Skip to main content
Climate Change: A Wicked Problem
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 9
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Thatcher, Andrew Waterson, Patrick Todd, Andrew and Yeow, Paul H. P. 2019. Proceedings of the 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA 2018). Vol. 825, Issue. , p. 616.

    Thatcher, Andrew and Yeow, Paul H. P. 2018. Ergonomics and Human Factors for a Sustainable Future. p. 1.

    Carmi, Nurit and Tal, Alon 2018. The perceived relationship between population growth and current ecological problems using repertory grid technique. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, p. 1.

    Hossain, Kamrul Raheem, Dele and Cormier, Shaun 2018. Food Security Governance in the Arctic-Barents Region. p. 61.

    Murphie, Andrew 2018. On being affected: feeling in the folding of multiple catastrophes. Cultural Studies, Vol. 32, Issue. 1, p. 18.

    Campbell, Norah McHugh, Gerard and Ennis, PJ 2018. Climate Change Is Not a Problem: Speculative Realism at the End of Organization. Organization Studies, p. 017084061876555.

    Thatcher, Andrew and Yeow, Paul H. P. 2018. Ergonomics and Human Factors for a Sustainable Future. p. 373.

    Chakrabarty, Dipesh 2017. The Politics of Climate Change Is More Than the Politics of Capitalism. Theory, Culture & Society, Vol. 34, Issue. 2-3, p. 25.

    Erickson, Larry E. 2017. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving air quality: Two global challenges. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy, Vol. 36, Issue. 4, p. 982.


Book description

Under one cover, Frank P. Incropera provides a comprehensive, objective and critical assessment of all issues germane to the climate change debate: science, technology options, economic ramifications, cultural and behavioural issues, the influence of special interests and public policy, geopolitics and ethical dimensions. The underlying science is treated in depth, but in an approachable and accessible manner. A strong case is made for the reality of anthropogenic climate change, while confronting the range of issues that remain uncertain and deconstructing opposing views. Incropera assesses the strengths and weaknesses of technology options for mitigating the effects of climate change, analyzes nontechnical factors - economic, cultural and political - and provides an in-depth treatment of ethical implications. This book is intended for those wishing to become fully informed about climate change and is designed to provide the reader with a firm foundation for drawing his or her own conclusions.


‘This remarkable book … offers [a] most balanced, unbiased and holistic view … respect[s] the reader’s prerogative to make up their own mind … As we enter a period of intense global and national discourse on this important topic, the timing of this book could not be better. People worldwide need to read Dr Incropera’s book to map out for themselves the panoramic view of this multidimensional complex issue.’

Arun Majumdar - Jay Precourt Professor, Stanford University; Former Vice President for Energy, Google; Founding Director, US Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy (ARPA-E); and Former US Acting Undersecretary of Energy, Department of Energy, from the Foreword

‘… [does] a masterful job of bringing the reader on a journey through the science and debate.’

Suresh V. Garimella - Goodson Distinguished Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University

‘… thorough and thoughtful, offering something to those already knowledgeable about the topic, while simultaneously remaining accessible to students approaching climate change for the first time.’

Jeffrey A. Cunningham - University of South Florida

‘I can think of no better source of information than this book that presents - in a straightforward manner - many of the complex choices and trade-offs ahead of us as a society. It will challenge readers’ preconceived notions intellectually, but they will walk away with a much better appreciation for what is really at stake.’

Michael O’Sullivan - Senior Vice President, NextEra Energy

‘… [does] a masterful job of making the case for taking action now to reduce the impact of greenhouse gases attributable to human activity. [Incropera] does it in a way that even the most ardent skeptics will have to acknowledge is a persuasive and balanced case that respects counterarguments but engages them thoroughly and convincingly … required reading for every public policy student, legislator, regulator, and business decision maker in the energy space.'

Anthony F. Earley, Jr - Chairman, CEO, and President, PG&E Corporation, from the Foreword

‘Who is this book written for? For anyone who is earnestly seeking to increase the breadth of his or her knowledge and understanding of one of the twenty-first century’s most contentious issues … Whether the reader is a climate change novice or an experienced hand, a scientist or an interested layman, Climate Change: A Wicked Problem provides invaluable information and insights with which to intelligently engage in shaping the future of this monumental challenge. It will challenge your thinking regardless of your starting point.’

G. P. ‘Bud’ Peterson - President, Georgia Institute of Technology, from the Foreword

'Many debate the existence of climate change or global warming and use the two terms interchangeably. However, they are not the same. … Incropera explains how changes in the Earth’s biosphere … and cryosphere … create changes in the Earth’s climate. The dialogue makes sense and Incropera adds facts and comparisons from the ice sheets during and after the ice age to those melting on Antartica and Greenland. … I found this a very interesting and enlightening read because I have had an interest in climate change and was under the mistaken assumption that climate change and global warming [were] one and the same. If you care about our planet and want to know what we need to do to reverse the effects of climate change this is a read for you.'

Michelle Kaye Malsbury Source: (

'A masterful job, comprehensively, objectively, and convincingly covering the different aspects of the important subject … written in a lucid, approachable style intended for ‘anyone who is earnestly seeking to increase the breadth of his or her knowledge and understanding of one of the twenty-first century’s most contentious issues'. … The three forewords … rightly praise the author’s tenacity, objectivity, and foresight in studying the ‘wicked’ problem, offering an elective course on the broad subject, then writing the remarkable book. … Frank’s labor of love is praiseworthy messianic. In my opinion, this book deserves much more attention than the one it has already garnered. A New York Times’ review, a best-seller listing, and readership that approached that of an autobiography penned by a celebrity would all be warranted. The treatise is superbly researched, organized, written, and presented. I enthusiastically recommend the book for all who care about the future of our planet.'

Mohamed Gad-el-Hak Source: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
AAAS (2009). Carbon Sequestration. Science 325, 1644–5.
AMS (2014). Explaining Extreme Events of 2013 from a Climate Perspective. Special Supplement to Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 95(9) (
APS (2011). Direct Air Capture of CO2 with Chemicals. A Technology Assessment for the APS Panel on Public Affairs. Amer. Phys. Soc. (
Allen, D.T., et al. (2013). Measurements of Methane Emissions at Natural Gas Production Sites in the United States. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 110(4), 17768–73 (
Allenby, B.R. (2003). Engineering and Ethics for an Anthropogenic Planet. Proceedings of the Workshop on Emerging Technologies and Ethical Issues, October 14–15, National Academies Press, Washington, DC, pp. 9–28.
Alley, R.B. (2000). The Younger Dryas Cold Interval as Viewed from Greenland. Quat. Sci. Rev. 19, 213–26.
Alley, R.B., et al. (2005). Ice-Sheet and Sea-Level Changes. Science 310, 456–60.
Andersen, K. (2012). The Downside of Liberty. The New York Times, July 4, A23.
Anderson, D.M., et al. (2013). Global Warming in an Independent Record over the Past 130 Years. Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(1), 189–93.
Appenzeller, T., and Dimick, D.R. (2004). Global Warming: Bulletins from a Warmer World. National Geographic 206(3), September, 12–75.
Aston, A., and Helm, B. (2005). The Race Against Climate Change. Business Week, December 12, 59–66.
Baylor University (2011). The Values and Beliefs of the American Public, Wave III Baylor Religion Study (
Berkeley (2011). The Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature (BEST) Study ( Accessed November 3, 2011.
BP (2014a). Statistical Review of World Energy 2014 (
BP(2014b). BP Energy Outlook 2035 (
BPC (2011). Geoengineering: A National Strategic Plan for Research on the Potential Effectiveness, Feasibility, and Consequences of Climate Remediation Technologies. Bipartisan Policy Center (
Baede, A.P.M., et al. (2001). The Climate System: An Overview. Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, UK, 85–98.
Bagnied, O. (2013). Jobs in Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency. Environmental Energy Institute (
Ball, J. (2003). Russia Will Back Kyoto If It Gets Payoff in Return. The Wall Street Journal, December 12, A3, A6.
Ball, J. (2004a). As Kyoto Protocol Comes Alive, So Do Pollution-Permit Markets. The Wall Street Journal, November 8, A2.
Ball, J. (2004b). AEP, Cinergy to Disclose Details On Ways to Cut Carbon Dioxide. The Wall Street Journal, February 19, A8.
Ball, J. (2007a). In Climate Controversy, Industry Cedes Ground. The Wall Street Journal, January 23, A1, A17.
Ball, J. (2007b). Fuel-Economy Rules May Face Tightening. The Wall Street Journal, December 16, A3.
Ball, J. (2007c). Kyoto's Caps on Emissions Hit Snag in Marketplace. The Wall Street Journal, December 3, A1, A19.
Ball, J. and Fialka, J.J. (2003). Bush Global Warming Plan Draws Heat. The Wall Street Journal, February 11, A4.
Ball, J. and Regaldo, A. (2004). Cinergy Backs U.S. Emissions Cap. The Wall Street Journal (
Balmaseda, M.A., et al. (2013). Distinctive Climate Signals in Reanalysis of Global Ocean Heat Content. Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(9), 1754–9.
Barbier, E.B. (2014). A Global Strategy for Protecting Vulnerable Coastal Populations. Science 345, 1250–1.
Barnett, T.P., et al. (2008). Human-Induced Changes in the Hydrology of the Western United States. Science 319, 1080–3.
Barrett, P.M. (2011). The Underground Solution. Bloomberg Businessweek, November 7, 66–74.
Barrett, P.M. (2014). The Phony War on Obama's Plan to Curtail Coal. Bloomberg Business Week (
Barringer, F. (2007). A Coalition for Firm Limit on Emissions. The New York Times, January 19 (
Barringer, F. and Hakin, D. (2007). New York State Issues Subpoenas to Five Companies Building Coal-Fired Power Plants. The New York Times, September 16, 23.
Battisti, D.S. and Naylor, R.L. (2009). Historical Warnings of Future Food Insecurity with Unprecedented Seasonal Heat. Science 323, 240–4.
Beck, E.-G. (2008). 50 Years of Continuous Measurement of CO2 on Mauna Loa. Energy & Environment 19, 1017–28.
Benson, S.M. (2014). Negative-Emissions Insurance. Science 344, 1431.
Benson, S.M. and Friedman, S.J. (2014). Carbon Dioxide Capture, Utilization and Storage: An Important Part of a Response to Climate Change. The Bridge, National Academy of Engineering, Spring Issue, 42–50.
Bergant, D. (2010). The Bible's Wisdom Tradition and Creation Theology. In God, Creation and Climate Change: A Catholic Response to the Environmental Crisis. Miller, R.W., Ed., Orbis Books, New York, 35–48.
Bingaman, J. and Murkowski, L. (2011). White Paper on a Clean Energy Standard. Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. United States Senate, March 21.
Blasing, T.J. (2014). Recent Greenhouse Gas Concentrations. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (
Bloom, D.E. (2011). 7 Billion and Counting. Science 333, 562–9.
Blunden, J. and Arndt, D.S., Eds. (2014). State of the Climate in 2013. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 95, S1–S257. Also, National Climatic Data Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ( and
Boening, C., et al. (2012). The 2011 La Niña: So Strong, the Oceans Fell. Geophys. Res. Lett. 39(19), 16 (doi:10.1029/2012GL053055).
Bohannon, J. (2008). Weighing the Climate Risks of an Untapped Fossil Fuel. Science 319, 1753.
Boswell, R. (2005). Buried Treasure. Power and Energy, February, 8–11.
Boswell, R. (2009). Is Gas Hydrate Energy within Reach?Science 325, 957–958.
Brahic, C. (2006). Price Crash Rattles Europe's CO2 Reduction Scheme. Science 312, 1123.
Brand, S. (2009). Four Sides to Every Story. The New York Times, December 15, 2009, A37.
Brandt, A.R., et al. (2014). Methane Leaks from North American Natural Gas Systems. Science 343, 733–5.
Breslau, K. (2007). The Insurance Climate Change. Newsweek, January 29, 44–6.
Breslau, K. and Brant, M. (2006). God's Green Soldiers. Newsweek, February 13, 49.
Brock, S. (2012). Faith Organizations and Climate Change. Environmental and Energy Study Institute (
Broder, J.M. (2010). Climate Change Doubt is Tea Party Article of Faith. The New York Times, October 20 (
Broder, J.M. (2012). Report Outlines Climate Change Perils: Strains for US Military and Intelligence Agencies Are Predicted. The New York Times, November 10, A7.
Broder, J.M. and Barringer, F. (2007). E.P.A. Says 17 States Can't Set Emission Rules. The New York Times, December 20, A1, A30.
Brook, E.J. (2012). The Ice Age Carbon Puzzle. Science 336, 682–3.
Brook, E.J. (2013). Leads and Lags at the End of the Last Ice Age. Science 339, 1042–3.
Brownstein, M. (2013). A New Study Measures Methane Leaks in the Natural Gas Industry. Environmental Defense Fund (
Buesseler, K.O., et al. (2008). Ocean Iron Fertilization-Moving Forward in a Sea of Uncertainty. Science 319, 162.
Bullis, K. (2014). A Plan B for Climate Agreements. MIT Technology Review 117(4), 84–6.
Bunn, M. and Heinonen, O. (2011). Preventing the Next Fukushima. Science 333, 1580–1.
Burke, M., et al. (2013). Weather and Violence. The New York Times, September 1, SR12.
Burkhardt, U. and Kärcher, B. (2011). Global Radiative Forcing from Contrail Cirrus. Nature Climate Change 1, 54–8 (doi:10.1038/nclimate1068).
C2ES (2012). Climate Change & International Security: The Arctic as a Bellwether. Center for Climate and Energy Solutions (
content=”C2ES”(2014). Renewable and Alternative Energy Portfolio Standards (
CBO (2008). Policy Options for Reducing CO2 Emissions. United States Congressional Budget Office, Publication 41663 (
CBO(2013). Options for Reducing the Deficit: 2014 to 2023. United States Congressional Budget Office, Publication 44715. (
CCRC (2009). The Copenhagen Diagnosis, 2009: Updating the World on the Latest Climate Science. Climate Change Research Center (
CDIAC (2013). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, US Department of Energy (
Ceres (2014). (
CIA (2011). The World Fact Book. US Central Intelligence Agency. (
CIA(2013). The World Fact Book. US Central Intelligence Agency. (
COEJL (2007). Global Warming: A Jewish Response. Coalition on the Environment and Jewish Life (
Cornwall Alliance (2011). Evangelical Declaration on Global Warming (
CSIRO (2012). State of the Climate 2012. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (
CSIRO(2014). State of the Climate 2014. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (
CSSD (2013). Center for Sustainable Shale development (
Cala, A. (2012). Growing Doubts in Europe of Future Carbon Storage. The New York Times, January 17, B6.
Canadell, J.G., et al. (2007). Contributions to Accelerating Atmospheric CO2 Growth from Economic Activity, Carbon Intensity and Efficiency of Natural Sinks. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 104(47), 18866–70 (
Cardwell, D. (2014). NRG Seeks to Cut 90% of Its Carbon Emissions. The New York Times, November 21, B3.
Carey, J. (2006a). Senator Inhofe's Climate of Confrontation. Business Week, April 3, 43.
Carey, J. (2006b). Business on a Warmer Planet. Business Week, July 17, 26–9.
Carey, J. (2009). Carbon Curbs: It's Business vs. Business. Business Week, October 5, 66–7.
Carey, J. (2010). Measuring the Gas without the Hot Air. Business Week, January 11, 18–19.
Carey, J. (2011a). Storm Warnings: Extreme Weather Is a Product of Climate Change. Scientific American (
Carey, J. (2011b). Global Warming and the Science of Extreme Weather. Scientific American (
Carson, R. (1962). Silent Spring. Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA.
Carty, T. (2012). Extreme Weather, Extreme Prices. Oxfam International, September 5, (
Castles, I. and Henderson, D. (2003). The IPCC Emissions Scenarios: An Economic-Statistical Critique. Energy & Environment 14(2), 159–85.
Chandler, D. (2009). Climate Change Odds Much Worse than Thought. (
ChapinIII, F.S., et al. (2005). Role of Land-Surface Changes in Arctic Summer Warming. Science 310, 657–60.
Chazan, G. (2004). EU Backs Russia's WTO Entry As Moscow Supports Kyoto Pact. The Wall Street Journal, May 24, A2, A6.
Chen, J.L., et al. (2006). Satellite Gravity Measurements Confirm Accelerated Melting of Greenland Ice Sheet. Science 313, 1958–60.
Chen, X. and Tung, K.-K (2014). Varying Planetary Heat Sink Led to Global-warming Slowdown and Acceleration. Science 345, 897–903.
Church, J.A., et al. (2001). Changes in Sea Level. In Houghton, J.T., et al. (eds.), Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 639–693.
Clausen, E. (2004). An Effective Approach to Climate Change. Science 306, 816.
Clement, A.C., et al. (2009). Observational and Model Evidence for Positive Low-Level Cloud Feedback. Science 325, 460–4.
Cohen, J. (2010). Bundle Up, It's Global Warming. The New York Times, December 26, SR15.
Collins, J. (2014). Timeline of EPA Actions on Greenhouse Gases. Environmental and Energy Study Institute (
Cowtan, K. and Way, R. (2014). Coverage Bias in the HadCRUT4 Temperature Series and Its Impact on Recent Temperature Trends. J. Roy. Met. Soc. 140(683), 1935–44 (
Creyts, J., et al. (2007). Reducing US Greenhouse Gas Emissions: How Much at What Cost?McKinsey & Company.
Crichton, M. (2004). State of Fear. Harper Collins, New York.
Cross, J.-M. and Pierson, R. (2013). Short-Lived Climate Pollutants: Why They Are Important. Environmental and Energy Study Institute, February 19 (
Crutzen, P.J. (2006). Albedo Enhancement by Stratospheric Sulfur Injections: A Contribution to Resolve a Policy Dilemma?Climatic Change 77, 211–19.
Cubasch, U., et al. (2001). Projections of Future Climate Change. In Houghton, J.T. et al. (eds.), Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 525–82.
Cullen, H. (2010). The Weather of the Future: Heat Waves, Extreme Storms and Other Scenes from a Climate-Changed Planet. Harper Collins, New York.
Curry, J. (2014). Uncertain Temperature Trend. Nature Geoscience 7, 83–4.
DOD (2010). Quadrennial Defense Review Report. U.S. Department of Defense (
DOD(2014a). Quadrennial Defense Review 2014. U.S. Department of Defense (
DOD(2014b). 2014 Climate Change: Adaptation Roadmap (
DOE (2012). Carbon Utilization and Storage Atlas, 4th Edition. US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (
DOT (2006). Energy Data Book: Edition 25. US Department of Transportation.
Dalton, M. (2007). Nymex Plans for Carbon-Emissions Trading. The Wall Street Journal, May 10, C2.
Daly, H.E. (1996). Beyond Growth. Beacon Press, Boston, MA.
Daly, H.E. and Cobb, J.B., Jr. (1989). For the Common Good. Beacon Press, Boston, MA.
Davenport, C. (2013). Large Companies Prepared to Pay Price on Carbon. The New York Times, December 5, A1, B4.
Davenport, C. (2014a). E.P.A. Staff Struggling to Create Pollution Rule. The New York Times, February 5, A12, A15.
Davenport, C. (2014b). Threat to Bottom Line Spurs Action on Climate. The New York Times, January 24, A1, A21.
Davenport, C. (2014c). President's Drive for Carbon Pricing Fails to Win at Home. The New York Times, September 28, A8.
Davenport, C. (2014d). Optimism Faces Grave Realities at Climate Talks. The New York Times, December 1, A1, A12.
Davenport, C. and Baker, P. (2014). Taking Page from Health Care, Obama Climate Plan Relies on States. The New York Times, June 3, A16.
Davenport, C. and Landler, M. (2014). U.S. to Give $3 Billion to Climate Fund to Help Poor Nations and Spur Rich Ones. The New York Times, November 15, A5.
Davis, S.C., et al. (2014). Transportation Energy Data Book. Edition 33, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (
Davis, S.J., et al. (2010). Future CO2 Emissions and Climate Change from Existing Infrastructure. Science. 329, 1330–3.
Davis, S.J., (2013). Rethinking Wedges. Environ. Res. Lett. 8, 011001 (doi:10.1088/ 1748–9326/8/1/011001).
Dawidoff, N. (2009). The Civil Heretic. The New York Times Magazine (
de Gouw, J.A., et al. (2014). Reduced Emissions of CO2, NOx and SO2 from US Power Plants Due to the Switch from Coal to Natural Gas with Combined Cycle Technology. Earth's Future 2(2), 75–82 (doi:10.1002/2014EF000196).
Derksen, C. and Brown, R. (2012). Spring Snow Cover Extent Reduction in 2008–2012 Period Exceeding Climate Predictions. Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, L19504 (doi:10.1029/2012GL053387).
Dessler, A.E. (2010). A Determination of the Cloud Feedback from Climate Variations over the Past Decade. Science 330, 1523–7.
Dessler, A.E. (2011). Cloud Variations and the Earth's Energy Balance. Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L19701 (doi:10.1029/2011GL049236).
Dessler, A.E. and Sherwood, S.C. (2009). A Matter of Humidity. Science 323, 1020–1.
Deutsch, C., et al. (2011). Climate-Forced Variability of Ocean Hypoxia. Science 333, 336–9.
Dines, W.H. (1917). The Heat Balance of the Atmosphere. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 43, 151–8.
Doan, L. (2013). California Carbon Permits Sell above the Clearing Price (
Dooley, J.J., et al. (2006). Carbon Dioxide Capture and Geologic Storage. Report from the Global Energy Technology Strategy Program, Battelle Memorial Institute.
Doom, J. (2014). RGGI Carbon Prices Jump in First Event with Fewer Permits (
Dorrepaal, E., et al. (2009). Carbon Respiration from Subsurface Peat Accelerated by Climate Warming in the Subarctic. Nature 460, 616–19.
Dowdeswell, J.A. (2006). The Greenland Ice Sheet and Global Sea Level Rise. Science 311, 963–4.
Durack, P.J., et al. (2012). Ocean Salinities Reveal Strong Global Water Cycle Intensification during 1950 to 2000. Science 336, 455–8.
Durack, P.J., (2014). Quantifying Underestimates of Long-Term Upper-Ocean Warming. Nature Climate Change 4, 1031–5 (doi:10.1038/nclimate2389).
Dutton, A. and Lambeck, K. (2012). Ice Volume and Sea Level During the Last Interglacial. Science 337, 216–19.
EC (2008). Climate Action and Renewable Energy Package (
Economist (2007). Special Report on Business and Climate Change. The Economist, June 2.
Economist(2009a). Last Gasp for the Forest. September 26, 93–5.
Economist(2009b). Bubbling Under. December 5, 75.
Economist(2010). Special Report on Forests. September 25, 8–10.
Economist(2011a). Coming Soon to a Terminal Near You. August 6, pp. 51–3.
Economist(2011b). A Man-Made World. May 28, pp. 81–3.
Economist(2011c). A Game of Catch-up. Special Report on the World Economy, September 24, 3–6.
Economist(2012a). The Melting North. Special Report on the Arctic, June 16.
Economist(2012b). An Unconventional Bonanza. Special Report on Natural Gas, July 14.
Economist(2013a). Carbon Trading, ETS, RPI? April 20, 75.
Economist(2013b). The East is Gray. August 10, 18–21.
Economist(2013c). Carbon Copy, Companies and Emissions. December 14, 70.
EEnews (2013). E&E Publishing (
EIA (2001). Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States: Historical and Projected U.S. Carbon and Total Greenhouse Gas Intensity. U.S. Energy Information Administration, Report DOE/EIA-0573.
EIA(2009). Market and Economic Impact of H.R.2454, The American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009, SR-OIAF/2009-05.
EIA(2013a). U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2012. (
EIA(2013b). International Energy Outlook 2013. Report DOE/EIA-0484(2013).
EIA(2013c). International Energy Statistics. (
EIA(2014a). Annual Energy Review. (
EIA(2014b). Annual Energy Outlook 2014. Early Release (
EIA (2010). EPA to Set Modest Pace for Greenhouse Gas Standards. (
EPA(2013b). EPA Needs to Improve Air Emissions Data for the Oil and Natural Gas Production Sector. US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Inspector General. Report 13-P-0161, February 20.
EPA(2014a). Inventory of US Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990–2012. EPA 430-R-14-003 ( See also (
EPA(2014b). Climate Change Indicators in the United States. Environmental Protection Agency (
EPA(2014c). Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975–2014 (
EPA(2014d). Standards of Performance for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from New Stationary Sources: Electric Utility Generating Units. Proposed Rule, Federal Register Vol. 79, No. 5 (–28668.pdf).
EPI (2012). Earth Policy Institute. Data Center (
Eddy, M. (2014). German Village Resists Plans to Strip It Away for the Coal Underneath. The New York Times, February 19, A5.
Eilperin, J. (2012). EPA Imposes First Greenhouse Gas Limits on New Power Plants. The Washington Post, March 27 (
Evangelium Vitae (1995). Pope John Paul II, §42, March 25 (
FEMA (1993). Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (Amended). Federal Emergency Management Agency (
Fairfield, H. (2007). When Carbon Is Currency. The New York Times, May 6, A6.
Fairfield, H. (2014). The Best of Both Worlds in Cutting Emissions. The New York Times, June 8, SR5.
Falkowski, P.G. and Tchernov, D. (2004). Human Footprints in the Ecological Landscape. Earth System Analysis for Sustainability, Dahlen Workshop Reports, H.J. Schellnhuber et al., eds., 211–26.
Fargione, J., et al. (2008). Land Clearing and the Biofuel Debt. Science 319, 1235–8.
Farrel, A.E., et al. (2006). Ethanol Can Contribute to Energy and Environmental Goals. Science 311, 506–8.
Fernando, H.J.S. and Klaić, Z.B. (2011). Addressing Socioeconomic and Political Challenges Posed by Climate Change. EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union (doi:10.1029/2011EO350006).
Fialka, J.J. (2004). Russia's Interest in Signing Kyoto Spurs Trading. The Wall Street Journal, June 2, C6.
Fialka, J.J. (2006). Big Businesses Have New Take on Warming. The Wall Street Journal, March 28, A4.
Fleming, J.R. (2010). Fixing the Sky: The Checkered History of Weather and Climate Control. Columbia University Press, New York.
Foley, J.A. (2005). Tipping Points in the Tundra. Science 310, 627–8.
Fowlie, M., et al. (2014). An Economic Perspective on the EPA's Clean Power Plan. Science 346, 815–16.
Fox, D. (2010). Could East Antarctica Be Headed for Big Melt?Science 328, 1630–1.
Freedman, A. (2012). Greenland Ice Sheet Melt Nearing Critical Point. Climate Central, June 29 ( sheet-reflectivity-near-record-low-research-shows).
Friedman, T.L. (2007). The Power of Green. The New York Times, April 15 (
Fuller, T. and Bowley, G. (2007). Nations Near Agreement on Steps to Revive Climate Treaty. The New York Times, December 15, A7.
GAO (2011). Climate Engineering: Technical Status, Future Directions, and Potential Responses. US Government Accountability Office, GAO-11–71, July 28.
GCEC (2014). The New Climate Economy: Better Growth Better Climate. Global Commission on the Economy and Climate (
GCP (2013). Annual Update of the Global Carbon Budget and Trends. Global Carbon Project, November 19 (
GWEC (2014). Global Wind Statistics 2013. Global Wind Energy Council (
Gallagher, K.S., et al. (2007). Policy Options for Reducing Oil Consumption and Greenhouse-Gas Emissions from the US Transportation Sector. John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, July 27.
Gardiner, S.M. (2011). A Perfect Moral Storm – The Ethical Tragedy of Climate Change, Oxford University Press, New York.
Garvey, J. (2008). The Ethics of Climate Change, Continuum International Publishing Group, London.
Gerland, P., et al. (2014). World Population Stabilization Unlikely this Century. Science 346, 234–7.
Gertner, J. (2009). Why Isn't the Brain Green? The New York Times Magazine, April 19, 36–43.
Giddens, A. (2011). The Politics of Climate Change. Polity Press, Cambridge.
Gillis, J. (2010). Reading Earth's Future in Glacial Ice. The New York Times, November 14, A1, A14–A15.
Gillis, J. (2013). Study of Ice Age Bolsters Carbon and Warming Link. The New York Times, March 1, A4, A10.
Gillis, J. (2014). Some Scientists Disagree with President's Linking Drought to Warming. The New York Times, February 18, A11.
Gillis, J. and Barringer, F. (2012). As Coasts Rebuild and US Pays, Again, Critics Stop to Ask Why. The New York Times, November 19, A1, A12.
Gleick, P. (2012). Remarkable Editorial Bias on Climate Science at the Wall Street Journal. (
Glenn, D. (2006). A Climate for Not Much Change. Chronicle of Higher Education, March 31, A17–A18.
Goodell, J. (2010). Geoengineering and the Audacious Quest to Fix Earth's Climate. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston/New York.
Goodstein, L. (2006). Eighty-Six Evangelical Leaders Join to Fight Global Warming. The New York Times (
Greely, B. (2011). The God Clause. Bloomberg Businessweek, September 5, 58–67.
Gustafsson, Ö., et al. (2009). Brown Clouds over South Asia: Biomass or Fossil Fuel Combustion, Science 323, 495–8.
Hamilton, C. (2013). Earthmasters: The Dawn of the Age of Climate Engineering. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.
Hampton, R. and Cross, J.-M. (2014). Climate Adaptation at the Federal Level. Environmental and Energy Study Institute (
Handwerk, B. (2012). Amid Economic Concerns, Carbon Capture Faces a Hazy Future. National Geographic Daily News, May 22 (
Hansen, J., et al. (2005). Earth's Energy Imbalance: Confirmation and Implications. Science 308, 1431–5.
Hansen, J. (2006). Is There Still Time to Avoid Dangerous Anthropogenic Interference with Global Climate? (
Hansen, J. (2009). Storms of My Grandchildren: The Truth about the Coming Climate Catastrophe and Our Last Chance to Save Humanity. Bloomsbury Press, New York.
Hardin, G. (1968). The Tragedy of the Commons. Science 162, 1243–8.
Harris, Poll (2011). A Change in the Wind. Americans Increasingly Doubt Global Warming (
Harris, N.L., et al. (2012). Baseline Map of Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in Tropical Regions. Science 336, 1573–6.
Hassol, S.J. (2004). Impacts of a Warming Arctic. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA) Project. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Haszeldine, R.S. (2009). Carbon Capture and Storage: How Green Can Black Be?Science 325, 1647–52.
Hawken, P. (2005). The Ecology of Commerce. Collins Business, New York.
Hegerl, G.C. and Solomon, S. (2009). Risks of Climate Engineering. Science 325, 955–6.
Heimann, M. (2010). How Stable Is the Methane Cycle?Science 327, 1211–12.
Hoegh-Guldberg, O., et al. (2007). Coral Reefs under Rapid Climate Change and Ocean Acidification. Science 318, 1737–42.
Hoegh-Guldberg, O. and Bruno, J.F. (2010). The Impact of Climate Change on the World's Marine Ecosystems. Science 328, 1523–8.
Hoffman, A.J. (2006). Getting Ahead of the Curve: Corporate Strategies that Address Climate Change. Pew Center on Global Climate Change.
Hoffman, A.J. (2012). Climate Science as Culture War. Stanford Social Innovation Review (
Hönisch, B., et al. (2009). Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentration across the Mid-Pleistocene Transition. Science 324, 1551–4.
House, K.Z., et al. (2011). Economic and Energetic Analysis of Capturing CO2 from Ambient Air. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 108(51), 20428–33 (
House of Representatives (2007). Political Interference with Climate Change Science under the Bush Administration. (
Houser, T., et al. (2014). American Climate Prospectus: Economic Risks in the United States. Risky Business Project, Rhodium Group, June 24.
Howarth, R.W., et al. (2011). Methane and the Greenhouse-Gas Footprint of Natural Gas from Shale Formations. Climatic Change 106: 679–90 (doi:10.1007/s10584-011-0061-5).
Hoyos, C.D., et al. (2006). Deconvolution of the Factors Contributing to the Increase in Global Hurricane Intensity. Science 312, 94–7.
Hsiang, S.M., et al. (2013). Quantifying the Influence of Climate on Human Conflict. Science 341(6151) (doi:10.1126/science.1235367).
Hume, M. (2009). Why We Disagree about Climate Change: Understanding Controversy, Inaction, and Opportunity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
ICLEI (2011). Local Governments for Sustainability USA (
IEA (2010). World Energy Outlook 2010. International Energy Agency (
IEA(2011). Technology Roadmap: Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (
IEA(2013a). Key World Energy Statistics (
IEA(2013b). CO2 Emissions from Fossil Fuel Combustion (
IEA(2014). Snapshot of Global PV: 1992–2013 (
IGBP (2013). Ocean Acidification. International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (
IMF (2014). Climate, Environment and the IMF (
IPCC (1995). Impacts, Adaptations, and Mitigation of Climate Change: Scientific-Technical Analysis. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Contributions of Working Group II to the Second Assessment Report of the IPCC. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
IPCC(2001a). Climate Change 2001: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Third Assessment Report of the IPCC. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
IPCC(2001b). Climate Change 2001. Technical Summary of Working Group I (
IPCC(2001c). Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the IPCC. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
IPCC(2007a). Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Working Groups I, II and III Contributions to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC. Chapter 6, Paleoclimate. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
IPCC(2007b). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
IPCC(2007c). IPCC Assessment of Climate Change and Uncertainties. Contributions of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
IPCC(2007d). Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
IPCC(2014a). Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the IPCC. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
IPCC(2014b). Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Summary for Policymakers. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the IPCC. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
IPCC(2014c). Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Fifth Assessment Synthesis Report of the IPCC. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
IPSOS (2014). Ipsos Global Trends 2014 (
JPL (2013). Study Sheds Light on Arctic Sea Ice Volume Losses. Jet Propulsion Laboratory (–057).
Jackson, S.C. (2009). Parallel Pursuit of Near-Term and Long-Term Climate Mitigation. Science 326, 526–7.
Jamieson, D. (2014). Reason in a Dark Time: Why the Struggle against Climate Change Failed – and What It Means for our Future. Oxford University Press, New York.
Janofsky, M. (2005). When Cleaner Air Is a Biblical Obligation. The New York Times (
Johannessen, O.M., et al. (2005). Recent Ice-Sheet Growth in the Interior of Greenland. Science 310, 1013–15.
Jones, E.A. (2008). How Texas Struck It Rich Beneath Suburbia. The Wall Street Journal, August 2, A9.
Jose, C. (2013). Blessing the Facts: Evangelical Scientists Urge Congress to Reduce Carbon Emissions (
Joughin, I., et al. (2008). Seasonal Speedup along the Western Flank of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Science 320, 781–3.
Joughin, I., (2014). Marine Ice Sheet Collapse Potentially Underway for the Thwaites Glacier Basin, West Antarctica. Science 344, 735–8.
Kahan, D.M., et al. (2012). The Polarizing Impact of Science Literacy and Numeracy on Perceived Climate Change Risks. Nature Climate Change 2, 732–5 (doi:10.1038/nclimate1547).
Kahn, S.A., et al. (2014). Sustained Mass Loss of the Northeast Greenland Ice Sheet Triggered by Regional Warming. Nature Climate Change 4, 292–9 (doi:10.1038/nclimate2161).
Kanter, J. (2014). E.U. Greenhouse Gas Deal Falls Short of Expectations. The New York Times, October 25, A11.
Kanter, J. and Mouawad, J. (2008). Pipe Dreams and Politics. The New York Times, December 11, B1, B6.
Karion, A., et al. (2013). Methane Emissions Estimate from Airborne Measurements over a Western United States Gas Field. Geophys. Res. Letts. 40(16), 4393–7.
Kaufman, L. (2009). Dissenter on Warming Expands His Campaign. The New York Times, April 10, A13.
Kaufmann, R.K., et al. (2011). Reconciling Climate Anthropogenic Change with Observed Temperature 1998–2008. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 108(29), 11790–3 (
Keith, D.W. (2009). Why Capture CO2 from the Atmosphere?Science 325, 1654–5.
Keith, D.W. (2013). A Case for Climate Engineering. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
Kerr, R.A. (2004a). Three Degrees of Consensus. Science 305, 932–4.
Kerr, R.A. (2004b). A Bit of Icy Antarctica Is Sliding Toward the Sea. Science 305, 1897.
Kerr, R.A. (2005). The Atlantic Conveyor May Have Slowed, But Don't Panic Yet. Science 310, 1403–5.
Kerr, R.A. (2006a). Latest Forecast: Stand By for a Warmer, But Not Scorching World. Science 312, 351.
Kerr, R.A. (2006b). A Worrying Trend of Less Ice, Higher Seas. Science 311, 1698–701.
Kerr, R.A. (2006c). False Alarm, Atlantic Conveyor Belt Hasn't Slowed. Science 314, 1064.
Kerr, R.A. (2006d). Pollute the Planet for Climate's Sake?Science 314, 401–3.
Kerr, R.A. (2008). Global Warming Throws Some Curves in the Atlantic Ocean. Science 322, 515.
Kerr, R.A. (2009). Arctic Summer Ice Could Vanish Soon But Not Suddenly. Science 323, 1655.
Kerr, R.A. (2010). Ocean Acidification Unprecedented, Unsettling. Science 328, 1500–1.
Kerr, R.A. (2011). Vital Details of Global Warming Are Eluding Forecasters. Science 334, 173–4.
Kerr, R.A. (2012). Ice-Free Arctic Sea May Be Years, Not Decades, Away. Science 337, 1591.
Kiehl, J.T. and Trenberth, K.E. (1997). Earth's Annual Global Mean Energy Budget. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc. 78, 197–208.
Kildow, J. and Scorse, J. (2012). End Federal Flood Insurance. The New York Times, November 29, A23.
Kintisch, E. (2006). Evangelicals, Scientists Reach Common Ground on Climate Change. Science 311, 1082–3.
Kintisch, E. (2007). Tougher Ozone Accord Also Addresses Global Warming. Science 317, 1843.
Kintisch, E. (2008). Roads, Ports, Rails Aren't Ready for Changing Climate, Says Report. Science 319, 1744–5.
Kintisch, E. (2009a). New Push Focuses on Quick Ways to Curb Global Warming. Science 324, 323.
Kintisch, E. (2009b). Projections of Climate Change Go from Bad to Worst. Science 323, 1546–7.
Kintisch, E. (2010). Hack the Planet: Science's Best Hope – or Worst Nightmare – for Averting Climate Catastrophe. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ.
Kintisch, E. (2014). Is Atlantic Holding Earth's Missing Heat?Science 345, 860–1.
Kintisch, E. and Buckheit, K. (2006). Along the Road from Kyoto. Science 311, 1705–6.
Klein, N. (2014). This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate. Simon & Schuster, New York.
Kosaka, Y. and Xie, S.-P. (2013). Recent Global-Warming Hiatus Tied to Equatorial Pacific Surface Cooling. Nature 501, 403–7 (doi:10.1038/nature12534).
Kramer, A.E. (2005). In Russia, Pollution Is Good for Business. The New York Times, December 28, C1, C5.
Krauss, C. (2008a). There's Gas in Those Hills. The New York Times, April 8 (
Krauss, C. (2008b). Drilling Boom Revives Hopes for Natural Gas. The New York Times, August 25, A1, A16.
Krauss, C. (2013). U.S. Coal Companies Scale Back Export Goals. The New York Times, September 14, B1, B6.
Krauss, C., et al. (2005). As Polar Ice Turns to Water, Dreams of Treasure Abound. The New York Times, October 10 (
Lazard (2013). Lazard's Levelized Cost of Energy Analysis-Version 7.0. August.
LTDL (1993). Bad Science: A Resource Book. Legacy Tobacco Documents Library. University of California, San Francisco (
Lal, R. (2004). Soil Carbon Sequestration Impacts on Global Climate Change and Food Security. Science 304, 1623–6.
Leiserowitz, A. (2010). Project on Climate Change Communication. Yale University. (
Levin, K., et al. (2010). Playing It Forward: Path Dependency, Progressive Incrementalism, and the “Super Wicked” Problem of Global Climate Change. (–9/2010_super_wicked_levin_cashore_bernstein_auld.pdf).
Levin, K., (2012). Overcoming the Tragedy of Super Wicked Problems: Constraining our Future Selves to Ameliorate Climate Global Climate Change. Policy Sciences 45(2), 125–52.
Lewis, V.B. (2006). The Common Good in Classical Political Philosophy. Current Issues in Catholic Higher Education 25(1), 25–46.
Li, J. and Stone, R. (2011). China Looks to Balance Its Carbon Books. Science 334, 886–7.
Lipton, E., et al. (2012). Flood Insurance, Already Fragile, Faces New Stress. The New York Times, November 13, pp. A1, A18.
Liu, Z., et al. (2009). Transient Simulation of Last Deglaciation with a New Mechanism for Bølling-Allerød Warming. Science 325, 310–14.
Llovel, W., et al. (2014). Deep-Ocean Contribution to Sea Level and Energy Budget Not Detectable over the Past Decade. Nature Climate Change 4, 1031–5 (doi:10.1038/nclimate2387).
Loarie, S.R., et al. (2009). Boosted Carbon Emission from Amazon Deforestation. Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L14810.
Lobell, D.B., et al. (2008). Prioritizing Climate Change Adaptation Needs for Food Security in 2030. Science 319, 607–10.
Lomborg, B. (2006). Stern Review. The Wall Street Journal, November 2, A12.
Lovins, A.B. (2005). More Profit with Less Carbon. Scientific American, September, 74–83.
Lustgarten, A. (2009). The Hidden Danger of Gas Drilling. Business Week, November 24, 76–9.
Lutchke, S.B., et al. (2006). Recent Greenland Ice Mass Loss by Drainage System from Satellite Gravity Observations. Science 314, 1286–9.
Lutchke, S.B., (2012). Coal Power Drops to New Lows. Mechanical Engineering, June, 10.
MIT (2006). Report of the Energy Research Council, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (
MIT(2007). The Future of Coal: Options for a Carbon-Constrained World. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. (
MIT(2011). The Future of Natural Gas. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (
MIT(2014). Carbon Capture and Sequestration Technologies (
Mongabay (2011). REDD (
Mahasneh, H.I. (2003). Islamic Faith Statement. Faiths and Ecology. Alliance of Religions and Conservation (
Malakof, D. (2014). The Gas Surge. Science 344, 1464–7.
Mankiw, N.G. (2007). One Answer to Global Warming: A New Tax, The New York Times, September 16, BU6.
Mann, M.E., et al. (1998). Global-Scale Temperature Patterns and Climate Forcing over the Past Six Centuries. Nature 392, 779–87.
Mann, M.E., (1999). Northern Hemisphere Temperature during the Past Millennium: Inferences, Uncertainties, and Limitations. Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 759–62.
Mann, M.E., (2008). Proxy-Based Reconstruction of Hemispheric and Global Surface Temperature Variations over the Past Two Millennia. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 105, 13252–7.
Marcott, S.A., et al. (2013). A Reconstruction of Regional and Global Temperature for the Past 11,300 Years. Science 339, 1198–201.
Martin, C. (2013). US States Turning Against Renewable Portfolio Standards as Gas Plunges. (
Martin, C., et al. (2013). Why the US Power Grid's Days Are Numbered. Bloomberg Businessweek (
Marzeion, B., et al. (2014). Attribution of Global Glacier Mass Loss to Anthropogenic and Natural Causes. Science 345, 919–21.
McCright, A.M. and Dunlap, R.E. (2011). The Politicization of Climate Change and Polarization in the American Public's View of Global Warming, 2001–2010. The Sociological Quarterly 52(2), 155–94.
McGinn, D, (2009). The Greenest Big Companies in America. Newsweek, September 28, 34–48.
McIntyre, S. and McKitrick, R. (2005). Hockey Sticks, Principal Components, and Spurious Components. Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L03710 (doi:10.1029/2004GL021750).
McKinley, G.A., et al. (2011). Convergence of Atmospheric and North Atlantic Carbon Dioxide Trends on Multidecadal Timescales. Nature Geoscience 4, 604–10 (doi:10.1038/ngeo1193).
Meehl, G.A. and Tebaldi, C. (2004). More Intense, More Frequent, and Longer Lasting Heat Waves in the 21st Century. Science 305, 994–7.
Meehl, G.A., et al. (2011). Model-Based Evidence of Deep-Ocean Heat Uptake during Surface-Temperature Hiatus Periods. Nature Climate Change 1, 360–4.
Meehl, G.A., (2013). Externally Forced and Internally Generated Climate Variability Associated with Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation. J. Climate 26, 7298–310.
Miller, S.M., et al. (2013). Anthropogenic Emissions of Methane in the U.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 110(50), 20018–22. (
Mills, E. (2005). Insurance in a Climate of Change. Science 309, 1040–4.
Moberg, A., et al. (2005). Highly Variable Northern Hemisphere Temperatures Reconstructed from Low- and High-Resolution Proxy Data. Nature 433, 613–17.
Monastersky, R. (2003). Storm Brews over Global Warming. The Chronicle of Higher Education, September 5, A16.
Monastersky, R. (2005). Demand for their Data on Climate Chills Scientists. The Chronicle of Higher Education, July 15, A1, 23, 24.
Monastersky, R. (2006). House Panel Heatedly Debates Research behind Global Warming Theory. The Chronicle of Higher Education (
Monnin, E., et al. (2001). Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations over the Last Glacial Termination. Science 291, 112–14.
Moon, T., et al. (2012). 21-st Century Evolution of Greenland Outlet Glacier Velocities. Science 336, 576–8.
Morello, L. (2011). NOAA Makes It Official: 2011 Among Most Extreme Weather Years in History (
Mouawad, J. (2006). The Greener Guys. The New York Times, May 30 (
Mouawad, J. and Krauss, C. (2009). Dark Side of Natural Gas Boom. The New York Times, December 8, B1, B4.
Muller, E. (2011). Cooling the Warming Debate. ( Accessed November 3, 2011.
Muller, R.A. (2012). The Conversion of a Climate-Change Skeptic. The New York Times, July 30, A11.
Munich Re, (2012). North America Most Affected by Increase in Weather-Related Natural Catastrophes (
Myers, S.L. and Kulish, N. (2013). Growing Clamor about Inequities of Climate Crisis.The New York Times, November 17, A1, A12.
Myrhe, G. (2009). Consistency between Satellite-Derived and Modeled Estimates of the Direct Aerosol Effect. June 18 (
NAS (2012). The Effect of Solar Variability on Earth's Climate: A Workshop Report. National Academy of Sciences Prepublication, National Academies Press (
NASA (2006). Global Effects of Mount Pinatubo. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (
NASA(2014). The Sunspot Cycle. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (
ND-GAIN (2014). Notre Dame Global Adaptation Index (
NOAA (2010). Arctic Report Card: Region Continues to Warm at an Unprecedented Rate. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (
NOAA(2011). Extreme Weather 2011 (
NOAA(2013c). Billion-Dollar Weather/Climate Disasters. National Climatic Data Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (
NOAA(2014a). Trends in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide. Earth System Research Laboratory,(
NOAA(2014b). The NOAA Annual Greenhouse gas Index (AGGI) (
NOAA(2014c). El Niño Theme Page. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (
NPCC (2010). Climate Change Adaptation in New York City: Building a Risk Management Response. New York Panel on Climate Change. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Volume 1196 (
NRC (2002). Abrupt Climate Change: Inevitable Surprises. National Research Council. National Academies Press, Washington, DC (
NRC(2006). Surface Temperature Reconstructions for the Last 2,000 Years (
NRC(2008). Potential Impacts of Climate Change on US Transportation. Transportation Research Board Special Report 290 (
NRC(2009). America's Energy Future: Technology and Transformation.
NRC(2010). Adapting to the Impacts of Climate Change (
NRC(2011). America's Climate Choices (
NRC(2012a). A National Strategy for Advancing Climate Modeling (
NRC(2012b). Climate Change: Evidence, Impacts, and Choices. (
NSEE (2014). Public Views on a Carbon Tax Depend on Proposed Use of the Revenue. National Surveys on Energy and the Environment (
NSF (2011). National Science Foundation, Office of Inspector General, Closeout Memorandum A09120086.
NYT (2004). Subverting Science. The New York Times, October 31 (
Meehl, G.A., (2006a). Global Warming and the Courts. July 8, A24.
Meehl, G.A., (2006b). Muzzling Those Pesky Scientists (
Pew(2011). Drilling Down (
Nakicenovic, N., et al. (2000). Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES): A Special Report of Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (
National Academies (2008). Understanding and Responding to Climate Change (
Meehl, G.A., (2010). On Thin Ice. IN FOCUS (
Nghiem, S.V., et al. (2012). The Extreme Melt Across the Greenland Ice Sheet in 2012. Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, L20502 (doi:10.1029GL053611).
Nisbet, E.G., et al. (2014). Methane on the Rise – Again. Science 343, 493–5.
Nordhaus, W. (2007). Critical Assumptions in the Stern Review on Climate Change. Science 317, 201–2.
Nordhaus, W. (2013). The Climate Casino: Risk, Uncertainty, and Economics for a Warming World. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.
Norris, F. (2013). Population Growth Forecast from the U.N. May Be Too High. The New York Times, September 21, B3.
Null, J. (2014). El Niño and La Niña Years and Intensities (
Octogesima Adveniens (1971). Pope Paul VI, Apostolic Letter §21, May 14 (
Olivier, J.G.J., et al. (2011). Long-Term Trend in Global CO2 Emissions. PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency and Institute for Environment and Sustainability of the European Joint Research Centre (
Olivier, J.G.J., et al. (2012). Trends in Global CO2 Emissions. (
Oppenheimer, M. and Alley, R. (2004). The West Antarctic Ice Sheet and Long-Term Climate Policy. Climatic Change 64, 1–10.
Oreskes, N. and Conway, E. (2010). Merchants of Doubt: How a Handful of Scientists Obscured the Truth from Tobacco Smoke to Global Warming. Bloomsbury Press, New York.
Osborn, T.J. and Briffa, K.R. (2006). The Spatial Extent of 20th-Century Warmth in the Context of the Past 1200 Years. Science 311, 841–4.
Oxford (2014). Oxford Principles. Oxford Geoengineering Programme, University of Oxford (
PCAST (2013). Climate Change Strategy and Policy (
Pacala, S. and Socolow, R. (2004). Stabilization Wedges: Solving the Climate Problem for the Next 50 Years with Current Technologies. Science 305, 968–71.
Pan, Y., et al. (2011). A Large and Persistent Carbon Sink in the World's Forests. Science, 333, 988–93.
Parkinson, C.L. (2010). Coming Climate Crisis? Consider the Past, Beware the Big Fix. Roman & Littlefield Publishers, Lanham, MD.
Parrenin, F., et al. (2013). Synchronous Change of Atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic Temperature During the Last Deglacial Warming. Science 339, 1060–3.
Parson, E.A. and Keith, D.W. (2013). End the Deadlock on Governance of Geoengineering. Science 339, 1278–9.
Patashnik, I.V., et al. (2011). Water Vapor Self-Continuous Absorption in Near-Infrared Windows Derived from Laboratory Measurements. J. Geophys. Res. 116, D16305 (doi:10.1029/2011JD015603).
Paulson, H.M. Jr. (2014). The Coming Climate Crash. The New York Times, June 22, SR 1,12.
Pedro, J.B., et al. (2012). Tightened Constraints on the Time-Lag between Antarctic Temperature and CO2 during the Last Deglaciation. Clim. Past 8, 1213–21.
Peikoff, L. (1993). Objectivism: The Philosophy of Ayn Rand. Penguin Books, New York.
Peña, N. and Grünbaum, G. (2001). Facts and Figures: Global Climate Data. (
Peterson, P.G. (2004). Running on Empty: How the Democratic and Republican Parties are Bankrupting our Future and What Americans Can Do About It. Farrar, Strauss and Giroux, New York.
Pew (2013a). Who's Winning the Clean Energy Race? The Pew Charitable Trusts. (
Olivier, J.G.J., (2013b). Deficit Reduction Rises on Public's Agenda for Obama's Second Term. Pew Research Center for the People and the Press (
Pfeffer, W.T., et al. (2008). Kinematic Constraints on Glacier Contributions to 21st Century Sea-Level Rise. Science 321, 1340–3.
Pfeil, M.R. (2006). Social Sin: Social Reconciliation?Reconciliation, Nations and Churches in Latin America. Maclean, I., Ed., Ashgate, Burlington, VT, 171–89.
Phillips, O.L., et al. (2009). Drought Sensitivity of the Amazon Rain Forest. Science 323, 1344–7.
Piedra, A.M. (2006). Economics and the Common Good. Current Issues in Catholic Higher Education 25(1), 75–93.
Pielke, R.A. Jr. (2007). The Honest Broker: Making Sense of Science in Policy and Politics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Pielke, R.A. (2010). The Climate Fix: What Scientists and Politicians Won't Tell You About Global Warming. Basic Books, New York.
Pierson, R. (2013). Landfill Methane. Fact Sheet, Environmental and Energy Study Institute (
Pigou, A. C. (2013). The Economics of Welfare. Palgrave Macmillan, London.
Pindyck, R.S. (2013). Climate Change Policy: What Do the Models Tell Us? National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper 19244.
Plumer, B. (2012). CBO: Carbon Capture Efforts Aren't Going So Well. The Washington Post (
Pooley, E. (2010a). The Climate War: True Believers, Power Brokers, and the Fight to Save the Earth. Hyperion, New York.
Pooley, E. (2010b). America Sits Out the Race. BloombergBusinessweek, August 2, 6–7.
Porter (2013). Rethinking How to Split the Costs of Carbon. The New York Times, December 25, B1, 2.
Porter(2014). China's Hurdle to Fast Action on Carbon. The New York Times, July 2, B1, B9.
Powell, C.A. and Morreale, B.D. (2008). Material Challenges in Advanced Coal Conversion Technologies. MRS Bulletin 33, 309–15.
Prentice, I.C., et al. (2001). The Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide. In Houghton, J.T. et al. (eds), Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 183–237.
Prestowitz, C. (2003). Rogue Nation: American Unilateralism and the Failure of Good Intentions. Basic Books, New York.
Putnam, R.D. and Campbell, D.E (2010). American Grace: How Religion Divides and Unites Us. Simon and Schuster, New York.
REN (2014). Renewables 2014: Global Status Report. Renewable Energy Policy Network (
RGGI (2014a). Regional Investment of RGGI CO2 Allowance Proceeds, 2012. (
Meehl, G.A., (2014b). Auction 24 (
Rabe, B.G. (2006). Race to the Top: The Expanding Role of U.S. State Renewable Portfolio Standards. Pew Center on Global Climate Change.
Rahmstorf, S., et al. (2012). Comparing Climate Projections to Observations up to 2011. Environ. Res. Lett. 7(4), 044035 (–9326/7/4/044035).
Ramaswamy, V., et al. (2001). Radiative Forcing of Climate Change. In Houghton, J.T. et al. (eds), Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 349–416.
Rand, A. (1992). Atlas Shrugged, 35th Anniversary Edition, Penguin Books, New York.
Ravishankara, A.R., et al. (2009). Nitrous Oxide (N2O): The Dominant Ozone-Depleting Substance in the 21st Century. Science 326, 123–5.
Redemptor Hominis (1979). Pope John Paul II, Encyclical Letter §15, March 4 (
Reed, S. (2013). After Failed Attempt in April, Europe Approves Emissions Trading System. The New York Times, July 4, B3.
Regalado, A. (2005). Researchers, Lawmakers Criticize Probe Into Climate Calculations. The Wall Street Journal, July 19, A4.
Revkin, A.C. (2003). Into Thin Air: Kyoto Treaty May Not Die. The New York Times, December 4 (
Revkin, A.C. (2005). Bush Aide Softened Greenhouse Gas Links to Global Warming (
Revkin, A.C. (2014). In Joint Steps on Emissions, China and U.S. Set Aside ‘You First’ Approach on Global Warming (
Ricke, K.L. (2010). Regional Climate Response to Solar-Radiation Management. Nature Geoscience 3, 537–41.
Rignot, E. and Kanagaratnam, P. (2006). Changes in the Velocity Structure of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Science 311, 986–90.
Rignot, E., et al. (2013). Ice Shelf Melting around Antarctica. Science 341, 266–70.
Rignot, E., (2014). Widespread, Rapid Grounding Line Retreat of Pine Island, Thwaites, Smith and Kohler Glaciers, West Antarctica from 1992 to 2011. Geophys. Res. Lett. 41(10), 3502–9 (doi: 10,1002/2014GL060140).
Riihelä, A., Manninen, T. and Laine, V. (2013). Observed Changes in the Albedo of the Arctic Sea-Ice Zone for the Period 1982–2009. Nature Climate Change 3, 895–8 (doi:10.1038/nclimate1963).
Riley, N.S. (2004). On Thrift. In Character, A Journal of Everyday Virtues (
Rittel, H.W.J. and Webber, M.W. (1973). Dilemmas in a General Theory of Planning. Policy Science 4(2), 155–69.
Roberts, P. (2004). The End of Oil, Houghton Mifflin, New York.
Robock, A., et al. (2009). Benefits, Risks, and Costs of Stratospheric Geoengineering. Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L19703 (doi:10.1029/2009GL03929).
Rohter, L. (2004). U.S. Waters Down Global Commitment to Curb Greenhouse Gases. The New York Times, December 19 (
Romm, J. (2004). The Hype about Hydrogen, Island Press, Washington, DC.
Romm, J. (2010). Climate Progress (
Rose, D. (2011). Scientist Who Said Climate Change Skeptics Had Been Proved Wrong Accused of Hiding Truth by Colleague (
Rosenfeld, D. (2006). Aerosols, Clouds, and Climate. Science 312, 1323–4.
Rosenthal, E. (2009). Soot from Third World Stoves Is New Target in Climate Fight. The New York Times, April 16, A1, A12.
Rosenthal, E. (2011). Where Did Global Warming Go? The New York Times, October 16, SR1, 7.
Rosenthal, E. and Lehren, A.W. (2012). Carbon Credits Gone Awry Raise Output of Harmful Gases. The New York Times, August 9, A1, A10.
Rotman, D. (2009). Natural Gas Changes the Map. Technology Review, November/December, 44–51.
Rubin, E.S. (2001). Introduction to Engineering and the Environment.McGraw Hill, New York.
Russell, L.M. (2012). Offsetting Climate Change by Engineering Air Pollution to Brighten Clouds. National Academy of Engineering, The Bridge 42(4), 10–15.
Russell, M., et al. (2010). The Independent Climate Change E-mails Review. (
SDSN (2014). Pathways to Deep Decarbonization. Sustainable Development Solutions Network and Institute for Sustainable Development and International Relations (
Sallenger, A.H., et al. (2012). Hotspot of Accelerated Sea-Level Rise on the Atlantic Coast of North America. Nature Climate Change 2, 884–8 (doi:10.1038/nclimate1597).
Sanders, B. (2012). Insurers See Growing Risks and Costs from Climate Change. (
Sanders, E. (2005). Rebuffing Bush, 132 Mayors Embrace Kyoto Rules. The New York Times (
Santer, B.D., et al. (2013). Human and Natural Influences on the Changing Thermal Structure of the Atmosphere. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 110(43), 17235–40 (
Savonis, M.J., et al. (2008). Impacts of Climate Change and Variability on Transportation Systems and Infrastructure, Phase I. U.S. Climate Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.7 (
Sayre, K.M. (2010). Unearthed: The Economic Roots of Environmental Crisis. University of Notre Dame Press, South Bend, IN.
Schaefer, J. (2010). Environmental Degradation, Social Sin and the Common Good. In God, Creation and Climate Change: A Catholic Response to the Environmental Crisis. Miller, R.W., Ed., Orbis Books, New York, 69–94.
Scheffran, J., et al. (2012). Climate Change and Violent Conflict. Science 336, 869–71.
Schlenker, W. and Roberts, M.J. (2009). Nonlinear Temperature Effects Indicate Severe Damage to US Crops under Climate Change. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 106(37), 15594–8 (doi:10.1073/pnas.0906865106).
Schmitt, J., et al. (2012). Carbon Isotope Constraints on the Deglacial CO2 Rise from Ice Cores. Science 336, 711–14.
Schmitz, R.A. (2002). The Earth's Carbon Cycle. Chemical Engineering Education, Fall, pp. 296–309.
Schneider, S.H. (2009). Science as a Contact Sport. National Geographic, Washington, DC.
Schurr, E., et al. (2008). Vulnerability of Permafrost Carbon to Climate Change: Implications for the Global Carbon Cycle. Bioscience 58(8), 701–14.
Schurr, E., (2009). The Effect of Permafrost Thaw on Old Carbon Release and Net Carbon Exchange from Tundra. Nature 459, 556–9.
Schwartz, H.G. Jr. (2010). Adaptation to the Impacts of Climate Change on Transportation. The Bridge, National Academy of Engineering, Fall Issue, pp. 5–13.
Science (2011). A Global Perspective on the Anthropocene. Science 334, October 7, 34–5.
ScienceDaily (2011). Multiple Ocean Stresses Threaten ‘Globally Significant’ Marine Extinction, Experts Warn (
ScienceDaily(2012a). Reducing CO2: Research Shows Chemical and Economic Feasibility for Capturing Carbon Dioxide Directly from Air (
ScienceDaily(2012b). Pulling CO2 from Air Vital, but Lower-Cost Technology a Stumbling Block So Far, Experts Say (
Screen, J.A. and Simmonds, I. (2010). The Central Role of Diminishing Sea Ice in Recent Arctic Temperature Amplification. Nature 464, 1334–7.
Searchinger, T., et al. (2008). Use of US Croplands for Biofuels Increases Greenhouse Gases through Emissions from Land-Use Change. Science 319, 1238–40.
Seelye, K.Q. (2003). Environmental Groups Gain as Companies Vote on Issues. The New York Times, May 29 (
Service, R.F. (2004). The Carbon Conundrum. Science 305, 962–3.
Service, R.F. (2012). Mountains of Data. Science 337, 793–5.
Service, R.F. (2014). Cellulosic Ethanol at Last?Science 345, 1111.
Shakhova, , et al. (2010). Extensive Methane Venting to the Atmosphere from Sediments of the East Siberian Arctic Shelf. Science 327, 1246–50.
Shakun, J.D., et al. (2012). Global Warming Preceded by Increasing Carbon Dioxide Concentration During the Last Deglaciation. Nature 484, 49–54.
Shepherd, A., et al. (2012). A Reconciled Estimate of Ice-Sheet Mass Balance. Science 338, 1183–9.
Shindell, D.T., et al. (2009). Improved Attribution of Climate Forcing to Emissions. Science 326, 716–18.
Shindell, D.T., (2012). Simultaneously Mitigating Near-Term Climate Change and Improving Human Health and Food Security. Science 335, 183–9.
Shiva, V. (2002). Water Wars: Privatization, Pollution and Profit. Chapter 2, South End Press, Boston.
Siegenthaler, U., et al. (2005). Stable Carbon Cycle-Climate Relationship during the Late Pleistocene. Science 310, 1313–17.
Sills, J. (2010). Climate Change and the Integrity of Science. Science 328, May 7, 689–90.
Silva, J.M., et al. (2014). Produced Water from Hydrofracturing: Challenges and Opportunities for Reuse and Recovery. The Bridge, U.S. National Academy of Engineering 44(2), 34–40.
Silver, N. (2012). The Signal and the Noise: Why So many Predictions Fail – but Some Don't. Penguin Press, New York.
Singer, F.S. (2004). The Kyoto Protocol: A Post-Mortem. The New Atlantis 4, 66–73.
Skinner, L. (2012). A Long View on Climate Sensitivity. Science 337, 917–19.
Socolow, R.H. (2005). Can We Bury Global Warming?Scientific American, July, 49–55.
Socolow, R.H. (2011). Wedges Reaffirmed. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, September 27 (
Soden, B.J., et al. (2005). The Radiative Signature of Upper Tropospheric Moistening. Science 310, 841–4.
Sollcitudo Rei Socialis (1987). Apostolic Blessing, Pope John Paul II, December 30 (
Soon, W. and Baliunas, S. (2003). Proxy Climatic and Environmental Changes of the Past 1000 Years. Climate Research 23(2), 89–110.
Spahni, R., et al. (2005). Atmospheric Methane and Nitrous Oxide of the Late Pleistocene from Antarctic Ice Cores. Science 310, 1317–21.
Spencer, J. and Wright, T. (2007). China, U.S. Spar at Climate Talks. The Wall Street Journal, December 6, A10.
Spencer, R.W. and Braswell, W.D. (2010). On the Diagnosis of Radiative Feedback in the Presence of Unknown Radiative Forcing. J. Geophys. Res. 115, D16109 (doi:10.1029/2009JD013371).
Spencer, R.W. and Braswell, W.D. (2011). On the Misdiagnosis of Climate Feedbacks from Variations in the Earth's Radiation Balance. Remote Sens. 3(8), 1603–13.
Stainforth, D.A., et al. (2005). Uncertainty in Predictions of the Climate Response to Rising Levels of Greenhouse Gases. Nature 433, 403–6.
Stavins, R. (2010). Defining Success for Climate Negotiations in Cancún_What Happened and Why. Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard University, December 13.
Stern, N. (2006). Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. See also Executive Summary (
Stern, N. (2013). The Structure of Economic Modeling of the Potential Impacts of Climate Change: Grafting Gross Underestimation of Risk onto Already Narrow Climate Models. Journal of Economic Literature 51(3), 838–59 (doi:10.1257/jel.51.3.838).
Stine, K.P. and Sturges, W.T. (2007). CO2 Is Not the Only Gas. Science 315, 1804–5.
Stocker, T.F., et al. (2001). Physical Climate Processes and Feedbacks. In Houghton, J.T et al. (eds), Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 417–70.
Stott, P., et al. (2013). The Upper End of Model Temperature Predictions Is Inconsistent with Past Warming. Environ. Res. Lett. 8, 014024 (doi:10.1088/1748–9326/8/1/014024).
Sustainable Business (2014). How California Will Spend the $5 Billion a Year from Cap-and-Trade (
Sweet, W. (2008). Jeremy Bentham (1748–1832). Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (
TCEP (2011). Texas Clean Energy Project (
TR (2008). A Cheap CO2 Trap. Technology Review, May/June, 26.
TR(2009). The Cost of Cutting Carbon. Technology Review, January/February, 15.
Tabuchi, H. and Jolly, D. (2013). Japan Backs Off from Emissions Targets, Citing Fukushima Disaster. The New York Times, November 16, A4, A9.
Talbot, D. (2007). Planning for a Climate-Changed World. Technology Review, May/June, 63–7.
Tester, J.W., et al. (2005). Sustainable Energy: Choosing among Options. The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
Thompson, W.G. and Goldstein, S.L. (2005). Open-System Coral Ages Reveal Persistent Sea-Level Cycles. Science 308, 401–4.
Tilmes, S., et al. (2008). The Sensitivity of Polar Ozone Depletion to Proposed Geoengineering Schemes. Science 320, 1201–4.
Timmermann, A. and Menviel, L. (2009). What Drives Climate Flip-Flops?Science 325, 273–4.
Tollefson, J. (2012). Air Sampling Reveals High Methane Emissions from Natural Gas Field. Scientific American (
Tollefson, J. (2013). Methane Leaks Erode Green Credentials of Natural Gas. Nature/News (
Trenberth, K.E. (2005). Uncertainty in Hurricanes and Global Warming. Science 308, 1753–4.
Trenberth, K.E., et al. (2009). Earth's Global Energy Budget. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 90, 311–23.
Tollefson, J. (2011). Issues in Establishing Climate Sensitivity in Recent Studies. Remote Sens., 3, 2951–6.
Trenberth, K.E. and Fasullo, J.T. (2010). Tracking Earth's Energy. Science 328, 316–17.
Trumbore, S.E. and Czimczik, C.I. (2008). An Uncertain Future for Soil Carbon. Science 321, 1455–6.
Tyndall (2011). How Do CDM Projects Contribute to Sustainable Development? Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research (
UCSUSA (2012). A Climate of Corporate Control. Union of Concerned Scientists. (
UN (2011). World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision. United Nations, New York (
UN(2013). World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision (
UNDP (2014). Human Development Index (HDI) United Nations Development Programme (
UNEP (2012). Policy Implications of Warming Permafrost. United Nations Environment Programme (
USCCB (1991). Renewing the Earth. A Pastoral Statement of the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops, November 14 (
USCCB(2001). Global Climate Change: A Plea for Dialogue, Prudence and the Common Good. A Pastoral Statement of the US Conference of Catholic Bishops, June 15 (
USGS (2008). News Release. US Geological Survey (
Unruh, B. (2008). 31,000 Scientists Reject Global Warming Agenda. WorldNetDaily (
Urbina, I. (2011). Regulation Lax as Gas Wells’ Tainted Water Hits Rivers. The New York Times (
Van den Broeke, et al. (2009). Partitioning Recent Greenland Mass Loss. Science 326, 984–6.
Venkataraman, C., et al. (2005). Residual Biofuels in South Asia: Carbonaceous Aerosol Emissions and Climate Impacts. Science 307, 1454–6.
Vidic, R.D., et al. (2013). Impact of Shale Gas Development on Regional Water Quality. Science 340(6134) (doi:10.1126/science.1235009).
Vonk, J.E., et al (2012). Carbon Release from Collapsing Coastal Permafrost in Arctic Siberia. Nature 489, 137–40.
WCED (1987). Our Common Energy Future. World Commission on Environment and Development, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
WDPM (1990). World Day of Peace Message. Peace with God the Creator, Peace with All of Creation. Message of His Holiness Pope John Paul II, January 1 (
WMO (2011). Provisional Statement on the Status of Global Climate_2011. World Meteorological Organization (
WRI (2014). China FAQs – Short Take. World Resources Institute. (
WSJ (2004). Kyoto Capitalists. The Wall Street Journal, December 13, A16.
WSJ(2006). Hockey Stick Hokum. The Wall Street Journal, July 14, A12.
WSJ(2012). No Need to Panic About Global Warming. The Wall Street Journal. (
WWF (2013). The 3% Solution: Driving Profits Through Carbon Reductions. World Wildlife Fund (
Wald, M.L. (2011). Coal Project Hits Snag as a Partner Backs Off. The New York Times, November 11, B1, B8.
Wald, M.L. (2012). Court Backs E.P.A. Over Emission Limits Intended to Reduce Global Warming. The New York Times, (
Wald, M.L. (2014). The Potential Downside of Natural Gas. The New York Times, June 4, B3.
Wald, M.L. and Shear, M.D. (2013). Challenges Await Plan to Reduce Emissions. The New York Times, September 21, B1, B2.
Warner, K., et al. (2009). In Search of Shelter: Mapping the Effects of Climate Change on Human Migration and Displacement. (
Washington, H.A. (1861). The Writings of Thomas Jefferson. Letter to Thomas Law, June 13, 1814, H. W. Derby, New York (
Watanabe, T., et al. (2011). Permanent El Niño during the Pliocene Not Supported by Coral Evidence. Nature 471, 209–11.
Waxman, H. (2009). American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009, H.R. 2454, 111th Congress (
Weart, S.R. (2003). The Discovery of Global Warming, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. Also available at
Webster, P.J., et al. (2005). Changes in Tropical Cyclone Number, Duration, and Intensity in a Warming Environment. Science 309, 1844–6.
Wells, K. and Elgin, B. (2011). What's Killing Carbon Capture? Bloomberg Businessweek, July 31, 68–71.
Wessel, D. (2004). How the U.S. Deficit Is a Moral Issue. The Wall Street Journal, November 4, A2, A6.
Westerling, A.L., et al. (2006). Warming and Earlier Spring Increases Western US Forest Wildfire Activity. Science 313, 940–3.
White House (2002). Global Climate Change Policy Book: A New Approach (
Wigley, T.M.L. (2006). A Combined Mitigation/Geoengineering Approach to Climate Stabilization. Science 314, 452–4.
Wigley, T.M.L. (2011). Coal to Gas: The Influence of Methane Leakage. Climatic Change 118, 601–8.
Wild, M., et al. (2013). A New Diagram for the Global Energy Balance. American Institute of Physics, AIP Conference Proceedings (
Willis, J.K. and Church, J.A. (2012). Regional Sea Level Projection. Science 336, 550–1.
Wilson, E.O. (2002). The Bottleneck. Scientific American, February, 83–92.
Wines, M. (2013a). E.P.A. Is Expected to Set Limits on Greenhouse Gas Emissions by New Power Plants. The New York Times, September 14, A11.
Wines, M. (2013b). A Push Away from Burning Coal as an Energy Source. The New York Times (
Winfield, K. (2007). Europe's Carbon Con Job. The Wall Street Journal, August 21, A14.
Wong, E. (2014). In Step to Lower Carbon Emissions, China Will Place a Limit on Coal Use in 2020. The New York Times, November 21, A4.
WorleyParsons (2009). Strategic Analysis of the Global Status of Carbon Capture and Storage_Report 5: Synthesis Report. Global CCS Institute (
Yohe, G. (2010). Risk Assessment and Risk Management for Infrastructure Planning and Investment. The Bridge, U.S. National Academy of Engineering, Fall Issue, 14–21.
Young, R., et al. (2014). 2014 International Energy Efficiency Scorecard. American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (
Yuan, H. (2014). Bloomberg News (
Zeller, T. Jr. (2010). Is It Hot in Here? Must Be Global Warming. The New York Times, August 1, A4.
Zeller, T. (2011). Studies say Natural Gas Has Its Own Environmental Problems. The New York Times, April 12, B1, B6.
Zeng, N., et al. (2008). Climate Change-the Chinese Challenge. Science 319, 730–1.
Zhang, X., et al. (2013). Attributing Intensification of Precipitation Extremes to Human Influence. Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 5251–7.
Zimov, S.A., et al. (2006). Permafrost and the Global Carbon Budget. Science 312, 1612–13.
Zoback, M.D. and Arent, D.J. (2014). Shale Gas Development: Opportunities and Challenges. The Bridge, U.S. National Academy of Engineering, Winter Issue, 16–23.