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The Cambridge History of Inner Asia
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  • Cited by 3
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Munkh-Erdene, Lhamsuren 2018. THE RISE OF THE CHINGGISID DYNASTY: PRE-MODERN EURASIAN POLITICAL ORDER AND CULTURE AT A GLANCE. International Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 15, Issue. 01, p. 39.

    Nichols, Johanna 2018. Non-linguistic Conditions for Causativization as a Linguistic Attractor. Frontiers in Psychology, Vol. 8, Issue. ,

    Chong, Ja Ian 2014. Popular narratives versus Chinese history: Implications for understanding an emergent China. European Journal of International Relations, Vol. 20, Issue. 4, p. 939.

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Book description

This volume centres on the history and legacy of the Mongol World Empire founded by Chinggis Khan and his sons, including its impact upon the modern world. An international team of scholars examines the political and cultural history of the Mongol empire, its Chinggisid successor states, and the non-Chinggisid dynasties that came to dominate Inner Asia in its wake. Geographically, it focuses on the continental region from East Asia to Eastern Europe. Beginning in the twelfth century, the volume moves through to the establishment of Chinese and Russian political hegemony in Inner Asia from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries. Contributors use recent research and new approaches that have revitalized Inner Asian studies to highlight the world-historical importance of the regimes and states formed during and after the Mongol conquest. Their conclusions testify to the importance of a region whose modern fate has been overshadowed by Russia and China.

Reviews

'… this should be regarded as an example of the genus 'Cambridge History' at its impressive best.'

Professor David Morgan - University of Wisconsin-Madison

'This is the first significant history of mediaeval Inner Asia since the work by Vasilii Bartol'd. The second volume of The Cambridge History of Inner Asia presents twenty contributions written by well-established scholars and develops two historiographical theses: the Mongol creation of mediaeval Central Asia; a longer periodisation of the Middle Age.'

Source: Central Eurasian Reader

'… an example of the genus 'Cambridge History' at its impressive best.'

Source: Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies

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Page 1 of 2


  • 1 - Inner Asia c. 1200
    pp 9-25
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139056045.004
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter discusses three major zones of the Inner Asia, namely, western zone, central zone and eastern zone. Spanning the western and central zones, from the Danube to Khwarazm, Kazakhstan and Siberia, lay the Qipchaq steppe, the domain of the Cuman-Qipchaq-Qangli tribes. The Qipchaq groups had carefully integrated themselves into the surrounding state systems, forging close politico-military and marital ties with competing Rus' princely factions, as well as with the Georgian and Khwarazmian ruling houses. The Qarakhanids, divided into western and eastern Turkestanian sub-realms by the 1030s, had long been a fading power over whom the Seljuks, Qara Khitai and Khwarazmshahs had exercised varying degrees of dominion. The transfer of the Liao state, with its rich mix of Inner Asian and Chinese traditions as well as Buddhist religion to Muslim Irano-Turkic Central Inner Asia, was as an extraordinary event. Neither Buddhism nor Nestorian Christianity, which had long-standing communities across Inner Asia, could claim a dominant status.
  • 2 - The Mongol age in Eastern Inner Asia
    pp 26-45
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139056045.005
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The Mongols first surface in Chinese sources of the Tang period as a relatively insignificant people some distance beyond the empire's northern frontiers. By the late twelfth century they nomadized between the Onon and Kerulen rivers. There is a slight evidence for the emergence of a 'Great Mongol state' in the second quarter of the twelfth century. The uniform depiction of the Mongols prior to the rise of Chinggis Khan, as found in thirteenth-century sources, is one of a poor and politically fragmented tribe, greatly inferior to its steppe neighbours. Notions of imperial sway had been current among the steppe nomads for centuries, and were presumably transmitted to the Mongols by their Uighur and Khitan aides. In its ideological aspects, the Mongol Empire represented a significant advance on its Inner Asian precursors. Symptomatic of the collegial character of the imperial enterprise was the composition of its armies and of the regional civil-military administrations.
  • 3 - The Mongols in Central Asia from Chinggis Khan's invasion to the rise of Temür: the Ögödeid and Chaghadaid realms
    pp 46-66
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139056045.006
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter reviews the political history of Central Asia under the Mongols up to 1347 and discusses major economic and cultural-religious phenomena. Both the Ogodeid and Chaghadaid realms had been under Qara Khitai rule for most of the century preceding the Mongol invasion. The Mongol invasions into Iran were connected with one direction of Chaghadaid expansion: southwards, towards Afghanistan and India. In the 1220s the Mongols sought to revive the Central Asian monetary economy, and under Mongke wide-scale minting of gold, silver and copper coins resumed in Almaliq. During the period from 1280s to 1290s, the Central Asian Mongols continuously harassed Yuan China, taking over the Tarim Basin and parts of Uighuria and obliging Qubilai to abandon the area in which he had heavily invested during the previous decades. Squeezed between stronger and richer Mongol khanates and plagued by internal strife and political instability, the record of the Chaghadaid khanate is less illustrious than that of its neighbours.
  • 4 - The Jochid realm: the western steppe and Eastern Europe
    pp 67-86
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139056045.007
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The empire which was established in the western part of the Eurasian steppe and Eastern Europe during Batu's reign, though noted many times in both Russian and Muslim sources as Jochi's ulus, came to be called the Golden Horde in Russian from the sixteenth century onwards and hence, in modern historical scholarship. In Europe the Hungarian Dominican monk Julianus was the first to hear about Mongol plans for the great European campaign. The Dominicans appeared on Hungarian soil in 1221 and their primary task was to proselytize the Cumans. One contingent of the Tatar forces under the leadership of Qaidu and Baidar moved in the direction of Cracow and inflicted a decisive defeat against a Polish force at Chmielnik. Khan Berke, who probably adopted Islam before he ascended the throne, decided the destiny of his empire. Batu created the framework of the empire while Berke organized the Golden Horde into an actual state.
  • 5 - Institutional development, revenues and trade
    pp 89-108
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139056045.008
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Contrasting degrees of institutional development can be seen in the two Toluid khanates, namely Huleguid and Yuan realms, and in the Jochid or Golden Horde khanate. The social system in the eastern steppe had become more elaborate in the century before the conquests, when the recently arrived Mongols found themselves surrounded by enemies and survival depended on strong leadership and strict obedience. Revenues were initially perceived in the appanages through taxes and corvees that went back to pre-conquest Mongolia. Revenues from trade were precarious. These depended on the security of its routes and hence on the ability of governments to maintain security and protect traders and their wares. In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, East-West trade went by three routes: a mainly maritime, southern route through Egypt; a largely maritime, middle route with an overland stage between the Asiatic coast of the Mediterranean and the Persian Gulf; and a northerly, mainly overland route across Eurasia to China and India.
  • 6 - Migrations, ethnogenesis
    pp 109-119
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139056045.009
  • View abstract
    Summary
    In Inner Asia, the nomads were organized hierarchically in lineages, clans and tribes defined by descent, real or fictive, from a common patrilineal ancestor. Although sharing a common name, territory, culture, language and political interests, tribes were fractious and prone to internal power struggles. Tribes formed loose, polyethnic unions, potential states depending on their response to interaction with neighbouring sedentary states. Mongol expansion sparked the last of a series of westward migrations of Turkic peoples, fixing the geographical configurations in which one can find them today and adding Mongolic elements, in substantial numbers in some regions. The Khitan conquests brought new waves of Turks into the Near East, furthering the Turkicization of much of Anatolia and Azerbaijan. The Mongol era was crucial to the Turkicization of Azerbaijan. Turki-speakers were concentrated in the Ulus Chaghatay. Finno-Ugric peoples, lying on the periphery of the Jochid realm, felt the impact of the Mongols, largely through the filter of the Turks and Eastern Slavs.
  • 7 - Islamization in the Mongol Empire
    pp 120-134
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139056045.010
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Islamization occurred in all the Mongol successor states but its significance was naturally greatest in those with a substantial Muslim presence in pre-Mongol times: Ilkhanid Iran, the Golden Horde, and the ulus of Chaghadai. The Ilkhanid state based in Iran ruled over an overwhelmingly Muslim population in territories where Islam had deep roots, and also it had its origins in what was seen at the time as a devastating blow to the Islamic world, the destruction of the Abbasid Caliphate. The Islamization of the Golden Horde had short-term and long-term political ramifications, the former with regard to the alignment between the Jochid ulus and Mamluk Egypt, and the latter with regard to the foundations of the centuries-long struggle between the remnants of Mongol power and the emerging Russian state. The ulus of Chaghatay is described as the 'least Muslim' of the three Chinggisid houses that eventually adopted Islam.
  • 8 - Mongols as vectors for cultural transmission
    pp 135-154
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139056045.011
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The occupational and ethnic backgrounds of the Mongols so assigned were extremely diverse: Russian goldsmiths, Nestorian sherbet-makers and Muslim musicians were dispatched to East Asia, while Chinese cooks, Mongolian wrestlers and Uighur scribes were posted to Iran. The transmission of foreign texts was associated with the transport of specialists. In the Mongolian era, vast amounts of goods circulated in the form of booty, trade items and princely presentations, the selection of which was strongly influenced by Mongolian tastes and needs. The geographical distribution of cultural resources has much to tell about exchange, but the spread of such assets across space is also a matter of communications. Under the Mongols, cultural resources were moved around Eurasia by means of imperial postings, the sharing of spoils, the extension of trade and, of equal importance, by princely presentations that the Chinggisids regularly exchanged among themselves and with foreign courts.
  • 9 - The eastern steppe: Mongol regimes after the Yuan (1368–1636)
    pp 157-181
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139056045.012
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The accession of the Ming dynasty to power and the return of the Mongols to their homeland after 1368 immediately confronted both parties with the decisive question of their future political course. Ayushiridara the son of Toghan Temür succeeded to the Yuan imperial authority, and almost immediately found himself attacked by Ming troops at his temporary capital. After Toghus Temür death, the Qubilaid rulers entered upon a period of shor-tlived reigns by weak khans. Altan Khan undertook successful campaigns in areas as far west as Qinghai on the border of Tibet and northern Sinkiang. His name is associated with the revival of Tibetan Buddhism or Lamaism among the Mongols. For the Mongols, Ming China meant a challenge to obtain what they felt entitled to the right to send tribute-missions and to trade. The Yuan pretenders and their Mongol followers in the steppe posed a potential menace to the newly established Ming dynasty.
  • 10 - Temür and the early Timurids to c. 1450
    pp 182-198
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139056045.013
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Temur, or Tamerlane, rose to power in Transoxania, on the border between the sedentary and nomadic worlds. He was at once Muslim, Turk and Mongol and his grandiose career of conquest covered all the central Islamic lands along with much of the Western Mongol Empire. His conquest was connected to his policy of centralization and Islamization. Dividing his realm into four regions, Temur put each under the family of one of his sons: Azerbaijan and Iraq under the line of Amiranshah, southern and central Iran under the children of Umar Shaykh, the south-eastern regions under Pir Muhammad b. Jahangir, and the north-eastern lands under Shahrukh and his sons. Temur's dramatic career left a strong stamp on the regions he conquered and consolidated changes that had begun earlier. By combining a persona which deliberately echoed Chinggis Khan with religious and cultural patronage based on Perso-Islamic norms, he provided a new founding father for the mixed society which had come into existence.
  • 11 - The later Timurids c. 1450–1526
    pp 199-218
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139056045.014
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The Timurid political structure consisted of competing lineages and family members who never demonstrated even the slightest sign that they thought of themselves as members of a cooperative Timurid dynastic enterprise. The later Timurid period lacks documentary evidence that could reveal the details of the social hierarchy, government structure, administrative apparatus and economy for even the principal Timurid successor states in Heart and Samarqand. Based on Babur's candid analysis of Husayn Bayqara's temperament and political ambitions, an analysis largely ratified by the political history of the era, once Husayn Bayqara seized Herat from his drunken younger cousin, Yadgar Muhammad. The Mughal Empire, better known as the Timurid-Mughal Empire represented the Timurid Renaissance, a renaissance like its Italian contemporary in that it was simultaneously renewal but dramatically different from the society it revered. The character of Babur's South Asian state can be inferred to a limited degree by the respect that Babur showed to certain groups of individuals.
  • 12 - Uzbeks, Qazaqs and Turkmens
    pp 221-236
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139056045.015
  • View abstract
    Summary
    East of the Manghits, the nomadic population of the Ulus of Shiban became known under the collective name Uzbek apparently in the second half of the fourteenth century. Abd al-Razzaq Samarqandi describes the Uzbeks as a group of the Uzbek army who became Qazaqs, which makes one think that it was a splinter group that did not recognize the authority of the Shibanid khan. The Qazaqs were ruled for a long time by Burunduq Khan, son of Kiray. He was succeeded by Janibek's son Qasim. The Turkmens are mentioned in Islamic historical sources as early as the tenth century, but this term did not yet have a clear ethnic meaning: it was rather used as a collective name for various Turkic groups in some steppe areas of Central Asia bordering the Islamic world who had converted to Islam, irrespective of their tribal affiliation.
  • 13 - The western steppe: Volga-Ural region, Siberia and the Crimea
    pp 237-259
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139056045.016
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Challenges from Chinggisid rivals to the Manghit amir Edigu following the death of Toqtamish around 1406, led to the final disintegration of Chinggisid political unity in the western steppe. The political power is centred in specific regions that would become the foundations of Chinggisid successor states of the Golden Horde, including Noghay or Manghit Horde, the Great Horde, Crimean khanate, Siberian khanate, and Kazan khanate, Astrakhan and Kasimov. The Kazan Khanate's geographic connections with the Crimean or Astrakhan khanates were probably more tenuous, since there is little evidence that the khans of Kazan extended their authority any substantial distance along the Volga south of the city of Bulghar. Economically and geographically the Siberian Khanate shared certain peculiarities with the Kazan Khanate. Both states were located at the geographic and economic margins of the Dasht-i Qipchaq. The significance of the Kasimov Khanate for the understanding of the successor states of the Golden Horde is indeed quite disproportionate to its political power.
  • 14 - Eastern Central Asia (Xinjiang): 1300–1800
    pp 260-276
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139056045.017
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The history of eastern Central Asia is more than usually influenced by geography and environment. The long decline of the Chinggisids was especially fraught in eastern Central Eurasia, where even at the height of the Chinggisid Empire Chaghatayid rule had been ambiguous and unstable. The drawn-out unravelling of Mongol rule across Eurasia led to centuries of complex internecine conflict, a story made more challenging to tell for this region by the limited sources available from before the Qing period. Both trade linking the oases with the steppes and that between China and Central Eurasia would increase in the seventeenth to nineteenth centuries with the coming of the Zunghar, Russian and Qing empires. The Oirats gathered power on the steppe further east, occasionally warring with Moghul rulers. Qing economic policies in its first decades in Xinjiang were largely driven by the need to support an outflung arm of empire far from its agrarian heart.
  • 15 - The Chinggisid restoration in Central Asia: 1500–1785
    pp 277-302
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139056045.018
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The principal political significance of the ouster of the Timurids by the Abu'l-Khayrid and Arabshahid Shibanids at the beginning of the sixteenth century was the restoration of the Chinggisid mandate. Writing at Balkh in the mid-1630s, Mahmud b. Amir Wali was acutely conscious of the Mongol practices that were still noticeable among the heirs to the Chinggisid traditions and his work offers much evidence of the survival of these traditions. Mahmud b. Amir Wali's list includes the enthronement ceremony, court protocol, the symbolic use of koumiss, the qoruqs or royal hunting preserves, the yurt as the khan's capital, and the reception of envoys. The principal upholders and promoters of the Chinggisid legacy were the amirs. The events that make up the bulk of Central Asian history as it is known involve the activities of the political classes - the khans, sultans, and amirs.
  • 16 - The western steppe: the Volga-Ural region, Siberia and the Crimea under Russian rule
    pp 303-330
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139056045.019
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Following the conquest of Kazan, Russian expansion and rule displayed a remarkable stability in aims, instruments and styles. Combined interests of external security and economic exploitation motivated military conquest and the ensuing gradual incorporation of adjacent southern and eastern territories. Ivan's campaigns against Kazan had been conducted with missionary zeal, and the Orthodox Church was instrumental in providing additional spiritual and political justification for the transgression of traditional rules of steppe policies. Orthodoxy had played an important role in the justification of Ivan's policy, and strong sense of missionary zeal runs through contemporary sources. The initial stage of the conquest of Siberia deviated from the patterns developed on the Volga. It was characterized by close interplay between private and governmental initiative. The Crimean Khanate was the most enduring attempt in early modern state-building after decline of the Golden Horde. The Khanate's economy was largely based on trade, particularly in slaves.
  • 17 - The Qing and Inner Asia: 1636–1800
    pp 333-362
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139056045.020
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The proclamation of the Qing dynasty in 1636 signalled the beginning of a new phase in both Chinese and Inner Asian history. This chapter traces the main lines of the changes taking place in Mongolia in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, whose role was central to the system of 'imperial tutelage' set into place by the Manchus to rule the 'outer regions' of the Sino-Inner Asian empire. The keystone of the whole border administration from Mongolia to Tibet was the Lifan Yuan. A central function of the Lifan Yuan in the Inner Asian territories was the exercise of legal powers, whose spectrum was ample and ranged across military, criminal and civil law. The Lifan Yuan was also directly involved in the organization of the collective gatherings of the six Inner Mongolian leagues, held typically every three years, and made sure that protocol was observed.

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