Skip to main content
The Cambridge History of Religions in the Ancient World
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 3
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Albrecht, Janico Degelmann, Christopher Gasparini, Valentino Gordon, Richard Patzelt, Maik Petridou, Georgia Raja, Rubina Rieger, Anna-Katharina Rüpke, Jörg Sippel, Benjamin Urciuoli, Emiliano Rubens and Weiss, Lara 2018. Religion in the making: the Lived Ancient Religion approach. Religion, p. 1.

    Sánchez Sánchez, José Ignacio 2018. El Gabal en Roma. Convulsión social e inestabilidad política. Revista Historia Autónoma, Vol. 12, Issue. 2018,

    Hintze, A. 2017. Avestan Research 1991–2017, Part 2.. Kratylos, Vol. 62, Issue. 1, p. 1.

  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    The Cambridge History of Religions in the Ancient World
    • Online ISBN: 9781139600507
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

The Cambridge History of Religions in the Ancient World provides a comprehensive examination of the history of the religions of the ancient Near East and Mediterranean world. The essays in these volumes have a broad reach, covering the ancient Near East and Mediterranean, and extending from the Bronze Age into the late Roman period. Its contributors, acknowledged experts in their fields, incorporate a wide spectrum of textual and material evidence into their analyses of their subjects. The regional and historical orientations of the essays will enable readers to see how a religious tradition or movement assumed a distinctive local identity, as well as to understand how each tradition developed within its broader regional context. Supplemented with maps, illustrations and detailed indexes, these volumes will be an excellent reference tool for scholars and students.


'The book is praiseworthy for the high scholarly quality of the essays that it comprises, many of which include tables, maps, figures and vast bibliographies that extend beyond sheer cited references, but also suggest further readings on specific subjects that may interest the reader.'

Source: Nordicum-Mediterraneum

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.

Page 1 of 3

  • 9 - Minoan Religion
    pp 237-255
  • View abstract
    Modern scholarly understanding of what constituted ancient Assyrian and Babylonian religion is complicated because Assyria and Babylonia were part of the Mesopotamian "stream of tradition". This chapter discusses the borders and history of Assyria and Babylonia because political changes in these areas over time affected the religions practiced there, keeping in mind that both are part of a larger Mesopotamian stream of tradition. It identifies the components focusing on Assyrian and Babylonian mythology, gods, temples, religious personnel, and ritual. The chapter describes the nature of Assyrian and Babylonian religions, their commonalities as well as their differences. Many of the ancient Near Eastern powers of the mid-second millennium fell apart toward the end of the century, and new peoples, such as the Arameans, entered the area, modifying what and who constituted Assyria and its religion. The deities in the Mesopotamian pantheon are depicted with strong, lively personalities and are quick to take action, sometimes to the detriment of humans.
  • 10 - Mycenaean Religion
    pp 256-279
  • View abstract
    The Hittites of second-millennium- BCE Anatolia, like all the peoples of the ancient Near East, perceived deities, demons, and the spirits of the dead to be involved in the most mundane aspects of existence, religion was for them an integral part of daily life. Artistic evidence for Hittite religion is provided by images of gods and goddesses in metal, ivory, and other valuable materials; by cylinder and stamp seals and their impressions on clay tablets, vessels, and bullae; by sculpture in low relief on rock faces and free-standing stones; and by ceramics featuring scenes of worship in relief. The explicit identifi cation of Anatolian with Hurrian deities is attested only in the Empire period. The universe of the Hittites was an integrated system, with no clear-cut boundaries among its levels. The programs of the state cult, probably the most numerous type of text among the surviving Hittite records, prescribe the course of worship in great detail.
  • 11 - Archaic and Classical Greek Religion
    pp 280-306
  • View abstract
    Zoroastrianism was the religion of peoples speaking Iranian languages who, coming from Central Asia circa 1000 BCE, settled on the Iranian Plateau. Among the Iranian tribes who migrated onto the Iranian Plateau around the turn of the millennium were the Medes, whose religious practices as described by the early Greek historians were Zoroastrian and the Persians, who formed the Achaemenid dynasty and practiced Zoroastrianism as known from the Avesta. The royal inscriptions, the Elamite tablets recording goods expended for religious services, and the theophoric proper names preserved in Babylonian, in the Aramaic letters from Elephantine and in Greek documents show that the main elements of Achaemenid religion were those of the Avesta. Archaeological remains provide some additional information about the rituals practiced by the Achaemenids. At Persepolis, for example, mortars and pestles were found that were used in the ritual for pounding the haoma, and, at Naqsh-e Rostam, two structures thought to be outdoor fire altars remain.
  • 12 - Etruscan Religion
    pp 309-335
  • View abstract
    Ancient Israelite and Judean religions emerge in the land of Canaan during the late-second millennium BCE. Israelite and Judean religious traditions focus on the worship of the deity, YHWH, and function especially as national or state religious traditions from the formation of the Israelite monarchy during the twelfth-tenth centuries BCE through the subsequent history of the separate kingdoms of Israel and Judah. Although Judean reform movements frequently emphasize the Jerusalem Temple as the central and exclusive sanctuary for the worship of YHWH, Israelite and Judean religions generally presuppose multiple sanctuaries. The proliferation of mother or mother-goddess figurines in Israel and Judah may represent vestiges of popular religion, Canaanite practice, or even earlier Israelite and Judean religious practice. Finally, prophets play an important role in both northern Israel and southern Judah as figures who communicate oracles from YHWH to the people.
  • 14 - Celtic Religion in Western and Central Europe
    pp 364-386
  • View abstract
    The study of Egyptian religion is complicated by the seemingly alien nature of Egyptian deities and beliefs when viewed from the perspective of cultures accustomed to an anthropomorphic deity or deities. Many early interpretations were guided by the preconception that monotheistic religions were more advanced than animist or polytheistic religions and that Egyptian religion should somehow progress from polytheism to monotheism. The Egyptians had no single version of cosmogony, the creation of the universe, but rather several accounts that varied over time and location. One of the most important is known today as the Heliopolitan Cosmogony because it derives from Heliopolis, the center of solar cult near the ancient capital, Memphis. The sun-god Ra and his travels through the heavens played a highly significant role in Egyptian religion, and many other deities were at times understood as manifestations of the sun-god. Festivals brought the human and divine worlds together at regular intervals.
  • Suggestions for Further Reading
    pp 387-392
  • View abstract
    Religious practice within the Phoenician and Punic city states remained largely a matter of local custom. Phoenician-Punic presence in the western Mediterranean lasted from the ninth century BCE until the fifth or sixth century CE. The so-called tophet of Carthage attracted attention chiefly because of the site's macabre association with infant sacrifice. From the perspective of world history, the Phoenicians built a trade diaspora, perhaps initiated in response to external stimuli, but rapidly taking new form through state-directed market development. The epigraphic sources provide ambiguous evidence that the Adonis myth was influential and enduring in Phoenician-Punic religious practice. One of the distinctive features of Phoenician-Punic mortuary rites now identifiable is a ritual involving the breaking of ceramic ware, particularly plates, cups, and jugs. Phoenicia was in long and sustained contact with the Greek world and exerted considerable influence on Greek religion. major deities of the Punic culture area before considering the rites of the tophet.

Page 1 of 3

Suggestions for Further Reading
Suggestions for Further Reading
Chapter 1: Sumerian Religion
The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature ().
The Diachronic Corpus of Sumerian Literature ().
Chapter 2: Assyrian and Babylonian Religions
Black, J., and Green, A.. Gods, Demons, and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia: An Illustrated Dictionary (Austin, 1992).
Bottero, J. Mesopotamia: Writing, Reasoning, and the Gods (Chicago, 1992; originally published 1987).
Bottero, J. Religion in Ancient Mesopotamia, trans. Fagan, T. L. (Chicago, 2001).
Jacobsen, T. The Treasures of Darkness: A History of Mesopotamian Religion (New Haven, 1976).
Nijhowne, J. Politics, Religion, and Cylinder Seals: A Study of Mesopotamian Symbolism in the Second Millennium B.C. (Oxford, 1999).
Wiggerman, F. A. M. Mesopotamian Protective Spirits: The Ritual Texts (Groningen, 1992).
Chapter 3: Hittite Religion
Beckman, G. “Temple Building among the Hittites.” In From the Foundations to the Crenelations: Essays on Temple Building in the Ancient Near East and Hebrew Bible, ed. Boda, M. J. and Novotny, J. (Münster, 2010): 71–89.
Collins, B. J. “Hittite Religion and the West.” In Pax Hethitica: Studies on the Hittites and Their Neighbours in Honour of Itamar Singer, ed. Cohen, Y., Gilan, A., and Miller, J. (Wiesbaden, 2010): 54–66.
Haas, V. Materia Magica et Medica Hethitica (Berlin, 2003).
Haas, V. Hethitische Orakel, Vorzeichen und Abwehrstrategien (Berlin, 2008).
Hoffner, H. A. “The Royal Cult in Hatti.” In Text, Artifact, and Image: Revealing Ancient Israelite Religion, ed. Beckman, G. and Lewis, T. J. (Providence, 2006): 132–51.
Strauss, R. Reinigungsrituale aus Kizzuwatna (Berlin, 2006).
Taggar-Cohen, A. Hittite Priesthood (Heidelberg, 2006).
Taracha, P. Religions of Second Millennium Anatolia (Wiesbaden, 2009).
Chapter 4: Zoroastrianism
Briant, P. From Cyrus to Alexander: A History of the Persian Empire, trans. Daniels, P. T. (Winona Lake, Ind., 2002).
Kellens, J. Essays on Zarathustra and Zoroastrianism, trans. and ed. Prods Oktor Skjærvø (Costa Mesa, Calif., 2000).
Kent, R. G. Old Persian Grammar, Texts, Lexicon. 2nd rev. ed. (New Haven, 1953).
Shaked, S., trans. The Wisdom of the Sasanian Sages (Dēnkard VI) (Boulder, 1979).
Wiesehöfer, J. Ancient Persia from 550 BC to 650 AD (London, 1996).
Williams, A. V. The Pahlavi Rivāyat Accompanying the Dādestān ī Dēnīg. 2 vols. (Copenhagen, 1990).
Chapter 5: Syro-Canaanite Religions
Ahituv, S. Echoes from the Past: Hebrew and Cognate Inscriptions from the Biblical Period (Jerusalem, 2008).
Fleming, D. E. The Installation of Baal’s High Priestess at Emar: A Window on Ancient Syrian Religion. Harvard Semitic Studies 42 (Cambridge, Mass., 1992).
Lipiński, E. The Aramaeans: Their Ancient History, Culture, Religion. Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 100 (Leuven, 2000).
Smith, M. S., and Pitard, W. T.. The Ugaritic Baal Cycle. Volume II: Introduction with Text, Translation and Commentary of KTU/CAT 1.3–1.4. Vetus Testamentum Supplement 114 (Leiden, 2008).
Chapter 6: Israelite and Judean Religions
Alberz, R. A History of Israelite Religion in the Old Testament Period. 2 vols. (Louisville, 1994).
Amihai, M. Archaeology of the Land of the Bible, 10,000–586 B.C.E. (New York, 1990).
Miller, P. D. The Religion of Ancient Israel (Louisville, 2000).
Smith, M. S. The Origins of Biblical Monotheism: Israel’s Polytheistic Background and the Ugaritic Texts (New York, 2001).
Zevit, Z. The Religions of Ancient Israel: A Synthesis of Parallactic Approaches (London, 2001).
Chapter 7: Egyptian Religion
Allen, J. P., et al. Religion and Philosophy in Ancient Egypt (New Haven, 1989).
Englund, G., ed. The Religion of the Ancient Egyptians: Cognitive Structures and Popular Expressions (Uppsala, 1989).
Forman, W., and Quirke, S.. Hieroglyphs and the Afterlife in Ancient Egypt (Norman, Okla., 1996).
Hornung, E. Conceptions of God in Ancient Egypt: The One and the Many (Ithaca, 1981).
Meeks, D., and Favard-Meeks, C.. Daily Life of the Egyptian Gods (Ithaca, 1996).
Tobin, V. A. Theological Principles of Egyptian Religion (New York, 1989).
Chapter 8: Phoenician-Punic Religion
Aubet, M. E. The Phoenician Cemetery of Tyre al-Bass: Excavations 1997–1999. BAAL Hors Série 1 (Beirut, 2004).
Aubet, M. E. “The Phoenician Cemetery of Tyre.” Near Eastern Archaeology 73 (2010): 144–55.
Dussaud, R. Carthage: Approche d’un civilisation (Tunis, 1993).
López-Ruiz, C. When the Gods Were Born: Greek Cosmogonies and the Near East (Cambridge, Mass., 2010).
Markoe, G. E. Phoenicians. Peoples of the Past (Berkeley, 2000).
Schmitz, P. C. “Deity and Royalty in Dedicatory Formulae: The Ekron Store-Jar Inscription Viewed in the Light of Judg 7:18, 20 and the Inscribed Gold Medallion from the Douïmès Necropolis at Carthage (KAI 73).” Maarav 15.2 (2008): 165–73.
Chapter 9: Minoan Religion
d’Agata, A. L., and van de Moortel, A.. Archaeologies of Cult. Hesperia Suppl. 42. American School of Classical Studies (Athens, 2009).
Dickinson, O. T. P. K. “Comments on a Popular Model of Minoan Religion.” OJA 13 (1994): 173–84.
Goodison, L., and Morris, C.. Ancient Goddesses: The Myths and the Evidence (London, 1998).
Kyriakidis, E. “Unidentified Objects on Minoan Seals.” AJA 109 (2005): 137–54.
Laffineur, R., and Hägg, R.. POTNIA. Deities and Religion in the Aegean Bronze Age. Aegaeum 22 (Liège, 2001).
Marinatos, N. Minoan Kingship and the Solar Goddess (Urbana, 2010).
Nissinen, M., ed. Prophets and Prophecy in the Ancient Near East. Writings from the Ancient World 12 (Atlanta, 2003).
Renfrew, C. The Archaeology of Cult: The Sanctuary at Phylakopi (London, 1985).
Chapter 10: Mycenaean Religion
Chadwick, J. The Mycenaean World (Cambridge, 1976).
Laffineur, R., and Hägg, R., eds. POTNIA. Deities and Religion in the Aegean Bronze Age. Aegaeum 22 (Liège, 2001).
Palaima, T. G. “Mycenaean Religion.” In The Cambridge Companion to the Aegean Bronze Age, ed. Shelmerdine, C. W. (Cambridge, 2008): 342–61.
Chapter 11: Archaic and Classical Greek Religion
Bremmer, J. Greek Religion (Oxford, 1999; reissue of 1994 ed. with addenda = G&R, New Surveys in the Classics 24).
Bremmer, J. N., and Erskine, A., eds. The Gods of Ancient Greece: Identities and Transformations. Leventis Studies 5 (Edinburgh, 2010).
Bruit Zaidman, L., and Schmitt Pantel, P.. Religion in the Ancient Greek City (Cambridge, 1992; French original 1989).
Detienne, M. Dionysos Slain (Baltimore, 1979; French original 1977).
Ferguson, J. Among the Gods: An Archaeological Exploration of Ancient Greek Religion (London, 1989).
Gernet, L., and Boulanger, A.. Le génie grec dans la religion (Paris, 1932).
Graf, F. Greek Mythology: An Introduction (Baltimore, 1993; German original 1991).
Harrison, T. Divinity and History: The Religion of Herodotus (Oxford, 2000).
Kearns, E. “Order, Interaction, Authority: Ways of Looking at Greek Religion.” In The Greek World, ed. Powell, A. (London, 1995).
Kearns, E. Ancient Greek Religion: A Sourcebook (Malden, Mass. 2010).
Kirk, G. S. The Nature of Greek Myths (Harmondsworth, 1974).
Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae (= LIMC), 8 vols. (Zurich, 1981–1997).
Lupu, E. Greek Sacred Law. A Collection of New Documents (NGSL). Religions in the Graeco-Roman World 152 (Leiden, 2005).
Mikalson, J. D. Ancient Greek Religion (Malden, Mass., 2005).
Ogden, D., ed. A Companion to Greek Religion (Malden, Mass. 2007).
Parker, R. Athenian Religion: A History (Oxford, 1996).
Price, S. Religions of the Ancient Greeks (Cambridge, 1999).
Pulleyn, S. Prayer in Greek Religion (Oxford, 1997).
Sourvinou-Inwood, C. “Further Aspects of Polis Religion.” In Annali dell’Istituto Universitario Orientale di Napoli (Archeologia e Storia Antica) 10 (1988): 259–74 (= Oxford Readings in Greek Religion, ed. R. Buxton [Oxford, 2000]: 38–55).
Versnel, H. S. Coping with the Gods: Wayward Readings in Greek Theology (Leiden, 2011).
Kearns, E. ed. Faith, Hope, and Worship: Aspects of Religious Mentality in the Ancient World (Leiden, 1981).
Vidal-Naquet, P. The Black Hunter: Forms of Thought and Forms of Society in the Ancient World (Baltimore, 1986; French original 1981).
West, M. L. The East Face of Helicon: West Asiatic Elements in Greek Poetry and Myth (Oxford, 1999).
Chapter 12: Etruscan Religion
De Grummond, N. T., and Edlund-Berry, I., eds. The Archaeology of Sanctuaries and Ritual in Etruria. JRA Supplementary Series 81 (2011).
De Grummond, N. T., and Simon, E., eds. The Religion of the Etruscans (Austin, 2006).
Edlund, I. The Gods and the Place: Location and Function of Sanctuaries in the Countryside of Etruria and Magna Graecia (700–400 B.C.) (Stockholm, 1987).
Jannot, J.-R. Religion in Ancient Etruria (Madison, Wisc., 2005).
Maras, D. Il dono votivo, Gli dei e il sacro nelle iscrizioni etrusche di culto (Pisa, 2009).
Van der Meer, L. Bouke, ed. Material Aspects of Etruscan Religion (Leuven, 2010).
Warden, G. P. “The Tomb: The Etruscan Way of Death.” In From the Temple and the Tomb: Etruscan Treasures from Tuscany (Dallas, 2008): 95–112.
Chapter 13: Roman Religion through the Early Republic
Ando, C., ed. Roman Religion. Edinburgh Readings on the Ancient World (Edinburgh, 2004).
Bispham, E., and Smith, C., eds. Religion in Archaic and Republican Rome and Italy: Evidence and Experience (Edinburgh, 2000).
Orlin, E. Temples, Religion, and Politics in the Roman Republic (Leiden, 1997).
Rüpke, J., ed. A Companion to Roman Religion (Oxford, 2007).
Scheid, J. An Introduction to Roman Religion (Bloomington, 2003).
Schultz, C. Women’s Religious Activity in the Roman Republic (Chapel Hill, 2006).
Chapter 14: Celtic Religion in Western and Central Europe
Kruta, V. Celts: History and Civilization (London, 2004).
Rankin, D. Celts in the Classical World (London, 1996).
Wait, G. A. Ritual and Religion in Iron Age Britain (Oxford, 1986).
Religions of Iran
Boyce, Mary, and Grenet, Frantz. A History of Zoroastrianism 3: Zoroastrianism under Macedonian and Roman Rule. HO. Abt. 1: Der Nahe und der Mittlere Osten. Bd. 8 (Leiden, 1991).
Be Duhn, Jason, ed. New light on Manichaeism: Papers from the Sixth International Congress on Manichaeism (Leiden, 2009).
Yarshater, Ehshan, ed. The Cambridge History of Iran. Vol. 3 (1): The Seleucid, Parthian and Sasanian Periods (Cambridge, 1983).
Religions of the Near East
Ball, Warwick. Rome in the East: The Transformation of an Empire (London, 2000).
Butcher, Kevin. Roman Syria and the Near East (London, 2003).
Eliav, Yaron Z., Friedland, Elise A., and Herbert, Sharon, eds. The Sculptural Environment of the Roman Near East: Reflections on Culture, Ideology, and Power (Leuven, 2008).
Healey, John F. The Religion of the Nabataeans: A Conspectus. RGRW 136 (Leiden, 2001).
Kaizer, Ted, ed. The Variety of Local Religious Life in the Near East in the Hellenistic and Roman Periods (Leiden, 2008).
Sartre, Maurice. The Middle East under Rome (Cambridge, Mass., 2005).
Judaism in Judea and the Near East
Primary Sources
Frey, Jean-Baptiste. Corpus Inscriptionum Iudaicarum (Rome, 1936).
Naveh, Joseph, and Shaked, Shaul. Amulets and Magic Bowls: Aramaic Incantations of Late Antiquity (Jerusalem, 1985).
Naveh, Joseph, and Shaked, Shaul Magic Spells and Formulae: Aramaic Incantations of Late Antiquity (Jerusalem, 1993).
Noy, David, and Bloedhorn, Hanswulf. Inscriptiones Judaicae Orientis. Vol. 3: Syria and Cyprus. TSAJ 102 (Tübingen, 2004).
Reinach, Théodore. Textes d’auteurs grecs et romains relatifs au judaïsme (Paris, 1895; repr. Hildesheim, 1963).
Stern, Menahem, ed. Greek and Latin Authors on Jews and Judaism. 3 vols. (Jerusalem, 1974–84).
Secondary Sources
Cotton, Hannah M., Hoyland, Robert G., Price, Jonathan J., and Wasserstein, David J., eds. From Hellenism to Islam: Cultural and Linguistic Change in the Roman Near East (Cambridge, 2009).
Fonrobert, Charlotte Elisheva, and Jaffee, Martin S., eds. The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature (Cambridge, 2007).
Hezser, Catherine. The Oxford Handbook of Jewish Daily Life in Roman Palestine (Oxford, 2010).
Kalmin, Richard. Jewish Babylonia between Persia and Roman Palestine (Oxford, 2006).
Linder, Amnon. The Jews in Roman Imperial Legislation (Detroit, 1987).
Syriac Christianity
Baarda, Tjitze. The Gospel Quotations of Aphrahat the Persian Sage. 2 vols. (Meppel, 1975).
Brock, Sebastian. The Syriac Fathers on Prayer and the Spiritual Life (Kalamazoo, Mich., 1987).
Brock, Sebastian. “Eusebius and Syriac Christianity.” In Eusebius, Christianity and Judaism, eds. Attridge, Harold W. and Hata, Gohei (Detroit, 1992): 212–34.
Brock, Sebastian, et al., eds. Gorgias Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Syriac Heritage (Piscataway, N.J., 2011).
Garsoïan, Nina G., ed. East of Byzantium: Syria and Armenia in the Formative Period (Washington, D.C., 1982).
Mansour, Tanios B. La pensée symbolique de Saint Ephrem le Syrien (Kaslik, 1988).
Reinink, G. J. Syriac Christianity under Late Sasanian and Early Islamic Rule (Aldershot, Hampshire, 2005).
Richardson, Christine T., Anti-Judaism and Christian Orthodoxy: Ephrem’s Hymns in Fourth-century Syria. NAPSPMS 20 (Washington, D.C, 2008).
Voobus, Arthur. History of the School of Nisibis (Louvain, 1965).
Zetterholm, Magnus. The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation between Judaism and Christianity (London, 2003).
Religions of Egypt
Arslan, Ermanno A., ed. Iside, il mito, il mistero, la magia (Milan, 1997).
Bagnall, Roger S., and Rathbone, Dominic W.. Egypt from Alexander to the Copts (London, 2004).
Bakhoum, Soheir. Dieux égyptiens à Alexandrie sous les Antonins: recherches numismatiques et historiques (Paris, 1999).
Ballet, Pascale. La vie quotidienne à Alexandrie, 331–30 av. J.C. (Paris, 1999).
Bataille, André. Les inscriptions grecques et latines du temple d’Hatshepsout à Deir el-Bahari (Cairo, 1951).
Bergman, Jan. Ich bin Isis: Studien zum memphitischen Hintergrund der griechischen Isisaretalogien (Uppsala, 1968).
Bierbrier, Morris L., ed. Portraits and Masks: Burial Customs in Roman Egypt (London, 1997).
Bowman, Alan K. Egypt after the Pharaohs, 332 BC – AD 642 (London, 1986).
Cauville, Sylvie. Essai sur la théologie du temple d’Horus à Edfou (Cairo, 1987).
Clarysse, Willy, Schoors, Antoon, and Willems, Harco, eds. Egyptian Religion: The Last Thousand Years: Studies dedicated to the memory of Jan Quaegebeur (Leuven, 1998).
Dunand, Françoise. Religion populaire en Égypte romaine: les terres cuites isiaques du Musée du Caire (Leiden, 1979).
Durand, A. Égypte romaine, l’autre Égypte (Marseille, 1997).
Fowden, Garth. The Egyptian Hermes: A Historical Approach to the Late Pagan Mind (Cambridge, 1986).
Gutbub, Adolphe. Textes fondamentaux de la théologie de Kom Ombo (Cairo, 1973).
Hölbl, Günther. A History of the Ptolemaic Empire. Translated by Saavedra, Tina (London, 2001).
Hornbostel, Wilhelm. Sarapis: Studien zur Überlieferungsgeschichte, den Erscheinungsformen und Wandlungen der Gestalt eines Gottes (Leiden, 1973).
Ikram, Salima, and Dodson, Aidan. The Mummy in Ancient Egypt: Equipping the Dead for Eternity (New York, 1998).
Kákosy, László.Probleme der Religion im römerzeitlichen Ägypten.” ANRW II.18.5 (1995): 2894–3049.
Lewis, Naphtali. Life in Egypt under Roman Rule (Oxford, 1983).
Lippert, Sandra L., and Schentulheit, Maren, eds. Tebtynis und Soknopaiu Nesos: Leben im römerzeitlichen Fajum: Akten des Internationalen Symposions vom 11. bis 13. Dezember 2003 in Sommerhausen bei Würzburg (Wiesbaden, 2005).
Otto, Walter G. A. Priester und Tempel im hellenistischen Ägypten (Rome, 1971).
Perdrizet, Paul, and Lefebvre, Gustave. Les Graffites grecs du Memnonion d’Abydos (Nancy, 1919).
Perpillou-Thomas, Françoise. Fêtes d’Égypte ptolémaïque et romaine d’après la documentation papyrologique grecque (Leuven, 1993).
Pinch, Geraldine. Magic in Ancient Egypt (London, 1994).
Ray, John D. The Archive of Hor (London, 1976).
Riggs, Christina. The Beautiful Burial in Roman Egypt: Art, Identity and Funerary Religion (Oxford, 2005).
Whitehorne, J. W.The Pagan Cults of Roman Oxyrhynchus.” ANRW II.18.5 (1995): 3050–91.
Judaism in Egypt
Primary Sources (papyri and inscriptions)
Boffo, Laura. Iscrizioni Iscrizioni greche e latine per lo studio della Bibbia (Brescia, 1994).
Cowey, James M. S., and Maresch, Klaus. Urkunden des Politeuma der Juden von Herakleopolis (144/3 – 133/2 v. Chr.) (P.Polit.Iud.). Papyri aus den Sammlungen von Heidelberg, Köln, München und Wien (Wiesbaden, 2001).
Horbury, William, and Noy, David, eds. Jewish Inscriptions from Graeco-Roman Egypt (Cambridge, 1992).
Tcherikover, Victor, Fuks, Alexander, and Stern, Menahem, eds. Corpus Papyrorum Judaicarum. 3 vols. (Jerusalem, 1957–64).
Secondary Sources
Barclay, John M. G. Jews in the Mediterranean Diaspora: From Alexander to Trajan (323 BCE – 117 CE). HCS 33 (Berkeley, 1991). (For Egypt, see Part One.)
Gambetti, Sandra. The Alexandrian Riots of 38 C.E. and the Persecution of the Jews: A Historical Reconstruction. JSJSup 135 (Leiden, 2009).
Kasher, Aryeh. The Jews in Hellenistic and Roman Egypt: The Struggle for Equal Rights (Tübingen, 1985).
Niehoff, Maren. Philo on Jewish Identity and Culture (Tübingen, 2001).
Pearce, Sarah J. K. The Land of the Body: Studies in Philo’s Representation of Egypt (Tübingen, 2007).
Smallwood, E. Mary. The Jews under Roman rule: from Pompey to Diocletian. SLJA 20 (Leiden, 1981). (For Egypt, see chapter 10.)
Christianity in Egypt
Bagnall, Roger S. Early Christian Books in Egypt (Princeton, 2009).
Bowman, Alan K. Egypt after the Pharaohs, 332 BC–AD 642: From Alexander to the Arab Conquest (Berkeley, 1989).
Davis, Stephen J. Coptic Christology in Practice: Incarnation and Divine Participation in Late Antique and Medieval Egypt. OECS (Oxford, 2008).
Goehring, James E., and Timbie, Janet, eds. The World of Early Egyptian Christianity: Language, Literature, and Social Context: Essays in Honor of David W. Johnson (Washington, D.C., 2007).
Pearson, Birger A. Gnosticism, Judaism, and Egyptian Christianity (Minneapolis, 1990).
Török, Laszlo. Transfigurations of Hellenism: Aspects of Late Antique Art in Egypt AD 250–700. Probleme der Ägyptologie 23 (Leiden, 2005).
Religions of North Africa
Dubabin, Katherine. The Mosaics of Roman North Africa: Studies in Iconography and Patronage (Oxford, 1979).
Lipínski, Edward. Dieux et deésses de l’univers phénicien et punique (Leuven, 1995).
Shaw, Brent. Rulers, Nomads, and Christians in Roman North Africa (Aldershot, Hampshire, 1995).
Judaism in North Africa
Applebaum, Shimon. Jews and Greeks in Ancient Cyrene. SJLA 28 (Leiden, 1979).
Chouraqui, Andre. Between East and West: A History of the Jews of North Africa (Philadelphia, 1981).
Hirschberg, H. Z. A History of the Jews in North Africa. Vol. 1 (Leiden, 1974).
Iancu, Carol, and Lassère, Jean Marie. Juifs et judaisme en Afrique du Nord dans l’antiquiteé et le haut Moyen-Age (Montpelier, 1985).
Le Bohec, Yves.Inscriptions juives et judaïsantes de l’Afrique romaine.” AntAfr 17 (1981): 165–207.
Lüderitz, Gert, and Reynolds, Joyce Maire. Corpus jüdischer Zeugnisse aus der Cyrenaika (Wiesbaden, 1983).
Setzer, Claudia. “The Jews in Carthage and Western North Africa, 66–235.” In CHJ. Vol. 4: The Late Roman-Rabbinic Period, ed. Katz, Steven T. (Cambridge, 2006): 68–75.
Stern, Karen B. Inscribing Devotion and Death: Archaeological Evidence for Jewish Populations of North Africa (Leiden, 2008).
Christianity in North Africa
Barnes, Timothy D. Tertullian: A Historical and Literary Study (Oxford, 1971).
Brown, Peter. Religion and Society in the Age of Saint Augustine (London, 1972).
Brown, Peter. Augustine of Hippo. Revised edition. (Berkeley, 2000).
Burns, J. Patout. Cyprian the Bishop (London, 2002).
Conant, Jonathan. Staying Roman: Conquest and Identity in the Mediterranean, 439–700 (Cambridge, 2012).
Kaegi, Walter. Muslim Expansion and Byzantine Collapse in North Africa (Cambridge, 2010).
Lancel, Serge. St. Augustine. Translated by Nevill, Antonia (London, 2002).
Religions of Greece and Asia Minor
Athanassiadi, Polymnia, and Frede, Michael, eds. Pagan Monotheism in Late Antiquity (Oxford, 1999).
Cosmopoulos, Michael, ed. Greek Mysteries: The Archaeology and Ritual of Ancient Greek Secret Cults (London, 2003).
Hoff, Michael C., and Rotroff, Susan I., eds. The Romanization of Athens: Proceedings of an International Conference held at Lincoln, Nebraska (April 1996) (Exeter, 1997).
Koester, Helmut, ed. Pergamon, Citadel of the Gods: Archaeological Record, Literary Description, and Religious Development (Harrisburg, Pa., 1998).
Schowalter, Daniel N., and Friesen, Steven J., eds. Urban Religion in Roman Corinth (Cambridge, Mass., 2005).
Small, Alistair, ed. Subject and Ruler: the Cult of the Ruling Power in Classical Antiquity (Ann Arbor, Mich., 1996).
Judaism in Asia Minor
Fine, Steven, and Rutgers, Leonard. “New Light on Judaism in Asia Minor during Late Antiquity: Two Recently Identified Inscribed Menorahs.” JSR 3 (1996): 1–23.
Kraabel, A. Thomas. Judaism in Western Asia Minor under the Roman Empire. Th.D. diss. Harvard University, 1968.
Kraabel, A. Thomas.The Diaspora Synagogue: Archaeological and Epigraphic Evidence since Sukenik.” ANRW II.19.1 (1979): 477–510.
Trebilco, Paul. “The Jews in Asia Minor: 66-c. 235 CE.” In CHJ. Vol. 4: The Late Roman-Rabbinic Period, ed. Katz, Steven T. (Cambridge, 2006): 75–82.
Christianity in Greece and Asia Minor
Belayche, Nicole. “La politique religieuse ‘païenne’ de Maximin Daia, de l’historiographie a l’histoire.” In Politiche religiose nel mondo antico e tardoantico. Poteri e indirizzi, forme del controlle, idee e prassi di tolleranza. Atti del Convegno internazionale di studi (Firenze, 24–26 settembre 2009), eds. Cecconi, Giovanni A. and Gabrielli, Chantal (Bari, 2011): 235–59.
Frend, W. H. C. Martyrdom and Persecution in the Early Church (Oxford, 1965).
Johnson, Sherman E. “Asia Minor and Early Christianity.” In Christianity, Judaism and Other Greco-Roman Cults, Vol. 1, ed. Neusner, Jacob. (Leiden, 1975): 77–145.
MacMullen, Ramsay. Christianizing the Roman Empire (New Haven, 1981).
Tellbe, Mikael. Christ-Believers in Ephesus: A Textual Analysis of Early Christian Identity Formation in a Local Perspective. WUNT 242 (Tübingen, 2009).
Trebilco, Paul. The Early Christians in Ephesus from Paul to Ignatius (Grand Rapids, Mich., 2007).
Trevett, Christine. Montanism: Gender, Authority, and the New Prophecy (Cambridge, 2002).
Trevett, Christine. “Asia Minor and Achaea.” In The Cambridge History of Christianity I: Origins to Constantine, eds. Mitchell, Margaret M. and Young, Francis M. (Cambridge, 2006): 314–29.