Skip to main content Accessibility help
Confronting Evils
  • Cited by 46
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the print book

Book description

In this contribution to philosophical ethics, Claudia Card revisits the theory of evil developed in her earlier book The Atrocity Paradigm (2002), and expands it to consider collectively perpetrated and collectively suffered atrocities. Redefining evil as a secular concept and focusing on the inexcusability - rather than the culpability - of atrocities, Card examines the tension between responding to evils and preserving humanitarian values. This stimulating and often provocative book contends that understanding the evils in terrorism, torture and genocide enables us to recognise similar evils in everyday life: daily life under oppressive regimes and in racist environments; violence against women, including in the home; violence and executions in prisons; hate crimes; and violence against animals. Card analyses torture, terrorism and genocide in the light of recent atrocities, considering whether there can be moral justifications for terrorism and torture, and providing conceptual tools to distinguish genocide from non-genocidal mass slaughter.


‘With this book, written with her characteristic clarity, precision, and thoroughness, Claudia Card strengthens and extends her important philosophical investigation of evil. Her analysis of the distinction between evil and lesser injustices, and the distinctions between evil, radical evil, and diabolical evil are of enduring significance for philosophy. So is her calm, unblinking confrontation with a wide range of the horrific evils of our age.'

Lawrence C. Becker - Hollins University

'The question of how to respond to evils has received insufficient attention in both the literature on evil and in philosophical discussions of terrorism, torture, and genocide … Card’s book is a very valuable addition to philosophical discourse on evil.'

Jessica Wolfendale Source: Social Theory and Practice

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.


List of films referred to
Abbey, Edward. 1975. The Monkey Wrench Gang. Philadelphia: Lippincott.
Abbott, Geoffrey. 2005. Execution: The Guillotine, the Pendulum, the Thousand Cuts, the Spanish Donkey, and 66 Other Ways of Putting Someone to Death. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Alexander, Matthew (pseudonym) with Bruning, John R.. 2008. How to Break a Terrorist: The U.S. Interrogators Who Used Brains, Not Brutality, to Take Down the Deadliest Man in Iraq. New York: Free Press.
Alleg, Henri. 1958. The Question. (No translator identified). Introduction by Jean-Paul Sartre. New York: George Braziller.
Allen, Beverly. 1996. Rape Warfare: The Hidden Genocide in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Croatia. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Allen, Jeffner. 1986. Lesbian Philosophy: Explorations. Palo Alto, CA: Institute of Lesbian Studies.
Allen, Paula Gunn. 1986. The Sacred Hoop: Recovering the Feminine in American Indian Traditions. Boston: Beacon.
Améry, Jean. 1964. Preface to the Future: Culture in a Consumer Society. Trans. Hilty, Palmer. New York: Ungar.
Améry, Jean 1980. At the Mind's Limits: Contemplations by a Survivor on Auschwitz and Its Realities. Trans. from German by Rosenfeld, Sidney and Rosenfeld, Stella P.. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.
Améry, Jean 1984. Radical Humanism. Ed. and trans. Rosenfeld, Sidney and Rosenfeld, Stella P.. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Améry, Jean 1994. On Aging: Revolt and Resignation. Trans. Barlow, John D.. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Améry, Jean 1999. On Suicide: A Discourse on Voluntary Death. Trans. Barlow, John D.. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Amir, Menachem. 1971. Patterns in Forcible Rape. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
,Amnesty International. 1973. Report on Torture. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.
,Amnesty International 1984. Torture in the Eighties: An Amnesty International Report. London: Amnesty International Publications.
Anderson, James C. 1993. “Species Equality and the Foundations of Moral Theory,” Environmental Values 2:4, 347–75.
Anderson-Gold, Sharon and Muchnik, Pablo, eds. 2009. Kant's Anatomy of Evil. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Andreopoulos, George, ed. 1994. Genocide: Conceptual and Historical Dimensions. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Arendt, Hannah. 1965. Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil. Rev. and enlarged edn. New York: Penguin.
Arendt, Hannah 2000. The Portable Hannah Arendt. Ed. Baehr, Peter. New York: Penguin.
Aristotle, . 1925. The Nicomachean Ethics. Trans. Ross, David. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Aristotle, 1947. Basic Works of Aristotle. Ed. McKeon, Richard. New York: Random House.
Arnold, William. 1979. Frances Farmer: Shadowland. New York: Jove/HBJ.
Arrigo, Jean Maria. 2004. “A Utilitarian Argument against Torture Interrogation of Terrorists,” Science and Engineering Ethics 10:3, 1–30.
Attfield, Robin. 1982. “The Good of Trees,” Journal of Value Inquiry 15, 35–54.
Aust, Stefan. 2009. Baader-Meinhof: The Inside Story of the R.A.F. Trans. Bell, Anthea. New York: Oxford University Press.
Austin, J. L. 1961. Philosophical Papers. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Balakian, Peter. 2003. The Burning Tigris: The Armenian Genocide and America's Response. New York: HarperCollins.
Bar On, Bat-Ami. 2002. The Subject of Violence: Arendtean Exercises in Understanding. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
Baron, Marcia. 2007. “Excuses, Excuses,” Criminal Law and Philosophy: An International Journal for Philosophy of Crime, Criminal Law and Punishment 1:1, 21–39.
Bates, Tom. 1992. Rads: The 1970 Bombing of the Army Math Research Center at the University of Wisconsin and Its Aftermath. New York: HarperCollins.
Baumeister, Roy. 1997. Evil: Inside Human Violence and Cruelty. New York: W. H. Freeman and Co.
Beauvoir, Simone de. 1949. Le Deuxième Sexe, 2 vols. Paris: Gallimard.
Beauvoir, Simone de. 1953. The Second Sex. Ed. and trans. Parshley, H. M.. London: Jonathan Cape.
Beccaría, Cesare. 1963. On Crimes and Punishments. Trans. Paolucci, Henry. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.
Becker, Lawrence C., ed. with Becker, Charlotte B.. 2001. Encyclopedia of Ethics. Second edn., 3 vols. New York: Garland.
Bedau, Hugo Adam and Cassell, Paul, eds. 2004. Debating the Death Penalty: Should America Have Capital Punishment?Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Begg, Moazzam with Brittain, Victoria. 2006. Enemy Combatant: My Imprisonment at Guantánamo, Bagram, and Kandahar. New York: The New Press.
Bell, Linda A. and David, Blumenfeld eds. 1995. Overcoming Racism and Sexism. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
Benn, S. I. 1985. “Wickedness,” Ethics 95, 795–810.
Bentham, Jeremy. 1948. Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation. New York: Hafner.
Berkowitz, Leonard. 1999. “Evil is More than Banal: Situationism and the Concept of Evil,” Personality and Social Psychology Review 3:3, 246–53.
Bernstein, Richard(Unpublished). “The Problem of Evil in Contemporary Social Psychology.”
Bernstein, Richard. 2002. Radical Evil: A Philosophical Interrogation. Cam­bridge: Polity Press.
Bernstein, Richard 2005. The Abuse of Evil: The Corruption of Politics and Religion since 9/11. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Bissell, R. Ward. 1999. Artemisia Gentileschi and the Authority of Art. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Blass, Thomas, ed. 2000. Obedience to Authority: Current Perspectives on the Milgram Paradigm. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Blau, Peter M., ed. 1975. Approaches to the Study of Social Structure. New York: Free Press.
Blee, Kathleen. 1991. Women of the Klan: Racism and Gender in the 1920s. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Blum, Deborah. 1994. The Monkey Wars. New York: Oxford University.
Bowden, Mark. 1999. Black Hawk Down. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press.
Bratman, Michael E. 1999. Faces of Intention: Selected Essays on Intention and Agency. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Braudy, Susan. 2003. Family Circle: The Boudins and the Aristocracy of the Left. New York: Knopf.
Brenner, Rachel. 1997. Writing as Resistance: Four Women Confronting the Holocaust. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Brison, Susan. 2002. Aftermath: Violence and the Remaking of a Self. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Brown, Brooks and Merritt, Rob. 2002. No Easy Answers: The Truth behind Death at Columbine. New York: Lantern Books.
Brownmiller, Susan. 1975. Against Our Will: Men, Women, and Rape. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Burgers, J. Herman and Danelius, Hans. 1988. The United Nations Convention against Torture: A Handbook on the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
Burleigh, Michael. 2009. Blood and Rage: A Cultural History of Terrorism. New York: Harper.
Butler, Joseph. 1983. Five Sermons. Ed. Darwall, Stephen L.. Indianapolis: Hackett.
Cannon, Lou. 1997. Official Negligence: How Rodney King and the Riots Changed Los Angeles and the LAPD. New York: Random House.
Card, Claudia. 1962. “Some Aspects of the Problems of Punishment.” Unpublished BA thesis. University of Wisconsin, Madison.
Card, Claudia 1969. “Retributive Justice in Legal Punishment.” Unpublished PhD dissertation. Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
Card, Claudia 1991a. “Rape as a Terrorist Institution.” In Frey and Morris (1991), 296–313.
Card, Claudia 1995. Lesbian Choices. New York: Columbia University Press.
Card, Claudia 1996. The Unnatural Lottery: Character and Moral Luck. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Card, Claudia 2001. “Is Penalty Enhancement a Sound Idea?Law and Philosophy 20:2, 195–214.
Card, Claudia 2002. The Atrocity Paradigm: A Theory of Evil. New York: Oxford University Press.
Card, Claudia, ed. 1991b. Feminist Ethics. Lawrence, KA: University Press of Kansas.
Card, Claudia 1999. On Feminist Ethics and Politics. Lawrence, KA: University Press of Kansas.
Card, Claudia 2003. The Cambridge Companion to Simone de Beauvoir. Cambridge: Cam­bridge University Press.
Card, Claudia and Marsoobian, Armen T., eds. 2007. Genocide's Aftermath: Responsibility and Repair. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Carlyle, Thomas. 1937. The French Revolution, 3 vols. London: J. Fraser.
Carruthers, Peter. 1992. The Animals Issue: Moral Theory in Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Carson, Rachel, 1962. Silent Spring. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Cauffiel, Lowell. 1993. Forever and Five Days. New York: Kensington.
Chalk, Frank, and Jonassohn, Kurt, eds. 1990. The History and Sociology of Genocide: Analyses and Case Studies. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Charny, Israel (Editor in Chief). 1999. Encyclopedia of Genocide, 2 vols. Santa Barbara, CA: ABS-CLIO, Inc.
Clark, Lorenne M. G. and Lewis, Debra J.. 1977. Rape: The Price of Coercive Sexuality. Toronto: The Women's Press.
Clausewitz, Carl. 1982. On War. London: Penguin.
Cole, Philip. 2006. The Myth of Evil. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Conover, Ted. 2000. Newjack: Guarding Sing Sing. New York: Random House.
Conroy, John. 2000. Unspeakable Acts, Ordinary People: The Dynamics of Torture. New York: Knopf.
Cullen, Dave. 2009. Columbine. New York: Twelve.
Cuomo, Chris J. 1998. Feminism and Ecological Communities: An Ethics of Flourishing. London: Routledge.
Daly, Mary. 1978. Gyn/Ecology: The Metaethics of Radical Feminism. Boston: Beacon.
Danner, Mark. 2004. Torture and Truth: America, Abu Ghraib, and the War on Terror. New York: New York Review Books.
Danner, Mark 2009a. “U.S. Torture: Voices from the Black Sites,” The New York Review of Books April 9, 69–77.
Danner, Mark 2009b. “The Red Cross Torture Report: What It Means,” The New York Review of Books April 30, 48–56.
Davis, Angela. 1981. Women, Race, and Class. New York: Vintage.
Dawidowicz, Lucy S. 1975. The War against the Jews, 1933–1945. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.
Grazia, Sebastian. 1989. Machiavelli in Hell. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Kock, Eugene, as told to Gordin, Jeremy. 1998. A Long Night's Damage: Working for the Apartheid State. Saxonwold, Republic of South Africa: Contra Press.
Sade, Marquis. 1966. The 120 Days of Sodom, and Other Writings. Compiled and trans. Wainhouse, Austryn and Seaver, Richard. New York: Grove Press.
Waal, Frans. 1989. Peacemaking among Primates. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Waal, Frans 1996. Good Natured: The Origins of Right and Wrong in Humans and Other Animals. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Dershowitz, Alan. 2002. Why Terrorism Works: Understanding the Threat, Responding to the Challenge. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Dershowitz, Alan 2006. Preemption: A Knife that Cuts Both Ways. New York: Norton.
DesAutels, Peggy and Walker, Margaret Urban, eds. 2004. Moral Psychology: Feminist Ethics and Social Theory. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
Dostoevsky, Fyodor. 1950. The Brothers Karamazov. Trans. Garnett, Constance. New York: Modern Library.
DuBois, W. E. B. 1969. The Souls of Black Folk. New York: New American Library.
DuBois, W. E. B 1970. W. E. B. Du Bois Speaks: Speeches and Addresses 1890–1919. New York: Pathfinder.
Duff, Anthony. 2007. “Excuses, Moral and Legal: A Comment on Marcia Baron's ‘Excuses, Excuses’,” Criminal Law and Philosophy: An International Journal for Philosophy of Crime, Criminal Law and Punishment 1:1, 49–55.
Durant, Will and Durant, Ariel. 1975. The Age of Napoleon. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Ehrenreich, Barbara and English, Deidre. 1978. For Her Own Good: 150 Years of the Experts' Advice to Women. Garden City, NY: Anchor Press.
Eisnitz, Gail. 1997. Slaughterhouse: The Shocking Story of Greed, Neglect, and Inhumane Treatment Inside the U.S. Meat Industry. Amherst, NY: Prometheus.
El-Hai, Jack. 2005. The Lobotomist: A Maverick Medical Genius and His Tragic Quest to Rid the World of Mental Illness. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.
Estrich, Susan. 1987. Real Rape. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Ezorsky, Gertrude, ed. 1972. Philosophical Perspectives on Punishment. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Faludi, Susan. 1991. Backlash. New York: Crown.
Farmer, Frances. 1972. Will There Really Be a Morning?New York: Dell.
Feinberg, Joel. 1970. Doing and Deserving. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Feinberg, Joel 1984. Harm to Others. New York: Oxford University Press.
Ferguson, Ann. 2009. Dancing with Iris: The Philosophy of Iris Marion Young. New York: Oxford University Press.
Ferrato, Donna. 1991. Living with the Enemy. New York: Aperture.
Fineman, Martha Albertson and Mykitiuk, Roxanne, eds. 1994. The Public Nature of Private Violence: The Discovery of Domestic Abuse. New York: Routledge.
Foreman, Dave. 1991. Confessions of an Eco-Warrior. New York: Harmony Books.
Foreman, Dave and Haywood, Bill, eds. 1993. A Field Guide to Monkeywren­ching. Chicago: Abzug Press.
Francione, Gary. 1995. Animals, Property, and the Law. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Francione, Gary 1996. Rain without Thunder: The Ideology of the Animal Rights MovementPhiladelphia: Temple University Press.
French, Peter A., ed. 1972. Individual and Collective Responsibility: The Massacre at My Lai. Cambridge, MA: Shenkman.
Frey, R. G. and Morris, Christopher W., eds. 1991. Violence, Terrorism, and Justice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Fromm, Erich. 1973. The Anatomy of Human Destructiveness. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.
Frye, Marilyn. 1983. The Politics of Reality: Essays in Feminist Theory. Trumansburg, NY: The Crossing Press.
Frye, Marilyn 1992. Willful Virgin: Essays in Feminism 1976–1992. Freedom, CA: The Crossing Press.
Garner, Bryan A. (Editor in Chief). 2004. Black's Law Dictionary. Eighth edn. St. Paul, MN: Thomson/West.
Garrard, Eve and Scarre, Geoffrey, eds. 2003. Moral Philosophy and the Holocaust. Burlington, VT: Ashgate.
Gentry, Curt. 1992. J. Edgar Hoover: The Man and the Secrets. New York: Plume.
Gilbert, Margaret. 1989. On Social Facts. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Gilbert, Margaret 1996. Living Together: Rationality, Sociality, and Obligation. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
Gilligan, Carol. 1982. In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Gilman, Sander L. and Sipes, Jack, eds. 1997. Yale Companion to Jewish Writing and Thought in German Culture, 1096–1996. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Gilmore, Mikal, 1994. Shot in the Heart. New York: Doubleday.
Glendon, Mary Ann. 2000. Sociality and Responsibility. Lanham, MD: Row­man and Littlefield.
Glendon, Mary Ann 2001. A World Made New: Eleanor Roosevelt and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. New York: Random House.
Global Outlook: The Magazine of 9/11 Truth. 2005. No. 10. See
Glover, Jonathan. 2000. Humanity: A Moral History of the Twentieth Century. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Goldman, Emma. 1931. Living My Life, 2 vols. New York: Knopf.
Goldman, Emma 1969. Anarchism and Other Essays. New York: Dover.
Goodpaster, Kenneth. 1978. “On Being Morally Considerable,” Journal of Philosophy 75:6, 308–25.
Grant, Ruth, ed. 2006. Naming Evil, Judging Evil. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Grayling, A. C. 2006. Among the Dead Cities: The History and Moral Legacy of the WWII Bombing of Civilians in Germany and Japan. New York: Walker and Company.
Greenberg, Karen J., ed. 2006. The Torture Debate in America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Greenberg, Karen J. and Dratel, Joshua L., eds. 2005. The Torture Papers: The Road to Abu Ghraib. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Griffin, David Ray. 2004. The New Pearl Harbor: Disturbing Questions about the Bush Administration and 9/11. Northampton, MA: Olive Branch Press.
Griffin, James. 2008. On Human Rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Grisham, John. 2006. The Innocent Man: Murder and Injustice in a Small Town. New York: Doubleday.
Gutman, Roy and Rieff, David, eds. 1999. Crimes of War: What the Public Should Know. New York: Norton.
Haney, Craig, Banks, Curtis, and Zimbardo, Philip. 1973. “Interpersonal Dynamics in a Simulated Prison,” International Journal of Criminology and Penology 1, 69–97.
Harbury, Jennifer K. 2005. Truth, Torture, and the American Way: The History and Consequences of U.S. Involvement in Torture. Boston: Beacon.
Hare, Richard. 1979. “On Terrorism,” Journal of Value Inquiry 13, 240–49.
Harris, Sheldon. 1994. Factories of Death : Japanese Secret Biological Warfare, 1932–45, and the American Cover-up. London and New York: Routledge.
Harrison, Kathryn. 1997. The Kiss. New York: Random House.
Harrison, Kathryn 2008. While They Slept: An Inquiry into the Murder of a Family. New York: Random House.
Hart, H. L. A. 1961. The Concept of Law. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Hashmi, Sohail H. and Lee, Steven P., eds. 2004. Ethics and Weapons of Mass Destruction: Religious and Secular Perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hausman, Daniel. 2008. “Protecting Groups from Genetic Research,” Bioethics 22:3, 157–65.
Hearst, Patricia Campbell with Moscow, Alvin. 1988. Patty Hearst: Her Own Story. New York: Avon.
Heger, Heinz. 1980. The Men with the Pink Triangle. Trans. Fernbach, David. Boston, MA: Alyson Publications.
Held, Virginia, Morgenbesser, Sidney, and Nagel, Thomas, eds. 1974. Philosophy, Morality, and International Affairs. New York: Oxford University Press
Herman, Barbara. 1993. The Practice of Moral Judgment. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Herman, Barbara 2007. Moral Literacy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Herman, Judith Lewis. 1992. Trauma and Recovery. New York: Basic Books.
Hinton, Alexander Laban, ed. 2002. Genocide: An Anthropological Reader. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Hobbes, Thomas. 1950. Leviathan. New York: Dutton.
Hoffman, B. 2002. “A Nasty Business,” Atlantic Monthly January, 49–52.
Holy Bible, Revised Standard Version. 1952. New York: Thomas Nelson and Sons.
Horder, Jeremy. 2004. Excusing Crime. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Horder, Jeremy 2007. “Excuses in Law and in Morality: A Response to Marcia Baron,” Criminal Law and Philosophy: An International Journal for Philosophy of Crime, Criminal Law and Punishment 1:1, 41–47.
Horwitz, Sari and Ruane, Michael E.. 2003. Sniper: Inside the Hunt for the Killers Who Terrorized the Nation. New York: Random House.
Howie, John, ed. 1987. Ethical Principles and Practice. Carbondale and Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
Hughes, J. Donald. 1983. American Indian Ecology. El Paso: University of Texas.
,Human Rights Watch/Africa, Human Rights Watch Women's Rights Project, Fédération Internationale des Ligues des Droits de l'Homme. 1996. Shattered Lives: Sexual Violence during the Rwandan Genocide and Its Aftermath. New York: Human Rights Watch.
Institoris, Henricus and Sprenger, Jacobus. 2006. Malleus Maleficarum, 2 vols. English and Latin. Ed. and trans. Mackay, Christopher S.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Jack, Belinda. 2005. Beatrice's Spell: The Enduring Legend of Beatrice Cenci. New York: Other Press.
Jaimes, M. Annette, ed. 1992. The State of Native America: Genocide, Colonization, and Resistance. Boston: South End.
James, Stanlie M. and Robertson, Claire C., eds. 2002. Genital Cutting and Transnational Sisterhood: Disputing U.S. Polemics. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
Jaspers, Karl. 1947. The Question of German Guilt. Trans. Ashton, E. B.. New York: Dial Press.
Johnson, Joyce. 1990. What Lisa Knew: The Truths and Lies of the Steinberg Case. New York: Putnam.
Johnson, Lawrence, 1991. A Morally Deep World: An Essay on Moral Significance and Environmental Ethics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Jokić, Aleksandar, ed. 2001. War Crimes and Collective Wrongdoing: A Reader. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Jones, Ann. 1994. Next Time She'll Be Dead: Battering and How to Stop It. Boston: Beacon.
Jones, David H. 1999. Moral Responsibility in the Holocaust: A Study in the Ethics of Character. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
Kaczynski, Theodore J. 1995. The Unabomber Manifesto: Industrial Society and Its Future by “FC.” Berkeley, CA: Jolly Roger Press.
Kaldor, Mary. 2001. New and Old Wars: Organized Violence in a Global Era, with an Afterword. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Kant, Immanuel. 1930. Lectures on Ethics. Trans. Infield, Louis. New York: Century.
Kant, Immanuel 1996a. Practical Philosophy. Trans. Gregor, Mary J.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kant, Immanuel 1996b. Religion and Rational Theology. Trans. Wood, Allen W. and Giovanni, George di. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Katz, Steven. 1994. The Holocaust in Historical Context, vol. i, Mass Death before the Modern Age. New York: Oxford University Press.
Kekes, John. 2005. Roots of Evil. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Kiernan, Ben. 2007. Blood and Soil: A World History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur. New Haven: Yale University Press.
King, Joyce. 2002. Hate Crime: The Story of a Dragging in Texas. New York: Pantheon.
Kittay, Eva Feder and Meyers, Diana T., eds. 1987. Women and Moral Theory. Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Littlefield.
Koedt, Anne, Levine, Ellen, and Rapone, Anita, eds. 1973. Radical Feminism. New York: Quadrangle.
Kraut, Richard. 2007. What Is Good and Why: The Ethics of Well-Being. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Kutz, Christopher. 2000. Complicity: Ethics and Law for a Collective Age. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kutz, Christopher 2007. “Causeless Complicity,” Criminal Law and Philosophy 1, 289–305.
Lackey, Douglas P. 1989. The Ethics of War and Peace. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Lafferty, Shelagh Marie. 1991. Policy Analysis Exercise, Analysis of Newspaper Coverage of Rape 1989–1990. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, Kennedy School of Government.
Landesman, Peter. 2002. “A Woman's Work,” New York Times Magazine, September 15, 82–89, 116, 125, 130, 132, 134.
Lang, Berel. 1990. Act and Idea in the Nazi Genocide. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Langbein, John H. 1977. Torture and the Law of Proof. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Laqueur, Walter. 2001. A History of Terrorism. With new introduction. New Brunswick: Transaction.
Lara, María Pía. 2007. Narrating Evil: A Postmetaphysical Theory of Reflective Judgment. New York: Columbia University Press.
Lawrence, Frederick M. 1999. Punishing Hate: Bias Crimes under American Law. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Lawrence, Regina G. 2000. The Politics of Force: Media and the Construction of Police Brutality. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Lea, Henry Charles. 1901. The Moriscos of Spain: Their Conversion and Expulsion. Philadelphia; Lea Brothers and Co.; unabridged facsimile edition Elibron Classics, 2006.
Leicht, Justus. 2004. “The Daschner Case and the Rehabilitation of Torture in Germany,” The World Socialist, online at
Lemkin, Raphael. 1944. Axis Rule in Occupied Europe: Laws of Occupation, Analysis of Government, Proposals for Redress. Washington DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Division of International Law.
Leopold, Aldo. 1966. A Sand County Almanac. New York: Ballantine.
Levi, Primo. 1989. The Drowned and the Saved. Trans. Rosenthal, Raymond. New York: Vintage.
Levin, Michael. 1972. “The Case for Torture,” Newsweek June 7, 434–35.
Levinson, Sanford. 2004. Torture: A Collection. New York: Oxford University Press.
Lewis, Jim. 2009. “Behind Bars … Sort Of,” New York Times Magazine June 14, 48–53.
Lewis, Neil A. 2009. “Official Defends Signing Interrogation Memos,” The New York Times April 29, A12.
Lifton, Robert J. 1986. The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide. New York: Basic Books.
Lipstadt, Deborah. 1993. Denying the Holocaust: The Growing Assault on Truth and Memory. New York: Free Press.
Livy, . 1960. The Early History of Rome: Books I–V of The History of Rome from Its Foundation. Trans. Sélincourt, Aubrey. Baltimore, MD: Penguin.
Loffreda, Beth. 2000. Losing Matt Shepard: Life and Politics in the Aftermath of Anti-Gay Murder. New York: Columbia University Press.
Lovelock, J. E. 1979. Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earth. New York: Oxford University Press.
Luban, David. 2002. “The War on Terrorism and the End of Human Rights,” Philosophy and Public Policy Quarterly 22:3, 9–14.
Luban, David 2005. “Torture, American-Style: This Debate Comes Down to Words vs. Deeds,” Washington Post November 27, B1.
Luce, R. Duncan and Raiffa, Howard. 1957. Games and Decisions: Introduction and Critical Survey. New York: Wiley.
Mabbott, J. D. 1949. “Punishment,” Mind n.s. 48,152–67.
Mackey, Chris and Miller, Greg. 2004. The Interrogators: Inside the Secret War against Al Qaeda. New York and Boston: Little, Brown and Company.
Mailer, Norman. 1979. The Executioner's Song. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.
Margalit, Avishai. 1996. The Decent Society. Trans. Goldblum, Naomi. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Marx, Karl. 1967. Capital: A Critique of Political Economy, 3 vols. Ed. Engels, Frederick. Trans. from 3rd German edn. by Moore, Samuel and Aveling, Edward. New York: International Publishers.
May, Larry. 1987. The Morality of Groups: Collective Responsibility, Group-Based Harm, and Corporate Rights. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.
May, Larry 1992. Sharing Responsibility. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
May, Larry 1996. The Socially Responsive Self: Social Theory and Professional Ethics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
May, Larry 2005. Crimes against Humanity: A Normative Account. Cambridge: Cam­bridge University Press.
May, Larry 2007. War Crimes and Just War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
May, Larry 2008. Aggression and Crimes against Peace. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
May, Larry and Hoffman, Stacey, eds. 1991. Collective Responsibility: Five Decades of Debate in Theoretical and Applied Ethics. Savage, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
Mazzetti, Mark. 2009. “Release of C.I.A. Interrogation Memos May Open the Door to More Revelations,” The New York Times April 18, A7.
Mazzetti, Mark and Shane, Scott. 2009a. “Memos Spell Out Brutal C.I.A. Mode of Interrogation,” The New York Times, April 17, A1, A10.
Mazzetti, Mark and Shane, Scott 2009b. “Debates Over Interrogation Methods Sharply Divided the Bush White House,” The New York Times May 4, A13.
McCoy, Alfred. 2006. A Question of Torture: CIA Interrogation, from the Cold War to the War on Terror. New York: Henry Holt and Co.
McDougall, Susan with Harris, Pat. 2003. The Woman Who Wouldn't Talk. New York: Carroll & Graf.
McLean, Bethany and Elkin, Peter. 2004. The Smartest Guys in the Room: The Amazing Rise and Scandalous Fall of Enron. Updated edn. New York: Portfolio.
McNulty, Faith. 1980. The Burning Bed. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Medea, Andra and Thompson, Kathleen. 1974. Against Rape: A Survival Manual. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.
Melzer, Milton. 1993. Slavery: A World History. New York: Da Capo.
,Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary. 1993. 10th edn. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, Inc.
Milgram, Stanley. 1974. Obedience to Authority: An Experimental View. New York: Harper and Row.
Mill, John Stuart. 2002. Basic Writings of John Stuart Mill. Introduction by Schneewind, J. B.. Notes and Commentary by Dale E. Miller. New York: Modern Library.
Miller, Madeline S. and Lane Miller, J.. 1961. Harper's Bible Dictionary. New York: Harper and Row.
Miller, Seumas. 2008. “Torture,” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Ed. Nalta, Edward N.. Online at and
Millett, Kate. 1979. The Basement: Meditations on a Human Sacrifice. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Minow, Martha. 1998. Between Vengeance and Forgiveness: Facing History after Genocide and Mass Violence. Boston: Beacon.
Minow, Martha, ed. 2002. Breaking the Cycles of Hatred: Memory, Law, and Repair. Princeton, NJ and Oxford: Princeton University Press.
Mitscherlich, Alexander and Mielke, Fred. 1949. The Death Doctors. Trans. Cleugh, James. London: Elek Books.
Moline, Jon. 1986. “Aldo Leopold and the Moral Community,” Environmental Ethics 8:2, 99–120.
Monk, Ray. 1990. Ludwig Wittgenstein: The Duty of Genius. New York: Free Press.
Moore, Solomon. 2009. “Study of Rape in Prisons Counts 60,500 Attacks,” The New York Times June 23, A17.
Morton, Adam. 2004. On Evil. New York: Routledge.
Müller, Filip. 1979. Eyewitness Auschwitz: Three Years in the Gas Chambers. Ed. and trans. Flatauer, Susanne. New York: Stein and Day.
Naess, Arne. 1979. “Self-Realization in Mixed Communities of Humans, Bears, Sheep, and Wolves,” Inquiry 22, 231–41.
Nagel, Thomas. 1979. Mortal Questions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
,National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. 2004. The 9/11 Commission Report: Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States. New York: Norton.
Neihardt, John. 1932. Black Elk Speaks: Being the Life Story of a Holy Man of the Oglala Sioux. New York: Morrow.
Netanyahu, Benzion. 2001. Origins of the Inquisition in Fifteenth-Century Spain. 2nd edn. New York: New York Review Books.
Newkirk, Ingrid. 1992. Free the Animals! The Untold Story of the U.S. Animal Liberation Front and Its Founder, “Valerie.”Chicago: Noble Press.
Nietzsche, Friedrich. 1967–77. Sämtliche Werke: Kritische Studienausgabe in 15 Bänden. Ed. Colli, Giorgio and Montinari, Mazzino. Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter.
Nietzsche, Friedrich 1969. On the Genealogy of Morals and Ecce Homo. Ed. and trans. Kaufmann, Walter and Hollingdale, R. J.. New York: Vintage.
Nietzsche, Friedrich 1976. The Portable Nietzsche. Ed. and trans. Kaufmann, Walter. New York: Penguin.
Norlock, Kathryn. 2004. “Environmental Evils and the Atrocity Paradigm,” Ethics and the Environment 9:1, 85–93.
Novick, Peter. 1999. The Holocaust in American Life. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Nussbaum, Martha and Glover, Jonathan, eds. 1995. Women, Culture and Development: A Study of Human Capabilities. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Nussbaum, Martha and Sen, Amartya, eds. 1993. The Quality of Life. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
O'Brien, William V. 1981. The Conduct of Just and Limited War. New York: Praeger.
Orlans, Barbara. 1993. In the Name of Science: Issues in Responsible Animal Experimentation. New York: Oxford University Press.
Ortiz, Dianna with Davis, Patricia. 2004. The Blindfold's Eyes: My Journey from Torture to Truth. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books.
Orwell, George. 1949. Nineteen Eighty-Four. New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich.
Pagels, Elaine. 1995. The Origin of Satan. New York: Random House.
Parfit, Derek. 1984. Reasons and Persons. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Parkman, Francis. 1994. The Conspiracy of Pontiac and the Indian War after the Conquest of Canada, 2 vols. Vol. ii, From the Spring of 1763 to the Death of Pontiac. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. First published 1851.
Patterson, Orlando. 1982. Slavery and Social Death: A Comparative Study. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Pausanias, . 1979. Guide to Greece, 2 vols. New York: Penguin.
Pelzer, Dave. 1995. A Child Called “It.”Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications, Inc.
Pepperberg, Irene M. 2002. The Alex Studies: Cognitive and Communicative Abilities of Gray Parrots. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Pepperberg, Irene M 2008. Alex & Me: How a Scientist and a Parrot Uncovered a Hidden World of Animal Intelligence – and Formed a Deep Bond in the Process. New York: Collins.
Peters, Edward. 1985. Torture. New York: Basil Blackwell.
Plant, Richard. 1986. The Pink Triangle: The Nazi War against Homosexuals. New York: Holt.
Plato, . 1961. The Collected Dialogues of Plato, Including the Letters. Ed. Hamilton, Edith and Cairns, Huntington. New York: Pantheon.
Poussaint, Alvin. 1972. Why Blacks Kill Blacks. New York: Emerson Hall.
Power, Samantha. 2002. “A Problem from Hell”: America and the Age of Genocide. New York: Basic Books.
Puzo, Mario. 1978. The Godfather. New York: New American Library.
Radosh, Ronald and Milton, Joyce. 1983. The Rosenberg File: A Search for the Truth. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.
Rawls, John. 1999a. A Theory of Justice. Rev. edn. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Rawls, John 1999b. Collected Papers. Ed. Freeman, Samuel. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Regan, Tom. 1983. The Case for Animal Rights. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Regan, Tom and Singer, Peter, eds. 1976. Animal Rights and Human Obligations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Reitan, Eric. 2001. “Rape as an Essentially Contested Concept,” Hypatia 16:2, 43–66.
Rich, Adrienne(Unpublished). “Defining Terrorism.”
Rejali, Darius. 2007. Torture and Democracy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Reynolds, David S. 2005. John Brown, Abolitionist: The Man Who Killed Slavery, Sparked the Civil War, and Seeded Civil Rights. New York: Knopf.
Rich, Adrienne. 1979. On Lies, Secrets, and Silence: Selected Prose 1966 – 1978. New York: Norton.
Rich, Adrienne 1980. “Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence,” Signs: A Journal of Women in Culture and Society 5:4, 631–60.
Rittner, Carol and Roth, John K., eds. 1993. Different Voices: Women and the Holocaust. New York: Paragon House.
Roberts, Monty. 1996. The Man Who Listens to Horses. London: Hutchinson.
Robinson, Nehemiah. 1960. The Genocide Convention: A Commentary. New York: Institute of Jewish Affairs, World Jewish Congress.
Rosenbaum, Alan S., ed. 2009. Is the Holocaust Unique? Perspectives on Comparative Genocide. Boulder, CO: Westview.
Rosenberg, Alan and Myers, Gerald E., eds. 1988. Echoes from the Holocaust: Philosophical Reflections on a Dark Time. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Rosenberg, David and Lieberman, Michael. 1999. Hate Crimes Laws. [No place of publication given] Anti-Defamation League.
Ross, W. D. 1980. The Right and the Good. Oxford: Clarendon Press [1930].
Roth, John K., ed. 2005. Genocide and Human Rights: A Philosophical Guide. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Roth, John K. and Berenbaum, Michael, eds. 1989. Holocaust: Religious and Philosophical Implications. New York: Paragon House.
Roth, Kenneth, Worden, Minky, and Bernstein, Amy D., eds. 2005. Torture: Does It Make Us Safer? Is It Ever OK? A Human Rights Perspective. New York and London: Human Rights Watch.
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. 1950. The Social Contract and Discourses. Trans. Cole, G. D. H.. New York: Dutton.
Rubenstein, Richard L. and Roth, John K., eds. 2003. Approaches to Auschwitz: The Holocaust Legacy. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press.
Ruthven, Malise. 1978. Torture: The Grand Conspiracy. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
Sahebjam, Freidoune. 1990. The Stoning of Soraya M. Trans. Seaver, Richard. New York: Arcade Publishing.
Salter, Kenneth W. 1976. The Trial of Inez García. Berkeley, CA: Editorial Justa Publications Inc.
Sanday, Peggy Reeves. 1990. Fraternity Gang Rape: Sex, Brotherhood, and Privilege on Campus. New York: New York University Press.
Sartre, Jean-Paul. 1960. Critique de la raison dialectique. Tome I: Théorie des ensembles pratiques. Paris: Librairie Gallimard.
Sartre, Jean-Paul 1968. On Genocide. Boston: Beacon.
Sartre, Jean-Paul 1976. Critique of Dialectical Reason I: Theory of Practical Ensembles. Vol. i of 2 vols. Trans. Sheridan-Smith, Alan. London: NLB.
Sayre, Kenneth. 1976. Cybernetics and the Philosophy of Mind. New York: Humanities Press.
Scheffler, Samuel. 2006. “Is Terrorism Morally Distinctive?Journal of Political Philosophy 14:1, 1–17.
Scheler, Max. 1954. The Nature of Sympathy. Trans. Heath, Peter. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Schlosser, Eric. 2001. Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Schott, Robin May, ed. 2007. Feminist Philosophy and the Problem of Evil. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
Schulz, William F., ed. 2007. The Phenomenon of Torture: Readings and Commentary. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Sebold, Alice. 1999. Lucky. New York: Scribner.
Segal, Lore. 1973. Other People's Houses. New York: New American Library.
Senesh, Hannah. 2004. Hannah Senesh: Her Life and Diary, The First Complete Edition. Woodstock, VT: Jewish Lights.
Shakespeare, William. 1984. Titus Andronicus. Ed. Waith, Eugene M.. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Shane, Scott. 2009a. “Obama Orders Secret Prisons and Detention Camps Closed,” The New York Times January 23, available online at
Shane, Scott 2009b. “C.I.A. to Close Secret Prisons, Scenes of Harsh Interrogations,” The New York Times April 18, A1, A9.
Shane, Scott and Mazzetti, Mark. 2009. “In Adopting Harsh Tactics, No Inquiry into Past Use: Interrogations Based on Torture Methods Chinese Communists Used in '50s,” The New York Times April 22, A1, A14.
Shengold, Leonard. 1989. Soul Murder: The Effects of Childhood Abuse and Deprivation. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Shermer, Michael and Grobman, Alex. 2000. Denying History: Who Says the Holocaust Never Happened and Why Do They Say It?Berkeley: University of California Press.
Shue, Henry. 1978. “Torture,” Philosophy and Public Affairs 7:2, 124–43.
Shue, Henry 2005. “Torture in Dreamland: Disposing of the Ticking Bomb,” Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law 37, 231–39.
Sierra Club v. Morton, Secretary of the Interior, et al. 1972. 405 U.S. 727.
Silverman, Sue William. 1996. Because I Remember Terror, Father, I Remember You. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press.
Singer, Marcus G. 2004. “The Concept of Evil,” Philosophy 79, 185–214.
Singer, Peter. 2002. Animal Liberation. 2nd edn., rev. New York: HarperCollins.
Sipe, Beth and Hale, Evelyn J.. 1996. I Am Not Your Victim. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Sipe, C. Hale. 1929. The Indian Wars of Pennsylvania. Harrisburg, PA: Telegraph Press.
Smith, Adam. 1937. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. Ed. Cannan, Edwin. New York: Modern Library.
Sontag, Susan. 2007. At the Same Time: Essays and Speeches. Ed. Dilonardo, Paolo and Jump, Anne. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.
,Der Spiegel magazine. Reporters, Writers, and Editors. 2001. Inside 9/11: What Really Happened. Trans. Angelis, Paul and Koestner, Elisabeth with contributions from Dembo, Margot and Sultan, Christopher. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Spiegel, Marjorie. 1996. The Dreaded Comparison: Human and Animal Slavery. New York: Mirror Books.
Stannard, David E. 1992. American Holocaust: The Conquest of the New World. New York: Oxford University Press.
Stein, Edith. 1964. On the Problem of Empathy. Trans. Stein, Waltraut. The Hague: Nijhoff.
Stelter, Brian. 2009. “How ABC Interview Shaped a Torture Debate,” The New York Times April 28, A1, A15.
Sterba, James, ed. 2003. Terrorism and International Justice. New York: Oxford University Press.
Stevenson, Robert Louis. 1991. The Complete Shorter Fiction. New York: Carroll & Graf.
Stiehm, Judith. 1981. Bring Me Men and Women: Mandated Change at the U.S. Air Force Academy. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Stiehm, Judith 1989. Arms and the Enlisted Woman. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Stiehm, Judith 2006. Champions for Peace: Women Winners of the Nobel Peace Prize. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
Stiehm, Judith, ed. 1983. Women and Men's Wars. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Stiglmayer, Alexandra, ed. 1994. Mass Rape: The War against Women in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Trans. Faber, Marion. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
Stone, Christopher. 1974. Should Trees Have Standing? Toward Legal Rights for Natural Objects. Los Altos, CA: William Kaufmann, Inc.
Suskind, Ron. 2006. The One Percent Doctrine: Deep Inside America's Pursuit of Its Enemies Since 9/11. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Sussman, David. 2005a. “Defining Torture,” Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law 37, 231–39.
Sussman, David 2005b. “What's Wrong with Torture?Philosophy and Public Affairs 33:1, 1–33.
Tanaka, Yuki. 1996. Hidden Horrors: Japanese War Crimes in World War ii. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Taylor, Michael. 2002. “Lawrence Singleton, Despised Rapist, Dies; He Chopped Off Teenager's Arms in 1978,” San Francisco Chronicle January 1, available online at
Taylor, Paul W. 1986. Respect for Nature: A Theory of Environmental Ethics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Taylor, Telford. 1992. Anatomy of the Nuremberg Trials. New York: Knopf.
Tec, Nechama. 1993. Defiance: The Bielski Partisans. New York: Oxford University Press.
Thomas, Laurence Mordekhai. 1993. Vessels of Evil: American Slavery and the Holocaust. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Tithecott, Richard. 1997. Of Men and Monsters: Jeffrey Dahmer and the Construction of the Serial Killer. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.
Tonry, Michael, ed. 2009. The Oxford Handbook of Crime and Public Policy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
,The Torah: The Five Books of Moses. 1962. Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society.
Tuomela, Raimo. 1995. The Importance of Us: A Philosophical Study of Basic Social Notions. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Tuomela, Raimo 2002. The Philosophy of Social Practices: A Collective Acceptance View. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Turkus, Burton B. and Feder, Sid. 1951. Murder, Inc. New York: Manor Books.
Twining, W. L. and Twining, P. E.. 1973. “Bentham on Torture,” Northern Ireland Legal Quarterly 24:3, 306–56.
VanDeVeer, Donald. 1979. “Interspecific Justice,” Inquiry 22:1–2, 55–70.
Vetlesen, Arne Johan. 2005. Evil and Human Agency: Understanding Collective Evildoing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Vetterling-Braggin, Mary, Frederick, A. Elliston, and Jane, English, eds. 1977. Feminism and Philosophy. Totowa, NJ: Littlefield, Adams and Co.
Vidal-Naquet, Pierre. 1992. Assassins of Memory: Essays on the Denial of the Holocaust. Trans. Mehlman, Jeffrey. New York: Columbia University Press.
Walzer, Michael. 1973. “Political Action: The Problem of Dirty Hands,” Philosophy and Public Affairs 2:2, 160–80.
Walzer, Michael 1977. Just and Unjust Wars: A Moral Argument with Historical Illustrations. New York: Basic Books.
Waugh, Alexander. 2008. The House of Wittgenstein: A Family at War. New York: Doubleday.
Wellman, Carl. 1979. “On Terrorism Itself,” Journal of Value Inquiry 13, 250–58.
Wells-Barnett, Ida. 1970. Crusade for Justice. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Wells-Barnett, Ida 1987. On Lynchings: Southern Horrors, A Red Record, and Mob Rule in New Orleans. Salem, NH: Ayer Co.
Wenz, Peter. 1988. Environmental Justice. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Wiesenthal, Simon. 1997. The Sunflower: On the Possibilities and Limits of Forgiveness. Rev. and expanded edn. Trans. Pichler, H. A.. New York: Schocken.
Williams, James. 1911. “Torture,” Encyclopedia Britannica. Eleventh edn., 33 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, vol. xxvii, 72–79.
Wittgenstein, Ludwig. 1958. Philosophical Investigations. Trans. Anscombe, G. E. M.. Oxford: Blackwell.
Wittig, Monique. 1992. The Straight Mind and Other Essays. Boston: Beacon.
Wolfendale, Jessica. 2006. “Training Torturers: A Critique of the ‘Ticking Bomb’ Argument,” Social Theory and Practice 32:2, 269–87.
,Women's Action Coalition. 1993. WAC STATS: Facts about Women. New York: New Press.
Wood, Jim. 1976. The Rape of Inez García. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons.
Yancy, George, ed. 2002. The Philosophical I: Personal Reflections on Life in Philosophy. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
Young, Iris Marion. 1990. Justice and the Politics of Difference. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Young, Iris Marion 1994. “Gender as Seriality,” Signs: A Journal of Women in Culture and Society 19:3, 713–38.
Young, Iris Marion 1997. Intersecting Voices: Dilemmas of Gender, Political Philosophy, and Policy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Young, Iris Marion 2000. Inclusion and Democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Young, Iris Marion 2007. Global Challenges: War, Self-Determination and Responsibility for Justice. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Zimbardo, Philip. 2007. The Lucifer Effect: Understanding How Good People Turn Evil. New York: Random House.


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between #date#. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.