Skip to main content
The Cambridge History of Egypt
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 11
  • Cited by
    This (lowercase (translateProductType product.productType)) has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Asante, Molefi Kete and Ismail, Shaza 2016. Interrogating the African Roman Emperor Caracalla. Journal of Black Studies, Vol. 47, Issue. 1, p. 41.

    Sanyal, Paulami 2015. Egypt: Presidential Elections, 2014. Contemporary Review of the Middle East, Vol. 2, Issue. 3, p. 289.

    Manduchi, Patrizia 2015. Students and Dissent in Egypt. Oriente Moderno, Vol. 95, Issue. 1-2, p. 125.

    Merrill, Samuel and Hack, Hans 2013. Exploring hidden narratives: Conscript graffiti at the former military base of Kummersdorf. Journal of Social Archaeology, Vol. 13, Issue. 1, p. 101.

    Abdelsalam, Hisham M. Reddick, Christopher G. and El Kadi, Hatem A. 2012. Managing E-Government Projects. p. 242.

    Abdelsalam, Hisham M. Reddick, Christopher G. and El Kadi, Hatem A. 2012. Digital Democracy. p. 183.

    Merrill, Samuel Oliver Crichton 2011. Graffiti at Heritage Places: Vandalism as Cultural Significance or Conservation Sacrilege?. Time and Mind, Vol. 4, Issue. 1, p. 59.

    Ulrichsen, Kristian Coates 2011. The Logistics and Politics of the British Campaigns in the Middle East, 1914–22. p. 13.

    Singh, Ranjit 2010. The Arab Opposition Molehill. Digest of Middle East Studies, Vol. 19, Issue. 1, p. 49.

    Martin, William H. and Mason, Sandra 2003. Leisure in three Middle Eastern countries. World Leisure Journal, Vol. 45, Issue. 1, p. 35.

    Goddard, Hugh 2003. Challenges and developments: Christian‐Muslim relations in the Middle East. International journal for the Study of the Christian Church, Vol. 3, Issue. 2, p. 15.

  • Volume 2: Modern Egypt, from 1517 to the End of the Twentieth Century
  • Edited by M. W. Daly, Kettering University, Michigan

  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    The Cambridge History of Egypt
    • Volume 2: Modern Egypt, from 1517 to the End of the Twentieth Century
    • Edited by M. W. Daly
    • Online ISBN: 9781139053341
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

The Cambridge History of Egypt offers the first comprehensive English-language treatment of Egyptian history through thirteen centuries, from the Arab conquest to the present day. The two-volume survey considers the political, socio-economic, and cultural history of the world's oldest state, summarizing the debates and providing insight into current controversies. As today's Egypt reclaims a leading role in the Islamic, Arab, and Afro-Asian worlds, the project stands as testimony to its complex and vibrant past. Volume 2 traces Egypt's modern history from the Ottoman conquest to the end of the twentieth century. A wide range of scholars from the humanities and social sciences have been brought together to explore the history of the period. Their conclusions reflect the work of traditional scholarship and also indicate present trends and future directions in historical writing in Egypt.


Review of the hardback:‘… the first Cambridge History devoted to modern Egypt …’

Source: Journal of the American Oriental Society

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
  • 1 - Ottoman Egypt, 1525–1609
    pp 1-33
  • View abstract
    The period 1525-1609 covers approximately the first third of the history of Ottoman Egypt, and has distinct characteristics. In Egypt, as in most Ottoman provinces, the governor or viceroy was the sultan's representative and was personally responsible for protecting the state's interests. The survival of the Mamluks and their eventual resumption of prominence and power is the most obscure but intriguing question in Egyptian political and social history during the Ottoman period. Riots and revolts among the soldiers in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries had primarily economic origins, although there were also ethnic and racial motives. It is important to examine the situation of the religious minorities in early Ottoman Egypt not only for their own sake, but also because the condition of minorities is an indicator of the majority. The Jews and Christians in Ottoman Egypt enjoyed autonomy in religious and community matters, according to established Islamic tradition.
  • 2 - Egypt in the seventeenth century
    pp 34-58
  • View abstract
    The seventeenth century was an era of momentous change for all provinces of the Ottoman empire, as the empire came to the end of the phase of continuous territorial expansion that had stretched from the mid-fifteenth century through the late sixteenth century. The transformations afoot in the Ottoman capital and the Ottoman empire's heartland had a profound effect on Egypt's military society, whose demographic composition and political rivalries were already highly distinctive. The origin myths of the Fiqaris and Qasimis that the Arabic chronicles report assign a highly archetypal character to the two factions. Egypt's educational and religious institutions, while retaining a separate status from those of the central Ottoman lands, were yet shaped by empire-wide trends even as a greater degree of integration within Egypt itself allowed them, arguably, to assume a distinctly Egyptian character.
  • 3 - Egypt in the eighteenth century
    pp 59-86
  • View abstract
    Egypt continued its drift toward autonomy during the course of the eighteenth century, moving at the same time from dominance by households to rule by individuals. The Ottoman central government had lost its ability to direct the affairs of Egypt in the seventeenth century as most of the leading positions within the administration and the garrison corps had been taken by amirs. Egyptian society maintained its equilibrium as different social groups rose to prominence during the course of the eighteenth century. From the late seventeenth century a new wave of Anatolian Turks came to Egypt. These immigrants, particularly those from the Kazdag in western Anatolia, formed the backbone of the Qazdagli military household or spread throughout Upper and Lower Egypt in search of trade. The resurgence of Egypt under 'Ali Bey Bulut Kapan and Muhammad Bey Abu al-Dhahab and Egyptian economy based on its its export sector are discussed in this chapter.
  • 4 - Culture in Ottoman Egypt
    pp 87-112
  • View abstract
    The culture of the Ottoman period has often been analyzed by using the same criteria applied to the periods before and after it, Mamluk Egypt and the nineteenth century. In both Mamluk Egypt and Egypt under the rule of Muhammad 'Ali and his descendants, the state was very centralized and played an active role in financing and shaping culture and in education. The role of the state and elites underwent an important change after the Ottoman conquest of 1517, resulting in a dislocation of some of its structures. The study of architecture of the Ottoman period has fared somewhat better than that of the arts. A number of historians and architectural historians have formulated other approaches to the subject than the uncomplimentary comparison with Mamluk architecture and have looked at the architecture of the period on its own terms and for its own worth. The role of Sufism in shaping culture and education in Ottoman Egypt was a vital force.
  • 5 - The French occupation of Egypt, 1798–1801
    pp 113-138
  • View abstract
    Of the span of Egypt's history since the arrival of Islam, no comparably brief period has received more scholarly and popular attention than the years 1798-1801, when the country was conquered and occupied by a French military expedition commanded by Napoleon Bonaparte. Generations of western writers agreed with the expedition's commander in asserting that the French occupation was the great and necessary discontinuity in Egypt's history, the act of creative disruption that jolted Egypt out of centuries of somnolence. Bonaparte in August 1797 urged the Directory to capitalize on the seizure of the Ionian Islands by extending French activities against the Ottoman empire, including the eventual capture of Egypt. The Mamluk regime was already beginning to face a population discontented by economic crisis and factional violence in the ten or fifteen years preceding 1798. The French invasion and its sequels surely hastened the demise of the Mamluk elite.
  • 6 - The era of Muhammad ’Ali Pasha, 1805–1848
    pp 139-179
  • View abstract
    The period of Muhammad 'Ali's reign, which started in 1805 when he was appointed by the Ottoman sultan as wali of Egypt, offers one of the most interesting epochs of modern Egyptian history. The period that followed the French evacuation of Egypt in 1801 witnessed a breakdown of law and order. French occupation, had seriously weakened the power of the Mamluks in a manner that led to a power vacuum after the departure of the French army. Pasha's next step was to control the agricultural system with the intention of maximizing profits from it. The fact that the land-tenure system, the system of collecting taxes from the countryside, and the manner of running the entire agricultural economy were inefficient and corrupt was realized by the French as soon as they landed in Egypt. The last period of the Pasha's reign saw him adjusting to the new political situation as defined in the 1841 firman and maximizing his profits from it.
  • 7 - Egypt under the successors of Muhammad ’Ali
    pp 180-197
  • View abstract
    The political history of Egypt between 1848 and 1879 is dominated by the buildup of the dynastic state and by European economic and political penetration leading to the establishment of foreign control. The growth of the state was marked by consolidation of the Muhammad 'Ali family as an Egyptian dynasty, expansion of the administrative apparatus, and the appearance of a bureaucratic elite with a new indigenous component. This chapters explores the developments were associated with three viceroys namely 'Abbas, Sa'id and Isma'il. Envisioning an independent Egypt bound to the west culturally and economically, Isma'il embarked upon military campaigns in Africa and initiated reforms in education and other areas. While 'Abbas cut back in many important areas, including the army, he did not neglect the military establishment. A new military training school was established, which also provided education in technical subjects. Sa'id and Isma'il continued the development begun under 'Abbas of an ostentatious courtly style, imitating the ruling houses of Europe.
  • 8 - The Egyptian empire, 1805–1885
    pp 198-216
  • View abstract
    This chapter concentrates on the Muhammad 'Ali Pasha's adventures in the Arabian peninsula and his successors' drive into the interior of Africa. In 1811 the Pasha broke the power of the Mamluks by treacherously massacring their leaders in the Citadel in Cairo on the occasion of the investiture of his son Tusun as commander of the expeditionary force to the Hijaz. European affairs having been settled by the final defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo, in 1816 Pasha resumed the war in Arabia, where Tusun's withdrawal had encouraged Amir 'Abdallah to break the truce and start fighting again. The rebels firmly established themselves in Yemen, with Mocha as their head quarters, and seriously interrupted the Red Sea trade. This claim of Egyptian sovereignty over the Sudan was a major theme in Sudanese and Egyptian politics until at least the 1950s. Suppression of slavery and the slave trade was the reason given by the khedive for aggressive expansion.
  • 9 - The ‘Urabi revolution and the British conquest, 1879–1882
    pp 217-238
  • View abstract
    Between September 1881 and September 1882 the 'Urabi revolution in Egypt tried to roll back Anglo-French financial and political predominance, the Turco-Circassian monopoly on high military posts, and the authority of Khedive Tawfiq. Britain and France rejected the last, so in September 1879 Tawfiq turned to the frankly autocratic Mustafa Riyad to form a government. Now, with Anglo-French backing through the reestablished Dual Control, Tawfiq's support and the chamber out of the way, Riyad kept control for two full years. Muhammad Sharif's cabinet was again entirely Turco-Circassian. Sultan was furious at being excluded, but becoming the first indigenous Egyptian to preside over the chamber mollified him. The revolution entered its second stage with Mahmud Sami's ensuing cabinet, which included 'Urabi as minister of war. The Alexandria riot, British bombardment, and the ensuing invasion propelled the revolution into its third stage, the final break with Tawfiq and war with Britain.
  • 10 - The British occupation, 1882–1922
    pp 239-251
  • View abstract
    The events of 1882 mark a watershed in the modern history of Egypt. By defeating the Egyptian army and occupying the country, Britain brought a forceful conclusion to almost a century of Great Power rivalry and of increasing Egyptian independence. A British intention to end the occupation as soon as possible was itself instrumental in providing the foundations for a long stay. Only strong measures could begin the restoration of Egypt's political and financial stability, without which the British would not consider evacuation. In August-October 1914, the Ottomans entered the war, the British took steps to buttress their position. A proclamation forbade intercourse with the enemy, censorship was imposed, the legislative assembly was prorogued, sale of Egypt's cotton crop was ensured. The war seemed to clarify the British empire's military and economic dependence on the land and sea routes passing through Egypt, while the expected dissolution of the Ottoman empire would make Egypt the lodestar in new Afro-Asian imperial constellation.
  • 11 - Social and economic change in the “long nineteenth century”
    pp 252-284
  • View abstract
    This chapter looks at a number of social and economic processes as they developed during the nineteenth century with special attention to the three decades from the 1850s to the 1880s. The mainstay of Egypt's dynastic order was a dependent and loyal ruling elite, made up of the senior office-holders in the province. The emergence of a strong, centralized state in nineteenth-century Egypt was greatly facilitated by the availability of European technologies and models of authority. The main processes that took place in Egypt from the seventeenth century onward were similar to those that occurred in the other Ottoman provinces of the Middle East and North Africa. In any event, what is needed to complete the rather complex socio-political picture is a reminder that the second Ottoman period is characterized by hegemonic rule, only temporarily interrupted during the last phase of Qazdagli ascendancy late in the eighteenth century and during the first decade of the nineteenth century.
  • 12 - The liberal age, 1923–1952
    pp 285-308
  • View abstract
    During Egypt's liberal age, between 1923 and 1952, European-style constitutionalism and political pluralism were incorporated into the country's political landscape. Eager for independence from British control and for social and economic reform, the population considered competing ideologies for Egypt's political and economic development including western-style liberalism, monarchy, Islamic fundamentalism, Marxism, feminism and secular nationalism. The liberal era, which spanned the years between 1923 and 1952, featured a political system characterized by western-style constitutionalism and parliamentary government. In this era of feminist politics new organizations and dynamic younger leaders demanded that women gain the right to vote and that the socio-economic system underlying the oppression of women be changed. Egyptian liberal democracy developed in a fragmented and uneven manner, with most political leaders jealous of their positions and uneasy about potential popular activity. Finally, on July 23, 1952, a small, secretive, politically diverse military group carried out a coup d'etat that put an end to liberal democracy in Egypt.
  • 13 - Egypt: society and economy, 1923–1952
    pp 309-333
  • View abstract
    After the First World War, the moral, economic, and political crisis of Anglo-French colonialism created an environment conducive to a new political order in Egypt. A central element of the political economy of the 1892-1924 era was a multifaceted rural ecological crisis. After expanding rapidly in the 1890s, crop yields and cultivated areas reached a plateau, as agriculture attained the economic limits of the environment, deployed technology, and the social relations of production. Two social groups participated in the early efforts to promote Egyptian industrialization: Muslim land owners seeking to diversify their investments and mutamassirun. There has been a broad consensus throughout the twentieth century that Egypt was overpopulated in relation to its arable land. Population pressure on agricultural land induced steady migration from the countryside to the cities. Colonial capitalism was not a static social formation. Technological developments in agriculture and urban migration altered crop patterns, market relations, and the social character of village communities.
  • 14 - Republican Egypt interpreted: revolution and beyond
    pp 334-393
  • View abstract
    From the vantage point of Egypt's most contemporary history, which may be said to have begun on July 23, 1952, the question posed by this dialectic concerns the inaugural status of the Free Officers' movement. The 1948 defeat obviously played an important role in the genesis of the Free Officers' movement, but it is not equally clear that the Egyptian army's perception of the Zionist fait accompli was the same as that imposed after 1956. If, in Philosophy of the Revolution, Nasir was particularly forthcoming about the humiliation felt by the Egyptian military forces, he emphasized mainly the Egyptian, internal factors of this defeat-corruption, the elites' betrayal. The 'Arab socialism' implemented in Egypt in the 1960s was destined to fail from the outset, because of inherent contradictions that condemned its champions to a sort of 'forward flight'. An open-door policy and iberalization vs. democratization measures are discussed in this chapter.
  • 15 - Modern Egyptian culture in the Arab world
    pp 394-426
  • View abstract
    The beginning of modern Egyptian cultural development has traditionally been set at 1798, the date of Napoleon's invasion. The principal cultural innovations of Muhammad 'Ali's reign lay in the sphere of education. The evolution of the theater in modern Egypt again owes something to Sanu', who staged a number of Arabic productions in colloquial Arabic in the early 1870s. The varying fortunes of the theater during this period illustrate the precarious relations between literature and politics that have continued to this day. Traditionally the most prestigious of Arabic literary forms, poetry in Arabic had behind it a continuous tradition of some fourteen centuries, representing what many regarded as one of the pinnacles of Arab civilization. In poetry, the change of mood had already been accompanied by major changes in form, as the first generation of post-Second World War poets began to experiment with various forms of 'free verse', under the influence of western poets such as Eliot and others.
Select Bibliography
A-Nabulsi, ’Abdul Ghani, al-Haqiqa wal majaz fi al-rihla Ha bilad al-sham wa misr wal-hijaz (Cairo, 1986)
‘Abd, al-Karim, Izzat, Ahmad (ed.), ‘Abd al-rahman al-jabarti, dirasat wa buhuth (Cairo, 1976)
‘Abd, al-Rahim, al-Rahim, ‘Abd al-Rahman ‘Abd, “Land Tenure in Egypt and its Social Effects on Egyptian Society: 1798–1813,” in Khalidi, Tarif (ed.), Land Tenure and Social Transformation in the Middle East (Beirut, 1984)
‘Abd, al-Rahim, al-Rahim, ‘Abd al-Rahman ‘Abd, “The Documents of the Egyptian Religious Courts (al-mahakim al-shar‘iyya) as a Source for the Study of Ottoman Provincial Administration in Egypt,” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 34 (1991)
‘Abd, al-Rahim, al-Rahim, ‘Abd al-Rahman ‘Abd, “Yusuf al-Mallawani’s Tuhfat al-ahbab and Ahmad Shalabi ibn ‘Abd al-Ghani’s Awdah al-isharat,” in Crecelius, (ed.), Eighteenth-century Egypt
‘Abd, al-Rahim, al-Rahim, ‘Abd al-Rahman ‘Abd, al-Rif al-misri fi al-qarn al-thamin ashar (Cairo, 1974)
Abdallah, Ahmad, The Student Movement and National Politics in Egypt (London, 1985)
Abdel-Malek, , Anouar, Egypte, société militaire (Paris, 1962)
Abir, Mordechai, “Relations between the Government of India and the Shariff of Mecca during the French Invasion of Egypt, 1798–1801,” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1965)
Abir, Mordechai, “The Arab Rebellion of Amir Ghalib of Mecca (1788–1813), Middle Eastern Studies, 7 (1971)
Abu, Lughod, Ibrahim, , “The Transformation of the Egyptian Elite: Prelude to the Urabi Revolt,” Middle East Journal, 21 (1967)
Abu, Sulayman, ‘Abu, al-Hamid A., Crisis in the Muslim Mind (Herndon, 1993)
Afandi, Husayn, Ottoman Egypt in the Age of the French Revolution, ed. and trans. Shaw, Stanford J. (Cambridge, 1964)
‘Afifi, Hafiz, ‘Ala hamish al-siyasa (Cairo, 1938)
Ahmad, Abd al-Latif, Layla, , Tarikh mu’arrikhu misr wa al-sha (Cairo, 1979)
Ahmed, Leila, Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate (New Haven, 1992)
Akdag, Mustafa, Celali iyanlari (1550–1603) (Ankara, 1963)
Akhbar al-nuwwab min dawlat al-’uthman min hin istawla ’alayha al-sultan salim khan (Istanbul, Topkapi Palace Library, MS Hazine 1623)
Aksan, Virginia, “Choiseul-Gouffier at the Porte, 1784–1792,” Studies in Ottoman Diplomatic History, 4 (1990)
al-Antaqi, Da’ud, Tadhkarat awla al-albab (Beirut, n.d.)
al-Batrik, Abdel Hamid, “Egyptian Yemeni Relations 1819–1840,” in Holt, (ed.), Political and Social Change
al-Bishri, Tariq, al-Harka al-siyasiyya fi misr, 1945–1952 (Cairo, 1972)
al-Damurdashi, , ‘Azaban, Ahmad Katkhuda, al-Damurdashi’s Chronicle of Egypt: 1688–1755, ed. and trans. Crecelius, Daniel and Bakr, Abd al-Wahhab (Leiden, 1991)
al-Disuqi, , ‘Asim, Kibar mullak al-aradi al-zira’iyya wa dawruhum fi al-mujtama’ al-misri, 1914–1952 (Cairo, 1975)
al-Ghannam, Sulayman M., Qira’a jaddidah li siyyasat muhammad ’ali altawasu ’aiyyah (Jidda, 1980)
al-Ghitani, Jamal, Incidents in Zafrani Alley, trans. O’Daniel, Peter (Cairo, 1986)
al-Ghitani, Jamal, Zayni barakat, trans. Wahab, Farouk Abdel (London, 1988)
al-Hakim, Tawfiq, Bird of the East, trans. Winder, R. Bayly (Beirut, 1967)
al-Hakim, Tawfiq, The Maze of Justice, trans. Eban, Abba (London, 1947)
al-Hallaq, , Yusuf, Muhammad ibn, Tarih-i misir-i kahire, Istanbul University Library, ty628
al-Jabarti, , al-Jabarti’s Chronicle of the First Seven Months of the French Occupation of Egypt, trans Moreh, J. S. (Leiden, 1975)
al-Jabarti, , ‘Abd, al-Rahman ibn Hasan, ‘Aja’ib al-athar fi’l-tarajim wa’l-akhbar, 7 vols. (Cairo, 1322 [1904/05]; later ed. 1958–67)
al-Jabarti, , ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Jabarti’s History of Egypt, ed. and trans. Philipp, Thomas and Perlman, Moshe, 4 vols. and guide (Stuttgart, 1994)
al-Jabri, M. A., Fi sha’n allah (Cairo, n.d.)
al-Jami’i, ‘Abd al-Mun’im Ibrahim al-Disuqi, ’Abdallah al-nadim wa dawruhu fi al-haraka al-siyasiyya wa l-ijtima’iyya (Cairo, 1980)
al-Jami’i, ‘Abd al-Mun’im Ibrahim al-Disuqial-Thawra al-’urabiyya: buhuth wa dirasat watha’iqiyya (Cairo, 1982)
al-Jami’i, ‘Abd al-Mun’im Ibrahim al-Disuqi (ed.), al-Thawra al-’urabiyya fi dar al-watha’iq al-misriyya (Cairo, 1982)
al-Jaziri, , Muhammad, ‘Abd al-Qadir ibn, Durar al-fawa id al-munazzama fi akhbar al-hajj wa-tariq makka al-muazzama (Cairo, 1964)
al-Kashshab, , Isma‘il, , Khulasat ma yurad min akhbar al-amir murad, ed. and trans. Badr, Hamza ‘Abd al-‘Aziz and Crecelius, Daniel (Cairo, 1992)
al-Maghrabi, Yusuf, Daf al-isar’an kalam ahl misr, ed. with intro. ‘Awwad, Abdul-Salam Ahmad (Moscow, 1968)
al-Makki, , al-Nahrawali, Qutb al-Din Muhammad ibn Ahmad, al-Barq al-yamani fi l-fath al-‘uthmani, ed. al-Jasir, Hamad (Riyadh, 1967)
al-Muhibbi, , Khulasat al-athar fi a‘yan al-qarn al-hadi ‘ashir, 4 vols. (Cairo, 1248 AH)
al-Nadim, Abdullah, Mudhakkirat al-siyasiyya li abdullah al-nadim, ed. Khalafallah, M. Ahmad (Cairo, 1956)
al-Nahel, Galal H., The Judicial Administration of Ottoman Egypt in the Seventeenth Century (Minneapolis and Chicago, 1979)
al-Naqqash, Salim, Misr lil-misriyyin, vols. IV–IX (Alexandria, 1884)
al-Qaddal, Muhammad Said, al-Mahdiyya wa al-habasha (Beirut, 1992)
al-Sa’id, Rif’at, al-Asas al-ijtima’i li l-thawra al-’urabiyya (Cairo, 1967)
al-Shayyal, Jamal al-Din, “Some Aspects of Intellectual and Social Life in Eighteenth-Century Egypt,” in Holt, (ed.), Political and Social Change
al-Shayyal, Jamal al-Din, Tarikh al-tarjama wa’l haraka al-thaqafiyya fi asr muhammad ’ali (Cairo, 1951)
al-Shinawi, ’Abd al-’Aziz, ’Umar makram: al-muqawamah al-sha’biyya (Cairo, 1967)
al-Shirbini, Yusuf, Hazz al-quhuf (Bulaq, 1274 AH)
al-Suruji, Muhammad Mahmud, al-Jaysh al-misri fi al-qarn al-tasi ’ashar (Cairo, 1967)
al-Tawil, Tawfiq, al-Tasawwuf fi misr ibban al-asr al-’uthtnani, 2 vols. (Cairo, 1938,1988)
Albin, Michael, “Napoleon’s Description de l’Egypte: Problems of Corporate Authorship,” Publishing History, 8 (1980)
Allen, Roger, A Period of Time (London, 1992)
Amin, Samir, La nation arabe: nationalisme et luttes de classe (Paris, 1976)
Anderson, Robert and Fawzy, Ibrahim (eds.), Egypt in 1800: Scenes from Napoleon’s Description de l’Egypte (London, 1988)
Anis, Muhammad, Madrasat al-ta’rikh al-misri fi al-asr al-’uthmani (Cairo, 1962)
Arthur, George, Life of Lord Kitchener (London, 1920)
Ayalon, David, “Furusiyya Exercises and Games in the Mamluk Sultanate,” Scripta Hierosolymitana, 9 (1961)
Ayalon, David, “Studies in al-Jabarti I: Notes on the Transformation of Mamluk Society in Egypt under the Ottomans,” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 3/2, 3/3 (1960)
Ayalon, David, “Studies on the Structure of the Mamluk Army,” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 15 (1953)
Ayalon, David, L’esclavage du mamelouk (Jerusalem, 1951)
Ayubi, Nazih, “Government and the State in Egypt Today,” in Tripp, Charles and Owen, Roger (eds.), Egypt under Mubarak (London and New York, 1989)
Ayubi, Nazih, Bureaucracy and Politics in Contemporary Egypt (London, 1980)
Bacque-Grammont, Jean-Louis, Les Ottomans, les Safavides et leurs voisins (Istanbul, 1987)
Badawi, M. M., Early Arabic Drama (Cambridge, 1988)
Badawi, M. M., Modern Arabic Drama in Egypt (Cambridge, 1987)
Badawi, M. M. (ed.), Modern Arabic Literature (Cambridge, 1992)
Badran, Margot, Feminists, Islam and Nation: Gender and the Making of Modern Egypt (Princeton, 1995)
Baer, Gabriel, “Fellah and Townsman in Ottoman Egypt: A Study of Shirbini’s Hazz al-Quhuf,” Asian and African Studies, 8 (1972)
Baer, Gabriel, Fellah and Townsman in the Middle East: Studies in Social History (London, 1982)
Baer, Gabriel, Studies in the Social History of Modern Egypt (Chicago and London, 1969)
Baghat, Ali, “Acte de mariage du General Abdallah Menou avec la dame Zobaidah,” Bulletin de l’Institut Egyptien, 3rd series, 9 (1899)
Baghat, Ali, “La famille musulmane du General Abdallah Menou,” Bulletin de l’Institut Egyptien, 4th series, I (1900)
Bannerth, Ernst, “La Khalwatiyya en Egypte: quelques aspects de la vie d’une confrérie,” Mélanges de l’Institut Dominicain des Etudes Orientales, 8 (1964–66)
Barkan, Omer Lutfi, “The Price Revolution of the Sixteenth Century: A Turning Point in the Economic History of the Near East,” International Journal of Middle East Studies, 6 (1975)
Barkan, Omer Lutfi, Osmanli imparatorlugunda zirai ekonominin hukuki ve mali esaslari (Istanbul, 1943)
Baron, Beth, The Women’s Awakening in Egypt: Culture, Society and the Press (New Haven, 1994)
Beaucour, Fernand, et al., The Discovery of Egypt, trans. Ballard, B. (Paris, 1990)
Behrens-Abouseif, Doris, Azbakiyya and its Environs, from Azbak to Isma’il, 1476–1879 (Cairo, 1985)
Behrens-Abouseif, Doris, Egypt’s Adjustment to Ottoman Rule: Institutions, Waqf, and Architecture in Cairo (Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries) (Leiden, 1994)
Beinin, Joel and Lockman, Zachary, Workers on the Nile: Nationalism, Communism, Islam and the Egyptian Working Class, 1882–1954 (Princeton, 1987)
Beinin, Joel, “Writing Class: Workers and Modern Egyptian Colloquial Poetry (Zajal),” Poetics Today, 15/2 (Summer 1994)
Berque, Jacques, Egypt: Imperialism and Revolution, trans. Stewart, Jean (New York, 1972)
Berthier, Louis-Alexandre, Relation des campagnes du General Bonaparte en Egypte et en Syrie (Paris, 1800)
Beshir, M. O., The Southern Sudan (London, 1975)
Bianchi, Robert, Unruly Corporatism: Associational Life in Twentieth-century Egypt (New York, 1990)
Binder, Leonard, In a Moment of Enthusiasm: Political Power and the Second Stratum in Egypt (Chicago, 1978)
Bint, al-Shati’ (al-Rahman, ‘A’isha ’Abd), al-Rif al-misri (Cairo, 1936)
Bint, al-Shati’ (al-Rahman, ‘A’isha ’Abd), Qadiyyat al-fallah (Cairo, 1938[?])
Blackburn, J. R., “The Collapse of Ottoman Authority in Yemen, 968/1560–976/1568,” Die Welt des Islams, n.s., 19, 1, 4 (1979)
Blunt, Wilfrid Seawen, Secret History of the English Occupation of Egypt: Being a Personal Narrative of Events (New York, 1922)
Booth, Marilyn, “Poetry in the Vernacular,” in Badawi, (ed.), Modern Arabic Literature
Booth, Marilyn, Bayram al-Tunisi’s Egypt (Exeter, 1990)
Botiveau, Bernard, Loi islamique et droit dans les sociétés arabes (Paris, 1994)
Botman, Selma, The Rise of Egyptian Communism (Syracuse, 1988)
Bouley, Meurthe, Alfred, , La directoire et l’expédition d’Egypte: étude sur les tentatives du directoire pour communiquer avec Bonaparte (Paris, 1885)
Bowring, Sir John, “Report on Egypt and Candia,” Parliamentary Papers: Reports from Commissioners, 21 (1840)
Boyd, Douglas A., Broadcasting in the Arab World (Philadelphia, 1982)
Broadley, A. M., How we Defended Arabi and his Friends (London, 1884; repr. Cairo, 1980)
Brown, Nathan J., Peasant Politics in Modern Egypt: The Struggle against the State (New Haven, 1990)
Burke, Edmund III (ed.), Struggle and Survival in the Modern Middle East (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1993)
Burns, W. J., Economic Aid and American Policy toward Egypt, 1955–1981 (New York, 1984)
Cachia, Pierre, “The Critics,” in Badawi, (ed.), Modern Arabic Literature
Cachia, Pierre, Taha Husayn (London, 1956)
Carré, Jean-Marie, Voyageurs et écrivains français en Egypte (Cairo, 1956)
Carré, Olivier and Michaud, Gérard, Les frères musulmans, 1928–1982 (Paris, 1983)
Carré, Olivier, L’orient arabe aujourd’hui (Paris, 1991)
Carter, B. L., The Copts in Egyptian Politics (London, 1986)
Cezzar, Ahmad Pasha, Ottoman Egypt in the Eighteenth Century: The Nizam-name-i Misir of Cezzar Ahmed Pasha, ed. and trans. Shaw, Stanford J. (Cambridge, 1962)
Chabrol, , “Essai sur les moeurs des habitants modernes de l’Egypte,” Description de l’Egypte, état moderne, vol. II (Paris, 1822)
Chamberlain, M. E., “The Alexandria Massacre of II June 1882 and the British Occupation of Egypt,” Middle Eastern Studies, 13 (1977)
Charles-Roux, François, “France, Egypte et Mer Rouge de 1715 à 1798,” Cahiers d’histoire égyptienne, 3 (1951)
Charles-Roux, François, “Le projet français de conquête de l’Egypte sous le règne de Louis XVI,” Mémoires de l’Institut d’Egypte, 14 (Cairo, 1929)
Charles-Roux, François, “Une négotiation pour l’évacuation de l’Egypte: la convention d’el Arich (1800),” Revue d’histoire diplomatique, 37 (1923)
Charles-Roux, François, Bonaparte, gouverneur d’Egypte (Paris, 1936; trans. Dickes, E. W. as Bonaparte, governor of Egypt [London, 1937])
Charles-Roux, François, Autour d’une route. L’Angleterre, l’isthme de Suez et l’Egypte au XVIIIe siècle (Paris, 1922)
Charles-Roux, François, Les origines de l’expédition de l’Egypte, 2nd ed. (Paris, 1910)
Chevalier, M., “La politique financière de l’expédition d’Egypte, 1798–1801,” Cahiers d’histoire égyptienne, 7 (1955), 8 (1956)
Cleland, Wendell, The Population Problem in Egypt: A Study of Population Trends and Conditions in Modern Egypt (Lancaster, PA, 1936)
Clement, R., Les Français d’Egypte aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles (Cairo, 1960)
Cohn, Bernard S. and Dirks, Nicholas B., “Beyond the Fringe: The Nation State, Colonialism, and the Technologies of Power,” Journal of Historical Sociology, 1/2 (1988)
Cole, Juan R. I., “Feminism, Class and Islam in Turn-of-the Century Egypt,” International Journal of Middle East Studies, 13 (1981)
Cole, Juan R. I., Colonialism and Revolution in the Middle East: Social and Cultural Origins of Egypt’s ’Urabi Movement (Princeton, 1993)
Collins, R. O., The Southern Sudan in Historical Perspective (Tel Aviv, 1975)
Colombe, Marcel, L’évolution de l’Egypte, 1924–1950 (Paris, 1951)
,Commission des Monuments d’Egypte, Description de l’Egypte 1st ed., (Paris, 1810–29)
Cook, M. A., Population Pressure in Rural Anatolia, 1450–1600 (London, New York, and Oxford, 1972)
Copies of Original Letters from the Army of General Bonaparte in Egypt: Intercepted by the Fleet under the Command of Admiral Lord Nelson (London, 1798)
Coppin, Jean, Les voyages en Egypte de Jean Coppin 1638–1646 (Cairo, 1971)
Correspondance de Napoléon I: publiée par ordre de l’empereur Napoléon III, 32 vols. (Paris, 1858–70)
Crecelius, Daniel, “Ahmad Shalabi ibn ’Abd al-Ghani and Ahmad Katkhuda ’Azaban al-Damurdashi: Two Sources for al-Jabarti’s ‘Aja’ib al-athar fi’l tarajim wa’l akhbar,” in Crecelius, (ed.), Eighteenth-century Egypt
Crecelius, Daniel, “The Emergence of the Shaykh al-Azhar as the Pre-eminent Religious Leader in Egypt,” in Assabgui, Andrée et al. (eds.), Colloque international sur l’histoire du Caire (Cairo, 1969)
Crecelius, Daniel, “Unratified Commercial Treaties between Egypt and England and France, 1773–1794,” Revue d’histoire maghrebine, 12 (1985)
Crecelius, Daniel, The Roots of Modern Egypt: A Study in the Regimes of Ali Bey al-Kabir and Muhammad Bey al-Dhahab, 1760–1775 (Minneapolis and Chicago, 1980)
Crecelius, Daniel (ed.), Eighteenth-century Egypt: The Arabic Manuscript Sources (Claremont, 1990)
Cromer, Lord, Modern Egypt, 2 vols. (London, 1908)
Cuno, Kenneth M., The Pasha’s Peasants: Land, Society, and Economy in Lower Egypt, 1740–1858 (Cambridge, 1992)
Daly, M. W., The Sirdar (Philadelphia, 1997)
Davis, Eric, Challenging Colonialism: Bank Misr and Egyptian Industrialization, 1920–1941 (Princeton, 1983)
Deeb, Marius, “The Socioeconomic Role of the Local Foreign Minorities in Modern Egypt, 1805–1961,” International Journal of Middle East Studies, 9 (1978)
Deeb, Marius, Party Politics in Egypt: The Wafd and its Rivals, 1919–1939 (London, 1979)
Deringil, Selim, “The Ottoman Response to the Egyptian Crisis of 1881–82,” Middle Eastern Studies, 24 (1988)
Dodge, Bayard, Al-Azhar: A Millennium of Muslim Learning (Washington, DC, 1974)
Dodwell, Henry, The Founder of Modern Egypt (Cambridge, 1931)
Doss, Madiha, “Some Remarks on the Oral Factor in Arabic Linguistics,” Dialectologia Arabica: A Collection of Articles in Honour of the Sixtieth Birthday of Professor Heikki Palva (Helsinki, 1995)
Doss, Madiha, “Military Chronicles of Seventeenth-century Egypt as an Aspect of Popular Culture,” paper presented to the Colloquium on Logos, , Ethos and , Mythos in the Middle East and North Africa, Budapest, September 18–22, 1995
Douin, Georges, L’Egypte de 1802 à 1804 (Cairo, 1925)
Douin, Georges (ed.), La mission du Baron de Boislecomte, l’Egypte et la Syrie en 1833 (Cairo, 1927)
Douin, Georges and Fawtier-Jones, E. (eds.), L’Angleterre et l’Egypte, 3 vols. (Cairo, 1928–30)
Dresch, Paul, Tribes, Government, and History in Yemen (Oxford, 1989)
Dunya, , ’Abd al-’Aziz Hafiz, al-Shahid muhammad kurayyim (Cairo, n.d.)
Eccel, A. Chris, Egypt, Islam and Social Change: al-Azhar in Conflict and Accommodation (Berlin, 1984)
Egger, Vernon, A Fabian in Egypt: Salamah Musa and the Rise of the Professional Classes in Egypt, 1909–1939 (Lanham, 1986)
El-Enany, Rasheed, The Pursuit of Meaning (London, 1993)
el-Soroughy, M. M., “Egyptian Historiography of Napoleon Bonaparte in the Twentieth Century,” al-Majallah al-tarikhiyya al-misriyyah, 20 (1973)
Elad, Ami, The Village Novel in Egypt (Berlin, 1992)
Elgood, Percival S., Bonaparte’s Adventure in Egypt (London, 1931)
Eman, André, L’industrie du coton en Egypte: étude d’économie politique (Cairo, 1943)
En-Nahal, Galal, The Judicial Administration of Ottoman Egypt (Minneapolis and Chicago, 1979)
Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd ed. (Leiden, 1960–)
Etienne, Bruno, L’islamisme radical (Paris, 1987)
Evans, Trefor (ed.), The Killearn Diaries, 1934–1946: The Diplomatic and Personal Record of Lord Killearn (London, 1972)
Evliya, Çelebi, Evliya Çelebi seyahatnamesi, ed. Cevdet, Ahmed, 10 vols. (Istanbul, 1888–1938)
Faraj, Muhammad, al-Nidal al-sha’bi didd al-hamla al-faransiyya (Cairo, 1963)
Fargette, Guy, Mehemet Ali: le fondateur de l’Egypte moderne (Paris, 1996)
Faroqhi, Suraiya, “Rural Society in Anatolia and the Balkans during the Sixteenth Century,” Turkica, 9 (1977), 11 (1979)
Faroqhi, Suraiya, Pilgrims and Sultans: The Hajj under the Ottomans (London and New York, 1994)
Faroqhi, Suraiya, with Leila, Erder, “Population Rise and Fall in Anatolia, 1550–1620,” Middle Eastern Studies, 15 (1979)
Fedorak, Charles John, “The French Capitulation in Egypt and the Preliminary Anglo-French Treaty of Peace in October 1801: A Note,” International History Review, 15 (1993)
Fernandes, Leonor, “Some Aspects of the Zawiya in Egypt at the Eve of the Ottoman Conquest,” Annales islamologiques, 19 (1983)
Garcin, Jean-Claude, “Le Proche Orient è l’époque mamluke,” in Garcin, Jean-Claude (ed.) et al., Etats, sociétés et cultures du monde Musulman médiécal Xe–XVe siècles (Paris, 1995)
Gershoni, Israel, The Emergence of Pan-Arabism in Egypt (Tel Aviv, 1981)
Ghali, Mirrit, al-Islah al-zira’i: al-milkiyya, al-ijar, al-’amal (Cairo, 1945)
Ghali, Mirrit, Siyasat al-ghad (Cairo, 1938)
Ghali, Wajdi Rizq, al-Mu’ajamat al-’arabiyya, biblighrafiyya shamila mashruha, intro. Nassar, Husayn (Cairo, 1971)
Ghiselin, Busbecq, Ogier, The Turkish Letters of Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq, ed. and trans. Forster, E. S. (Oxford and London, 1968)
Ghorbal, Shafik, Beginnings of the Egyptian Question and the Rise of Mehemet-Ali (London, 1928)
Gillespie, Charles C., “Scientific Aspects of the French Egyptian Expedition 1798–1801,” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 133 (1989)
Gillespie, Charles C. and Dewachter, Michael (eds.), Monuments of Egypt. The Napoleonic Edition: The Complete Plates of Antiquity from the Napoleonic Description de l’Egypte (Princeton, 1987)
Girgis, Samir, The Predominance of the Islamic Tradition of Leadership in Egypt during Bonaparte’s Expedition (Frankfurt, 1975)
Goby, Jean-Edouard, “Contribution à I’inventaire des sources manuscrites et à l’étude bibliographique de l’histoire de I’expédition française en Egypte,” Bulletin de I’Institut d’Egypte, 33 (1952)
Goby, Jean-Edouard, “Les quarante éditions, traductions, et adaptations du ‘Voyage dans la Basse et la Haute Egypte’ de Vivant Denon,” Cahiers d’histoire égyptienne, 4 (1952)
Goitein, S. D., “Townsman and Fellah: A Geniza Text from the Seventeen Century,” Asian and African Studies, 8 (1972)
Goldman, I. M., The Life and Times of Rabbi David Ibn Abi Zimra (New York, 1970)
Goldschmidt, Arthur, Modern Egypt: The Formation of a Nation-State (Boulder, 1988)
Gordon, Joel, “The False Hopes of 1950: The Wafd’s Last Hurrah and the Demise of Egypt’s Old Order,” International Journal of Middle East Studies, 21 (May 1989)
Gran, Peter, “Late Eighteenth-Early Nineteenth-century Egypt: Merchant Capitalism or Modern Capitalism?L’Egypte au XIXe siècle
Gran, Peter, Islamic Roots of Capitalism (Austin, 1978)
Gray, Richard, A History of the Southern Sudan 1839–1889 (London, 1961)
Groupe de recherches et d’études sur le Proche-Orient, L’Egypte au XIXe siècle (Paris, 1982)
Guemard, Gabriel, “Les auxiliaries de l’armée de Bonaparte en Egypte (1798–1801),” Bulletin de I’Institut d’Egypte, 9 (1927)
Haddad, George A., “A Project for the Independence of Egypt, 1801,” Journal of the American Oriental Society, 90 (1970)
Hafez, Sabry, “The Modern Arabic Short Story,” in , Badawi (ed.), Modern Arabic Literature
Hafez, Sabry, The Genesis of Arabic Narrative Discourse (London, 1993)
Halls, J. J., The Life and Correspondence of Henry Salt, 2 vols. (London, 1834)
Hamawi, Ahmad Muhammad, Fada’il salatin bani ’uthman, ed. Salim, Muhsin Muhammad Hasan (Cairo, 1993)
Hamont, Pierre, L’Egypte sous Mehemet-Ali, 2 vols. (Paris, 1843)
Hanna, Nelly, “The Administration of Courts in Ottoman Cairo,” in Hanna, Nelly (ed.), The State and its Servants: Administration in Egypt from Ottoman Times to the Present (Cairo, 1995)
Hanna, Nelly, “Cultural Life in Mamluk Households (Late Ottoman Period),” paper presented to the international conference on The Mamluks in Egyptian Politics and Society, Bad Homburg, December 1994 (forthcoming)
Hanna, Nelly, An Urban History of Bulaq in the Mamluk and Ottoman Periods (Cairo, 1983)
Hanna, Nelly, Habiter au Caire aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles (Cairo, 1991)
Hansen, Bent, The Political Economy of Poverty, Equity, and Growth: Egypt and Turkey (Oxford, 1991)
Hathaway, Jane, “Sultans, Pashas, Taqwims, and Muhimmes: A Reconsideration of Chonicle-writing in Eighteenth-century Ottoman Egypt,” in , Crecelius (ed.), Eighteenth-century Egypt
Hathaway, Jane, “The Military Household in Ottoman Egypt,” International Journal of Middle East Studies, 27 (1995)
Hathaway, Jane, “The Role of the Kizlar Agasi in Seventeenth-Eighteenth-century Egypt,” Studia Islamica, 75 (1992)
Hathaway, Jane, “The Wealth and Influence of an Exiled Ottoman Eunuch in Egypt: The Waqf Inventory of ’Abbas Agha,” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 37 (1994)
Hathaway, Jane, The Politics of Households in Ottoman Egypt: The Rise of the Qazdaglis (Cambridge, 1997)
Hattox, Ralph S., Coffee and Coffeehouses: The Origins of a Social Beverage in the Medieval Near East (Seattle and London, 1985)
Haykal, Muhammad Hasanayn, Le sphinx et le commissaire (Paris, 1978)
Haykal, Muhammad Hasanayn, Les documents du Caire (Paris, 1972)
Haykal, Muhammad Hasanayn, The Road to Ramadan (London, 1975)
Haykal, Muhammad Husayn, Mudhakkirat fi’l siyasa al-misriyya, 3 vols. (Cairo, 1977–78)
Herold, J. Christopher, Bonaparte in Egypt (New York, 1962)
Heyworth-Dunne, J., An Introduction to the History of Education in Modern Egypt (London, 1938; repr. 1968)
Hill, Richard and Hogg, Peter, A Black Corps d’Elite (East Lansing, 1995)
Hill, Richard, “The Gordon Literature,” Durham University Journal, n.s., 16/3 (1955)
Hill, Richard, Slatin Pasha (London, 1965)
Hinnebusch, Raymond, “The Formation of the Contemporary Egyptian State from Nasser and Sadat to Mubarak,” in Oweiss, Ibrahim M. (ed.), The Political Economy of Contemporary Egypt (Georgetown, 1990)
Hinnebusch, Raymond, Egyptian Politics under Sadat: The Post-populist Development of an Authoritarian-Modernizing State (Cambridge, 1985)
Hirst, David and Beeson, Irene, Sadat (London, 1981)
Holt, P. M. and Daly, M. W., A History of the Sudan, 4th ed. (London, 1988)
Holt, P. M., “al-Jabarti’s Introduction to the History of Ottoman Egypt,” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 25 (1962)
Holt, P. M., “Ottoman Egypt (1517–1798): An Account of Arabic Historical Sources,” in Holt, (ed.), Political and Social Change
Holt, P. M., “The Beylicate in Egypt during the Seventeenth Century,” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 24 (1961)
Holt, P. M., “The Career of Kuchuk Muhammad (1676–94),” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 26 (1963)
Holt, P. M., “The Exalted Lineage of Ridwan Bey: Some Observations on a Seventeenth-century Mamluk Genealogy,” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 22 (1959)
Holt, P. M., “The Islamization of the Nilotic Sudan,” in Brett, Michael (ed.), Northern Africa: Islam and Modernization (London, 1973)
Holt, P. M., Egypt and the Fertile Crescent, 1516–1922 (Ithaca, 1966; 2nd ed. London, 1980)
Holt, P. M., Studies in the History of the Near East (London, 1973)
Holt, P. M., The Mahdist State in the Sudan, 2nd ed. (Oxford, 1970)
Holt, P. M. (ed.), Political and Social Change in Modern Egypt (London, 1968)
Hopkins, A. G., “The Victorians and Africa: A Reconsideration of the Occupation of Egypt, 1882,” Journal of African History, 27 (1986)
Hourani, Albert, “Conclusions,” L’Egypte au XIXe siècle
Hourani, Albert, Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age (London, 1962)
Howard, Douglas A., “Ottoman Historiography and the Literature of ‘Decline’ of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries,” Journal of Asian History, 22 (1988)
Humaydah, B. K., Malamih min ta’rikh al-sudan fi ad al-khidawi isma’il (Khartoum, n.d.)
Hunter, F. Robert, Egypt under the Khedives, 1805–1879: From Household Government to Modern Bureaucracy (Pittsburgh, 1984)
Hurewitz, J. C. (ed.), The Middle East and North Africa in World Politics: A Documentary Record, 2nd ed., 2 vols. (New Haven, 1975)
Hussein, Mahmoud, La lutte des classes en Egypte, 1945–1970 (Paris, 1971)
Ibn, Abi I-Surur al-Bakri al-Siddiqi, Muhammad, , “Kashf al-kurba fi raf al-tulba,” ed. al-Rahim, ‘Abd al-Rahman ‘Abd al-Rahim ‘Abd, in al-Majalla al-tarikhiyya al-misriyya, 23 (1976), 291–384
Ibn, Abi l-Surur al-Bakri al-Siddiqi, Muhammad, , al-Qawl al-muqtadab fima wafaq lughat ahl misr min lughat al-‘arab, ed. Salim, al-Sayyid Ibrahim; intro. al-Ibiari, Ibrahim (Cairo, 1962)
Ibn, Abi l-Surur al-Bakri al-Siddiqi, Muhammad, , al-Tuhfa al-bahiyya fi tamalluk al- ’uthman al-diyar al-misriyya,MS HO 35, 5, Vienna
Ibn, Iyas, Ahmad, Muhammad ibn, An Account of the Ottoman Conquest of Egypt in the Year AH 922 (AD 1516), trans. Salmon, W. H. (London, 1921)
Ibrahim, H. A., Muhammad ‘ali fi’l sudan, 2nd ed. (Khartoum, 1991)
Ilbert, Robert, “La cohérence et l’informel: essai pour servir à une histoire de l’Egypte contemporaine,” in Itinéraires d’Egypt: Mélanges offerts au Père Martin (Cairo, 1992)
Inalcik, Halil, “Military and Fiscal Transformation in the Ottoman Empire, 1600–1700,” Archivum Ottomanicum, 6 (1980)
Inalcik, Halil, “The Ottoman Decline and its Effects upon the Reaya,” in Birnbaum, Henrick and Vryonis, Speros Jr. (eds.), Aspects of the Balkans, Continuity and Change: Contributions to the International Balkan Conference Held at UCLA, October 23–28 1969 (The Hague, 1972)
Inalcik, Halil, “The Socio-political Effects of the Diffusion of Firearms in the Middle East,” in Parry, V. J. and Yapp, Malcolm (eds.), War, Technology and Society in the Middle East (London, 1975)
Inalcik, Halil, The Ottoman Empire: The Classical Age, 1300–1600 (London, 1973)
Inalcik, Halil and Quataert, Donald (eds.), An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire, 1300–1914 (Cambridge and New York, 1994)
Index of Mohamedan Monuments, Cairo Survey Department (Cairo, 1951)
Ingram, Edward, “The Failure of British Sea Power in the War of the Second Coalition, 1798–1801,” in Ingram, Edward, In Defence of British India: Great Britain in the Middle East, 1774–1842 (London, 1984)
Issawi, Charles, Egypt in Revolution: An Economic Analysis (London, 1963)
Issawi, Charles, The Economic History of the Middle East 1800–1914 (Chicago, 1966)
Jallad, Filib (ed.), Qamus al-idara wa’l qada, 4 vols. (Alexandria, 1890–92)
Jankowski, James P., “Egyptian Responses to the Palestine Problem in the Interwar Period,” International Journal of Middle East Studies, 12/1 (August 1980)
Jankowski, James P., Egypt’s Young Rebels: “Young Egypt,” 1932–1952 (Stanford, 1975)
Johansen, Baber, “Legal Literature and the Problem of Change: The Case of the Land Rent,” in Mallat, Chibli (ed.), Islam and Public Law (London, 1993)
Kazemi, Farhad and Waterbury, John (eds.), Peasants and Politics in the Modern Middle East (Miami, 1991)
Kedourie, Elie, “Sa’ad Zaghlul and the British,” St. Anthony’s Papers, 11, Middle Eastern Affairs, 2 (Oxford, 1961)
Kedourie, Elie, Afghani and Abduh (London, 1966)
Kelly, J. B., Britain and the Persian Gulf, 1795–1880 (Oxford, 1968)
Kepel, G., Le prophète et Pharaon: les mouvements islamistes dans l’Egypte contemporaine (Paris, 1984)
Kerr, Malcolm, The Arab Cold War, 1958–1964: A Study of Ideology in Politics (London, 1965)
Khadra al-Jayyusi, Salma, “Modernist Poetry in Arabic,” in Badawi, (ed.), Modern Arabic Literature
Khadra al-Jayyusi, Salma, Trends and Movements in Modern Arabic Poetry, 2 vols. (Leiden, 1977)
Khater, Akram and Nelson, Cynthia, “al-Harakh al-nissa’iyah: The Women’s Movement and Political Participation in Modern Egypt,” Women’s Studies International Forum, 11 (1988)
Khury, Fuad Ishaq, Imams and Emirs: State, Religion, and Sects in Islam (London, 1990)
Kilani, Muhammad Sayyid, al-Adab al-misri fi dhill al-hukm al-’uthmani 922–1220/1517–1805 (Cairo, 1984)
Kilpatrick, Hilary, “The Egyptian Novel from Zaynab to 1980,” in Badawi, (ed.), Modern Arabic Literature
Kimche, David, “The Opening of the Red Sea to European Ships in the Late Eighteenth Century,” Middle Eastern Studies, 8 (1972)
King, David, A Catalogue of the Scientific Manuscripts in the Egyptian National Library, part 2 (Cairo, 1986)
Kirk, George, The Middle East in the War (London, 1952)
Kramer, Gudrun, The Jews of Modern Egypt, 1914–1952. (Seattle, 1989)
Kuhnke, La Verne, Lives at Risk: Public Health in Nineteenth-century Egypt (Berkeley, 1990)
Kunt, Metin, The Sultan’s Servants: The Transformation of Ottoman Provincial Government, 1550–1650 (New York, 1983)
Kurpershoek, P. M., The Short Stories of Yusuf Idris (Leiden, 1981)
Kurtoglu, Fevzi, Turk bayragi ve ay yildiz (Ankara, 1938)
La, Jonquière, Clément Etienne de, L’expédition d’Egypte, 5 vols. (Paris, 1899–1907)
Lacouture, J. and Lacouture, S., L’Egypte en mouvement (Paris, 1956)
Landau, J. M. (ed.), The Jews in Ottoman Egypt (1517–1914) (Jerusalem, 1988) (in Hebrew)
Landau, J. M., Parliaments and Parties in Egypt (Tel Aviv, 1953)
Landau, J. M., Studies in the Arab Theater and Cinema (Philadelphia, 1958)
Landes, David, Bankers and Pashas: International Finance and Economic Imperialism in Egypt (Cambridge, MA, 1958)
Lane, Edward William, The Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians (London, 1836; new ed., London, 1954; repr. 1989)
Lane, Edward William, The Thousand and One Nights, 3 vols. (London, 1859; repr. 1980)
Laurens, Henry et al., L’expédition d’Egypte: 1798–1801 (Paris, 1989)
Laurens, Henry, “L’Egypte en 1802: un rapport inédit de Sabastiani,” Annales islamologiques, 23 (1987)
Laurens, Henry, L’expédition d’Egypte: Bonaparte et l’Islam: le choc des cultures (Paris, 1989)
Laurens, Henry, Le grand jeu: Orient arabe et rivalités internationales (Paris, 1991)
Laurens, Henry, Les origines intellectuelles de l’expédition e’Egypte: l’orientalisme islamisant en France (1698–1798) (Istanbul and Paris, 1987)
Laurens, Henry (ed.), Correspondance: Kleber en Egypte, 1798–1800: Kleber et Bonaparte, 1798–1799, 2 vols. (Cairo, 1988)
,League of Arab States, Institute of Arabic Manuscripts, Catalogue of Microfilmed Manuscripts (Cairo, 1970)
Lewis, Bernard, The Emergence of Modern Turkey, 2nd ed. (London and New York, 1968)
Lewis, Bernard, The Middle East and the West (London, 1968)
Livingston, John W., “Shaykh Bakri and Bonaparte,” Studia Islamica, 80 (1994)
Lloyd, Lord, Egypt since Cromer, 2 vols. (London, 1933–34)
Lockman, Zachary, “Imagining the Working Class: Culture, Nationalism and Class Formation in Egypt, 1899–1914,” Poetics Today, 15/2 (Summer 1994)
Louca, Anouar, “La renaissance égyptienne et les limites de l’œuvre de Bonaparte,” Cahiers d’histoire égyptienne, 7 (1955)
Louis, W. Roger, The British Empire in the Middle East, 1945–1951 (Oxford, 1984)
Mabro, Robert, The Egyptian Economy, 1952–1982 (Oxford, 1974)
Macksey, Piers, British Victory in Egypt, 1801: The End of Napoleon’s Conquest (London and New York, 1995)
Magnus, Philip, Kitchener: Portrait of an Imperialist (London, 1958)
Mahfuz, Najib, Children of Gebelawi, trans. Stewart, Philip (London, 1981)
Maksudoglu, Mehmet, Osmanli History (Kuala Lumpur, forthcoming [1998])
Malet, Edward, Egypt, 1879–1883 (London, 1909)
Malkmus, Lizbeth and Armes, , , Roy, Arab and African Film Making (London, 1991)
Manaf, ‘Abd al-Azim (ed.), al-Thawra al-‘urabiyya, mi’ at amm, 1881–1981 (Cairo, 1981)
Mansfield, Peter, The British in Egypt (London, 1971)
Mantran, Robert, “Avant-propos,” L’Egypte au XIX siécle
Maqar, Nasim, al-Bikbashi al-masri salim qabudan wa al-kashfan manabia al nil al-abyad (Cairo, n.d.)
Maqar, Nasim, Misr wa bina al-sudan al-hadith (Cairo, 1993)
Marlowe, John, Anglo-Egyptian Relations 1800–1953 (New York, 1970)
Marlowe, John, Cromer in Egypt (London, 1970)
Marsot, Afaf Lutfi al-Sayyid, “A Comparative Study of ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Jabarti and Niqila al-Turk,” in , Crecelius (ed.), Eighteenth-century Egypt
Marsot, Afaf Lutfi al-Sayyid, “The ‘Ulama’ of Cairo in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century,” in Keddie, Nikki R. (ed.), Scholars, Saints and Sufis: Muslim Religious Institutions since 1500 (Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London, 1972)
Marsot, Afaf Lutfi al-Sayyid, “The Political and Economic Functions of the Ulama in the Eighteenth Century,” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 16 (1973)
Marsot, Afaf Lutfi al-Sayyid, “The Role of the Ulama in Egypt during the Early Nineteenth Century,” in , Holt (ed.), Political and Social Change
Marsot, Afaf Lutfi al-Sayyid, A Short History of Modern Egypt (Cambridge, 1985)
Marsot, Afaf Lutfi al-Sayyid, Egypt and Cromer (New York, 1969)
Marsot, Afaf Lutfi al-Sayyid, Egypt in the Reign of Muhammad Ali (Cambridge, 1984)
Martin, B. G., “A Short History of the Khalwati Order of Dervishes,” in Keddie, Nikkie R. (ed.), Scholars, Saints and Sufis: Muslim Religious Institutions since 1500 (Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London, 1972)
Maury, B., Raymond, A., Revault, J., and Zakariya, M., Palais et maisons du Caire, II, époque ottomane (Paris, 1983)
Mayer, Thomas, The Changing Past: Egyptian Historiography of the Urabi Revolt, 1882–1983 (Gainesville, 1988)
Mayeur-Joouen, C., al-Sayyid al-Badawi: un grand saint de I’Islam égyptien (Cairo, 1994)
McNeill, William H., Europe’s Steppe Frontier, 1500–1800 (Chicago and London, 1964)
Mehrez, Samia, Egyptian Writers between History and Fiction (Cairo, 1994)
Mellini, Peter, Sir Eldon Gorst: The Overshadowed Proconsul (Stanford, 1977)
Mengin, Felix, Histoire de I’Egypte sous le gouvernement de Mohammed-Aly, 2 vols. (Paris, 1823)
Mingana, A., Catalogue of the Arabic Manuscripts in the John Rylands Library, Manchester (Manchester, 1934)
Mirel, Pierre, L’Egypte des ruptures (Paris, 1982)
Misr Iil misriyyin: mi’at amm ala al-thawra al-’urabiyyin (Cairo, 1981)
Mitchell, Richard, The Society of the Muslim Brothers (London, 1969)
Mitchell, Timothy, “The Invention and Reinvention of the Egyptian Peasant,” International Journal of Middle East Studies, 22 (1990)
Mitchell, Timothy, Colonising Egypt (Cambridge, 1988)
Mohammed, Ahmed, Jamal, , The Intellectual Origins of Egyptian Nationalism (London, 1960)
Moor, Ed, Un oiseau de cage (Amsterdam, 1991)
Moore, C., Images of Development: Egyptian Engineers in Search of Industry (Cambridge, 1980)
Moreh, Shmuel, “Reputed Autographs of ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Jabarti and Related Problems,” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 28 (1965)
Moreh, Shmuel, Live Theatre and Dramatic Literature in the Medieval Arab World (Edinburgh, 1992)
Moreh, Shmuel, Modern Arabic Poetry 1830–1970 (Leiden, 1976)
Muhimme, Defterleri, Arsivi, Basbakanlik (the archive of the Prime Minister’s Bureau), Istanbul
Munier, Henri, Tables de la description de l’Egypte, suivies d’une bibliographie sur l’expédition française de Bonaparte (Cairo, 1943)
Mustafa Ali’s Description of Cairo of 1599, ed. and trans. A., Tietze (Vienna, 1957)
Niblock, Timothy, “The Egyptian Experience in Regional Perspective: Internal Factors and Economic Liberalisation in the Arab World,” in Blin, Louis (ed.), L’économie égyptienne: libéralisation et insertion dans le marché mondial (Paris, 1993)
Ninet, Jean, Lettres d’Egypte 1879–1882, ed. Louca, Anouar (Paris, 1979)
Nour, Riza, “L’histoire du croissant,” Revue de turcologie, 1 (1933)
Nusus yamaniyah ’an al-hamlah al-faransiya ala misr: nusus mukhtarah min al-makhtutah al-yamaniyah (Sana’a, 1975)
Ostle, Robin, “Modern Egyptian Renaissance Man,” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 57 (1994)
Ostle, Robin, “The Romantic Poets,” in Badawi, (ed.), Modern Arabic Literature
Ostle, Robin, introduction to Egyptian Earth, trans. Stewart, Desmond (London, 1992)
Owen, E. R. J., “Large Landowners, Agricultural Progress and the State in Egypt, 1800–1970: An Overview with Many Questions,” in Richards, Alan (ed.), Food, States, and Peasants: Analyses of the Agrarian Question in the Middle East (Boulder, 1986)
Owen, E. R. J., Cotton and the Egyptian Economy, 1820–1914: A Study in Trade and Development (Oxford, 1969)
Owen, E. R. J., State, Power and Politics in the Making of the Modern Middle East (London and New York, 1992)
Owen, E. R. J., The Middle East in the World Economy 1800–1914 (London and New York, 1981)
Panzac, Daniel, “The Population of Egypt in the Nineteenth Century,” Asian and African Studies, 21/1 (March 1987)
Peirce, Leslie P., The Imperial Harem: Gender and Sovereignty in the Ottoman Empire (New York and Oxford, 1993)
Penzer, N. M., The Harem (London, 1936)
Peres, Henri, “L’Institut d’Egypte et l’œuvre de Bonaparte jugés par deux historiens arabes contemporains,” Arabica, 4 (1957)
Peters, Rudolph, “The Battered Dervishes of Bab Zuwayla: A Religious Riot in Eighteenth-century Cairo,” in Levtzion, Nehemia and Voll, John O. (eds.), Eighteenth-century Renewal and Reform in Islam (Syracuse, 1987)
Petry, Carl, Twilight of Majesty: The Reigns of the Mamluk Sultans al-Ashraf Qaytbay and Qansuh al-Ghawri in Egypt (Seattle and London, 1993)
Philipp, Thomas, “The French and the French Revolution in the Works of al-Jabarti,” in Crecelius, (ed.), Eighteenth-century Egypt
Philipp, Thomas, The Syrians in Egypt, 1725–1795 (Stuttgart, 1985)
Piterberg, Gabriel, “The Formation of an Ottoman Egyptian Elite in the Eighteenth Century,” International Journal of Middle East Studies, 22 (1990)
Planat, Jules, Histoire de la régénération de l’Egypte (Paris, 1830)
Pococke, Richard, A Description of the East and Some Other Countries, 2 vols. (London, 1743)
Poliak, A. N., “Some Notes on the Feudal System of the Mamluks,” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1937)
Poonawala, Ismail I., “The Evolution of al-Gabarti’s Historical Thinking as Reflected in the Muzhir and the ’Aja’ib,” Arabica, 15 (1968)
Porath, Yehoshua, In Search of Arab Unity 1930–1945 (London, 1986)
Qindil al-Baqli, Muhammad, Abtal al-muqawamah al-sha’abiyah li’l-hamla al-faransiya fi misr (Cairo, n.d.)
Rabie, Hasanayn, “The Size and Value of the Iqta’ in Egypt, 564–741/1169–1341,” in Cook, Michael (ed.), Studies in the Economic History of the Middle East (Oxford, 1970)
Rafi’i, Abd al-Rahman, Asr muhammad ’ali (Cairo, 1989)
Rafi’i, ’Abd al-Rahman, al-Thawra al-’urabiyya wa al-ihtilal al-injlizi, 3rd ed. (Cairo, 1966)
Rafi’i, ’Abd al-Rahman, al-Za’im ahmad ‘urabi, 2nd ed. (Cairo, 1952)
Rafi’i, ’Abd al-Rahman, Asr isma’il, 2nd ed., 2 vols. (Cairo, 1948)
Rafiq, ’Abd al-Karim, Bilad al-sham wa misr: 1516–1798 (Damascus, 1968)
Ramadan, ’Abd al-’Aziz, “Social Significance of the ’Urabi Revolution,” Groupe de recherches et d’ètudes sur le Proche-Orient, L’Egypte du XIXe siècle (Paris, 1982)
Raymond, André and Wiet, Gaston, Les marchés du Caire: traduction annotée du texte de Maqrizi (Cairo, 1979)
Raymond, André, “L’activité architecturale au Caire à l’époque ottomane (1517–1798),” Annales islamologiques, 25 (1990)
Raymond, André, “L’architecture dans les pays arabes à l’époque ottomane,” in Mantran, Robert (ed.), Histoire de l’empire ottoman (Paris, 1989)
Raymond, André, “L’impact de la pénétration européenne sur l’économie de l’Egypte au XVIIIe siècle,” Annales islamologiques, 18 (1982)
Raymond, André, “Quartiers et mouvements populaires au Caire au XVIIIe siècle,” in Holt (ed.), Political and Social Change
Raymond, André, “The Economic Crisis of Egypt in the Eighteenth Century,” in Udovich, A. L. (ed.), The Islamic Middle East 700–1900 (Princeton, 1981)
Raymond, André, “The Opuscule of Shaykh ’Ali al-Shadhili: A Source for the History of the 1711 Crisis in Cairo,” in Crecelius, (ed.), Eighteenth-Century Egypt
Raymond, André, “The Ottoman Conquest and the Development of the Great Arab Towns,” International Journal of Turkish Studies, 1/1 (1979–80)
Raymond, André, Artisans et commerçants au Caire au XVIIIe siècle (Damascus, 1974)
Raymond, André, Le Caire des Janissaires: L’apogée de la ville ottomane sous ’Abd al-Rahman Katkhuda (Paris, 1995)
Raymond, André, Le Caire (Paris, 1993)
Reid, Donald Malcolm, Cairo University and the Making of Modern Egypt (Cambridge, 1990)
Reimer, Michael J., “Social Change in Alexandria, 1850–1882,” International Journal of Middle East Studies, 20 (1988)
Rejwan, Nissim, Nasserist Ideology: Its Exponents and Critics (New York, 1974)
Riad, Hassan, L’Egypte nassérine (Paris, 1964)
Richmond, J. C. B., Egypt: 1789–1952 (New York, 1977)
Rida, Muhammad Rashid, Ta’rikh al-ustadh al-imam al-shaykh muhammad ’abduh, vol. 1 (Cairo, 1931)
Rivlin, Helen B., The Agricultural Policy of Muhammad Ali in Egypt (Cambridge, MA, 1961)
Robinson, Ronald and Gallagher, John, Africa and the Victorians (London, 1961; 2nd ed. 1981)
Roussillon, Alain, “Changer la société par le jihĂd: ’sédition confessionnelle’ et attentats contre le tourisme: rhétoriques de la violence qualifiée d’islamique en Egypte,” in Bocco, Ricardon and Reza Djalili, Mohammad (eds.), Moyen-Orient fin de siècle: migrations, démocratisations, médiations: enjeux locaux et internationaux, à paraître aux PUF (September 1994)
Roussillon, Alain, “Dèveloppement et justice social dans une économie sous perfusion: les enjeux des subventions en Egypte,” Annuaire de l’Afrique du Nord, 23 (1984)
Roussillon, Alain, “Entre al-jihĂd et al-RayyĂn: bilan de l’islamisme égyptien,” MaghrebMachrek, 127 (January–March 1990)
Roussillon, Alain, “Islam, islamisme et démocratic: recomposition du champ politique en Egypte,” Peuples méditerranéens, 41–42 (October 1987–March 1988)
Roussillon, Alain, Sociétés islamiques de placements de fonds et “ouverture économique”: les voies islamiques du néolibéralisme en Egypte, Dossiers du CEDEJ 3 (1988)
,Royal Institute of International Affairs, Great Britain and Egypt 1914–1951 (London, 1952)
Rugh, William A., The Arab Press (London, 1979)
Sabry, Muhammad, La genèse de l’esprit national égyptien, 1863–1882 (Paris, 1924)
Sa’d, Sadiq, Mushkilat al-fallah (Cairo, 1945)
Safran, Nadav, Egypt in Search of Political Community (Cambridge, MA, 1961)
Said, Edward, Orientalism (New York, 1979)
Salim, Muhammad Latifa, al-Quwwa al-ijtima’iyya fi al-thawra al-’urabiyya (Cairo, 1981)
Sambari, Yosef ben Yitzhak, Sefer divre Yosef, ed. Shtober, S. (Jerusalem, 1994)
Sami, Amin, Taqwim al-nil wa asr muhammad ’ali (Cairo, 1928)
Sayyid, Ahmad, Nabil ’Abd, al-Hamid, al-Nashat al-iqtisadi li’l-ajanib wa athruhu fi al-mujtama al-misri, min sanat 1912. ila sanat 1952 (Cairo, 1982)
Schölch, Alexander, “The Formation of a Peripheral State: Egypt 1854–1882,” L’Egypte au XIXesiècle
Schölch, Alexander, Ägypten den Ägyptern! Die politische und gesellschaftliche Krise der jahre 1878–1882 in Ägypten (Zurich, 1972), trans, as Egypt for the Egyptians! The Sociopolitical Crisis in Egypt, 1878–1882 (London, 1981)
Schweitzer, G., Emin Pasha, his Life and Work (London, 1898)
Serjeant, R. B., “The Coastal Population of Socotra,” in Doe, Brian (ed. and comp.), Socotra: Island of Tranquility (London, 1992)
Shalabi, Celebi, al-Ghani, Ahmad ibn ‘Abd, Awdah al-isahrat fi man tawalla misr al-qahira min al-wuzara wa al-bashat, ed. al-Rahim, ‘Abd al-Rahim ‘Abd al-Rahman ‘Abd (Cairo, 1978)
Shaw, Stanford J., The History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey, vol. II, Reform, Revolution and Republic, 1808–1975 (Cambridge, 1977)
Shaw, Stanford J., Between Old and New: The Ottoman Empire under Sultan Selim III, 1789–1807 (Cambridge, MA, 1971)
Shaw, Stanford J., The Budget of Ottoman Egypt 1005–1006/1596–1597 (The Hague and Paris, 1968)
Shaw, Stanford J., The Financial and Administrative Organization and Development of Ottoman Egypt, 1517–1798 (Princeton, 1962)
Shaw, Stanford J. (ed.), Ottoman Egypt in the Age of the French Revolution (Cambridge, MA, 1964)
Shibayka, Mekki, “The Expansionist Movement of Khedive Isma’il to the Lakes,” in Fadl Hasan, Yusuf (ed.), Sudan in Africa (Khartoum, 1971)
Shibayka, Mekki, al-Sudan fi qarn (Cairo, 1957)
Shukri, M. F., al-Hukm al-misri fil sudan 1820–1885 (Cairo, 1948)
Shukri, M. F., Misr wa al-sudan (Cairo, 1958)
Shuqayr, N., Gughrafiat wa ta’rikh al-sudan, 2nd ed. (Beirut, 1967)
Siddiq, Muhammad, review of Badawi, Modern Arabic Literature in Journal of Arabic Literature, 26 (1995)
Silvera, Alain, “Bonaparte and Talleyrand. The Origins of the French Expedition to Egypt in 1798,” American Journal of Arabic Studies, 3 (1975)
Smith, Charles, “4 February 1942: Its Causes and its Influences in Egyptian Politics,” International Journal of Middle East Studies, 10/4 (November 1979)
Smith, I. R., The Emin Pasha Relief Expedition 1886–1890 (Oxford, 1972)
Somekh, S., “The Neo-classical Arabic Poets,” in Badawi, (ed.), Modern Arabic Literature
Sorby, Karol, “Decline of Mamluks’ Power in Egypt (1803–1804),” Asian and African Studies (Bratislava), 23 (1988)
Sorby, Karol, “Egypt – The Last Phase of Political Anarchy, 1804–1805,” Asian and African Studies (Bratislava) 24 (1989)
Sorby, Karol, “The Struggle between Great Britain and France to Influence the Character of Government in Egypt, 1801–1803,” Asian and African Studies (Bratislava), 22 (1986)
Springborg, Robert, Mubarak’s Egypt: Fragmentation of the Political Order (Boulder and London, 1989)
Starkey, Paul, “From the City of the Dead to Liberation Square,” Journal of Arabic Literature, 24 (1993)
Starkey, Paul, From the Ivory Tower: A Critical Study of Tawfiq al-Hakim (London, 1987)
Stetkevych, Jaroslav, The Modern Arabic Literary Language (Chicago, 1970)
Stripling, G. W. F., The Ottoman Turks and the Arabs, 1511–1574 (Urbana, 1942)
Sureyya, Mehmet, Sijill-i ’osmani, 4 vols. (Istanbul, 1308 AH)
Taha, Samir Muhammad, Ahmad ’urabi wa dawruhu fi al-hayah al-siyasiyya almisriyya (Cairo, 1986)
Temperley, H. W. V., England and the Near East (London, 1964)
Terry, Janice, The Wafd 1919–1952 (London, 1982)
The Arabian Nights, trans. Haddawy, Husain (London, 1990)
The Thousand and One Nights, Mahdi, Muhsin ed, and trans, (Leiden, 1984)
Tignor, Robert L., “Bank Misr and Foreign Capitalism,” International Journal of Middle East Studies, 8/2 (1977)
Tignor, Robert L., “The Economic Activities of Foreigners in Egypt: 1920–1950: From Millet to Haute Bourgeoisie,” Comparative Studies in Society and History, 22 (1980)
Tignor, Robert L., Modernization and British Colonial Rule in Egypt, 1882–1914 (Princeton, 1966)
Tignor, Robert L., Egyptian Textiles and British Capital, 1930–1956 (Cairo, 1989)
Tignor, Robert L., State, Private Enterprise, and Economic Change in Egypt, 1918–1952 (Princeton, 1984)
Toledano, Ehud R., “The Emergence of Ottoman-Local Elites in the Middle East and North Africa, 17th–19th Centuries,” in Pappé, I. and Ma’oz, M. (eds.), Essays in Honour of Albert Hourani (Oxford and London, 1996)
Toledano, Ehud R., State and Society in Mid-nineteenth-century Egypt (Cambridge, 1990)
Tuchscherer, Michel, “Le pèlerinage de l’émir Sulayman Gawis al-Qazdugli, sirdar de la caravane de al Mekke en 1739,” Annales islamologiques, 24 (1988)
Tucker, Judith, Women in Nineteenth-century Egypt (Cambridge, 1985)
Turk, Niqula, Chronique d’Egypte: 1798–1804, ed. and trans. Wiet, Gaston (Cairo, 1950)
Tusun, Umar, al-Ba’athat al-’ilmiyya fi ahd muhammad ’ali thumma fi ahdayy ’abbas alawwal wa sa’id (Alexandria, 1934)
Tusun, Umar, Butulah al-urtah al-sudaniyyah al-misriyyah fi harb al-maksik (Alexandria, 1933)
’Urabi, Ahmad, Mudhakkirat ’urabi: kashf al-sitar an sirr al-asrar fi al-nahda almisriyya al-mashhura bi l-thawrah al-’urabiyya, 2 vols. (Cairo, 1953)
‘Urabi, Ahmad, The Defense Statement of Ahmad ‘Urabi the Egyptian, trans. Gassick, Trevor (Cairo, 1982)
Uzuncarsili, I. H., Mekke-i mukerreme emirleri (Ankara, 1972)
Vatikiotis, P. J., Nasser and his Generation (London, 1978)
Vatikiotis, P. J., The Modern History of Egypt: From Muhammad Ali to Mubarak (Baltimore and London, 1969; 4th ed. Baltimore 1991)
Vitalis, Robert, When Capitalists Collide: Business Conflict and the End of Empire in Egypt (Berkeley, 1995)
Wafi, Muhammad ‘Abd al-Karim, Yusuf basha al-qaramanli wa al-hamlah al-faransiya ala misr (Tripoli, 1984)
Walsh, Thomas, Journal of the Late Campaign in Egypt (London, 1803)
Walz, Terrence, Trade between Egypt and Bilad as-Sudan: 1700–1820 (Cairo, 1978)
Waqf ’abdul rahman katkhuda, no. 940, archives of the ministry of waqfs, Cairo (dated 1157 AH and 1190 AH)
Warburg, Gabriel, ”The ‘three-legged stool’: Lampson, Faruq, and Nahhas, 1936–1944,” in Warburg, Gabriel, Egypt and the Sudan (London, 1985)
Waterbury, John, Egypt: Burdens of the Fast, Options for the Future (Bloomington, 1978)
Waterbury, John, The Egypt of Nasser and Sadat: The Political Economy of Two Regimes (Princeton, 1983)
Wavell, Viscount, Allenby in Egypt (London, 1943)
Wild, Johann, Voyages en Egypte 1601–1610, ed. and trans. Volkoff, O. V. (Cairo, 1973)
Wilkinson, John G., Modern Egypt and Thebes, 2. vols. (London, 1843)
Williams, John Alden, “The Monuments of Ottoman Cairo,” in Colloque international sur l’histoire du Caire (Grafenhainichen, 1972)
Wilmington, Martin W., The Middle East Supply Centre (Albany, 1971)
Winter, Michael, ”Turks, Arabs, and Mamluks in the Army of Ottoman Egypt,” Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes, 72 (1980)
Winter, Michael, Egyptian Society under Ottoman Rule, 1517–1798 (London and New York, 1992)
Winter, Michael, Society and Religion in Early Ottoman Egypt: Studies in the Writings of Abd al-Wahhab al-Sharani (New Brunswick, 1982)
Wittman, William, Travels in Turkey, Asia-Minor, Syria, and Egypt, 1801 (London, 1803)
Youssef, Hassan, “The Democratic Experience in Egypt, 1923–1952,” in Dessouki, Ali Hillal (ed.), Democracy in Egypt, Cairo Papers in Social Science (Cairo, 1978)
Yunus, ’Abdul Hamid, Khiyal al-Dhill (Cairo, 1994)
Yusuf, Muhammad Sabri, Dur al-mutassawifa fi tarikh misr fil ’asr al-’uthmani (Cairo, 1994)
Zayid, Mahmud, Egypt’s Struggle for Independence (Beirut, 1965)
Zetland, Marquess of, Lord Cromer (London, 1932
Zidan, Jurji, Tarikh adab al-lugha al-’arabiyya, 4 vols. (Cairo, n.d.)
Zilfi, Madeline C., The Politics of Piety: The Ottoman Ulema in the Post-classical Age, 1500–1800 (Minneapolis and Chicago, 1988)
Zygulski, Zdzislaw Jr., Ottoman Art in the Service of the Empire (New York, 1992)