Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home
The Cambridge History of Latin America
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Scodeller, Gabriela 2017. Latin American ‘free-trade unionism’ and the cold War: an analysis based on educational policies. Labor History, Vol. 58, Issue. 3, p. 327.

    ×
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    The Cambridge History of Latin America
    • Online ISBN: 9781139055192
    • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521232258
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to *
    ×
  • Buy the print book

Book description

The Cambridge History of Latin America is the first authoritative large-scale history of the whole of Latin America - Mexico and Central America, the Spanish-speaking Caribbean (and Haiti), Spanish South America and Brazil - from the first contacts between the native peoples of the Americas and Europeans in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries to the present day. A major work of collaborative international schoarship, the Cambridge History of Latin America has been planned, co-ordinated and edited by a single editor, Dr Leslie Bethell, reader in Hispanic American and Brazilian History at University College London. It will be published in eight volumes. Each volume or set of volumes examines a period in the economic, social, political, intellectual and cultural history of Latin America.

Reviews

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send
    ×

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
×
  • 1 - Latin America and the international economy, 1870–1914
    pp 1-56
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521232258.002
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Variations in trade volume and prices aside, Latin American economic expansion in the colonial period remained overwhelmingly export-led and therefore primarily induced by the pull of demand in the advanced industrial economies. This chapter first looks at the specific ways the international economy impinged on economic organization in Latin America. It then considers the export product markets that were the swelling demand of the North Atlantic industrial centres for imports that propelled Latin American economic life forward. This is followed by a discussion on the changes in domestic product markets, which occurred at a regional level. There was less intercountry variation than was the case with export product markets. The chapter also reviews the adaptive response of the Latin American economies through an exploration of changes in factor markets: land, labour and capital. Finally, it describes the evolution of capitalism in Latin America.
  • 2 - Latin America and the international economy from the First World War to the World Depression
    pp 57-82
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521232258.003
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter describes the major characteristics of the changing world economy between the First World War and the World Depression. It explores the impact of these changes on the Latin American economies. The chapter also discusses the structure of world trade and investment. Although the outbreak of the First World War was clearly of great significance in the breakdown of the classical capitalist world economy based on the dominating role of Britain and the operation of the gold standard, it is easy to overstress its importance. The most dramatic shift in this period occurred in investment. The expansion of direct investment was of course closely associated with indirect inflows. The role of the banks became increasingly important: by 1926 there were 61 branches of US banks in Latin America. Chile was the most severe example of export collapse, with the fall in nitrates dating from the First World War.
  • 3 - Latin America, The United States and the European powers, 1830–1930
    pp 83-120
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521232258.004
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Between 1830 and 1890 European powers on numerous occasions directly intervened in the hemisphere with varying degrees of military force. Some of these interventions were directed at maintaining influence by aiding friendly Latin American countries in their rivalries with hostile neighbours as well as protecting their own nationals when they were ill used by Latin American governments. The United States economy had an important foreign trade component since the colonial period; commerce was considered a vital part of the national interest. Americans were severely divided over the question of specific policies and especially over the use of military force. The debate was complicated by the resurgence of an ideological element in the nation's heritage. This was the belief that the country, sometimes in conjunction with other Anglo-Saxons, had a destiny to redeem the world by spreading Anglo-American civilization, republican government and Protestant Christianity. Many included under civilization the promotion of economic development, education and sanitation.
  • 4 - The population of Latin America, 1850–1930
    pp 121-150
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521232258.005
  • View abstract
    Summary
    During the period from independence until the middle of the nineteenth century, in general a period of economic stagnation, or only modest economic growth, the population of Latin America as a whole grew at a rate of about one per cent per annum. The newly independent Latin American states for the most part lifted the colonial restrictions on the entry of foreigners and opened their doors to European immigrants in particular. Immigration explains only part of the demographic growth of several Latin American countries during the period 1870-1930. Natural growth accounted for the rest, that is, the greater part. Mortality and fertility combined in differing degrees to determine this growth. As foreign and domestic markets increased their demands for goods, agriculture began to require more labour. The urban population increased more rapidly than the population as a whole. With regard to migration within Latin America, it could be said that the population came down from the sierra to the coast.
  • 5 - Rural Spanish America, 1870–1930
    pp 151-186
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521232258.006
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter reviews the changes which occurred in the social landscape of rural Spanish America between 1870 and 1930, and outlines some of the theoretical issues in dispute. It looks at three types of rural environment in the older zones of settlement, for the most part in the higher elevations of Mesoamerica and the central Andes, where an insular agrarian society was occupied with subsistence or the production of food crops for local markets. Studies of European rural systems have long seen demography as a key variable in the transition to agrarian capitalism. The chapter focuses on the class structure of rural Spanish America, and the ways in which a complete range of economic and extraeconomic mechanisms were employed by landowners to extract a surplus from rural workers. It examines the various labour systems, their relationship with each other and to the land.
  • 6 - Plantation economies and societies in the Spanish Caribbean, 1860–1930
    pp 187-232
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521232258.007
  • View abstract
    Summary
    During the eighteenth and the first half of the nineteenth centuries the patterns of sugar production and the sugar trade in the Caribbean changed very little, and what changes there were were either geographical or determined by limited technological innovation. This chapter shows that the sugar plantations in the Spanish-speaking Caribbean follow two clearly defined patterns. First, the plantation based on slave labour, which included an ingenio, a semi-mechanized mill or one still moved by animal power, producing a very low grade of muscovado sugar. Secondly, the modern sugar plantation, which produced the cane but did not process it, and was associated with a highly efficient and technically advanced mill, or central, producing a standardized raw sugar and presupposing a large capital investment. The new model plantation was exclusively agricultural, the logical consequence of its functional specificity resulting from the division of labour.
  • 7 - The growth of Latin American cities, 1870–1930
    pp 233-266
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521232258.008
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter summarizes a process of rapid urbanization, concentrated especially in the primary and primate cities of Latin America during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. In the industrializing nations of Europe, especially England, the rate of population growth and of urban expansion seemed the most pronounced, but the factors influencing that growth also applied in some fashion to non-industrialized or marginally industrializing areas, including Latin America. The variations in the population and size of Latin American cities resulted in large measure from differences in economic function. Commerce proved to be the dominant factor in all of these urban experiences, with growth or stagnation depending largely on the degree of integration of the city and its region into the international economy dominated by the industrializing nations of Europe and North America. Political parties had flourished everywhere in Latin America since the early nineteenth century, but only as factions supporting rural caudillos or later as coalitions within the national elite.
  • 8 - Industry in Latin America before 1930
    pp 267-324
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521232258.009
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The attainment of a modern society founded upon a developed economy has been an enduring objective in Latin America, exercising the minds of pensadores and policymakers intermittently since the revolutions for independence at the beginning of the nineteenth century. Many of the conditions essential for the growth of industry emerged during cycles of export-led growth. The expansion of the foreign trade sector facilitated the consolidation of a money economy between the 1870s and 1920s, and encouraged stable, occasionally semi-representative, political systems. Throughout the nineteenth century taxes upon foreign trade constituted the principal source of government revenue. Paradoxically the obloquy heaped upon original crude expositions of the adverse shocks school of Latin American industrialization has revitalized the debate, resulting in a projection of the analysis backwards into the nineteenth century. Dynamic opportunities in manufacturing attracted the attention of native capitalists, immigrants and foreign capital.
  • 9 - The urban working class and early Latin American labour movements, 1880–1930
    pp 325-366
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521232258.010
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The small urban working class of the late nineteenth century had, by 1930, undergone substantial changes. While the Latin American economies, as producers of primary products, remained fundamentally tied to Europe and North America, industry in the larger countries had grown significantly. The ethnic composition of the early working class varied considerably from one country to another and even from city to city. The history of the Mexican labour movement between 1910 and 1930 differs in certain respects from that of movements elsewhere in Latin America. The great strikes and mobilizations stemmed in part from the hardships which the First World War had caused for the Latin American working classes. The disruption of international trade and the consequent economic dislocations in countries highly dependent on foreign commerce led initially to substantial unemployment and sharply rising living costs. The Communists emphasized imperialism as a principal obstacle against which the working classes should fight.
  • 10 - Political and social ideas in Latin America, 1870–1930
    pp 367-442
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521232258.011
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter begins with a discussion of liberalism, which in the newly independent nations formed the basis of programmes and theories for the establishment and consolidation of governments and the reorganization of societies. The distinctive experience of liberalism in Latin America derived from the fact that liberal ideas were applied in countries which were highly stratified, socially and racially, and economically underdeveloped, and in which the tradition of centralized state authority ran deep. Liberalism provided an almost universal heritage for the governing elites of the post-18 70 years. The chapter examines the principal elements of that heritage. The American spirit and its association with republicanism had by this time also made inroads in Brazil, the one Latin American nation to retain monarchical institutions. A significant element of Latin America's liberal heritage was an enthusiasm for constitutional arrangements. One of the anomalies of the liberal legacy was the juxtaposition of political centralism and socio-economic individualism.
  • 11 - The literature, music and art of Latin America, 1870–1930
    pp 443-526
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521232258.012
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter traces the path taken by Latin American writers and artists, architects and musicians, through the labyrinth of Latin American culture from the 1870s to the 1930s. It compares the cultural experience of both Spanish America and Brazil. Literature was undoubtedly the dominant mode of cultural expression in nineteenth-century Latin America, circumscribing the form and interpretation of all the other arts. Even more than music, nineteenth-century painting was in the grip of academicism and social convention. The period after the turn of the century was one of great ideological, cultural and artistic confusion in Latin America. Economic and social changes moved faster than thinkers and artists could follow. Modern sculpture was slow to develop in Latin America, perhaps surprisingly in view of the vigorous religious and popular traditions. Most nineteenth-century sculptors were routinely occupied on commissioned busts and small neo-classical statues.
  • 12 - The Catholic Church in Latin America, 1830–1930
    pp 527-596
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521232258.013
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The Church in Latin America after independence bore the marks of its Iberian and colonial past. The structure of the Church mirrored in part that of secular society. Bishops and higher clergy were of the elites, alongside landowners, office-holders and merchants. The doctrinal heritage of Latin American Catholicism was not different from that of the rest of the Church. Bishops and priests received and transmitted traditional Catholic theology and scholastic philosophy. The doctrinal inspiration of the Latin American Church in the nineteenth century came from Rome and standards were set by Pope Pius IX. Popular religiosity, fringe Catholicism, messianism, these and other manifestations of religious enthusiasm took place more or less within the boundaries of the Catholic faith. The main intellectual challenge to the Catholic Church came not from Protestantism but from positivism, which, following earlier waves of utilitarianism and liberalism, succeeded in dominating the thinking of the Latin American elite in the last decades of the nineteenth century.
  • Bibliographical essays
    pp 597-660
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521232258.014
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This bibliography presents a list of reference articles that enable reader to understand the international economy impinged on economic organization in Latin America. Underpinning foreign interest was a great expansion in the flow of information from the US Department of Commerce. There are countless handbooks and special studies for this period which are invaluable and, since the same author often studied several different countries, of great comparative use. A notable impulse to the study of the early history of industry in Latin America was given by the official reports and policy documents published by the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America during the 1950s, 1960s and after. The historiography of the Church in Latin America in the period 1830-1930 is variable in coverage and quality and does not compare with the standard of historical writing in other aspects of Latin American history.

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between #date#. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed