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    Bultrighini, Ilaria 2017. THURSDAY (DIES IOVIS) IN THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE. Papers of the British School at Rome, p. 1.


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    The Cambridge History of Magic and Witchcraft in the West
    • Online ISBN: 9781139043021
    • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139043021
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Book description

This book presents twenty chapters by experts in their fields, providing a thorough and interdisciplinary overview of the theory and practice of magic in the West. Its chronological scope extends from the Ancient Near East to twenty-first-century North America; its objects of analysis range from Persian curse tablets to US neo-paganism. For comparative purposes, the volume includes chapters on developments in the Jewish and Muslim worlds, evaluated not simply for what they contributed at various points to European notions of magic, but also as models of alternative development in ancient Mediterranean legacy. Similarly, the volume highlights the transformative and challenging encounters of Europeans with non-Europeans, regarding the practice of magic in both early modern colonization and more recent decolonization.

Reviews

'This impressive collective volume proposes a coherent history of learned magic in Western Europe and the colonial world between Christianization and contemporary Neo-paganism. It has found an access to magic that contrasts with the many studies that situate magic in a religious or anthropological context, and thus is a welcome and necessary supplement and corrective. Giordano Bruno would have relished it.'

Fritz Graf - Ohio State University

'This volume offers a rich and exciting set of essays that will prove invaluable to scholarly discussions of Western magic and witchcraft. With contributions from a range of innovative scholars, the collection masterfully intertwines expansive historical and cultural insight with creative theoretical reflection.'

Randall Styers - University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

'This important and ambitious collection of twenty authoritative essays … is likely to become a standard work in the field because of the quality of the contributions, and the unprecedented wide range of material covered in a single volume … the choice of chapters and selection of scholars would be hard to better … it ought to be on the shelf of every historian of religion, let alone historians of witchcraft and magic.'

Francis Young Source: Journal of Jesuit Studies

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Page 1 of 2


  • Chapter 4 - Roman Antiquity
    pp 115-147
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139043021.007
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Purity is the state of undisturbed, flawless perfection that is characteristic of the divine sphere but achieved by humans only temporarily and not without effort. The transition from impurity to purity is one of the basic goals and regular elements of magic rituals in all ancient Near Eastern cultures. Ancient Near Eastern magic as a whole can be subdivided into four categories: liminal magic, defensive magic, aggressive magic, and witchcraft, an illegal and aggressive form of magic. A Babylonian purification ritual for the king, the recitation of numerous Akkadian and Sumerian incantations and prayers, the ceremonial washing of the king in seven huts erected outside the city, and the performance of rituals against evil signs and divine anger. The art of the Mesopotamian exorcist was not restricted to dispelling an evil that had be fallen or threatened to be fall the patient.
  • Chapter 5 - The Early Church
    pp 148-182
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139043021.008
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter explores whether magic is an appropriate or useful term for scholars to use in the context of ancient Egypt. It provides a historical overview of the development of Egyptian magic from the third millennium BC until the end of paganism during the first centuries AD. The origins of magic in the creation and its preservation in medical papyri further associate Egyptian magic with learnedness. The earliest period of Egyptian history from which texts have survived is the Old Kingdom. Several types of material related to magic are attested from the Middle Kingdom. The close association between Egyptian magic and medicine becomes explicitly clear in the famous Edwin Smith Papyrus of about 1550 BC. The Egyptians were well aware of the dangers of black magic. Just as in the earlier periods, there are also extant in the Graeco-Roman epoch manuscripts of narratives on magicians.
  • Chapter 6 - The Early Medieval West
    pp 183-206
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139043021.009
  • View abstract
    Summary
    A curse tablet from fourth-century Attica exemplifies many aspects of what has come to be considered magic in Western thought/ Inscribed on a thick tablet. This chapter surveys the history of magic in Greece and Rome, up to and including the Republic, with the goal of illuminating both the emergence of magic as a discourse of alterity, or othering strategy, in Western thought. The corresponding influence this discourse had on the practice of rituals that came to be considered magic. Magic operated as a discourse of alterity that was part and parcel of the discourse of barbarism to marginalize certain people and practices, including peripatetic venders of cathartic healing, curse tablets, and unregulated domestic religion and women's control over it. The chapter also briefly surveys the debate among scholars of antiquity over defining magic and its use as a heuristic category for ancient societies in order to clarify how the operation of magic is understood as a social discourse.
  • Chapter 7 - Magic in Medieval Byzantium
    pp 209-234
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139043021.011
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter traces the emergence of the magic-religion dichotomy in the wider context of imperial age culture, with special attention to developments in cosmology, theology, and demonology. It explores more closely the boundaries between the polemical representations of magic in the literary, legal, and philosophical sources of the imperial age and the reality of magical practice as it appears in the formularies. In imperial discourses on magic, human sacrifice is typically linked to necromancy, an association that is not attested in classical Greek sources. Egyptian priests and Persian magi were supposed to be experts in necromancy, and the Greco-Egyptian magical papyri certainly confirm that communication with the dead was part of the repertoire of an Egyptian magician. Pythagoreans and Egyptian priests are frequently linked in other imperial sources. The Christian equation of paganism and sorcery was persuasive because it exploited instabilities internal to late pagan daimonology.
  • Chapter 8 - Magic, Marvel, and Miracle in Early Islamic Thought
    pp 235-267
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139043021.012
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter approaches magic in the early church from two angles. In first, it examines the ways in which different groups of people performing rituals were depicted as practitioners of magic. In second, the discussion of Late Antique practices deemed to be magical focuses on the competition for spiritual authority between ritual experts. In the eyes of Graeco-Roman outsiders, Christian practices resembled widespread stereotypes of magic. Origen was a Christian apologist who addressed allegations of magic against Christians by reframing the terms. Celsus had accused Christians of attaining their powers by using the names of demons in their incantations. Christian writers connected magic with demons and designated Graeco-Roman cult practices as magic and asserted that they dealt with evil spirits. The association of magic with paganism and heresy in imperial legislation shows how the imperial government aimed at harnessing magic for various social, political and religious goals.
  • Chapter 9 - Jewish Magic in the Middle Ages
    pp 268-300
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139043021.013
  • View abstract
    Summary
    Magical practices, such as various forms of divination, amulets or the use of incantations, were part and parcel of that concept of paganism, and they helped Christianity set up clear-cut boundaries by defining what is permitted from a Christian point of view and what is not. The late seventh and early eighth centuries marked an important turning point in the references made to magic and paganism in Western Europe. When considering the nature of magic and magical practices in the early medieval West, one has to keep in mind that magic was closely intertwined with the Christianised world-view of the post-Roman Barbarian world. No doubt people in the early medieval West possessed amulets and phylacteries, turned to witch doctors in times of illness and distress and attempted to intervene in the course of nature by swallowing potions or reciting incantations. These acts were interpreted by various Christian authors as magical and, more often than not, as pagan and diabolical.
  • Chapter 10 - Common Magic
    pp 303-331
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139043021.015
  • View abstract
    Summary
    In Byzantium, magic was consistently categorized as body of non-Christian knowledge and practices. The chapter first evaluates the definition of magic in the civil and canon law of the middle Byzantine period, as well as that of related terminology in other textual genres. Middle Byzantine legislation provides definitions of unsanctioned activities, and these sources offer useful guidelines for understanding the position of the Byzantine State and the Orthodox Church regarding what constituted magic. Material evidence for the combination of Christian and magical imagery is found in a sizable corpus of middle Byzantine amulets. Another important textual source for middle Byzantine conceptions of magic is saints' lives, in which the supernatural machinations and moral weakness of sorcerers and their clients are sharply contrasted with virtue and spiritual strength of Christian holy people and their followers. Women also appear as the practitioners of magic, often in the form of the drunken old woman who peddles false prophecies or who manufactures illicit amulets.
  • Chapter 11 - Learned Magic
    pp 332-360
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139043021.016
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The modern study of magic in Islam is intimately connected to the history of Orientalism as it developed during the course of the nineteenth century. It is also true that the belief in jinn and their occult power is rooted in the Qurʾān and the fabric of early Islamic cosmography. Similarly, the practice of shrine veneration and the acceptance and promotion of saintly miracles is intimately connected to the structures of religious authority and piety in Islamic history. The Qurʾān speaks of magic as illicit and harmful and generally associates it with evil or trickery. One of the fields of the occult that directly intersects with the religious elite can be found in the diverse practices of exorcism. The charismatic presence in the written and oral forms of the Qurʾān fits into a larger topography of sacred materiality, which included a range of physical objects and locations invested with intercessory powers.
  • Chapter 12 - Diabolic Magic
    pp 361-392
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139043021.017
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter first deals with the medieval Jewish discourse of magic by focusing on four specific examples of rabbinic discussions of magic and magic-related practices. It then focuses on origins, transmission, and adaptation of some of the texts and technologies of medieval Jewish magic in different times and places. The Jewish magical tradition was greatly enriched by internal Jewish developments as well, and especially by the rise of the so-called Kabbalah, the Jewish mystical-esoteric tradition. The chapter examines the survival of Late Antique Jewish magic into the Middle Ages, and then turns to the Muslim and Christian influences on medieval Jewish magic. The older Jewish magical texts were characterized by their deep exposure to the Greco-Egyptian magical tradition and by their selective borrowings and adaptations from that tradition. Looking at Oriental Jewish manuscripts that transmit magical texts, such as those found in the Cairo Genizah, people find copious documentation of Oriental Jewish magic from the tenth to the twentieth centuries.
  • Chapter 14 - Spain and Mexico
    pp 429-460
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139043021.020
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The learned magic encompasses significant portions of what more particularly can be identified as natural magic, image magic, astral magic, divination, alchemy, and ritual magic. These forms of magic were informed not only by the rediscovered texts of ancient Greece and Rome but also by the commentaries and treatises produced by Muslim and Jewish scholars in more recent centuries. Astral magic was related to astronomy and astrology, that is, the study of celestial bodies, their movements, and their influences on the human world. Alchemy, the science of transforming natural substances into other substances, constitutes a fifth form of learned magic. Ritual magic concerns itself with the conjuration of spirits, both good and evil, for particular tasks through complex ceremonies. Neo-Platonism inspired Renaissance thinking about magic in many ways, none of which was more influential, than Hermeticism.
  • Chapter 15 - Folk Magic in British North America
    pp 461-481
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139043021.021
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The restrained view of demonic capabilities, and hence the nature of the threat represented by demonic magic, which was evident into the early 1000s, changed dramatically during the eleventh through eighteenth centuries, the era of Old Europe. This chapter approaches the witchcrafts as the major evidence for and consequence of a particular Western European view of diabolical magic. In recognition of the possible marvelous, mysterious, and occult virtues in nature that human beings might learn to manipulate, a category of natural magic emerged in thirteenth-century Christian thought, which would further complicate notions of demonic magic for the remainder of the era of Old Europe. Skepticism and decline are often linked terms in witchcraft historiography. Renaissance magic is a vague category, but in general it may refer to learned systems of magic grounded in new modes of thought that emerged initially out of Italy.
  • Chapter 16 - Colonial Magic: The Dutch East Indies
    pp 482-518
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139043021.022
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The banishment of Mistress Missa was established as a necessary priority of religious reform in England. The link between magic and the Mass reached to the heart of the liturgy, and of late medieval devotion, in the assertion that transubstantiation was itself no miracle, but rather a magical or quasi-magical manipulation by the priest. The image of the priest not as celebrant but as conjuror cast the central rite of the church as a diabolic act. Reformation critics accused Gregory of 'monstrouse wytchcraftes' and the ability to deceive the eyes of the observer with false wonders and feigned miracles. The magical and the folkloric were interwoven with threads of orthodox piety in the fabric of medieval religious life, as traditional non-Christian practices were adapted to the Christian world-view, sustaining a contested amorphous middle ground between religion and magic. Yet the separation of miracle from magic, at least in theoretical terms, still owed much to the legacy of the Catholic past.
  • Chapter 17 - Magic in Common and Legal Perspectives
    pp 521-546
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139043021.024
  • View abstract
    Summary
    This chapter focuses on Spain's encounter with Mexico, the jewel added in 1521 to the crown of the newly elected Emperor Charles V, Ferdinand and Isabella's young Habsburg grandson. It introduces Mexican 'magic' by discussing the divinatory calendar. The chapter examines the extent to which a domain of malefice or black magic existed in indigenous conceptions of magical practitioners and considers how European observers imposed their notions of witchcraft and the demonic pact on these darker figures. The idolatry, witchcraft, and magic that Spaniards associated with indigenous Mesoamericans served the same ideological function that tropes of savagery or racial inferiority did for later colonial projects: keeping the colonized perpetually in a condition of otherness and subjection. The chapter discusses unsanctioned native religion with a brief look at indigenized Christianity, especially the cult of the saints. Mesoamerican healers supplemented their magic with an immense herbal pharmacopeia.
  • Chapter 18 - Elite Magic in the Nineteenth Century
    pp 547-575
  • https://doi.org/10.1017/CHO9781139043021.025
  • View abstract
    Summary
    The folk magical traditions that colonists brought with them from England assumed that men and women could manipulate supernatural forces for their own ends. Cunning folk used a variety of fortune-telling techniques that they learned from manuals that circulated on both sides of the Atlantic. Yet neither magical beliefs nor magical practices were gender-specific: men as well as women resorted to and functioned as cunning folk. As English colonists turned to magic in hopes of divining the future, curing ailments, and protecting themselves or their loved ones from harm, their options were not limited to English techniques and English cunning folk. Although witchcraft prosecutions occurred throughout the British colonies in North America, the powerful influence of religious culture in New England produced a disproportionate number of cases and thus a disproportionate amount of information about magical beliefs and techniques. The assumption underlying folk magic contrasted sharply with the teachings of Puritan theology, which placed supernatural power firmly in God's hands.

Page 1 of 2


Bibliography

Introduction (by David J. Collins, S.J.)

Abusch, Tzvi, and Daniel Schwemer, eds. Corpus of Mesopotamian Anti-Witchcraft Rituals. Vol. 1. Ancient Magic and Divination 8.1. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2011.
Abusch, Tzvi. Mesopotamian Witchcraft: Toward a History and Understanding of Babylonian Witchcraft Beliefs and Literature. Ancient Magic and Divination 5. Leiden and Boston: Brill Styx, 2002.
Abusch, Tzvi, and Karel van der Toorn, eds. Mesopotamian Magic: Textual, Historical, Interpretative Perspectives. Groningen: Styx Press, 1999.
Ankarloo, Bengt, and Stuart Clark, eds. Witchcraft and Magic in Europe. 6 vols. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999–2002.
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de Blécourt, Willem, and Owen Davies, eds. Witchcraft Continued: Popular Magic in Modern Europe. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2004.
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Bremmer, Jan N., and Jan R. Veenstra, eds. The Metamorphosis of Magic from Late Antiquity to the Early Modern Period. Vol. 1, Groningen Studies in Cultural Change. Leuven: Peeters, 2002.
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Clark, Stuart. Thinking with Demons: The Idea of Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997.
Davies, Owen. Grimoires: A History of Magic Books. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.
Davies, Owen. Magic: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.
Davies, Owen, and Willem de Blécourt, eds. Beyond the Witch Trials: Witchcraft and Magic in Enlightenment Europe. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2004.
Flint, Valerie I. J.The Rise of Magic in Early Medieval Europe. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991.
Games, Alison. Witchcraft in Early North America. American Controversies Series. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2010.
Gilly, Carlos, and Cis van Heertum, eds. Magic, Alchemy and Science, 15th–18th Centuries: The Influence of Hermes Trismegistus. 2 vols. Florence: Centro Di, 2002.
Golden, Richard M., ed. Encyclopedia of Witchcraft: The Western Tradition. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2006.
Harvey, David Allen. Beyond Enlightenment: Occultism and Politics in Modern France. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2005.
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Kieckhefer, Richard. Forbidden Rites: A Necromancer’s Manual of the Fifteenth Century. University Park: Penn State University Press, 1998.
Klaassen, Frank F.Transformations of Magic: Illicit Learned Magic in the Later Middle Ages and Renaissance. Magic in History. University Park: Penn State University Press, 2013.
Kramer, Heinrich. Malleus maleficarum. Edited and translated by Christopher S. Mackay. 2 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
Láng, Benedek. Unlocked Books: Manuscripts of Learned Magic in the Medieval Libraries of Central Europe. Magic in History. University Park: Penn State University Press, 2008.
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Levack, Brian P., ed. New Perspectives on Witchcraft, Magic, and Demonology. 6 vols. New York: Routledge, 2001.
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Styers, Randall. Making Magic: Religion, Magic, and Science in the Modern World. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Veenstra, Jan R.Magic and Divination at the Courts of Burgundy and France: Text and Context of Laurens Pignon’s “Contre les devineurs” (1411). Brill’s Studies in Intellectual History, edited by Arie Johan Vanderjagt. Leiden: Brill, 1998.
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1 The Ancient Near East (by Daniel Schwemer)

Primary Sources

AMT

Thompson, Reginald Campbell. Assyrian Medical Texts from the Originals in the British Museum. London and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1923.

BAM

Köcher, Franz. Die babylonisch-assyrische Medizin in Texten und Untersuchungen. Vols. I–VI. Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1963–1980.

FHL

Durand, Jean-Marie, and Emmanuel Laroche. “Fragments hittites du Louvre.” In Mémorial Atatürk: Etudes d’archéologie et de philologie anatoliennes, 73–107. Éditions recherche sur les civilisations: Synthèse 10. Paris: Institut Français d’études anatoliennes and Éditions recherche sur les civilisations, 1982.

KAL 2

Schwemer, Daniel. Rituale und Beschwörungen gegen Schadenzauber. Keilschrifttexte aus Assur literarischen Inhalts 2; Wissenschaftliche Veröffentlichungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft 117. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2007.

KAR

Ebeling, Erich. Keilschrifttexte aus Assur religiösen Inhalts. 2 vols. Wissenschaftliche Veröffentlichungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft 28, 34. Leipzig: Hinrichs, 1915–1919, 1920–1923.

KBo

Keilschrifttexte aus Boghazköi. Leipzig: Hinrichs, 1916–23. Berlin: Mann, 1954-.

KUB

Keilschrifturkunden aus Boghazköi. Berlin: Deutsche Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, Institut für Orientforschung, 1921-.

LKA

Ebeling, Erich, and Franz Köcher. Literarische Keilschrifttexte aus Assur. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1953.

STT

Gurney, Oliver R. (vol. I with Jacob J. Finkelstein, vol. II with Peter Hulin). The Sultantepe Tablets. Vols. I–II. London: The British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara, 1957, 1964.

Further Abbreviations:

A

Museum siglum, İstanbul Arkeoloji Müzeleri, Istanbul.

BM

Museum siglum, British Museum, London.

K

Museum siglum, British Museum, London.

Sm

Museum siglum, British Museum, London.

VA

Museum siglum, Vorderasiatisches Museum, Berlin.

WA

Museum siglum, British Museum, London.

CAD

The Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. 21 vols., edited by Martha T. Roth. Chicago: OIUC, 1956–2011.

PSD

The Sumerian Dictionary of the University of Pennsylvania Museum. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania’s Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, 1974–.

Secondary Sources

Abusch, Tzvi. Mesopotamian Witchcraft. Toward a History and Understanding of Babylonian Witchcraft Beliefs and Literature. Ancient Magic and Divination 5. Leiden and Boston: Brill/Styx, 2002.
Abusch, Tzvi, and Daniel Schwemer. “Das Abwehrzauber-Ritual Maqlû (‘Verbrennung’).” In Texte aus der Umwelt des Alten Testaments. Neue Folge, vol. 4, edited by Bernd Janowski and Gernot Wilhelm, 128–186. Gütersloh: Gütersloher Verlagshaus, 2008.
Abusch, Tzvi, and Daniel Schwemer. “The Chicago Maqlû Fragment (A 7876).” Iraq 71 (2009): 53–87.
Abusch, Tzvi, and Daniel Schwemer. eds. Corpus of Mesopotamian Anti-Witchcraft Rituals. Vol. 1. Ancient Magic and Divination 8.1. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2011. [CMAwR 1]
Ambos, Claus. Mesopotamische Baurituale aus dem 1. Jahrtausend v. Chr. Dresden: ISLET, 2004.
Beaulieu, Paul-Alain. “Late Babylonian Intellectual Life.” In The Babylonian World, edited by Gwendolyn Leick, 473–484. New York and London: Routledge, 2007.
Beckman, Gary M.Hittite Birth Rituals. 2nd ed. Studien zu den Boğazköy-Texten 29. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1983.
Biggs, Robert D. “Liebeszauber.” In Reallexikon der Assyriologie und Vorderasiatischen Archäologie, vol. 7, 17–18. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1987–1990.
Biggs, Robert D. “Medicine, Surgery, and Public Health in Ancient Mesopotamia.” In Civilizations of the Ancient Near East, edited by Jack M. Sasson, 1911–1924. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1995.
van Bimsbergen, Wim, and Frans A. M. Wiggermann. “Magic in History. A Theoretical Perspective, and Its Application to Ancient Mesopotamia.” In Mesopotamian Magic. Textual Historical, and Interpretative Perspectives, edited by Tzvi Abusch and Karel van der Toorn, 3–34. Ancient Magic and Divination 1. Groningen: Styx Publications, 1999.
Borger, Rykle. “Die Weihe eines Enlil-Priesters.” Bibliotheca Orientalis 30 (1973): 162–176.
Braarvig, Jens. “Magic. Reconsidering the Grand Dichotomy.” In The World of Ancient Magic. Papers from the First International Samson Eitrem Seminar at the Norwegian Institute at Athens, 4–8 May 1997, edited by David R. Jordan, Hugo Montgomery, and Einar Thomassen, 21–54. Papers from the Norwegian Institute at Athens 4. Bergen: The Norwegian Institute at Athens, 1999.
Butler, Sally A. L.Mesopotamian Conceptions of Dreams and Dream Rituals. Alter Orient und Altes Testament 258. Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 1998.
Caplice, Richard I.The Akkadian Namburi Texts: An Introduction. Sources from the Ancient Near East 1. Malibu: Undena Publications, 1974.
Cunningham, Graham. “Deliver Me from Evil.” Mesopotamian Incantations 2500–1500 BC. Studia Pohl series maior 17. Rome: Editrice Pontificio Istituto Biblico, 1997.
Cunningham, Graham. Religion and Magic. Approaches and Theories. New York: New York University Press, 1999.
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3 Early Greco-Roman Antiquity (by Kimberly B. Stratton)

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4 Roman Antiquity: The Imperial Period (by Kyle A. Fraser)

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Gager, John G., ed. Curse Tablets and Binding Spells from the Ancient World. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.
Héliodore. Les Éthiopiques. Edited by R. M. Rattenbury and Rev. T. W. Lumb. Translated by J. Maillon. 2nd ed. 3 vols. Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1960.
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Jamblique. Les mystères d’Égypte (De mysteriis). Edited and translated by Édouard des Places. Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1996.
Kotansky, Roy, ed. Greek Magical Amulets: The Inscribed Gold, Silver, Copper and Bronze Lamellae I: Published Texts of Known Provenance. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag, 1994.
Lucan. The Civil War (Pharsalia). Translated by J. D. Duff. Loeb Classical Library. 1928. Reprint, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1988.
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5 The Early Church (by Maijastina Kahlos)

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Knipe, Sergio. “Recycling the Refuse-Heap of Magic: Scholarly Approaches to Theurgy since 1963.” Cristianesimo nella storia 31 (2009): 337–345.
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Kotansky, Roy. “An Early Christian Gold Lamella for Headache.” In Magic and Ritual in the Ancient World, edited by Paul Mirecki and Marvin Meyer, 37–46. Religions in the Graeco-Roman World 141. Leiden, Boston, and Cologne: Brill, 2002.
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6 The Early Medieval West (by Yitzhak Hen)

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Vatican, Biblioteca Apostolica VAticana, Pal. lat. 577, fols. 7r-v (Indiculus superstitionum et paganiarum).

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Gregory of Tours. Liber in gloria martyrum. In Monumenta germaniae historica. Scriptorum rerum Merovingicarum, vol. I.2, edited by Bruno Krusch, 484–562. Hannover: Hahnsche Buchhandlung, 1885. Translated by Raymond van Dam as Gregory of Tours: Glory of the Martyrs. Translated Texts for Historians 3. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1988.
Gregory of Tours. Libri historiarum X. In Monumenta germaniae historica. Scriptorum rerum Merovingicarum, vol. I.1, edited by Bruno Krusch and Wilhelm Levison. Hannover: Hahnsche Buchhandlung, 1951. Translated by Lewis Thorpe as Gregory of Tours: History of the Franks. New York: Penguin Books, 1974.
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Liber sacramentorum Romanae aecclesiae ordinis anni circuli (Sacramentarium Gelasianum). Edited by Leo C. Mohlberg, Leo Eizenhöfer, and Peter Siffrin. Rerum Ecclesiasticarum Documenta series maior 4. Rome: Herder, 1960.
Martin of Braga. De correctione rusticorum. In Martini episcopi Bracarensis opera omnia, edited by Claude W. Barlow, 183–203. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1950.
McNeill, John T., and Helena Gamer. Medieval Handbooks of Penance: A Translation of the Principal “Libri Poenitentiales” and Selections from Related Documents. New York: Columbia University Press, 1938.
Pirmin of Reichenaus. Scarapsus. Edited by Eckhard Hauswald. Monumenta germaniae historica. Quellen zur Geistesgeschichte des Mittelalters 25. Hannover: Hahn, 2010.
Regino of Prüm. Libri duo de synodalibus causis et disciplinis ecclesiasticis. Edited by F. G. A. Wasserschleben. Leipzig: Engelmann, 1840.
Le sacramentaire grégorien. Ses principales formes d’après les plus anciens manuscrits. Edited by Jean Deshusses. Spicilegium Friburgense 16. Freibourg: Editions universitaires, 1979.
Tacitus. De origine et situ Germanorum (Germania). Edited by Michael Winterbottom and R. M. Ogilvie. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1975.
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Meens, Rob. “Thunder over Lyon: Agobard, the tempestarii and Christianity.” In Paganism in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, edited by C. Steel, J. Marenbon, and W. Verbeke, 157–166. Mediaevalia Lovaniensia Studia 42. Leuven: Leuven University Press, 2013.
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7 Magic in Medieval Byzantium (ca. 843–1204) (by Alicia Walker)

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8 Magic, Marvel, and Miracle in Early Islamic Thought (by Travis Zadeh)

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9 Jewish Magic in the Middle Ages (by Gideon Bohak)

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Bohak, Gideon. “Towards a Catalogue of the Magical, Astrological, Divinatory and Alchemical Fragments from the Cambridge Genizah Collections.” In “From a Sacred Source”: Genizah Studies in Honour of Professor Stefan C. Reif, edited by Ben Outhwaite and Siam Bhayro, 53–79. Études sur le Judaïsme Médiéval 42; Cambridge Genizah Studies Series 1. Leiden: Brill, 2010.
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10 Common Magic (by Catherine Rider)

Primary Sources

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11 Learned Magic (by David J. Collins, S.J.)

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Zambelli, Paola. The “Speculum astronomiae” and Its Enigma: Astrology, Theology, and Science in Albertus Magnus and His Contemporaries. Edited by Robert S. Cohen. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992.

12 Diabolic Magic (by Michael D. Bailey)

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Boureau, Alain, ed. Le pape et les sorciers: Une consultation de Jean XXII sur la magie en 1320 (Manuscrit B.A.V. Borghese 348). Sources et documents d’histoire de Moyen Âge 6. Rome: École française de Rome, 2004.
Burchard of Worms. Decretorum libri viginti. Patrologiae Cursus Completus Series Latina 140, edited by J.-P. Migne, cols. 537–1058. Paris: Garnier Fratres, 1880.
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Friedberg, Emil, ed. Corpus iuris canonici. 2 vols. Leipzig: Tauchnitz, 1879–1881. Reprint, Graz: Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, 1959.
Gui, Bernard. Practica inquisitionis heretice pravitatis. Edited by C. Douais. Paris: A. Picard, 1886.
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Jacquier, Nicolas. Flagellum hereticorum fascinariorum. Frankfurt am Main: N. Basseus, 1581.
John of Salisbury. Policraticus I–IV. Edited by K. S. B. Keats-Rohan. Corpus Christianorum Continuatio Mediaevalis 118. Turnhout: Brepols, 1993.
Kors, Alan C., and Edward Peters, eds. Witchcraft in Europe 400–1700: A Documentary History. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001.
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al-Majriti, Maslama. Picatrix: The Latin Version of the Ghāyat al-hakīm. Edited by David Edwin Pingree. Studies of the Warburg Institute. London: Warburg Institute, 1986.
Nider, Johannes. Formicarius. Edited by G. Colvener. Douai: Baltazar Bellerus, 1602.
Ostorero, Martine, Agostino Paravicini Bagliani, and Kathrin Utz Tremp, eds., with Catherine Chène. L’imaginaire du sabbat: Édition critique des textes les plus anciens (1430 c.–1440 c.). Cahiers Lausannois d’Histoire Médiévale 26. Lausanne: Université de Lausanne, 1999.
Piché, David, ed. La condamnation parisienne de 1277: Nouvelle édition du texte latin, traduction, introduction et commentaire. Paris: Vrin, 1999.
Spee, Friedrich. Cautio criminalis, or a Book on Witch Trials. Translated by Marcus Hellyer. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2003.
Weyer, Johann. On Witchcraft: An Abridged Translation of Johann Weyer’s De praestigiis daemonum. Edited by Benjamin G. Kohl and H. C. Erik Midelfort. Asheville, NC: Pegasus Press, 1998.
Weyer, Johann. Witches, Devils, and Doctors in the Renaissance: Johann Weyer, De praestigiis daemonum. Edited by George Mora and Benjamin Kohl, with H. C. Erik Midelfort and Helen Bacon. Translated by John Shea. Binghampton: Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies, 1991.
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Kieckhefer, Richard. “Avenging the Blood of Children: Anxiety over Child Victims and the Origins of the European Witch Trials.” In The Devil, Heresy and Witchcraft in the Middle Ages: Essays in Honour of Jeffrey B. Russell, edited by Alberto Ferreiro, 91–110. Cultures, Beliefs, and Traditions 6. Leiden: Brill, 1998.
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Kieckhefer, Richard. “Did Magic Have a Renaissance? An Historiographic Question Revisited.” In Magic and the Classical Tradition, edited by Charles Burnett and W. F. Ryan, 199–212. Warburg Institute Colloquia 7. London and Turin: Warburg Institute and Nino Aragno, 2006.
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13 Magic and Priestcraft: Reformers and Reformation (by Helen Parish)

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Gentilcore, David. From Bishop to Witch: The System of the Sacred in Early Modern Terra d’Otranto. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1992.
Gentilcore, David. Healers and Healing in Early Modern Italy. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1998.
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Gurevich, A.Medieval Popular Culture, Problems of Belief and Perception. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.
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Herzog, R.Die Wunderheilungen von Epidauros. Leipzig: Dieterich, 1931.
Hill, Joyce, and Swan, Mary, eds. The Community, the Family and the Saint: Patterns of Power in Early Medieval Europe. Selected Proceedings of the International Medieval Congress, University of Leeds, 407 July 1994, 10–13 July 1995. Turnhout: Brepols, 1998.
Huizinga, John. The Waning of the Middle Ages. London: Penguin Books, 1965.
Iliffe, R. “Lying Wonders and Juggling Tricks. Religion, Nature, and Imposture in Early Modern England.” In Everything Connects. In Conference with Richard H. Popkin. Essays in His Honour, edited by J. E. Force and D. S. Katz, 185–209. Leiden: Brill, 1999.
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Kamerick, Kathleen. Popular Piety and Art in the Late Middle Ages: Image Worship and Idolatry in England 1350–1500. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002.
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Thomas, Keith. “An Anthropology of Religion and Magic, II.” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 6 (1975): 91–109.
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Walker, D. P. “The Cessation of Miracles.“ In Hermeticism and the Renaissance. Intellectual History and the Occult in Early Modern Europe, edited by I. Merkel and A. G. Debus, 110–124. Washington, DC: Folger Shakespeare Library, 1988.
Walsham, Alexandra. Providence in Early Modern England. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.

14 Spain and Mexico (by Louise M. Burkhart)

Aguirre Beltrán, Gonzalo. Medicina y magia: El proceso de aculturación en la estructura colonial. Mexico: Instituto Nacional Indigenista, 1963.
Baudot, Georges. Utopia and History in Mexico: The First Chronicles of Mexican Civilization, 1520–1569. Translated by Bernard R. Ortiz de Montellano and Thelma Ortiz de Montellano. Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 1995.
Behar, Ruth. “Sex and Sin: Witchcraft and the Devil in Late-Colonial Mexico.” American Ethnologist 14 (1987): 34–54.
Behar, Ruth. “Sexual Witchcraft, Colonialism, and Women’s Powers: Views from the Mexican Inquisition.” In Sexuality and Marriage in Colonial Latin America, edited by Asunción Lavrin, 178–206. Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, 1989.
Behringer, Wolfgang. Witches and Witch-Hunts: A Global History. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2004.
Bricker, Victoria Reifler. The Indian Christ, the Indian King: The Historical Substrate of Maya Myth and Ritual. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1981.
Bristol, Joan. Christians, Blasphemers, and Witches: Afro-Mexican Ritual Practice in the Seventeenth Century. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2007.
Burkhart, Louise M.The Slippery Earth: Nahua-Christian Moral Dialogue in Sixteenth-Century Mexico. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1989.
Burkhart, Louise M. “The Cult of the Virgin of Guadalupe in Mexico.” In World Spirituality: An Encyclopedic History of the Religious Quest, vol. 4, South and Meso-American Native Spirituality, edited by