Abuza, Zachary 2003a. “Funding Terrorism in Southeast Asia: The Financial Network of Al Qaeda and Jemaah Islamiyah,” Contemporary Southeast Asia 25: 169–199.
Abuza, Zachary 2003b. Militant Islam in Southeast Asia: Crucible of Terror. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
Acuña, Tathiana Flores 1995. The United Nations Mission in El Salvador: A Humanitarian Law Perspective. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.
Adamson, Fiona 2013. “Mechanisms of Diaspora Mobilization and the Transnationalization of Civil War,” in Checkel, Jeffrey T. (ed.), Transnational Dynamics of Civil War. Cambridge University Press.
Advocates for Human Rights 2009. “A House with Two Rooms: Final Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Liberia Diaspora Project,” CreateSpace Independent Publishing, available at: www.theadvocatesforhumanrights.org/final_report.
Aeschlimann, Alain 2005. “Protection of Detainees: ICRC Action Behind Bars,” International Review of the Red Cross 87: 83–122.
African National Congress 1998. “ANC Submission to the TRC in Reply to the TRC’s ‘Findings on the ANC’,” ANC Submissions, South Africa’s National Liberation Movement, October 28, available at: www.anc.org.za/show.php?id=2667.
Akhavan, Payam 2009. “Are International Criminal Tribunals a Disincentive to Peace?: Reconciling Judicial Romanticism with Political Realism,” Human Rights Quarterly 31: 624–654.
Al-Abdeh, Malik 2013. “Rebels, Inc.,” Foreign Policy, December 3.
Al-Gama’ah al-Islamiyah 2014. Initiative to Stop the Violence: Sadat’s Assassins and the Renunciation of Political Violence, trans. Jackson, Sherman. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Allen, Tim and Vlassenroot, Koen 2010. The Lord’s Resistance Army: Myth and Reality. London: Zed Books.
Allison, Michael 2006. “Leaving the Past Behind? A Study of the FMLN and URNG Transitions to Political Parties,” PhD dissertation, Florida State University.
Alonso, Rogelio and Reinares, Ferdinando 2005. “Terrorism, Human Rights and Law Enforcement in Spain,” Terrorism and Political Violence 17: 265–278.
Alston, Philip and Goodman, Ryan 2012. International Human Rights. Oxford University Press.
Alston, Philip, Goodman, Ryan, and Steiner, Henry J. 2007. International Human Rights in Context: Law, Politics, Morals. Oxford University Press.
Alvarez, Alberto Martin 2010. “From Revolutionary War to Democratic Revolution: The Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front (FMLN) in El Salvador,” Berghof Transitions Series No. 9, Berghof Conflict Research.
Anderson, Kenneth 2000. “The Ottawa Convention Banning Landmines, the Role of International Non-Governmental Organizations and the Idea of International Civil Society,” European Journal of International Law 11: 110–119.
Arendt, Hannah 1970. On Violence. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.
Asian Center for Human Rights 2013. “India’s Child Soldiers: A Shadow Report to the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict,” New Delhi, India.
Autesserre, Séverine 2010. The Trouble with the Congo: Local Violence and the Failure of International Peacebuilding. Cambridge University Press.
Baaz, Maria Eriksson and Stern, Maria 2009. “Why Do Soldiers Rape? Masculinity, Violence, and Sexuality in the Armed Forces in the Congo (DRC),” International Studies Quarterly 53: 495–518.
Bakke, Lina 2007. “The Iranian Mojahedin’s Struggle for Legitimacy,” MA thesis, University of Oslo.
Bale, Tim 2007. “Are Bans on Political Parties Bound to Turn out Badly? A Comparative Investigation of Three ‘Intolerant’ Democracies: Turkey, Spain, and Belgium,” Comparative European Politics 5: 141–157.
Bangerter, Olivier 2012. “Internal Control: Codes of Conduct within Insurgent Armed Groups.” Geneva: Small Arms Survey.
Bangerter, Olivier 2011. “Reasons Why Armed Groups Choose to Respect International Humanitarian Law or Not,” International Review of the Red Cross 93: 353–384.
Bangerter, Olivier 2010. “Disseminating and Implementing International Humanitarian Law within Organized Armed Groups: Measures Armed Groups Can Take to Improve Respect for International Humanitarian Law,” in Non-State Actors and International Humanitarian Law: Organized Armed Groups: A Challenge for the Twenty-First Century, International Institute of Humanitarian Law. Milan: FrancoAngeli.
Bapat, Navin 2012. “Understanding State Sponsorship of Militant Groups,” British Journal of Political Science 42: 1–29.
Barnard, Anne 2014. “Dual Threat Has Mainstream Syrian Rebels Fearing Demise: Facing Both ISIS Militants and Bashar Al-Assad’s Forces in Syria,” New York Times, August 15.
Bassiouni, Cherif 2013. The Shari’a and Islamic Criminal Justice in Time of War and Peace. Cambridge University Press.
Bassiouni, Cherif 2012. Introduction to International Criminal Law, 2nd edn. Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff.
Bassiouni, Cherif and Guellali, Amna (eds.) 2010. Jihad and its Challenges to International and Domestic Law, Hague Colloquium on Fundamental Principles of Law. Hague Academic Press.
Bates, Robert 2008. When Things Fell Apart: State Failure in Late-Century Africa. Cambridge University Press.
Beber, Bernd and Blattman, Christopher 2013. “The Logic of Child Soldiering and Coercion,” International Organization 67: 65–104.
Beck, Colin and Miner, Emily 2013. “Who Gets Designated a Terrorist and Why?” Social Forces 91: 837–871.
Beetham, David 1991. The Legitimation of Power. Houndsmill: Macmillan.
Bell, Christine 2008. On the Law of Peace: Peace Agreements and the Lex Pacificatoria. Oxford University Press.
Bell, Christine 2003. Peace Agreements and Human Rights. Oxford University Press.
Bellal, Annyssa and Casey-Maslen, Stuart 2011. “Rules of Engagement: Protecting Civilians through Dialogue with Armed Non-State Actors,” Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights, October.
Betancur, Belisario, Planchart, Reinaldo Figueredo, and Buergenthal, Thomas 1993. “From Madness to Hope: The 12-Year War in El Salvador: Report of the Commission on the Truth for El Salvador,” Commission on the Truth for El Salvador. Truth Commission Digital Collection, United States Institute of Peace, available at: www.usip.org/sites/default/files/file/ElSalvador-Report.pdf.
Bixler, Amanda 2002. “Private Enforcement of International Human Rights Laws: Could a Small Church Group Successfully Combat Slavery in the Sudan,” Chicago Journal of International Law 3: 511.
Blanchard, Christopher and Belasco, Amy 2014. “Proposed Train and Equip Authorities for Syria: In Brief,” Congressional Research Report No. 43727, Congressional Research Service, Washington, DC, September 16.
Blattman, Christopher and Annan, Jeannie 2010. “The Consequences of Child Soldiering,” Review of Economics and Statistics 92: 882–898.
Blaydes, Lisa and Rubin, Lawrence 2008. “Ideological Reorientation and Counterterrorism: Confronting Militant Islam in Egypt,” Terrorism and Political Violence 20: 461–479.
Bloom, Mia and Licklider, Roy 2007. Living Together after Ethnic Killing. London: Routledge.
Bøås, Morten and Dunn, Kevin 2007. African Guerrillas: Raging Against the Machine. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
Bob, Clifford 2005. The Marketing of Rebellion: Insurgents, Media, and International Activism. Cambridge University Press.
Bollen, Kenneth 2002. “Latent Variables in Psychology and the Social Sciences,” Annual Review of Psychology 53: 605–634.
Bond, James 1971. “Protection of Non-Combatants in Guerrilla Wars,” William and Mary Law Review 12: 787–804.
Boot, Max 2013. Invisible Armies: An Epic History of Guerrilla Warfare from Ancient Times to the Present. New York: Liveright.
Booth, John and Seligson, Mitchell 2009. The Legitimacy Puzzle in Latin America: Political Support and Democracy in Eight Nations. Cambridge University Press.
Booth, Martin 1996. Opium: A History. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Brabazon, James 2003. “Liberia: Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy (LURD),” Armed Non-State Actors Project Briefing Paper No. 1, Royal Institute of International Affairs, Africa Programme, February 2003.
Bradbury, Mark, Leader, Nicholas, and Mackintosh, Kate 2000. “The ‘Agreement on Ground Rules’ in South Sudan,” in The Politics of Principle: Principles of Humanitarian Action in Practice. London: Overseas Development Institute.
Branch, Adam 2011. Displacing Human Rights: War and Intervention in Northern Uganda. Oxford University Press.
Bukay, David 2004. Muhammad’s Monsters: A Comprehensive Guide to Radical Islam for Western Audiences. Green Forest, AR: New Leaf Publishing.
Byman, Daniel, Chalk, Peter, Hoffman, Bruce, Rosenau, William, and Brannan, David 2001. Trends in Outside Support for Insurgent Movements. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.
Cammett, Melani 2014. Compassionate Communalism: Welfare and Sectarianism in Lebanon. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Capizzi, Elaine, Hill, Helen, and Macey, Dave 1976. “Fretilin and the Struggle for Independence in East Timor,” Race and Class 17: 381–395.
Caris, Charles and Reynolds, Samuel 2014. “ISIS Governance in Syria,” Middle East Security Report No. 22, July, Institute for the Study of War, Washington, DC.
Carter, Jimmy 2005. “The Case for Engagement: An Interview with President Carter,” Conciliation Resources, London.
Casalin, Deborah 2011. “Taking Prisoners: Reviewing the International Humanitarian Law Grounds for Deprivation of Liberty by Armed Opposition Groups,” International Review of the Red Cross 93: 743–757.
Cassese, Antonio 2008. International Criminal Law, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press.
Cederman, Lars-Erik, Gleditsch, Kristian, and Buhaug, Halvard 2013. Inequality, Grievances, and Civil War. Cambridge University Press.
Chalk, Peter 2013. “The Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters: The Newest Obstacles to Peace in the Southern Philippines?” CTC Sentinel, Combating Terrorism Center at West Point, New York.
Chandra, Uday 2014. “The Maoist Movement in Contemporary India,” Social Movement Studies: Journal of Social, Cultural and Political Protest 13(3): 414–419, dx.doi.org/10.1080/14742837.2013.845730.
Charron, Andrea 2013. UN Sanctions and Conflict: Responding to Peace and Security Threats. London: Routledge.
Chaulia, Sreeram 2011. International Organizations and Civilian Protection: Power, Ideas and Humanitarian Aid in Conflict Zones. London: Tauris.
Cheney, Catherine 2012. “Ethiopia’s Oromo Liberation Front Shifts from Violence to Politics,” World Politics Review, January 4.
Chenoweth, Erica and Stephan, Maria 2012. Why Civil Resistance Works: The Strategic Logic of Nonviolent Conflict, Columbia Studies in Terrorism and Irregular Warfare. New York: Columbia University Press.
Child Soldiers International 2008c. “Child Soldiers Global Report 2008 – Côte d’Ivoire,” Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers, available at: www.refworld.org/docid/486cb0f72.html.
Christia, Fotini 2012. Alliance Formation in Civil Wars. Cambridge University Press.
Clapham, Andrew 2010. “The Rights and Responsibilities of Armed Non-State Actors: The Legal Landscape and Issues Surrounding Engagement,” Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights, available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1569636.
Clapham, Andrew 2006. Human Rights of Non-State Actors. Oxford University Press.
Clapham, Christopher (ed.) 1998. African Guerrillas. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
Clark, Phil 2011. “Chasing Cases: The ICC and the Politics of State Referral in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda,” in Stahn, Carsten and El Zeidy, Mohamed M. (eds.), The International Criminal Court and Complementarity: From Theory to Practice, vol. ii. Cambridge University Press.
Clark, Roger 1980. “The ‘Decolonization’ of East Timor and the United Nations Norms on Self-Determination and Aggression,” Yale Journal of World Public Order 7: 2–44.
Cohen, Dara 2013. “Explaining Rape during Civil War: Cross-National Evidence (1980–2009),” American Political Science Review 107: 461–477.
Cohen, Dara and Nordås, Ragnhild 2014. “Sexual Violence in Armed Conflict: Introducing the SVAC Dataset, 1989–2009,” Journal of Peace Research 51: 418–428.
Cohen, Dara and Nordås, Ragnhild 2013. “Sexual Violence in Armed Conflict (SVAC) Dataset: Codebook and User Instruction Guide,” Version 1.0, last revised, October 23, 2013, available at: www.sexualviolencedata.org.
Cole, Wade and Ramirez, Francisco 2013. “Conditional Decoupling: Assessing the Impact of National Human Rights Institutions, 1981 to 2004,” American Sociological Review doi:10.1177/0003122413492762.
Collier, Paul and Hoeffler, Anke 2000. “Greed and Grievance in Civil War,” Oxford Economic Papers 56: 563–595.
Cronin, Audrey Kurth 2011. How Terrorism Ends. Princeton University Press.
Cunningham, David, Gleditsch, Kristian, and Salehyan, Idean 2013. “Non-State Actors in Civil Wars: A New Dataset,” Conflict Management and Peace Science 30: 516–531.
Dabone, Zakaria 2011. “International Law: Armed Groups in a State-Centric System,” International Review of the Red Cross 93: 395–424.
Dai, Xinyuan 2005. “Why Comply? The Domestic Constituency Mechanism,” International Organization 59: 363–398.
De Zayas, Alfred 2005. “Human Rights and Indefinite Detention,” International Review of the Red Cross 87: 15–38.
DeviN., Rebecca 2008. “Conflict Situations and Children’s Education in Manipur,” Journal of Indian Education 34: 25–31.
Dickinson, Elizabeth 2013. “Playing with Fire: Why Private Gulf Financing for Syria’s Extremist Rebels Risks Igniting Sectarian Conflict at Home,” Saban Center Analysis Paper Series, No. 31. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.
Dietrich, Christian 2000. “UNITA’s Diamond Mining and Exporting Capacity,” in Cilliers, Jakkie and Dietrich, Christian (eds.), Angola’s War Economy: The Role of Oil and Diamonds. Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies.
Donohue, William and Cristal, Moty 2012. “Growing Out in Organization,” in Zartman, William and Faure, Guy Olivier (eds.), Engaging Extremists: Trade-Offs, Timing, and Diplomacy. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press.
Downes, Alexander 2008. Targeting Civilians in War. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Downs, George and Jones, Michael 2002. “Reputation, Compliance and International Law,” Journal of Legal Studies 31: S95–S114.
Doyle, Michael, Johnstone, Ian, and Orr, Robert (eds.), 1997. Keeping the Peace: Multidimensional UN Operations in Cambodia and El Salvador. Cambridge University Press.
Doyle, Michael and Sambanis, Nicholas 2006. Making War and Building Peace: United Nations Peace Operations. Princeton University Press.
Drumbl, Mark 2012. Reimagining Child Soldiers in International Law and Policy. Oxford University Press.
Drumbl, Mark 2007. Atrocity, Punishment, and International Law. Cambridge University Press.
Dudouet, Veronique 2012. “Intra-Party Dynamics and the Political Transformation of Non-State Armed Groups,” International Journal of Conflict and Violence 6(1): 96–108.
Eck, Kristine and Hultman, Lisa 2012. “UCDP One-Sided Violence Dataset V.1.4–2012, 1989–2011,” Uppsala Conflict Data Program, Uppsala University, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
Eck, Kristine and Hultman, Lisa 2007. “One-Sided Violence against Civilians in War: Insights from New Fatality Data,” Journal of Peace Research 44: 223–246.
Eichstaedt, Peter 2009. First Kill Your Family: Child Soldiers of Uganda and the Lord’s Resistance Army. Chicago Review Press.
Espejo, Edwin 2014. “Philippine Gov’t, MILF End Crucial 10-Day Peace Talks in Agreement,” Asian Correspondent, August 11.
European Sudanese Public Affairs Council 1998. “The SPLA and Human Rights in Sudan,” ESPAC Briefing Paper No. 2, London, May.
Evans, Martin 2004. “Senegal: Mouvement des Forces Démocratiques de Casamance (MFDC),” Chatham House Briefing Paper, Africa Programme, Armed Non-State Actors AFP BP 04/02, December.
Ewumbue-Monono, Churchill 2006. “Respect for International Humanitarian Law by Armed Non-State Actors in Africa,” International Review of the Red Cross 88: 905–924.
Fabienne, Peter 2010. “Political Legitimacy,” in Zalta, Edward N. (ed.), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford, CA: Metaphysics Research Laboratory, Center for the Study of Language and Information.
Fair, Christine 2007. “The Sri Lankan Tamil Diaspora: Sustaining Conflict and Pushing for Peace,” in Smith, Hazel and Stares, Paul (eds.), Diasporas in Conflict: Peacemakers or Peace Wreckers? Tokyo: United Nations University Press.
Fast, Larissa 2013. Aid in Danger. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Fazal, Tanisha 2013. “Secessionism and Civilian Targeting,” paper presented at the American Political Science Association Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL, August 29–September 1.
Fearon, James 2004. “Separatist Wars, Partition, and World Order,” Security Studies 13: 394–415.
FMLN (Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front) 1988. The Legitimacy of Our Methods of Struggle. Berkeley, CA: Inkworks Press.
Franck, Thomas 1990. The Power of Legitimacy among Nations. Oxford University Press.
Gambhir, Harleen 2014. “Dabiq: The Strategic Messaging of the Islamic State,” ISW Backgrounder, Institute for the Study of War, Washington, DC, August 15.
Gandhi, Jennifer and Lust-Okar, Ellen 2009. “Elections under Authoritarianism,” Annual Review of Political Science 12: 403–422.
Gazagne, Philippe 2009. “Engaging Armed Non-State Actors on the Issue of Child Recruitment and Use,” in Nosworthy, David (ed.), Seen, but Not Heard: Placing Children and Youth on the Security Governance Agenda. Geneva: Center for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces.
Gberie, Lansana 2005. A Dirty War in West Africa: The RUF and the Destruction of Sierra Leone. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
Geneva Academy 2013. “Reaction to Norms: Armed Groups and the Protection of Civilians,” Policy Briefing, Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights.
Gilley, Bruce 2009. The Right to Rule: How States Win and Lose Legitimacy. New York: Columbia University Press.
Gilley, Bruce 2006. “The Meaning and Measure of State Legitimacy: Results for 72 Countries,” European Journal of Political Research 45: 499–525.
Gleditsch, Kristian, Hug, Simon, Schubiger, Livia Isabella, and Wucherpfennig, Julian 2011. “International Conventions and Non-State Actors: Selection, Signaling, and Reputation Effects,” paper presented at the Fourth Conference on the Political Economy of International Organizations, Zurich, January 27–29.
Gleditsch, Nils, Wallensteen, Peter, Eriksson, Mikael, Sollenberg, Margareta, and Havard, Strand 2002. “Armed Conflict 1946–2001: A New Dataset,” Journal of Peace Research 39: 615–637.
Goodhand, Jonathan 2006. Aiding Peace?: The Role of NGOs in Armed Conflict. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
Gorur, Aditi 2012a. “Striking While the Iron’s Hot: The Case for Humanitarian Engagement with M23 after Goma,” Spotlight, Stimson Center, Washington, DC, December 21.
Gorur, Aditi 2012b. “Turning Talk into Action: Encouraging M23 to Uphold Human Rights,” Spotlight, Stimson Center, Washington, DC, October 31.
Graver, Ane Broch 2005. “ANC – a Legitimate Giant? The Legitimacy of the ANC Government in South Africa,” Thesis, Oslo University.
Gunter, Michael 1996. “The KDP–PUK Conflict in Northern Iraq,” Middle East Journal 50: 224–241.
Gurr, Ted 1969. Why Men Rebel. Princeton University Press.
Guzman, Andrew 2008. How International Law Works. Cambridge University Press.
Hafner-Burton, Emilie 2013. Making Human Rights a Reality. Princeton University Press.
Hamberg, Stephan 2013. “Transnational Advocacy Networks, Rebel Groups, and Demobilization of Child Soldiers in Sudan,” in Checkel, Jeffrey (ed.), Transnational Dynamics of Civil War. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Harmer, Adele 2004. “Aid to Poorly Performing Countries: Sudan Case Study,” Background Paper No. 5, ODI Study on Poor Performing Countries, Overseas Development Institute, London.
Hazen, Jennifer 2013. What Rebels Want: Resources and Supply Networks in Wartime. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Healy, Joseph and Sybertz, Donald 1996. Towards an African Narrative Theology. New York: Orbis.
Henckaerts, Jean-Marie and Doswald-Beck, Louise 2005. Customary International Humanitarian Law. Cambridge University Press.
Herbst, Jeffrey 2004. “African Militaries and Rebellion: The Political Economy of Threat and Combat Effectiveness,” Journal of Peace Research 41: 357–369.
Hill, Daniel W., Moore, Will H., and Mukherjee, Bumba 2013. “Information Politics Versus Organizational Incentives: When are Amnesty International’s ‘Naming and Shaming’ Reports Biased?” International Studies Quarterly 57: 219–232.
Hofmann, Claudia and Schneckener, Ulrich 2011. “Engaging Non-State Armed Actors in State- and Peace-Building: Options and Strategies,” International Review of the Red Cross 93: 603–621.
Hogg, Jonny and Charbonneau, Louis 2013. “UN’s Gamble in Eastern DRC,” Independent on Sunday, September 1.
Horstmann, Alexander 2011. “Sacred Networks and Struggles among the Karen Baptists across the Thailand–Burma Border,” Moussons 17: 85–104.
Hovil, Lucy and Werker, Erik 2005. “Portrait of a Failed Rebellion: An Account of Rational, Sub-Optimal Violence in Western Uganda,” Rationality and Society 17: 5–34.
Howse, Robert and Teitel, Ruti 2010. “Beyond Compliance: Rethinking Why International Law Really Matters,” Global Policy 1: 127–136.
Huang, Reyko 2013. “Rebel Diplomacy in Civil Wars,” paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Chicago, IL, August 29–September 1.
Huang, Reyko 2012. “The Wartime Origins of Postwar Democratization,” PhD dissertation, Columbia University.
Hudson, Valerie, Ballif-Spanvill, Bonnie, Caprioli, Mary, and Emmett, Chad 2012. Sex and World Peace. New York: Colombia University Press.
Hultman, Lisa, Kathman, Jacob, and Shannon, Megan 2013. “United Nations Peacekeeping and Civilian Protection in Civil War,” American Journal of Political Science 57(4): 875–891.
Human Rights Watch 2008a. “Collective Punishment: War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity in the Ogaden Area of Ethiopia’s Somali Region,” available at: www.hrw.org/reports/2008/ethiopia0608.
Humphreys, Macartan and Weinstein, Jeremy 2008. “Who Fights? The Determinants of Participation in Civil War” American Journal of Political Science 52: 436–455.
Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada 2012. “Democratic Republic of the Congo: Movement for the Liberation of Congo (Mouvement de Libération du Congo, MLC), Including Leadership and Treatment of Party Members (2009–2012),” available at: www.refworld.org/docid/4f9e58782.html.
International Institute of Humanitarian Law 2010. Non-State Actors and International Humanitarian Law. Organized Armed Groups: A Challenge for the 21st Century. Milan: FrancoAngeli.
Jackson, Ashley and Giustozzi, Antonio 2012. “Talking to the Other Side: Humanitarian Engagement with the Taliban in Afghanistan,” Humanitarian Policy Group, Overseas Development Institute, London, December.
Jackson, Sherman 2009. “Beyond Jihad: The New Thought of the Gama’a Islamiyya,” Journal of Islamic Law and Culture 11: 52–69.
Jahate, Lamin 2013. “Senegal Rebels Alienate Those They Fight For,” Al Jazeera, January 13.
Jardin, Matthew 2010. “East Timor, the United Nations, and the International Community: Force Feeding Human Rights into the Institutionalized Jaws of Failure,” Pacifica Review 12: 47–62.
Jenkins, P. Nash 2014. “The Vast Majority of Syrians are Opposed to an Islamic Caliphate,” Time, July 9.
Jo, Hyeran and Barrett, Josiah 2014. “Commitment and Compliance by Rebel Groups: Case of United Nations Action Plans,” unpublished manuscript, Texas A&M University.
Jo, Hyeran and Thomson, Catarina 2013. “Legitimacy and Compliance with International Law: Access to Detainees in Civil Conflicts 1991–2006,” British Journal of Political Science 44: 323–355.
Kahl, Colin 2007. “In the Crossfire or the Crosshairs? Norms, Civilian Casualties, and US Conduct in Iraq,” International Security 32: 7–46.
Kahler, Miles 2000. “Conclusion: The Causes and Consequences of Legalization,” International Organization 54: 661–683.
Kalyvas, Stathis 2008. “Promises and Pitfalls of an Emerging Research Program: The Microdynamics of Civil War,” in Shapiro, Ian, Masoud, Tarek, and Kalyvas, Stathis N. (eds.), Order, Conflict, and Violence. Cambridge University Press.
Kalyvas, Stathis 2006. The Logic of Violence in Civil War. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Kalyvas, Stathis and Balcells, Laia 2010. “International System and Technologies of Rebellion: How the Cold War Shaped Internal Conflict,” American Political Science Review 104: 415–429.
Keen, David 2012. Useful Enemies: When Waging Wars is More Important than Winning Them. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Keen, David 1998. The Economic Functions of Violence in Civil Wars. Oxford University Press.
Keenan, Paul 2012a. “The Karen National Union Negotiations, 1949–2012,” Burma Center for Ethnic Studies, Chiang Mai University, Thailand.
Keenan, Paul 2012b. “Karenni (Kayah) State: The Situation Regarding the Peace Process in Karenni (Kayah) State,” Briefing Paper No. 9, July, Burma Center for Ethnic Studies, Chiang Mai University, Thailand.
Kelman, Herbert 2001. “Social and Psychological Processes of Legitimization and Delegitimization,” in Jost, John T. and Major, Brenda (eds.), The Psychology of Legitimacy: Emerging Perspectives on Ideology, Justice and Intergroup Relations. Cambridge University Press.
Kinsella, Helen 2011. The Image before the Weapon: A Critical History of the Distinction between Combatant and Civilian. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Kleffner, Jann 2012. “The Law and Policy of Complementarity in Relation to ‘Criminal Proceedings’ Carried out by Non-State Organized Armed Groups,” in Stahn, Carsten and El Zeidy, Mohamed M. (eds.), The International Criminal Court and Complementarity: From Theory to Practice, vol. ii. Cambridge University Press, 707–720.
Kok, Naomi 2013. “The International Conference on the Great Lakes Region,” African Studies Review 22: 277–281.
Krieger, Heike (ed.) forthcoming. Patterns of Inducing Compliance – Ensuring Respect for International Humanitarian Law in War-Torn Areas of Limited Statehood. Cambridge University Press.
Kuperman, Alan 2008. “The Moral Hazard of Humanitarian Intervention: Lessons from the Balkans,” International Studies Quarterly 52: 49–80.
Laitin, David 2007. Nations, States, and Violence. Oxford University Press.
Lake, David 2007. “Building Legitimate States: Order, Authority, and International Trusteeship,” unpublished manuscript, University of California, San Diego.
Lamb, Robert 2014. “Rethinking Legitimacy and Illegitimacy: A New Approach to Assessing Support and Opposition across Disciplines,” a Report of the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) Program on Crisis, Conflict, and Cooperation.
Lasley, Trace 2012. “Creed vs. Deed: Secession, Legitimacy, and the Use of Child Soldiers,” PhD dissertation, University of Kentucky.
Lessa, Francesca and Payne, Leigh 2013. Amnesty in the Age of Human Rights Accountability: Comparative and International Perspectives. Cambridge University Press.
Lidow, Nicholai 2008. “Feeding Civil War: Markets, Resources, and Rebel Organizations,” unpublished manuscript, Stanford University.
Lipset, Seymour Martin 1983. Political Man: The Social Bases of Politics. London: Heinemann.
Lujala, Päivi 2010. “The Spoils of Nature: Armed Civil Conflict and Rebel Access to Natural Resources,” Journal of Peace Research 47(1): 15–28.
Lund, Aron 2013. “The Non-State Militant Landscape in Syria,” Combating Terrorism Center at West Point, New York, August 27.
Magone, Claire, Neuman, Michael, and Weissman, Fabrice 2011. Humanitarian Negotiations Revealed: The MSF Experience. London: Hurst.
Makinano, Merliza 2001. “Child Soldiers in the Philippines,” International Labor Affairs Service, Department of Labor and Employment, Philippines.
Mampilly, Zachariah 2011. Rebel Rulers: Insurgent Governance and Civilian Life during War. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Mantilla, Giovanni 2015. “Coerced Empires Strike Back: The Political Origins of the International Law of Internal Conflicts,” Unpublished typescript, Princeton University.
Markakis, John 1996. “The Somali in Ethiopia,” Review of African Political Economy 23: 567–570.
Maslen, Stuart 2001. Anti-Personnel Mines under Humanitarian Law: A View from the Vanishing Point. Cambridge: Intersentia.
Mattiaci, Eleonora and Jones, Benjajmin 2014. “140 Characters for a Manifesto: Social Media’s Impact on the Libyan Civil War 2011,” paper presented at the International Studies Association Annual Meeting, Toronto, April 2–4.
Maxwell, David 2004. “Operation Enduring Freedom – Philippines: What Would Sun Tzu Say?” Military Review, May–June.
McCubbins, Mathew and Kiewiet, D. Roderick 1991. The Logic of Delegation. University of Chicago Press.
McDowall, David 2004. A Modern History of the Kurds, 3rd edn. London: Tauris.
McHugh, Gerard and Bessler, Manuel 2006. “Guidelines on Humanitarian Negotiations with Armed Groups,” UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, East Jerusalem.
McKenna, Thomas 1998. Muslim Rulers and Rebels: Everyday Politics and Armed Separatism in the Southern Philippines. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism 2013. “Group Profile: Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF),” MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Database, Oklahoma City.
Merari, Ariel 1993. “Terrorism as a Strategy of Insurgency,” Terrorism and Political Violence 5: 213–251.
Modirzadeh, Naz 2006. “Taking Islamic Law Seriously: INGOs and the Battle for Muslim Hearts and Minds,” Harvard Human Rights Journal 19: 191–233.
Modirzadeh, Naz, Lewis, Dustin A., and Bruderlein, Claude 2011. “Humanitarian Engagement under Counter-Terrorism: A Conflict of Norms and the Emerging Policy Landscape,” International Review of the Red Cross 93: 623–647.
Morrow, James 2014. Order within Anarchy: The Laws of War as an International Institution. Cambridge University Press.
Morrow, James 2007. “When do States Follow the Laws of War?” American Political Science Review 101: 559–572.
Murdie, Amanda and Bhasin, Tavishi 2011. “Aiding and Abetting? Human Rights INGOs and Domestic Anti-Government Protest,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 55: 163–191.
Murphy, Jim 1993. The Boys’ War: Confederate and Union Soldiers Talk About the Civil War. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
Murphy, Sean 2002. United States Practice in International Law, vol. 1. Cambridge University Press.
Muthoo, Abhinay 2000. Bargaining Theory with Applications. Cambridge University Press.
Nilsson, Desirée 2012. “Anchoring the Peace: Civil Society Actors in Peace Accords and Durable Peace,” International Interactions 38: 243–266.
Nindorera, Willy 2012. “The CNDD-FDD in Burundi: The Path from Armed to Political Struggle,” Berghof Transitions Series No. 10, Resistance/Liberation Movements and Transition to Politics.
O’Bagy, Elizabeth 2013. “The Free Syrian Army,” Middle East Security Report No. 9, Institute for the Study of War, Washington, DC.
Olson, Mancur 2000. Power and Prosperity: Outgrowing Communist and Capitalist Dictatorships. Oxford University Press.
Osiel, Mark 2009. The End Reciprocity: Terror, Torture, and the Law of War. Cambridge University Press.
Otto, Sabine 2013. “Coding One-Sided Violence from Media Reports,” Cooperation and Conflict 48: 556–566.
Özerdem, Alpaslan, Podder, Sukanya, and Quitoriano, Eddie L. 2010. “Identity, Ideology and Child Soldiering: Community and Youth Participation in Civil Conflict: A Study on the MILF, Mindanao, Philippines,” Civil Wars 12: 304–325.
Patel, Atish 2013. “Report: India’s 3,000 Child Soldiers,” Wall Street Journal, May 12.
Peterman, Amber, Cohen, Dara Kay, Palermo, Tia, and Green, Amelia Hoover 2011. “Rape Reporting During War: Why the Numbers Don’t Mean What You Think They Do,” Foreign Affairs, August 1.
Petrasek, David 2005. “Vive la Différence? Humanitarian and Political Approaches to Engaging Armed Groups,” Conciliation Resources, London.
Pipes, Richard 2011. The Russian Revolution. New York: Random House.
Plett, Barbara 2013. “UN ‘Plans to Fight Rebels in DRC’,” BBC News Africa, January 25.
Podder, Sukanya 2013. “Non-State Armed Groups and Stability: Reconsidering Legitimacy and Inclusion,” Contemporary Security Policy 34: 16–39.
Podder, Sukanya 2012a. “Legitimacy, Loyalty and Civilian Support for the Moro Islamic Liberation Front: Changing Dynamics in Mindanao, Philippines,” Politics, Religion & Ideology 13: 495–512.
Podder, Sukanya 2012b. “From Spoilers to Statebuilders: Constructive Approaches to Engagement with Non-State Armed Groups in Fragile States,” OECD Development Co-operation Working Papers, WP 5/2012, October.
Podder, Sukanya and Özerdem, Alpaslan 2012. “Grassroots and Rebellion: A Study on the Future of the Moro Struggle in Mindanao, Philippines,” Civil Wars 14: 521–545.
Potz-Nielsen, Carly 2013. “Peace Process and Rebel Fragmentation,” paper presented at the Summer Research Academy, Texas A&M University.
Price, Megan, Gohdes, Anita, and Ball, Patrick 2014. “Updated Statistical Analysis of Documentation of Killings in the Syrian Arab Republic,” Commissioned by the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Human Rights Data Analysis Group, August.
Radtke, Mitch and Jo, Hyeran 2013. “Fighting the Hydra: Rebel Groups and Economic Sanctions,” unpublished manuscript, Texas A&M University.
Rakove, Jack 2010. Revolutionaries: A New History of the Invention of America. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
Rao, Raghunath, Chandy, Rajesh, and Prabhu, Jaideep 2008. “The Fruits of Legitimacy: Why Some New Ventures Gain More from Innovation than Others,” Journal of Marketing 72: 58–75.
Ratner, Steven 2011. “Law Promotion Beyond Law Talk: The Red Cross, Persuasion, and the Laws of War,” European Journal of International Law 22: 459–506.
Raustiala, Kal and Slaughter, Anne-Marie 2006. “International Law, International Relations and Compliance,” in Carlsnaes, Walter, Risse, Thomas, and Simmons, Beth A. (eds.), Handbook of International Relations. London: Sage.
Regan, Patrick 2008. Sixteen Million One. Boulder, CO: Paradigm.
Regan, Patrick and Aydin, Aysegul 2006. “Diplomacy and Other Forms of Intervention in Civil Wars,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 50: 736–756.
Renders, Marleen and Terlinden, Ulf 2010. “Negotiating Statehood in a Hybrid Political Order: The Case of Somaliland,” Development and Change 41: 723–746.
Reno, William 2011. Warfare in Independent Africa, New Approaches to African History. Cambridge University Press.
Reusse-Decrey, Elisabeth 2005. “The Struggle against Landmines: An Opening for Peace Talks in Colombia,” Conciliation Resources, London.
Reusse-Decrey, Elisabeth 2000. “Engaging Non-State Actors in a Landmine Ban: A Pioneering Conference: Full Conference Proceedings,” Swiss CBL, International Conference Center, Geneva, Switzerland, March 24–25, available at: www.peacepalacelibrary.nl/ebooks/files/357157931.pdf.
Reuters 2013. “Free Syrian Army Fighters Being Trained According to International Humanitarian Law in Turkey,” May 12.
Ricigliano, Robert 2005. “Engaging Armed Groups in Peace Processes,” Conciliation Resources, London.
Riedel, Bruce 2007. “Al Qaeda Strikes Back,” Foreign Affairs 86: 24–40.
Rigual, Christelle 2013. “Armed Groups’ Holdings of Guided Light Weapons,” Research Note No. 31, Small Arms Survey, Geneva.
Risse, Thomas, Ropp, Stephen, and Sikkink, Kathryn 2013. The Persistent Power of Human Rights: From Commitment to Compliance. Cambridge University Press.
Risse, Thomas, Ropp, Stephen, and Sikkink, Kathryn 1999. The Power of Human Rights: International Norms and Domestic Change. Cambridge University Press.
Roberts, Adam and Guelff, Richard 2000. Documents on the Laws of War. Oxford University Press.
Roberts, Anthea and Sivakumaran, Sandesh 2012. “Lawmaking by Nonstate Actors: Engaging Armed Groups in the Creation of International Humanitarian Law,” Yale Journal of International Law 37: 107–152.
Rogers, Steven 2004. “Beyond the Abu Sayyaf: The Lessons of Failure in the Philippines,” Foreign Affairs 83: 15–20.
Romano, David 2006. The Kurdish Nationalist Movement: Opportunity, Mobilization and Identity. Cambridge University Press.
Ross, Michael 2004. “What Do We Know About Natural Resources and Civil War?” Journal of Peace Research 41: 337–356.
Rudolph, Rachael M. 2013. “Transition in the Philippines: The Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF), the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) and Abu Sayyaf’s Group (ASG),” in Rudolph, Rachael and Van Engeland, Anisseh (eds.), From Terrorism to Politics, Farnham: Ashgate, 151–170.
Sabliere, Jean-Marc de la 2012. “Security Council Engagement on the Protection of Children in Armed Conflict: Progress Achieved and the Way Forward,” UN Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children Affected by Armed Conflict.
Salehyan, Idean 2011. Rebels without Borders: Transnational Insurgencies in World Politics. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Salehyan, Idean, Gleditsch, Kristian, and Cunningham, David 2011. “Explaining External Support for Insurgent Groups,” International Organization 65: 709–744.
Salehyan, Idean, Siroky, David, and Wood, Reed 2014. “External Rebel Sponsorship and Civilian Abuse: A Principal–Agent Analysis of Wartime Atrocities,” International Organization 68: 633–661.
Sànchez-Cuencaa, Ignacio 2007. “The Dynamics of Nationalist Terrorism: ETA and the IRA,” Terrorism and Political Violence 19: 289–306.
Sanín, Francisco Gutiérrez and Wood, Elisabeth Jean 2014. “Ideology in Civil War: Instrumental Adoption and Beyond,” Journal of Peace Research 51: 213–226.
Santos, Soliman and Santos, Paz Verdades 2010. “Primed and Purposeful: Armed Groups and Human Security Efforts in the Philippines,” a joint publication of the South–South Network for Non-State Armed Group Engagement and the Small Arms Survey, Small Arms Survey, Geneva.
Sassoli, Marco 2010. “Taking Armed Groups Seriously: Ways to Improve Their Compliance with International Humanitarian Law,” International Humanitarian Legal Studies 1: 5–51.
Schabas, William 2011. An Introduction to the International Criminal Court, 4th edn. Cambridge University Press.
Scheffer, David 2013. All the Missing Souls: A Personal History of the War Crimes Tribunals. Princeton University Press.
Schiavo-Campo, Salvatore and Judd, Mary 2005. “The Mindanao Conflict in the Philippines: Roots, Costs, and Potential Peace Dividend,” World Bank Social Development Papers, Conflict Prevention and Reconstruction, Paper No. 24, February.
Schmitt, Michael N. 2010. “Military Necessity and Humanity in International Humanitarian Law: Preserving the Delicate Balance,” Virginia Journal of International Law 50: 795–839.
Scott, James 1990. Domination and the Arts of Resistance: Hidden Transcripts. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Scott, James 1984. Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Shane, Scott and Hubbard, Ben 2014. “ISIS Displaying a Deft Command of Varied Media,” New York Times, August 30.
Sikkink, Kathryn 2011. The Justice Cascade: How Human Rights Prosecutions Are Changing World Politics. New York: W. W. Norton.
Simmons, Beth 2010. Mobilizing for Human Rights: International Law in Domestic Politics. Cambridge University Press.
Singer, Peter 2006. Children at War. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Sinjab, Lina 2013. “Syria Crisis: Guide to Armed and Political Opposition,” BBC News, December 13.
Sivakumaran, Sandesh 2013. “Command Responsibility in the Sierra Leonean Conflict: The Duty to Take Measures to Prevent Crimes and Punish the Perpetrators,” in Jalloh, Charles Chernor (ed.), The Sierra Leone Special Court and its Legacy: The Impact for Africa and International Criminal Law. Cambridge University Press.
Sivakumaran, Sandesh 2012. The Law of Non-International Armed Conflict. Oxford University Press.
Sivakumaran, Sandesh 2011. “Lessons for the Law of Armed Conflict from Commitments of Armed Groups: Identification of Legitimate Targets and Prisoners of War,” International Review of the Red Cross 93: 1–20.
Sivakumaran, Sandesh 2009. “Courts of Armed Opposition Groups: Fair Trials or Summary Justice?” Journal of International Criminal Justice 7: 489–513.
Slim, Randa 2011. “Meet Syria’s Opposition,” Foreign Policy, November 2.
Smith, David 2013. “US Blocks Military Aid to Rwanda over Alleged Backing of M23 Child Soldiers,” Guardian, October 4.
Soames, Christopher, Rt Lord, Hon 1980. “From Rhodesia to Zimbabwe,” International Affairs 56: 405–419.
Sobek, David and Payne, Caroline L. 2010. “A Tale of Two Types: Rebel Goals and the Onset of Civil Wars,” International Studies Quarterly 54: 213–240.
Somer, Jonathan 2012. “Engaging Armed Non-State Actors to Protect Children from the Effects of Armed Conflict: When the Stick Doesn’t Cut the Mustard,” Journal of Human Rights Practice 4: 128–140.
Song, Sang-Hyun 2013. “Preventive Potential of the International Criminal Court,” Asian Journal of International Law 3: 203–213.
South, Ashley 2011. “Burma’s Longest War: Anatomy of the Karen Conflict,” Transnational Institute, Burma Center, the Netherlands.
Spittaels, Steven and Hilgert, Filip 2008. “Mapping Conflict Motives: Eastern DRC,” International Peace Information Service Report. Antwerp, Belgium.
Staniland, Paul 2012a. “Organizing Insurgency: Networks, Resources, and Rebellion in South Asia,” International Security 37: 142–177.
Staniland, Paul 2012b. “States, Insurgents, and Wartime Political Orders,” Perspectives on Politics 10: 243–264.
Stanton, Jessica 2013. “Terrorism in the Context of Civil War” Journal of Politics 75: 1009–1022.
Stearns, Jason 2012. “From CNDP to M23: The Evolution of an Armed Movement in Eastern Congo,” Rift Valley Institute, London.
Stearns, Jason 2011. Dancing in the Glory of Monsters: The Collapse of the Congo and the Great War of Africa. New York: Public Affairs.
Stearns, Jason, Shepherd, Ben, and Manby, Bronwen 2012. “M23 and the Challenges to Peace in the Eastern DRC,” transcript, Chatham House, London.
Steinberg, David 2011. “Myanmar’s Perpetual Dilemma: Ethnicity in a ‘Discipline-Flourishing Democracy’,” Politics, Governance, and Security Series, No. 22, East–West Center, Honolulu.
Stewart, Rory and Knaus, Gerald 2012. Can Intervention Work? New York: W. W. Norton.
Swiney, Gabriel 2005. “Saving Lives: The Principle of Distinction and the Realities of Modern War,” The International Lawyer 39: 733–758.
Talmon, Stefan 2011. “Recognition of the Libyan National Transitional Council,” Insights, American Journal of International Law 15: 16.
Tambo, Olivier 1980. “Statement on Signing Declaration, on Behalf of the ANC and Umkhonto We Sizwe, Adhering to the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and Protocol 1 of 1977,” speech made in Geneva, November 28.
Tancos, Kathryn and Adow, Mohamed Amiin 2012. “Somali Islamist Militia Defends Recruiting Teen Soldiers,” CNN, February 22.
Tarrow, Sidney 2007. “Inside Insurgencies: Politics and Violence in an Age of Civil War,” Perspectives on Politics 5: 587–600.
Thakur, Ramesh and Weiss, Thomas 2009. “R2P: From Idea to Norm – and Action?” Global Responsibility to Protect 1: 22–53.
Themner, Lotta and Wallensteen, Peter 2012. “Armed Conflicts, 1946–2011,” Journal of Peace Research 49: 565–575.
Thomas, Jakana 2014. “Rewarding Bad Behavior: How Governments Respond to Terrorism in Civil War,” American Journal of Political Science 58: 804–818.
Tilly, Charles 1978. From Mobilization to Revolution. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Trager, Robert and Zagorcheva, Dessie 2005. “Deterring Terrorism: It Can be Done,” International Security 30: 87–123.
Trefon, Theodore 2013. “Uncertainty and Powerlessness in Congo 2012,” Review of African Political Economy 40: 141–151.
Tuck, David 2011. “Detention by Armed Groups: Overcoming Challenges to Humanitarian Action,” International Review of the Red Cross 93(883): 759–782.
Tyler, Tom 2010. “Legitimacy and Rule Adherence: A Psychological Perspective on the Antecedents and Consequences of Legitimacy,” in Bobocel, Ramona, Kay, Aaron, Zanna, Mark, and Olson, James (eds.), The Psychology of Justice and Legitimacy: The Ontario Symposium, vol. 11. London: Psychology Press.
Tyler, Tom 2006. Why People Obey the Law. Princeton University Press.
United Nations 2011a. “After Much Wrangling, General Assembly Seats National Transitional Council of Libya as Country’s Representative for Sixty-Sixth Session,” General Assembly, Sixty-Sixth General Assembly, Plenary 2nd Meeting, available at: www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2011/ga11137.doc.htm.
United Nations 2008. “Supplemental General Order for General Order Nos. 1 & 2; and in support of the Action Plan between the MILF and the United Nations in the Philippines Regarding the Issue of Recruitment and Use of Child Soldiers in the Armed Conflict in Mindanao,” available at Geneva Call’s “Their Words” database at: theirwords.org.
Valentino, Benjamin 2004. Final Solutions: Mass Killing and Genocide in the Twentieth Century. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Valentino, Benjamin, Huth, Paul, and Croco, Sarah 2006. “Covenants Without the Sword: International Law and the Protection of Civilians in Times of War,” World Politics 58: 339–377.
Van Amstel, Nelleke 2012. “In Search of Legal Grounds to Detain for Armed Groups,” Journal of International Humanitarian Legal Studies 3: 160–191.
Van Den Bosch, Esmeralda 2013. “Non-State Governance in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo: A Case Study of the M23 Administration,” MA thesis, Catholic University of Leuven.
Van Engeland-Nourai, Anicee 2010. “The Challenges of Fragmentation of International Humanitarian Law Regarding the Protection of Civilians: An Islamic Perspective,” in Bassiouni, Cherif and Guellali, Amna (eds.), Jihad and its Challenges to International and Domestic Law. Hague Academic Press.
Van Kessel, Ineke 2001. “Legitimacy and Generational Conflict in the UDF: The Struggle Behind the Struggle,” Transformation 46: 32–52.
Verhey, Beth 2001. “The Demobilization and Reintegration of Child Soldiers: El Salvador Case Study,” World Bank, Washington, DC.
Veuthey, Michel 2002. “Learning from History: Accession to the Conventions, Special Agreements, and Unilateral Declarations,” paper presented at the Proceedings of the Bruges Colloquium, Relevance of International Humanitarian Law to Non-State Actors, October 25–26.
Wallace, Geoffrey 2012. “Welcome Guests, or Inescapble Victims? The Causes of Prisoner Abuse in War,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 56(6): 955–981.
Wallace, Marion and Kinahan, John 2011. A History of Namibia: From the Beginning to 1990. London: Hurst.
Walter, Barbara 2011. “Conflict Relapse and the Sustainability of Post-Conflict Peace,” World Development Report 2011, World Bank, Washington, DC.
Walter, Barbara 2009. Reputation and Civil War: Why Separatist Conflicts are So Violent. Cambridge University Press.
Washburne, Sarah Lykes 2010. “Legitimacy, Identity and Conflict: The Struggle for Political Authority in Southern Sudan, 2005–2010,” PhD dissertation in Arab and Islamic Studies, University of Exeter.
Weatherford, Stephen 2002. “Measuring Political Legitimacy,” American Political Science Review 86: 149–166.
Weber, Max 1964. The Theory of Social and Economic Organization, ed. Parsons, Talcott. New York: Free Press.
Wedeen, Lisa 1999. Ambiguities of Domination: Politics, Rhetoric, and Symbols in Contemporary Syria. University of Chicago Press.
Weinberg, Leonard, Pedahzur, Ami, and Perliger, Arie 2009. Political Parties and Terrorist Groups, 2nd edn, Studies in Extremism and Democracy. London: Routledge.
Weinstein, Jeremy 2006. Inside Rebellion. Cambridge University Press.
Weiss, Edith and Jacobson, Harold 2000. Engaging Countries: Strengthening Compliance with International Environmental Accords. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Weiss, Thomas 2012. Humanitarian Intervention. Cambridge: Polity.
Werth, Nicolas, Bartošek, Karel, Panné, Jean-Louis, Margolin, Jean-Louis, Paczkowski, Andrzej, and Courtois, Stéphane 1999. The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Whippman, David 2001. “Kosovo and the Limits of International Law,” Fordham International Law Journal 25: 129–150.
Willms, Jan 2012. “Justice through Armed Groups’ Governance – an Oxymoron?” SFB-Governance Working Paper Series, No. 70, University of Berlin.
Witt, John Fabian 2012. Lincoln’s Code: The Laws of War in American History. New York: Free Press.
Wood, Elisabeth Jean 2009. “Armed Groups and Sexual Violence: When is Wartime Rape Rare?” Politics & Society 37: 131–161.
Wood, Elisabeth Jean 2008. “Sexual Violence during War: Toward an Understanding of Variation,” in Kalyvas, Stathis, Shapiro, Ian, and Masoud, Tarek (eds.), Order, Conflict, and Violence. Cambridge University Press.
Wood, Elisabeth Jean 2003. Insurgent Collective Action and Civil War in El Salvador. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Wood, Reed 2010. “Rebel Capability and Strategic Violence against Civilians,” Journal of Peace Research 47: 601–614.
World Bank 2014. “Migration and Remittances: Recent Developments and Outlook,” Migration and Development Brief, No. 22, World Bank Migration and Remittances Team, Development Prospects Group, Washington, DC.
Yildiz, Kerim and Breau, Susan 2010. The Kurdish Conflict: International Humanitarian Law and Post-Conflict Mechanisms. London: Routledge.
Zahar, Marie-Joëlle 2001. “Protégés, Clients, Cannon Fodder: Civil–Militia Relations in Internal Conflicts,” in Chesterman, Simon (ed.), Civilians in War. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 43–65.
Zartman, William and Faure, Guy Olivier 2011. Engaging Extremists: Trade-Offs, Timing, and Diplomacy. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press.
Zegveld, Liesbeth 2002. Accountability of Armed Opposition Groups in International Law. Cambridge University Press.
Zelditch, Morris Jr. 2001. “Theories of Legitimacy,” in Major, Brenda and Jost, John T. (eds.), The Psychology of Legitimacy: Emerging Perspectives on Ideology, Justice and Intergroup Relations. Cambridge University Press.
Zelin, Aaron 2014. “ISIS Is Dead, Long Live the Islamic State,” Foreign Policy, June 30.
Zelin, Aaron 2013. “Al-Qaeda in Syria: A Closer Look at ISIS (Parts i and ii),” Policywatch 2137–8, Washington Institute for Near East Policy, September 10–11.
Zinko, Robert, Ferris, Gerald R., Blass, Fred R., and Laird, Mary Dana 2007. “Toward a Theory of Reputation in Organizations,” in Martocchio, Joseph J. (ed.), Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, vol. 26. Bradford: Emerald Group Publishing.