studies in church history, Vol. 1. Leiden, 1964, 118–26.
Markus, R. A.Religious dissent in North Africa in the Byzantine period’, in Cuming, C. J., ed., Studies in church history, Vol. 111. Leiden, 1966, 140–9.
Marlowe, J. The golden age of Alexandria: from its foundation by Alexander the Great in 331 BC to its capture by the Arabs in AD 642. London, 1971.
Marty, P. Études sur l'Islam et les tribus du Soudan. Paris, 1920.
Mason, R. J.The Transvaal Middle Stone Age and statistical analysis’, South African Archaeological Bulletin, 1957, 12, 119–43.
Mason, R. J. Prehistory of the Transvaal. Johannesburg, 1962 [1962a].
Mason, R. J.Australopithecines and artifacts at Sterkfontein: part II, the Sterkfontein artifacts and their maker’, South African Archaeological Bulletin, 1962, 17, 109–26 [1962b].
Mason, R. J., Klapwijk, M. and Evers, T. M.Early Iron Age settlement of southern Africa’, South African Journal of Science, 1973, 69, 324–6.
Maspero, J. Papyrus grecs de l'époque byzantine. Paris 1910–16. 3 vols.
Mauny, R.Bibliographie de la préhistoire et de la protohistoire de l'Ouest africain’, Bulletin de l'IFAN (sér. B), 1967, 29, 879–917; 1970, 32, 333–40.
Mauny, R. Tableau géograbhique de l'ouest africain au moyen âge. Mémoires de l'IF AN (Dakar), 1961, no. 61; reprinted Amsterdam, 1967.
Mauny, R. Les siècles obscurs de l'Afrique noire: histoire et archéologie. Paris, 1970.
Mauny, R.Cerné, l'île de Herné (Rio de Oro), et la question des navigations antiques sur la côte ouest-africaine’, Comptes rendus de la IVe conférence Internationale des Africanistes de l'Ouest, Santa Isabel, 1951. Madrid, 1955, 11, 73–80 [1955a].
Mauny, R.La navigation sur les côtes du Sahara pendant l'antiquité’, Revue des Études Anciennes, 1955, 57, 92–101 [1955b].
Mauny, R.L'Ouest africain chez Ptolémée (vers+141 AD)’, IIe Conferencia Internacional des Africanistas Ocidentais (Bissau, 1947), Vol. 1. Lisbon, 1950, 241–93.
Mauny, R.Notes historiques autour des principales plantes cultivées d'Afrique Occidentale’, Bulletin de l'IFAN, 1953, 16, 684–730.
Mauny, R.Catalogue des restes osseux humains préhistoriques trouvés dans l'Ouest africain’, Bulletin de l'IFAN, 1961, 23 (sér. B), 3–4, 388–410.
Mauny, R.Le Périple de la mer Erythrée et le problème du commerce romain en Afrique au sud du limes’, Journal de la Société des Africanistes, 1968, 38, 1, 19–34.
Mauny, R.The question of Ghana’, Africa, 1954, 27, 200–13.
Mazard, J. Corpus Nummorum Numidiae Mauretaniaeque. Paris, 1955.
McBurney, C. B. M. The Stone Age of northern Africa. Harmondsworth, 1960.
McBurney, C. B. M. The Haua Fteah (Cyrenaica) and the Stone Age of the southeast Mediterranean. Cambridge, 1967.
McBurney, C. B. M. and Hey, R. W. Prehistory and Pleistocene geology in Cyrenaican Libya. Cambridge, 1955.
Meinardus, Otto F. A.The Christian kingdom of Nubia’, Nubie – Cahiers d'Histoire Égyptienne, 1967, 10, 133–64.
Mengin, F. Histoire de l'Égypte sous le gouvernement de Mohammed-Aly. Paris, 1823.
Merighi, A. La Tripolitania Antica dalle origini alla invasion degli Arabi. Verbania, 1940. 2 vols.
Meulenaere, H.. Herodotos over de 26st Dynastie. Louvain, 1951.
*Mez, A. The renaissance of Islam, trans, by Bakhsh, S. K. and Margoliouth, D. S.. Patna, 1937.
Michalowski, K. Faras: die Kathedrale aus dem Wüstensand. Zurich, 1967.
Michalowski, K. Faras–fouilles Polonaises: 1961. Warsaw, 1962; 1961–2. Warsaw, 1965.
Michalowski, K. Faras–centre artistique de la Nubie Chrétienne. Leiden, 1966.
Michalowski, K. Faras – wall paintings in the collection of the National Museum in Warsaw. Warsaw, 1974.
Michalowski, K. ed. Nubia – récentes recherches. Warsaw, 1975.
Mileham, G. S. Churches in Lower Nubia. Coxe, Eckley B. Jn. Expedition to Nubia, Vol. 11. Philadelphia, 1910.
Millar, F.Local cultures in the Roman Empire: Libyan, Punic and Latin in Roman Africa’, Journal of Roman Studies, 1968, 58, 126–34.
Millar, F. and others. The Roman Empire and its neighbours. London, 1967.
Millar, F.The date of the Constitutio Antoniniana’, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, 1962, 48, 124–31.
Miller, S. F.The age of Nachikufan industries in Zambia’, South Africa Archaeological Bulletin, 1971, 26, 143–6.
Mills, E. A. C. and Filmer, N. T.Chondwe Iron Age site, Ndola, Zambia’, Azania, 1972, 7, 129–46.
Milne, J. G.The ruin of Egypt by Roman mismanagement’, Journal of Roman Studies, 1927, 17, 1–13.
Miranda, A. H.La salida de los Almorávides del Desierto y el Reinado de Yusuf b. Tāshfīn’, Hespéris, 1959, 46, 155–82.
Mitchell, B. M.Cyrene and Persia’, Journal of Hellenic Studies, 1966, 86, 99–113.
Moeller, A. Les grandes lignes des migrations des Bantous de la Province Orientale du Congo Belge. Brussels, 1936.
Mommsen, T. The provinces of the Roman Empire from Caesar to Diocletian, trans, by Dickson, W. P.. London, 1886. 2 vols.
Monceaux, P. Histoire littéraire de l'Afrique chrétienne. Paris, 1901–23. 7 vols.
Monceaux, P. Timgad chrétien. Paris, 1911.
Monès, H.Le Malékisme et l'échec des Fatimides en Ifrīqiya’, Études d'Orientalisme dédiées à la mémoire de Levi-Provençal (Paris), 1962, 1, 197–220.
Monneret de Villard, Ugo. La Nubia médiévale. Mission Archéologique de Nubie, 1929–34. Cairo, 1935–57. 4 vols.
Monneret de Villard, Ugo. Storia della Nubia Cristiana. Rome, 1938.
Monod, T. Majabat al-Koubra, contribution à l'étude de l'empty quarter ouest saharien, Mémoires de l'IFAN, 52, 1958, 407ff.
Montefiore, H. W., in New Testament Studies, 1961, 5, 220–48.
Monteil, C.Les “Ghana” des géographes arabes et des européens’, Hespéris, 1951, 38, 441–52.
Monteil, C.La Lé;gende du Ouagadou et l'orgine des Soninkés’, Mélanges ethnologiques (Dakar), 1953, 369–82.
Moorsel, H. Atlas de bréhistoire de la plaine de Kinshasa. Kinshasa, 1968.
Morgan, W. B.The forest and agriculture in West Africa’, Journal of African History, 1962, 3, 2, 235–9.
Mortelmans, G. and Nenquin, J. eds. Actes du IVe congrès panafricain de préhistoire. Tervuren, 1962.
Moscati, S. The world of the Phoenicians, trans, by Hamilton, A.. London, 1968.
Müller, K. ed. Geographici Graeci Minores. Paris, 1855–61. 2 vols.
Munson, P. J.Corrections and additional comments concerning the “Tichitt tradition”’, West African Archaeological Newsletter, 1970, 10, 47.
Murdock, G. P. Africa, its peoples and their culture history. New York, 1959.
Musurillo, H. A. ed. The acts of the pagan martyrs: Acta Alexandrinorum. Oxford, 1952.
Musurillo, H. The acts of the Christian martyrs. Oxford, 1972.
Nelson, C. M. and Posnansky, M.The stone tools from the re-excavation of Nsongezi rock shelter’, Azania, 1970, 5, 119–206.
Nenquin, J. Contributions to the study of the prehistoric cultures of Rwanda and Burundi. Tervuren, 1967; Sciences humaines, 59.
Nenquin, J.Dimple-based pots from Kasai, Belgian Congo’, Man, 1959, 59, No. 242.
Nenquin, J. Excavations at Sanga, 1957. Tervuren, 1963.
Nenquin, J.Notes on some early pottery cultures in northern Katanga’, Journal of African History, 1963, 4, 9–32; also in Fage, and Oliver, , eds., Papers in African prehistory (see under ‘General’ section, Prehistory), 223–38.
Nielson, O. V. Human remains. Scandinavian Joint Expedition to Sudanese Nubia, Stockholm, 1970, 9.
Norris, H. T.New evidence on the life of 'Abdullāh b. Yāsīn and the origins of the Almoravid movement’, Journal of African History, 1971, 12, 255–68.
Norris, H. T. Saharan myth and saga. London, 1972.
Noshy, I. The arts in Ptolemaic Egypt: a study of Greek and Egyptian influences in Ptolemaic architecture and sculpture. London, 1937.
Oakley, K. P. Man the toolmaker, 6th edn. Chicago, 1976.
Oates, J. F.A Christian inscription in Greek from Armenna in Nubia’, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, 1963, 49, 161–71.
O'Brien, T. P. The prehistory of the Uganda Protectorate. London, 1939.
Odner, K.Excavations at Narosura, a Stone Bowl site in the southern Kenya Highlands’, Azania, 1972, 7, 25–92.
Oliver, Roland and Mathew, Gervase, eds. History of East Africa, Vol. 1. Oxford, 1963.
Oliver, Roland and Fagan, B. M. Africa in the Iron Age. Cambridge, 1975.
Oliver, Roland, ‘The problem of the Bantu expansion’, Journal of African History, 1966, 7, 361–76; also in Fage, and Oliver, , eds., Papers in African prehistory (see under ‘General’ section, Prehistory), 141–52.
Olmstead, A. T. History of the Persian Empire. Chicago, 1948.
Opitz, H. G. Untersuchungen zur Überlieferung des Schriften der Athanasius. Berlin, 1935.
Opitz, H.G. Athanasius' Werke. Berlin, from 1934.
Origen, . Dialogue with Heracleides, ed. by Scherer, J. as Entretien d'Ortgène avec Héraclide et les évêques, ses collègues, sur le Père, le Fils et l'Âme. Cairo, 1949.
*Ostrogorsky, G. History of the Byzantine state, trans, by Hussey, J.. Oxford, 1956.
Oxnard, C. E.The place of the Australopithecines in human evolution: grounds for doubt?’, Nature, 1975, 258, 389–95.
Palaiphatos, . πε∂ρ ἀφίστων, ed. by Festa, N.. Mythographi Graeci, iii fasc. 2. Leipzig, 1902.
Palladius, . Historia Lausiaca, ed. by Butler, C.. Cambridge, 1898.
Palmer, H. R. The Bornu, Sahara and Sudan. London, 1936.
Palmer, H. R. ed. and trans. Sudanese memoirs: being mainly translations of a number of Arabic manuscripts relating to the central and western Sudan. Lagos, 1928; reprinted London, 1967.
Papyrus Bodmer [P Bodmer] Vol. xx ed by Martin, V.. Geneva 1964.
Parke, H. W. Oracles of Zeus. Oxford, 1967.
Parkington, J. E. and Poggenpoel, C.Excavations at De Hangen, 1968’, South African Archaeological Bulletin, 1971, 26, 1–36.
Parry, V. J. and Yapp, M. eds. War, technology and society in the Middle East. London, New York and Toronto, 1975.
Parsons, P. J.Phillipus Arabs and Egypt’, Journal of Roman Studies, 1967, 57, 134–41.
Patrologia cursus completus, series Graeca [PG], ed. by Migne, J.-P.. Paris, 1857–66.
Patrologia cursus completus, series Latina [PL], ed. by Migne, J.-P.. Paris, 1844–64.
Patrologia Orientalis [PO], ed. by Evetts, B. T. A.. Paris, from 1901.
Phillipson, D. W.Notes on the later prehistoric radiocarbon chronology of eastern and southern Africa’, Journal of African History, 1970, 11, 1, 1–16.
Phillipson, D. W.The chronology of the Iron Age in Bantu Africa’, Journal of African History, 1975, 16, 321–42.
Phillipson, D. W., The later prehistory of eastern and southern Africa. London, 1977.
Phillipson, D. W.The prehistoric succession in eastern Zambia: a preliminary report’, Azania, 1973, 8, 3–24.
Phillipson, D. W.The Early Iron Age in Zambia – regional variants and some tentative conclusions’, Journal of African History, 1968, 9, 191–211.
Phillipson, D. W.Early Iron Age sites on the Zambian Copperbelt’, Azania, 1972, 7, 93–128.
Phillipson, D. W., ‘Iron Age history and archaeology in Zambia’, Journal of African History, 1974, 15, 1, 1–26.
Phillipson, L.Middle Stone Age material from sites near Katima Mulilo on the upper Zambezi’, South African Archaeological Bulletin, 1968, 23, 90–101.
Phillipson, L. and , D. W.Patterns of edge damage on the Late Stone Age Industry from Chiwemupula, Zambia’, Zambia Museums Journal, 1970, 1, 40–75.
Pilbeam, D. The ascent of man: an introduction to human evolution. New York, 1972.
Pindar, . Odes, ed. by Bowra, C. M., 2nd edn. Oxford, 1947.
Pliny, , Naturalis historia, ed. and with an English trans, by Rackham, H., Jones, W. H. S. and Eichholz, D. E.. London 1938–63. 10 vols.
Ploey, J.. ‘Position géomorphologique, genèse et chronologie de certains dépôts superficiels au Congo occidental’, Quaternaria, 1965, 7, 131–54.
Plumley, J. M. The scrolls of Bishop Timotheos found at Q'asr Ibrim. London, Egypt Exploration Society Monograph, 1975.
Plumley, J. M.Qasr Ibrim, 1969’, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, 1970, 56, 14.
Plumley, J. M. and Adams, W. Y.Qasr Ibrim, 1972’, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, 1974, 60, 212–38.
Plutarch, , Lives, ed. and with an English trans. by Perrin, B.. London, 1914–26. 11 vols.
Polybius, . Histories, ed. and with an English trans, by Paton, W. R.. London, 1922–7. 6 vols.
Portères, R.Berceaux agricoles primaires sur le continent africain’, Journal of African History, 1962, 3, 2, 195–210.
Posener, G. La première domination perse en Égypte: recueil d'inscriptions hiéroglyphiques. Cairo, 1936; Bibliothèque d'Études de 1'Institut Français d'ArchéologieOrientale, Vol.xi.
Posener, G. ed. Dictionnaire de la civilisation égyptienne. Paris, 1959.
Posnansky, M. and Nelson, C. M.Rock paintings and excavations at Nyero, Uganda’, Azania, 1968, 3, 147–66.
Posnansky, M.Pottery types from archaeological sites in East Africa’, Journal of African History, 1961, 2, 177–98.
Posnansky, M.Bantu genesis – archaeological reflections’, Journal of African History, 1968, 9, 1–5.
Préaux, C. L'économie royale des Lagides. Brussels, 1939.
Préaux, C.Les communications de 1'Éthiopie avec l'Egypte Hellénistique’, Chronique d'Égypte, 1952, 257–81.
Préaux, C.Graeco-Roman Egypt’, in The legacy of Egypt, 2nd edn, ed. by Harris, J. R.. Oxford, 1971, 323–54.
Priese, K. H.Nichtägyptische Namen und Worter in den ägyptischen Inschriften der Königer von Kusch I’, Mitteilungen des Instituts für Orientforschung der deutschen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, 1968, 14, 165–91.
Quatremère, E. M. Mémoires géographiques et historiques sur l'Égypte et sur quelques contrées voisines. Paris, 1811.
Rabie, H. The financial system of Egypt. AH 564–74. AD 1169–1341. London Oriental Series, 25. London, New York and Toronto, 1972.
Randall MacIver, D. and Woolley, C. L. Areika. Oxford, 1909.
Raven, S. Rome in Africa. London, 1969.
Rea, J. R. ed. Papyrus Oxyrhynchus, Vol. XL. London, 1972.
Reisner, G. A.The Meroitic kindom of Ethiopia’, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, 1923, 9, 34–77 and 157–60.
Reygasse, M. Monuments funéraires préislamiques d'Afrique du Nord. Paris, 1950.
Rightmire, G. P.problems in the study of Later Pleistocene man in Africa’, American Anthropologist, 1975, 77, 28–52 [1975b].
Rightmire, G. P.Relationships of Middle and Upper Pleistocene hominids from sub-Saharan Africa’, Nature, 1976, 260, 238–40.
Rightmire, G. P.Iron Age skulls from southern Africa reassessed by multiple discrimination analysis’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 1970, 33, 2, 147–68.
Rightrmire, G. P.New studies of post-Pleistocene human skeletal remains from the Rift Valley, Kenya’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 1975, 42, 351–69 [1975a].
Robbins, L. H. The Lothagam Site. East Lansing, Michigan State University Museum, 1974.
Robert, D. S.Les Fouilles de Tegdaoust’, Journal of African History, 1970, 11, 4. 471–93.
Roberts, D. & , S. and Devisse, J. eds. Tegdaoust I: recherches sur Aoudaghost. Paris, 1970.
Robinson, A. L.The camel in antiquity’, Sudan Notes and Records, 1936, 47–69.
Robinson, J. T. Early hominid posture and locomotion. Chicago, 1972.
Robinson, K. R. and Sandelowsky, B.The Iron Age of northern Malawi: recent work’, Azania, 1968, 3, 107–46.
Robinson, K. R. Khami ruins. Cambridge, 1959.
Robinson, K. R.An early Iron Age site from the Chibi district, southern Rhodesia’, South African Archaeological Bulletin, 1961, 17, 75–102.
Robinson, K. R.The archaeology’, in Report of the Schoolboys' Exploration Society expedition to Buffalo Bend [n.p.], 1961, 3–8.
Robinson, K. R.Further excavations in the Iron Age deposit at the tunnel site, Gokomere Hill, southern Rhodesia’, South African Archaeological Bulletin, 1963, 18, 155–71.
Robinson, K. R.The Leopard's Kopje culture: a preliminary report on recent work’, Arnoldia, 1965, 1, 25.
Robinson, K. R.The Leopard's Kopje culture, its position in the Iron Age in Southern Rhodesia’, South African Archaeological Bulletin, 1966, 21, 5–51.
Robinson, K. R.A preliminary report on the recent archaeology of Ngonde, northern Malawi’, Journal of African History, 1966, 7, 169–88.
Robinson, K. R.The Iron Age of the southern lake arẹa of Malawi’, Department of Antiquities, Zomba, Publication 8, 1970, 117–18.
Roche, J. and Texier, J.-P.Découvertes de restes humains dans un niveau atérien supérieur de la Grotte des Contrebandiers à Temara (Maroc)’, Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences (Paris), 1976, 282, 45–7.
Romanelli, P. La Cirenaica Romana (96 a.C – 642 d.C). Verbania, 1953.
Romanelli, P. Storia delle Province Romane dell'Africa. Rome, 1959.
Rosenberger, B.Les vieilles exploitations minières et les anciens centres métallurgiques du Maroc’. Revue de Géographie du Maroc, 1970, 17–18, 71–102.
Rosenberger, B.Tāmdult: cité minière et caravanière’, Hésperis-Tamuda, 1970, 11, 104–39.
Rosenthal, E. I. J. Political thought in medieval Islam. Cambridge, 1958.
Roset, J. P.Art rupestre en Aïr’, Archeologia (Paris), 1971, 39, 24–31.
Rostovtzeff, M. I. Social and economic history of the Hellenistic world. Oxford, 1941. 3 vols.
Rostovtzeff, M. I. The social and economic history of the Roman Empire, 2nd edn (revised by Fraser, P. M.). Oxford, 1957. 2 vols.
Rouch, J. Contribution à l'histoire des Songhay. Dakar, 1953.
Rousseau, M.Hannon au Maroc’, Revue Africaine, 1949, 93, 161–232.
Rudner, J. and , I. The hunter and his art: a survey of rock art in southern Africa. Cape Town, 1970.
Sa‘īd, b. Batrīq [Eutychius]. Eutychii Patriarchae Alexandrini Annales, ed. by Cheikho, L. (Corp. Script. Christ. Orient., Scriptores Arabici, 3rd series, Vols, VI, VII). Beirut, Paris and Leipzig, 1906, 1909.
Salama, P.La voie romaine de la vallée de la Tafna’, Bulletin d'Archéologie Algérienne, 1966–7, 2, 183–217.
Sallust, . Works, ed. and with an English trans, by Rolfe, J. C.. London, 1921.
Sampson, C. G. The Stone Age archaeology of southern Africa. New York and London, 1974.
Sarich, V. M.A molecular approach to the question of human origins’, in Dolhinow, P. C. and Sarich, V. M., eds., Background for man. New York, 1972, 60–91.
Sassoon, H.Engaruka: excavations during 1964’, Azania, 1966, 1, 79–100.
Sassoon, H.New views on Engaruka, northern Tanzania: excavations carried out for the Tanzania Government in 1964 and 1966’, Journal of African History, 1967, 8, 201–18.
Saumagne, C. Cyprien, Évêque de Carthage, ‘Pape ’ d'Afrique. Paris, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1975.
Sauneron, S. and Yoyotte, J.La campagne nubienne de Psammetique II et sa signification historique’, Bulletin de l'Institut d'Archéologie Orientale, 1952, 50, 157–207.
Sautter, G. De l'Atlantique au fleuve Congo. Paris, 1966.
Sauvaget, J.Les épitaphes royales de Gao’, Bulletin de l'IFAN, 1950, 12, 418–40.
Sayce, A. H.A Greek inscription of a king (?) of Axum found at MeroeProceedings of the Society for Biblical Archaeology, 1909, 31, 189–203.
Schacht, Joseph. An introduction to Islamic Law. Oxford, 1964.
Schacht, Joseph. The origins of Muhammadan jurisprudence. Oxford, 1950; revised reprint, 1953.
Schmidt, P. [Notes in] Tanzania Zamani, 1970, 7, 4–6 and 1971, 8, 6–7.
Schofield, J. F.L'âge des peintures rupestres du sud de l'Afrique’, L'Anthropologie (Paris), 1949, 20–32.
Scullard, H. H. The elephant in the Greek and Roman world. London, 1974.
Seddon, D. in Roland Portères, H. J. Hugot and Seddon, D., ‘Origins of African agriculture’, Current Anthropology, 1968, 9, 5, 489.
Seligman, C. G. The races of Africa. London, 1930.
Semonin, P.The Almoravid movement in the Western Sudan: a review of the evidence’, Transactions of the Historical Society of Ghana, 1964, 7, 42–59.
Shaban, M. A. Islamic history. AD 600–750. Cambridge, 1971.
Shaw, Thurstan. ‘On radiocarbon chronology of the Iron Age in sub-Saharan Africa’, Current Anthropology, 1969, 10, 2–3, 226–31.
Shaw, Thurstan.Report on excavations carried out in the cave known as “Bosumpra” at Abetifi, Kwahu, Gold Coast Colony’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society, 1944, 10, 1–67.
Shaw, Thurstan.Finds at the Iwo Eleru rock shelter, Western Nigeria’, in Hugot, , ed., VIe congrès panafricain … (Dakar, 1967) (see under ‘General’ section, Prehistory), 190–2 [1972a].
Shaw, Thurstan. ‘Early agriculture in Africa’, Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria, 1972, 6, 143–91.
Shinnie, P. L. ed. The African Iron Age. Oxford, 1971.
Shinnie, P. L. Meroe, a civilisation of the Sudan. London, 1967.
Shinnie, P. L.A late Latin inscription’, Kush, 1961, 9, 284–6.
Shinnie, P. L. Mediaeval Nubia. Museum Pamphlet No. 2, Sudan Antiquities Service. Khartoum, 1954.
Shinnie, P. L. Excavations at Soba. Sudan Antiquities Service, Occasional Paper 3. Khartoum, 1955; reprinted 1961.
Shinnie, P. L. and , M.New light on mediaeval Nubia’, Journal of African History, 1965, 6, 263–73.
Shinnie, P. L. and Chittick, H. N. Ghazali – a monastery in the northern Sudan. Sudan Antiquities Service, Occasional Paper 5. Khartoum, 1961.
Siiriaien, A.The Iron Age site at Gatung'ang'a, central Kenya’, Azania, 1971, 6, 199–232.
Simon, M.Le Judaisme berbère dans l'Afrique ancienne’, Revue de l'histoire et philosophie religieuse, 1946, 26, 1ff and 105ff; reprinted in Recherches d'histoire judéo-chrétienne, Études juives, 1962, 8.
Simoons, F. J.Some questions on the economic prehistory of Ethiopia’, Journal of African History, 1965, 6, 1, 1–14.
Skeat, T. C. and Wegener, E. P.Trial before the Prefect of Egypt, Appius Sabinus, AD 250’, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, 1935, 21, 229–47.
Smolla, G.Prähistorische Keramik aus Ostafrika’, Tribus, 1957, 6, 35–64.
Snowden, F. Blacks in antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman experience. Cambridge, Mass., 1970.
Snowden, J. D. The cultivated races of sorghum. London, 1936.
Soh, Siré Abbas. Chroniques des Fouta Sénégalais, trans, by Delafosse, M.. Paris, 1913.
Söhnge, P. G., Visser, D. J. L. and Lowe, C. Van Riet. The geology and archaeology of the Vaal River Basin. Pretoria, 1937; Geological Survey Memoir, 35, Pts 1 and 2.
*Solignac, M.Recherches sur les installations hydrauliques de Kairouan et des Steppes Tunisiennes du VIIe au XIe siècle’, Annates de l'Instutut des Études Orientates (Algiers), 1952, 10, 5–273; 1953, 11, 61–170.
Somers, Clarke. Christian antiquities in the Nile Valley. Oxford, 1912.
Soper, R. C.New radiocarbon dates for eastern and southern Africa’, Journal of African History, 1974, 15, 2, 175–92.
Soper, R. C.The Stone Age in northern Nigeria’, Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria, 1965, 3, 175–94.
Soper, R. C. and Golden, B.An archaeological survey of Mwanza region, Tanzania’, Azania, 1969, 4, 15–79.
Soper, R. C.Kwale: an Early Iron Age site in south-eastern Kenya’, Azania, 1967, 2, 1–18.
Soper, R. C.Iron Age sites in north-eastern Tanzania’, Azania, 1967, 2, 19–36.
Soper, R. C.A general review of the Early Iron Age of the southern half of Africa’, Azania, 1971, 6, 5–38.
Soper, R. C.Early Iron Age pottery types from East Africa: comparative analyses’, Azania, 1971, 6, 39–52.
Soper, R. C.Iron Age sites in Chobi sector, Murchison Falls, National Park, Uganda’, Azania, 1971, 6, 53–88.
Soper, R. C.Resemblances between East African Early Iron Age pottery and recent vessels from the north-eastern Congo’, Azania, 1971, 6, 233–41.
Souville, G.Recherches sur l'existence d'un âge du bronze au Maroc’, Atti del VI Congrsso internazionale delle Scienze Preistoriche e Protohistoriche, Vol. II. Rome, 1965, 419–29.
Spruytte, J.Le cheval et le char de l'Égypte ancienne’, Plaisirs Équestres, 1971, 51, 171–6.
Ste Croix, G. E. M.. ‘Aspects of the Great Persecution’, Harvard Theological Review, 1954, 47, 84ff.
*Stern, S. M. Fātimid decrees. London, 1964.
Stevenson, J. ed. A new Eusebius. London, 1957.
Strabo, . Geography, ed. and with an English trans, by Jones, H. L.. London, 1917–32; revised reprint, London and Cambridge, Mass., 1935. 8 vols.
Street, F. A. and Grove, A. T.Environmental and climatic implications of late Quaternary lake-level fluctuations in Africa’, Natyre, 1976, 261, 385–90.
Stuart Jones, H.Claudius and the Jewish Question at Alexandria’, Journal of Roman Studies, 1926, 16, 17–35.
Stuiver, M. and Van der Merwe, N. J.Radiocarbon chronology of the Iron Age in sub-Saharan Africa’, Current Anthropology, 1968, 9, 54–8.
Summers, R. ed. Prehistoric rock art of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. London, 1959.
Summers, R. Inyanga. Cambridge, 1958.
Summers, R.The Rhodesian Iron Age’, Journal of African History, 1962, 3, 1–13. Also in Fage, and Oliver, , eds., Papers in African prehistory (see under ‘General’ section, Prehistory), 157–72.
Summers, R., Robinson, K. R. and Whitty, A.Zimbabwe excavations, 1958’, Occasional Papers of the National Museum of Southern Rhodesia, 1961, 23A.
Sutton, J. E. G.New radiocarbon dates for eastern and southern Africa’, Journal of African History, 1972, 13, 1–24.
Sutton, J. E. G. The archaeology of the western highlands of Kenya. London, 1973.
Sutton, J. E. G. The archaeology of the western highlands of Kenya. Nairobi, 1973.
Sutton, J. E. G. and Roberts, A. D.Uvinza and its salt industry’, Azania, 1968, 3, 45–86.
Tacitus, . Annales, ed. by Fisher, C. D.. Oxford, 1906.
Tacitus, . Historiae, ed. by Fisher, C. D.. Oxford, 1911.
Taieb, M., Johanson, D. C., Coppens, Y. and Aronson, J. L.Geological and palaeontological background of Hadar hominid sites, Afar, Ethiopia’, Nature, 1976, 260, 289–93.
*Talbi, M. L'Émirat Aghlabide, 184–296/800–909:histoire politique. Paris, 1966.
Ta'rikh al-Fattāsh, ed. and trans, by Houdas, O. and Delafosse, M.. Paris, 1913.
Tarn, W. and Griffith, G. T. Hellenistic civilisation, 3rd edn. London, 1952.
Taubenschlag, R. The law of Greco-Roman Egypt in the light of the papyri, 332 BC–AD 640. Warsaw, 1955.
Tauxier, H.Les deux rédactions du Périple d'Hannon’, Revue Africaine (Algiers), 1882, 15–37.
Tengström, E. Donatisten und Katholiken; soziale wirtschaftliche und politische Aspekte einer nordafrikanischen Kirchenspaltung. Göteborg, 1964.
*Terrasse, H. Histoire du Maroc des origines à l'établissement du Protectorat franç.ais. Casablanca, 1949–50.
Tertullian, , in PL. Paris, 1845 and 1879, and Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum. Vienna, 1868–
Tertullian, . Quae supersunt omnia, ed. by Migne, J.-P. [Patrologia Latina series]. Paris, 1845 and 1879, 2 vols.
Teutsch, L. Das Städtewesen in Nordafrika in der Zeit von C. Graccus bis zum Tode des Kaisers Augustus. Berlin, 1962.
Theophanes, . Chronicon, ed. by Claasen, J.. Bonn, 1839–41.
Thomassey, P.Note sur la géographie et l'habitat de la région de Koumbi Saleh’, Bulletin de l'IFAN, 1951, 13, 476–86.
Thomassey, P. and Mauny, R.Campagne de fouilles à Koumbi Saleh’, Bulletin de l'IFAN, 1951, 13, 438–62; 1956, 18, 117–40.
Thompson, L. A. ed. African societies in southern Africa. London, 1969.
Thompson, L. A. and Ferguson, J. eds. Africa in classical antiquity. Ibadan, 1969.
Thouvenot, R.Les origines chrétiennes en Mauretanie Tingitane’, Revue des études anciennes, 1969, 71, 354–78.
Thucydides, . Histories, ed. by Jones, H. S., 2nd edn (revised by Powell, J. E.). Oxford, 1942. 2 vols.
Tixier, J. Typologie de l'Épipaléolithique du Maghreb. Paris, 1963; Centre de Recherches Anthropologiques, Préhistoriques et Ethnographiques (Algiers), 2.
Trigger, B. G. History and settlement in Lower Nubia. New Haven, 1965.
Trigger, B.The languages of the northern Sudan: an historical perspective’, Journal of African History, 1966, 7, 19–25.
Trigger, B. G.The myth of Meroe and the African Iron Age’, African Historical Studies, 1969, 2, 1, 23–50.
Trimingham, J. S. A history of Islam in West Africa. London, 1962.
Turnbull, C. Wayward servants. London, 1965.
Tuttle, R. L. H. ed. Palaeoanthropology: morphology and ecology. The Hague, 1975.
Tweedie, A.Towards a history of the Bemba from oral tradition’, in Stokes, E. and Brown, R., eds., The Zambesian past. Manchester, 1966, 197–225.
Ucko, P. J. and Dimbleby, G. W. eds. The domestication and exploitation of plants and animals. London, 1969.
Urvoy, Y. Histoire de l'empire du Bornou. Dakar, 1949.
Van der Kerken, G. L'Ethnie Mongo. Brussels, 1944. 3 vols.
Van Noten, F. L. Les Tombes du roi Cyirima Rujugiza et de la reine-mère Nyirayulu Kanjogera: description archéologique. Tervuren, Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, 1972.
Van Zinderen Bakker, E. M. ed. Palaeoecology of Africa. Cape Town, from 1966.
Vanacker, C.Géographie économique de l'Afrique du Nord selon les auteurs arabes du 9e au milieu du 12e siècle’, Annales: Économies, Sociétés, Civilisations, 1973, 28, 659–80.
Vansina, Jan, Mauny, R. and Thomas, L. V. eds. The historian in tropical Africa. Oxford, 1964.
Vansina, Jan. Kingdoms of the savanna. Madison, 1966.
Vantini, G. The excavations at Faras – a contribution to the history of Christian Nubia. Bologna, 1970.
Vaufrey, R. Préhistoire de l'Afrique, 1, Le Maghreb. Paris, 1955; Institut des Hautes Études de Tunis, Vol. iv.
Vaufrey, R. Préhistoire de l'Afrique, 11, Au nord et à l'est de la grand forêt. Tunis, 1969; Publications de l'Université de Tunis, Vol. iv.
Vaufrey, R.Le Néolithique para-Toumbien: une civilisation agricole primitive du Soudan’, Revue Scientifique, 1967, No. 3267, 205–32.
Vercoutter, J.Un Palais des “Candaces” contemporain d'Auguste’, Syria, 1962, 39, 263–99.
Victor, Vitensis. Historia persecutionis africanae ecclesiae, ed. by Petschenig, M.. Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum, VII. Vienna, 1881.
Visscher, F.. Les Édits d'Auguste découverts à Cyrène. Louvain, 1940.
Vogel, J. O.Iron Age research project of the Livingstone Museum’, Archaeology, June 1968, 216–18.
Vogel, J. O.The Kalamo culture of southern Zambia’, Zambia Museums Journal, 1971, 77–8.
Vogel, J. O. Kamangoza. Zambia, 1971.
Vogel, J. O. Kumadzulo. Nairobi, 1972.
Vogel, J. O.Some Early Iron Age sites in Southern and Western Zambia’, Azania, 1973, 8, 25–54.
Vrba, E. S.Chronological and ecological implications of the fossil Bovidae at Sterkfontein Australopithecine site’, Nature, 1974, 250, 19–23.
Wainwright, G. A.Some ancient records of Kordofan’, Sudan Notes and Records, 1947, 28, 11–24.
Wainwright, G. A.Iron in the Napatan and Meroitic ages’, Sudan Notes and Records, 1945, 26, 5–36.
Wallace, H. le R. Taxation in Egypt from Augustus to Diocletian. Princeton, 1938.
Walsh, P. G.Masinissa’, Journal of Roman Studies, 1965, 55, 149–60.
Wansbrough, John. Quranic Studies: sources and methods of scriptural interpretation. London Oriental Series, xxxi. Oxford, 1977.
*Wansbrough, John. ‘On recomposing the Islamic history of North Africa’, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1969, 161–70.
Warmington, B. H. The North African provinces from Diocletian to the Vandal conques. Cambridge, 1954.
Warmington, E. H. Carthage, 2nd edn. London, 1969.
Washburn, S. L. and Moore, R. Ape into man: a study of human evolution. Boston, 1974.
Washburn, S. L.Behaviour and the origin of man’, Proceedings of the Royal Anthropological Institute for 1967, 1968, 21–7.
Weeks, Kent R. The classic Christian townsite at Arminna West. Publications of the Pennsylvania-Yale expedition to Nubia, 3. New Haven and Philadelphia, 1967.
Wendorf, F. and others. ‘Dates for the Middle Stone Age of East Africa’, Science, 1974, 187, 740–2.
Wendorf, F. and Marks, A. E. eds. Problems in prehistory: North Africa and the Levant. Dallas, 1975.
Wendorf, F. ed. The prehistory of Nubia. Dallas, 1968. 2 vols.
Wendorf, F. and Schild, R. A Middle Stone Age sequence from the Central Rift Valley, Ethiopia. Warsaw, Polska Akademia Nauk, Institut Historii Kultury Materialnej, 1974.
Wendt, W. E. Die ältesten datierten Kunstwerke Afrikas, special issue, Felskunst (Stuttgart), Bild der Wissenschaft, 1975, 44–50.
Wenig, S.Bemerkungen zur Chronologie des Reiches von Meroe’, Mitteilungen des Instituts für Orientforschung der Deutschen Akademie der Wissenschaften zur Berlin, 1967, 13, 1–44.
Westermann, D.Die westlichen Sudansprachen und ihre Beziehungen zum Bantu’, Mitteilungen des Seminars für orientalische Sprachen, 1927, 30.
White, T.A method of calculating the dietary percentage of various food animals butchered by aboriginal peoples’, American Antiquity, 1953, 18, 396–8.
*Wiet, Gaston. L'Égypte Arabe, Vol. iv of Histoire de la Nation Égyptienne, ed by Hanotaux, G. Paris, 1937.
Willcocks, and Craig, . Egyptian irrigation, 3rd edn. London, 1913.
Willcox, A. R. The rock art of South Africa, Johannesburg, 1963.
Williams, D. Icon and image. London, 1974.
Wilson, M. and Thompson, L. M. eds. Oxford history of South Africa, Vol. 1. Oxford and London, 1969.
Wiseman, D. J. Chronicles of the Chaldean Kings (626–556 BC) in the British Museum. London, 1961.
Wolpoff, M. H.Competitive exclusion among Lower Pleistocene hominids: the single species hypothesis’, Man, 1971, 6, 4, 601–14.
Woodward, E. L. Christianity and nationalism in the later Roman Empire. London, 1916.
Wrigley, C.Speculations on the economic prehistory of Africa’, Journal of African History, 1960, 1, 189–204. Also in Fage, and Oliver, , eds., Papers in African prehistory (see under ‘General’ section, Prehistory), 59–74.
Wulsin, F. R. The prehistoric archaeology of north-west Africa. Cambridge, Mass., 1941; Papers of the Peabody Museum of African Archeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, xix, 1.
Yāqūt, . Kitāb mu'jam al-buldān, ed. by Wüstenfeld, F.. Leipzig, 1866.
Yūsuf, Fadl Hasan. The Arabs and the Sudan. Khartoum, 1973.
Zeuner, F. E. A history of domesticated animals. London, 1963.
Zulueta, F.. De Patrociniis Vicorum. Vol. 1 of Oxford Studies in social and legal history, ed. by Vinogradoff, P.. Oxford, 1909.
Zyhlarz, E.Das Meroitische Sprachproblem’, Anthropos, 1930, 25, 409–63.
Zyhlarz, Ernst. Grundzüge der Nubischen Grammatik im christlichen Frühmittel-alter. Leipzig, 1928; reprinted 1966.