Skip to main content
Courts without Borders

Book description

Courts without Borders is the first book to examine the politics of judicial extraterritoriality, with a focus on the world's chief practitioner: the United States. For much of the post-World War II era, the United States has been a frequent yet selective regulator of activities outside its territory, and US federal courts are often on the front line in deciding the extraterritorial reach of US law. At stake in these jurisdiction battles is the ability to bring the regulatory power of the United States to bear on transnational disputes in ways that other states frequently dislike both in principle and in practice. This volume proposes a general theory of domestic court behavior to explain variation in extraterritorial enforcement of US law, emphasizing how the strategic behavior of private actors is important to mobilizing courts and in directing their activities.


'Courts without Borders makes sense of puzzling patterns in US courts’ decisions to assert domestic law internationally. Tonya L. Putnam shows that courts avoid doing so when it would undercut the public policy purposes the law is intended to serve and when rights at the core of American political identity are threatened. Her book is a masterful and compelling account of the politics and principles that support and restrain the long arm of American law overseas.'

Beth Simmons - Clarence Dillon Professor of International Affairs, Harvard University, Massachusetts

'This is an important study of critical but understudied questions - when, how, and why do US courts bring US law to bear on persons and conduct outside US territory and how do these decisions affect international outcomes? Putnam's book is lucid, compelling, and extraordinarily well-grounded in empirical details. This is one of the best books to appear on issues of transnational law and governance in recent years.'

Eric Voeten - Peter F. Krogh Associate Professor of Geopolitics and Global Justice, Georgetown University, Washington DC

'For much of the post-World War II era, the United States has been a frequent yet selective regulator of activities outside its territory, and US federal courts are often on the front line in deciding the extraterritorial reach of US law. At stake in these jurisdiction battles is the ability to bring the regulatory power of the United States to bear on transnational disputes in ways that other states frequently dislike in both principle and practice. Putnam proposes a general theory of domestic court behavior to explain variation in extraterritorial enforcement of US law, emphasizing how the strategic behavior of private actors is important to mobilizing courts and in directing their activities.'

Source: Law and Social Inquiry

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
Abbott, Frederick M. 1989. “Protecting First World Assets in the Third World: Intellectual Property Negotiations in the GATT Multilateral Framework.” Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law 22, 689746.
Abbott, Kenneth and Snidal, Duncan. 2000. “Hard Law and Soft Law in International Governance.” International Organization 54:3, 421456.
Agnew, John H. 1985. Competition Law. Taylor & Francis.
Aguinis, Herman and Glavas, Ante. 2012. “What We Know and Don’t Know about Corporate Social Responsibility a Review and Research Agenda.” Journal of Management 38:4, 932968.
Ahn, Yong Soek and Kim, Yu Jin. 2005. “Recent Developments in Korean Antitrust Law.” Global Competition Review, available at
Alford, Roger P. 1992–1993. “The Extraterritorial Application of Antitrust Laws: The United States and European Community Approaches.” Virginia Journal of International Law 33, 150.
Alter, Karen J. 1998. “Who Are the Masters of the Treaty? European Governments and the European Court of Justice.” International Organization 52, 121147.
Alter, Karen J. 2000. “The European Union’s Legal System and Domestic Policy: Spillover or Backlash?International Organization 54, 489518.
Alter, Karen J. 2003. “Do International Courts Enhance Compliance with International Law?Review of Asian and Pacific Studies 25, 5178.
Alter, Karen J. 2008. “Agent or Trustee: International Courts in Their Political Context.” European Journal of International Relations 14, 3363.
Alter, Karen J. 2014. The New Terrain of International Law: Courts, Politics, Rights. Princeton University Press.
Amley, Edward A. Jr. 1998. “Sue and Be Recognized: Collecting §1350 Judgments Abroad.” Yale Law Journal 107, 21772210.
Anderson, Kenneth. 2009. “The Rise of International Criminal Law: Intended and Unintended Consequences.” European Journal of International Law 20:2, 331358.
Andreas, Peter. 2013. Smuggler Nation: How Illicit Trade Made America. Oxford University Press.
Anghie, Antony. 2004. Imperialism, Sovereignty, and the Making of International Law. Cambridge University Press.
Aronofsky, David. 1985. “Piercing the Transnational Corporate Veil: Trends, Developments, and the Need for Widespread Adoption of Enterprise Analysis.” North Carolina Journal of International Law and Commercial Regulation 10, 3186.
Ashcroft, John and Ratcliff, John. 2012. “Recent and Unusual Evolution of an Expanding FCPA.” Notre Dame Journal of Law, Ethics, and Public Policy 1, 2538.
Bach, David and Newman, Abraham L.. 2007. “The European Regulatory State and Global Public Policy: Micro-Institutions, Macro-Influence.” Journal of European Public Policy 14:6, 827846.
Baldwin, David Allen. 1985. Economic Statecraft. Princeton University Press.
Ballance, Michael W. 1994. “Third Party Innocence: Domestic Authorization of Foreign Copyright Infringement and Subafilms v. MGM-Pathe Communications, Co.” North Carolina Journal of International Law and Commercial Regulation 20, 435456.
Ballentine, Karen. 2007. “Promoting Conflict-Sensitive Business in Fragile States: Redressing Skewed Incentives” in Trade, Aid, and Security: An Agenda for Peace and Development (Brown, Oli, Halle, Mark, Moreno, Sona Pena, and Winkler, Sebastian, eds.). Sterling, VA: Earthscan, 126157.
Bar-Hillel, Maya. 1973. “On the Subjective Probability of Compared Events.” Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 9, 396.
Bardach, Eugene and Kagan, Robert A.. 2002. Going by the Book: The Problem of Regulatory Unreasonableness. Transaction Publishers.
Barnett, Michael and Duvall, Raymond. 2005. “Power in International Politics.” International Organization 59:1, 3975.
Baroncelli, Eugenia, Fink, Carsten, and Javorcik, Beata Smarzynska. 2005. “The Global Distribution of Trademarks: Some Stylized Facts.” 3270,
Barton, John L., Goldstein, Judith L., Josling, Timothy E., and Steinberg, Richard H.. 2008. The Evolution of the Trade Regime: Politics, Law, and Economics of the GATT and the WTO. Princeton University Press.
Basedow, Jurgen. 2000. “International Antitrust: From Extraterritorial Application to Harmonization.” Louisiana Law Review 60, 10371052.
Basedow, Jurgen. 2010. “Foundations of Private International Law in Intellectual Property” in Intellectual Property in the Global Arena: Jurisdiction, Applicable Law, and the Recognition of Judgments in Europe, Japan and the US (Basedow, Jurgen, Kono, Toshiyuki, and Metzger, Axel, eds.). Tubingen, Germany: Mohr Siebeck, 329.
Bassiouni, M. Cherif. 1996. “International Crimes: ‘Jus Cogens’ and ‘Obligatio Erga Omnes’.” Law and Contemporary Problems 59:4, 6374.
Baum, Lawrence. 2006. Judges and Their Audiences: A Perspective on Judicial Behavior. Princeton University Press.
Baum, Lawrence. 2011. Specializing the Courts. University of Chicago Press.
Ben-Atar, Doron. 2004. Trade Secrets: Intellectual Piracy and the Origins of American Industrial Power. Yale University Press.
Benvenisti, Eyal. 2008. “Reclaiming Democracy: Strategic Uses of Foreign and International Law by National Courts.” American Journal of International Law 102:2, 241274.
Berman, Paul Schiff. 2002. “The Globalization of Jurisdiction.” University of Pennsylvania Law Review 151, 311545.
Bernard, Anthony. 2010. “Holding Corporations Liable in the United States for Aiding and Abetting Human Rights Violations Abroad: A Statutory Solution.” The George Washington Law Review 78, 615635.
Bernstein, David E. 2003. “Lochner’s Legacy’s Legacy.” Texas Law Review 82, 164.
Bhagwati, Jagdeesh N. 2004. In Defense of Globalization. Oxford University Press.
Bilsky, Leora. 2012. “Transnational Human Rights Litigation.” European Journal of International Law 23:2, 349374.
Blakeney, Michael. 2004. “The International Protection of Industrial Property: From the Paris Convention to the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspect of Intellectual Property Rights,” available at WIPO/IP/UNI/DUB/04/01.
Blum, Jeffrey M. and Steinhardt, Ralph G.. 1981. “Federal Jurisdiction over International Human Rights Claims: The Alien Tort Claims Act after Filartiga v. Peña-Irala.” Harvard International Law Journal 22, 53114.
Blumberg, Phillip I. 1990. “The Corporate Entity in an Era of Multinational Corporations.” Delaware Journal of Corporate Law 15:2, 285375.
Borchers, Patrick J. 2001. “The Problem with General Jurisdiction.” University of Chicago Legal Forum 2001, 119140.
Bodenhausen, G.H.C. 1969 (reprinted in 1991). Guide to the Application of the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property, as Revised at Stockholm in 1967. Geneva: WIPO.
Bork, Robert H. 1979. “The Antitrust Paradox (1978).” Harvard Law Review 92, 13761390.
Born, Gary B. 1992. “A Reappraisal of the Extraterritorial Reach of U.S. Law.” Law & Policy in International Business 24:3, 1100.
Born, Gary B. 1996. International Civil Litigation in United States Courts. Kluwer Law International.
Boyle, James. 1997. “A Politics of Intellectual Property: Environmentalism for the Net?Duke Law Journal 47:1, 87116.
Bradford, Anu. 2007. “International Antitrust Negotiations and the False Hope of the WTO.” Harvard International Law Journal 48:2 (Summer), 383439.
Bradford, Anu. 2012. “The Brussels Effect.” Northwest University Law Review 107:1, 168.
Bradley, Curtis A. 1997. “Territorial Intellectual Property Rights in an Age of Globalism.” Virginia Journal of Intellectual Property Law 37, 505586.
Bradley, Curtis A. 1998. “The Charming Betsy Canon and Separation of Powers: Rethinking the Interpretive Role of International Law.” Georgetown Law Journal 86:3, 479538.
Bradley, Curtis A. 2000. “Chevron Deference and Foreign Affairs.” Virginia Law Review 86, 649726.
Bradley, Curtis A. and Goldsmith, Jack L. III. 1997. “The Current Illegitimacy of International Human Rights Litigation.” Fordham Law Review 66, 319369.
Brand, Ronald A. and Jablonski, Scott R.. 2007. Forum Non Conveniens: History, Global Practice, and Future under the Hague Convention on Choice of Court Agreements. Oxford University Press.
Brewster, Rachel. 2012. “The Surprising Benefits to Developing Countries of Linking International Trade and Intellectual Property.” Chicago Journal of International Law 12, 154.
Brilmayer, Leah. 1987. “The Extraterritorial Application of American Law: A Methodological and Constitutional Appraisal.” Law and Contemporary Problems 66, 1138.
Brilmayer, Leah and Paisley, Kathleen. 1986. “Personal Jurisdiction and Substantive Legal Relations: Corporations, Conspiracies, and Agency.” California Law Review 74, 140.
Brodley, Joseph F. 1987. “The Economic Goals of Antitrust: Efficiency, Consumer Welfare, and Technological Progress.” New York University Law Review 62, 10201053.
Brougham, Henry. 1841. Speeches of Henry Lord Brougham upon Questions Relating to Public Rights: With Historical Introductions. Lea and Blanchard Publishers.
Brunell, Thomas L. and Sweet, Alec Stone. 2008. “Litigating the Treaty of Rome: The European Court of Justice and Articles 226, 230, and 234.” New Modes of Governance Project,
Busch, Mark L. 2007. “Overlapping Institutions, Forum Shopping, and Dispute Settlement in International Trade.” International Organization 61:4, 735761.
Büthe, Tim and Mattli, Walter. 2011. The New Global Rulers: Privatization of Regulation in the Global Economy. Princeton University Press.
Büthe, Tim and Swank, Gabriel. 2007. “The Politics of Antitrust and Merger Review in the European Union: Institutional Change and Decisions from Messina to 2004.” CES Working Paper, no. 142.
Buxbaum, Hannah L. 2001. “The Private Attorney General in a Global Age: Public Interests in Private International Antitrust Litigation.” Yale Journal of International Law 26, 219263.
Buxbaum, Hannah L. 2005. “German Legal Culture and the Globalization of Competition Law: A Historical Perspective on the Expansion of Private Antitrust Enforcement.” Berkeley Journal of International Law 23, 474495.
David, Cameron. 1978. “The Expansion of the Public Economy.” American Political Science Review 72, 12431261.
Carruba, Clifford J. 2005. “Courts and Compliance in International Regulatory Regimes.” Journal of Politics 67:3, 669689.
Carter, Kevin R. 2006. “Amending the Alien Tort Claims Act: Protecting Human Rights of Closing Off Corporate Accountability?Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law 38, 629652.
Cassel, Douglass. 2001. “Empowering United States Courts to Hear Crimes Within the Jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court.” New England Law Journal 35:2, 421445.
Casto, William R. 2006. “The New Federal Common Law of Tort Remedies for Violations of International Law.” Rutgers Law Journal 37, 635670.
Cavanagh, Edward D. 2003. “The FTAIA and Subject Matter Jurisdiction over Foreign Transactions under the Antitrust Laws: The New Frontier in Antitrust Legislation.” SMU Law Review 56, 21512190.
Chander, Anupam. 2013. “Unshackling Foreign Corporations: Kiobel’s Unexpected Legacy.” American Journal of International Law 107, 829834.
Chemerinsky, Erwin. 2007. Federal Jurisdiction (Fifth Edition). Aspen Publishers.
Chesterman, Simon. 2004. “Oil and Water: Regulating the Behavior of Multinational Corporations through Law.” International Law and Politics 36, 307329.
Choi, Stephen J. and Guzman, Andrew T.. 1998. “Portable Reciprocity: Rethinking the International Reach of Securities Regulation.” Southern California Law Review 71, 903, 914915.
Cini, Michelle and Lee, McGowan. 1998. Competition Policy in the European Union. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Clark, Aubert J. 1960. The Movement for International Copyright in Nineteenth Century America. Catholic University of America Press.
Clark, Harry S. 1999. “Dealing With U.S. Extraterritorial Sanctions and Foreign Countermeasures.” University of Pennsylvania Journal of International Economic Law 20, 6196.
Clark, Tom S. and Lauderdale, Benjamin. 2010. “Locating Supreme Court Opinions in Doctrine Space.” American Journal of Political Science 54:4, 871890.
Clarke, Julian L. and Evenett, Simon. 2003. “The Deterrent Effects of National Anticartel Laws: Evidence from the International Vitamins Cartel.” The Antitrust Bulletin Fall 2003, 689726.
Cleveland, Sarah. 1998. “Global Labor Rights and the Alien Tort Claims Act” (Book Review). Texas Law Review 76, 533579.
Cleveland, Sarah. 2003–2004. “The Alien Tort Statute, Civil Society, and Corporate Responsibility.” Rutgers Law Review 56, 971988.
Cohen, Jean L. 2012. Globalization and Sovereignty: Rethinking Legality, Legitimacy, and Constitutionalism. Cambridge University Press.
Colangelo, Anthony J. 2011. “A Unified Approach to Extraterritoriality.” Virginia Law Journal 97, 1019.
Colino, Richard R. 1962. “Copyright Protection Abroad for U.S. Cultural Exports.” Duke Law Journal 1962:2, 219248.
Collingsworth, Terry. 2002. “The Key Human Rights Challenge: Developing Enforcement Mechanisms.” Harvard Human Rights Journal 15, 183204.
Conant, Lisa. 2013. “Whose Agents? The Interpretation of International Law in National Courts” in Interdisciplinary Perspectives on International Law and International Relations: The State of the Art (Dunoff, Jeffrey and Pollack, Mark, eds.). Cambridge University Press, 394420.
Connor, John M. 2007. “Effectiveness of Antitrust Sanctions on Modern International Cartels” in The Political Economy of Antitrust (Ghosal, Vivek and Stennek, Johan, eds.). New York: Elsevier, 176215.
Connor, John M., Foer, Albert A., and Udwin, Simcha. 2010. “Criminalizing Cartels: An American Perspective.” New Journal of Criminal Law 1:2, 199217.
Coppola, Maria. 2014. “International Competition Network.” Global Competition Review, section 1,
Coyle, Anne. 2003. “Modest Reform: The New Rule 32.1 Permitting Citation to Unpublished Opinions in the Federal Courts of Appeals, A.” Fordham Law Review 72, 24712502.
Cross, Frank B. 2009. Theory and Practice of Statutory Interpretation. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.
Cross, Frank B. and Nelson, Blake J.. 2001. “Strategic Institutional Effects on Supreme Court Decision Making.” Northwestern University Law Review 95: 3, 14371494.
Crowley, Michael T. 1996. “Raise the Yellow Submarine – Subafilms and Extraterritorial Application of the Copyright Act.” Federal Communications Law Journal 48, 133162.
Cutler, A. Claire. 2003. Private Power and Global Authority: Transnational Merchant Law in the Global Political Economy. Cambridge University Press.
Cutler, A. Claire, Haufler, Virginia, and Porter, Tony, eds. 2001. Private Authority and International Affairs. S.U.N.Y. Press.
Dam, Kenneth W. 1983. “Extraterritoriality and Conflicts of Jurisdiction.” Proceedings of the American Society of International Law 77, 370377.
Dam, Kenneth W. 1987. “The Growing Importance of International Protection of Intellectual Property.” Intellectual Lawyer 21, 627638.
Davidow, Joel. 1997. “Some Reflections on the OECD Competition Guidelines.” Antitrust Bulliten 22, 441458.
Davis, Jeffrey. 2008. Justice Across Borders: The Stuggle for Human Rights in U.S. Courts. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Daynard, Richard A. 1972. “Test Case Litigation as a Source of Significant Social Change.” Catholic Lawyer 18, 3742.
Dearborn, Meredith. 2009. “Enterprise Liability: Reviewing and Revitalizing Liability for Corporate Groups.” California Law Review 97, 195261.
Deere-Birkbeck, Carolyn. 2010. “Developing Countries in the Global IP System before TRIPS: The Political Context for the TRIPS Negotiations” in Research Handbook On the Protection of Intellectual Property Under WTO Rules (Correa, Carlos R., ed.). Edward Elgar Publishing.
Dickenson, Edwin D. 1952. “The Law of Nations as Part of the National Law of the United States.” University of Pennsylvania Law Review 101, 2756.
Dinwoodie, Graeme B. 2004. “Trademarks and Territory: Detaching Trademark Law from the Nation-State.” Houston Law Review 41:3, 886.
Dinwoodie, Graeme. B. 2009. “Developing a Private International Intellectual Property Law: The Demise of Territoriality.” William and Mary Law Review 51, 711800.
Dinwoodie, Graeme B., Hennessey, William O., and Perlmutter, Shira. 2001. International Intellectual Property Law and Policy. LexisNexis Casebook Series.
Djelic, Marie-Laure. 2011. “International Competition Network” in Handbook of Transnational Governance: New Institutions and Innovations. Cambridge: Polity, 8088.
Dodge, William S. 1996. “Historical Origins of the ATS Statue: A Response to the ‘Originalists’.” Hastings International and Comparative Law Review 19, 221258.
Dodge, William. S. 1998a. “Understanding the Presumption against Extraterritoriality.” Berkeley Journal of International Law 16, 85125.
Dodge, William S. 1998b. “Extraterritoriality and Conflicts of Laws Theory: An Argument for Judicial Unilateralism.” Harvard International Law Journal 39:1, 101169.
Dodge, William S. 2001. “Antitrust and the Draft Hague Judgments Convention.” Law and Policy in International Business 32, 363390.
Dodge, William S. 2008. “The Public-Private Distinction in the Conflict of Laws.” Duke Journal of Comparative and International Law 18, 371394.
Dodge, William S. 2011. “The Presumption against Extraterritoriality after Morrison” in Proceedings of the 105th Annual Meeting. Vol. 105. American Society for International Law, 396399.
Drahos, Michaela. 2001. Convergence of Competition Laws and Policies in the European Union: Germany, Austria, and the Netherlands. Kluwer Law International.
Drahos, Peter. 1995. “Global Property Rights in Information: The Story of TRIPS at the GATT.” Prometheus 13:1, 619.
Drezner, Daniel W. 2000. “Bottom Feeders.” Foreign Policy 121, 6470.
Drezner, Daniel W. 2007. All Politics is Global: Explaining International Regulatory Regimes. Princeton University Press.
Dubin, Joseph S. 1954. “The Universal Copyright Convention.” California Law Review 42:1, 89119.
EarthRights International. “Senator Feinstein Introduces Bill to Protect Perpetrators of Human Rights Abuses.” October 20, 2005,
Edwards, C.D. 1944. “International Cartels as Obstacles to International Trade.” The American Economic Review 34, 330339.
Edwards, Corwin D. 1965. “Cartelization in Western Europe.” Antitrust Bull 10, 253278.
Edwards, Corwin D. 1967. Control of Cartels and Monopolies: An International Comparison. Oceana Publications.
Efrat, Assaf and Newman, Abraham. 2015. “Deciding to Defer: The Importance of Fairness in Resolving Transnational Jurisdictional Conflicts.” International Organization 70:2, 409441.
Eskridge, William N. 1987. “Dynamic Statutory Interpretation.” University of Pennsylvania Law Review 135:6, 14791555.
Estey, Wade. 1997. “The Five Bases of Extraterritorial Jurisdiction and the Failure of the Presumption against Extraterritoriality.” Hastings International and Comparative Law Review 21, 177208.
Fairbank, John King. 1953. Trade and Diplomacy on the China Coast. Vol. 1. Harvard University Press.
Falk, Richard A. 1958. “International Jurisdiction: Horizontal and Vertical Conceptions of Legal Order.” Temple Law Quarterly 32:3, 295321.
Farhang, Sean. 2008. “Public Regulation and Private Lawsuits in the American Separation of Powers System.” American Journal of Political Science 52:4, 821839.
Fearon, James D. 1998. “Bargaining, Enforcement, and International Cooperation.” International Organization 52, 269305.
Federico, P.J. 1936 (reprinted 2003). “Operation of the Patent Act of 1790.” Journal of the Patent and Trademark Office Society 85, 3345.
Federico, P.J. 1954 (reprinted 1993). “Commentary on the New Patent Act.” Journal of the Patent and Trademark Office Society 75, 161231.
Feinberg, Kenneth R. 1980–1981. “Economic Coercion and Economic Sanctions: The Expansion of U.S. Extraterritorial Jurisdiction.” American University Law Review 30, 323348.
Ferejohn, John A. and Kramer, Larry D.. 2002. “Independent Judges, Dependent Judiciary: Institutionalizing Judicial Restraint.” New York University Law Review 77 9621039.
Ferejohn, John A. and Weingast, Barry R.. 1992. “A Positive Theory of Statutory Interpretation.” International Review of Law and Economics 12:2, 263277.
Fidler, David P. 1992. “Competition Law and International Relations.” International and Comparative Law Quarterly 41, 563589.
Fiebig, Andre. 2005. “Modernization of European Competition Law as a Form of Convergence.” Temple International and Comparative Law Journal 19, 6386.
Fioretos, Orfeo. 2001. “The Domestic Sources of Multilateral Preferences: Varieties of Capitalism in the European Community” in Varieties of Capitalism (Hall, Peter A. and Soskice, David, eds.). Oxford University Press, 213235.
Fishel, Wesley R. 1952. The End of Extraterritoriality in China. University of California Press.
Fisher, William W. III. 1999. “A History of the Ownership of Ideas in the United States” in Eigentumskulturen im Vergleich. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.
Fligstein, Neil and Iona, Mara-Drita. 1996. “How to Make a Market: Reflections on the Attempt to Create a Single Market in the European Union.” American Journal of Sociology 102:1, 133.
Ford, Sara M. 2000. “Compulsory Licensing under the TRIPS Agreement: Balancing Pills and Patents.” American University International Law Review 15:4, 941974.
Forrester, Ian. 2011. “A Challenge for Europe’s Judges: The Review of Fines in Competition Cases.” European Law Review 2, 185207.
Fox, Eleanor M. 2002–2003. “International Antitrust and the Doha Dome.” Virginia Journal of International Law 43, 911932.
Fox, Eleanor M. 2009. “Linked-In: Antitrust and the Virtues of a Virtual Network.” International Lawyer 43:1, 151174.
Fox, William T.R. 1941. “Competence of Courts in Regard to ‘Non-Sovereign’ Acts of Foreign States.” American Journal of International Law 35:4, 632640.
Franck, Thomas M. 1992. Political Questions, Judicial Answers: Does the Rule of Law Apply in Foreign Affairs? Princeton University Press.
Frank, Isaiah. 1994. “Whither U.S. Trade Policy Beyond the Uruguay?SAIS Review 14:2, 2946.
Freeman, Harriet R. 1995. “Reshaping Trademark Protection in Today’s Global Village: Looking Beyond GATT’s Uruguay Round Toward Global Trademark Harmonization and Centralization.” ILSA Journal of International and Comparative Law 1, 67102.
Frey, Linda and Frey, Marsha. 1999. The History of Diplomatic Immunity. Ohio State University Press.
Freyer, Tony A. 2006. Antitrust and Global Capitalism, 1930–2004. Cambridge University Press.
Fried, Barbara H. 2009. The Progressive Assault on Laissez Faire: Robert Hale and the First Law and Economics Movement. Harvard University Press.
Frieden, Jeffry A. 2006. Global Capitalism: Its Fall and Rise in the Twentieth Century. W.W. Norton and Company.
Friedman, Lawrence M. 2002. American Law in the 20th Century. Yale University Press.
Friedmann, Wolfgang G. and van Themaat, Verloren. 1956. “International Cartels and Combines” in Antitrust Laws: A Comparative Symposium. Vol. 3 (Friedmann, Wolfgang G., ed.). Stevens.
Friendly, Henry J. 1964. “In Praise of Erie – And of the New Federal Common Law.” New York University Law Review 36, 383422.
Furman, Cronin and Renee, Kathleen. 2013. “Managing Expectations: International Criminal Trials and the Prospects for Deterrence of Mass Atrocity.” International Journal of Transitional Justice 7:3, 434454.
Furse, Mark. 2008. Competition Law of the EC and UK (Sixth Edition). Oxford University Press.
Gadbaw, R. Michael. 1989. “Intellectual Property and International Trade: Merger or Marriage of Convenience?Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law 22:2, 223242.
Galanter, Marc. 1974. “Why the ‘Haves’ Come out Ahead: Speculations on the Limits of Legal Change.” Law and Society Review 9:1, 95160.
Garth, Bryant, Nagel, Ilene H., and Plager, S. Jay. 1987. “The Institution of the Private Attorney General: Perspectives from an Empirical Study of Class Action Litigation.” Southern California Law Review 61, 353398.
Gauer, Celine, Dalheimer, Dorothe, Kjolbye, Lars, and de Smijter, Eddy, Directorate-General Competition, unit A-2. 2003. “Regulation 1/2003: A Modernised Application of EC Competition Rules.” Competition Policy Newsletter (Spring),
Geradin, Damien. 2009. “The Perils of Antitrust Proliferation – The Process of ‘Decentralized Globalization’ and the Risks of Over-Regulation of Competitive Behavior.” Chicago Journal of International Law 10, 189212.
Gerber, David J. 1983. “The Extraterritorial Application of German Antitrust Laws.” American Journal of International Law 77:4, 756783.
Gerber, David J. 1984. “Beyond Balancing: International Law Constraints on the Reach of International Law.” Yale Journal of International Law 10, 185221.
Gerber, David J. 1994. “Constitutionalizing the Economy: German Neo-Liberalism, Competition Law and the ‘New’ Europe.” The American Journal of Comparative Law 42, 2584.
Gerber, David J. 2005. “International Antitrust Convergence: The Real and Imagined Role of U.S. Antitrust Law.” ABA Spring Antitrust Meeting, March 30, 2005.
Gerber, David J. 2010. Global Competition: Law, Markets, and Globalization. Oxford University Press.
Gervais, Daniel. 2008. The TRIPS Agreement: Drafting History and Analysis (Third Edition). Sweet and Maxwell.
Ghosal, Vivek. 2008. “The Genesis of Cartel Investigations: Some Insights from Examining the Dynamic Interrelationships between US Civil and Criminal Antitrust Investigations.” Journal of Competition Law and Economics 4:1, 6188.
Gibney, Mark. and Emerick, R. David. 1996. “Extraterritorial Application of United States Law and the Protection of Human Rights: Holding Multinational Corporations to Domestic and International Standards.” Temple International and Comparative Law Journal 10, 123146.
Goldman, Abe A. 1955. “History of U.S.A. Copyright Law Revision 1901–1954” Prepared for Subcommittee on Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights, Pursuant to Senate Res. 53. Washington, DC: G.P.O.
Goldsmith, Jack L. 1998. “Against Cyberanarchy.” University of Chicago Law Review 65:4, 1199.
Goldstein, Judith. 1986. “The Political Economy of Trade: Institutions of Protection.” American Political Science Review 80:01, 161184.
Goldstein, Paul. 1994. Copyright’s Highway: From Gutenberg to the Celestial Jukebox. Hill & Wang.
Goldstein, Paul and Hugenholtz, Bernt. 2012. International Copyright: Principles, Law, and Practice. Oxford University Press.
Goodman, Ryan and Jinks, Derek. 1997. “Filartiga’s Firm Footing: International Human Rights and Federal Common Law.” Fordham Law Review 66:2, 463529.
Goodman, Ryan and Jinks, Derek. 2008. “Incomplete Internationalization and Compliance with International Human Rights Law.” European Journal of International Law 19:4, 725748.
Greely, Arthur P. 1902. “Pending Trademark Legislation.” American Lawyer 10, 386391.
Greely, Arthur P. 1905. Registration of Trademarks under the New Trademark Act of the United States: With Notes on the Act. Washington, DC: John Byrne & Co.
Greve, Michael S. 1989. “Public Law and Judicial Review.” Journal of Law and Politics 6, 559572.
Griffin, Joseph P. 1993. “EC and US Extraterritoriality: Activism and Cooperation.” Fordham International Law Journal 17, 353388.
Griffin, Joseph P. 1999. “Extraterritoriality in U.S. and EU Antitrust Enforcement.” Antitrust Law Journal 65:1, 159199.
Grossman, Gene M. and Helpman, Elhanan. 2002. Special Interest Politics. The MIT Press.
Gunther, Gerald and Sullivan, Kathleen M.. 1997. Constitutional Law (Thirteenth Edition). Foundation Press.
Guzman, Andrew T. 1998. “Is International Antitrust Possible?New York University Law Review 73, 15011548.
Guzman, Andrew T. 2002. “Choice of Law: New Foundations.” Georgetown Law Journal 90, 883940.
Hacking, D.L. 1979. “Increasing Extraterritorial Impact of US Laws: A Cause for Concern amongst Friends of America.” Northwestern Journal of International Law and Business 1, 110.
Hafner-Burton, Emilie. 2008. “Sticks and Stones: Naming and Shaming the Human Rights Enforcement Problem.” International Organization 62:4, 689716.
Hafner-Burton, Emilie and Tsutsui, Kiyoteru. 2007. “Justice Lost! The Failure of Human Rights Law to Matter Where Needed Most.” Journal of Peace Research 44, 407425.
Haight, James T. 1960. “The Restrictive Business Practices Clause in United States Treaties: An Antitrust Tranquilizer for International Trade.” The Yale Law Journal 70, 240257.
Hall, Peter A. 1999. “The Political Economy of Europe in an Era of Interdependence” in Continuity and Change in Contemporary Capitalism (Kitschelt, Herbert, Lange, Peter, Marks, Gary, and Stephens, John D., eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hall, Peter A. and Soskice, David. 2001. Varieties of Capitalism. Oxford University Press.
Hammes, D. and Wills, D.. 2005. “Black Gold: The End of Bretton Woods and the Oil-Price Shocks of the 1970s.” Independent Review 9:4, 501511.
Hanney, William M. 2011. “The Air Cargo Antitrust Conspiracy: A Report on the Criminal and Civil Cases in the U.S.” Schiff Hardin LLP, Chicago.
Hansmann, Henry and Kraakman, Reinier. 1991. “Toward Unlimited Shareholder Liability for Corporate Torts.” Yale Law Journal 100, 18791934.
Harding, Christopher and Joshua, Julian. 2003. Regulating Cartels in Europe: A Study of Legal Control of Corporate Delinquency. Oxford University Press.
Hathaway, Oona A. 2002. “Do Human Rights Treaties Make a Difference?Yale Law Journal 111, 19352042.
Hathaway, Oona A. 2013. “Kiobel Commentary: The Door Remains Open to “Foreign Squared” Cases.” scotusblog (April 18, 2013, 4:27 PM),
Hayner, Priscilla B. 2008. Unspeakable Truths: Transitional Justice and the Challenge of Truth Commissions. Routlege.
Heckscher, E.F. and Ohlin, B.G.. 1991. Heckscher-Ohlin Trade Theory. The MIT Press.
Heenan, John C. 2004. “Graceful Maneuvering: Corporate Avoidance of Liability Through Bankruptcy and Corporate Law.” Montana Law Review 65, 99134.
Helfer, Laurence R. 1999. “Forum Shopping for Human Rights.” University of Pennsylvania Law Review 148:2, 285400.
Helfer, Laurence R. 2004. “Regime Shifting: The TRIPS Agreement and New Dynamics of International Intellectual Property Lawmaking.” Yale International Law Journal 29, 184.
Helfer, Laurence R. and Voeten, Erik. (2014). “International Courts as Agents of Legal Change: Evidence from LGBT Rights in Europe.” International Organization 68:01, 77110.
Henkin, Louis. 1984. “International Law as Law in the United States.” Michigan Law Review 82:15551569.
Henner, Peter. 2009. Human Rights and the Alien Tort Statute: Law, History, and Analysis. ABA Publishing.
Herb, Guntram H. 1999. “Nationality Identity and Territory” in Nested Identities: Nationalism, Territory, and Scale (Herb, Guntram H. and Kaplan, David H., eds.). Rowman and Littlefield, 930.
Hillman, Arye L. 1982. “Declining Industries and Political-Support Protectionist Motives.” American Economic Review 72, 11801187.
Hilson, Chris. 2002. “New Social Movements: The Role of Legal Opportunity.” Journal of European Public Policy 9:2, 238255.
Hirst, Paul and Thompson, Grahame. 2002. “The Future of Globalization.” Cooperation and Conflict 37:3, 247265.
Hiscox, Michael J. 2001. “Class versus Cleavages: Inter-Industry Factor Mobility and the Politics of Trade.” International Organization 55, 146.
Ho, Laura, Powell, Catherine, and Volpp, Leti. 1996. “(Dis)assembling Rights of Women Workers Along the Global Assembly Line: Human Rights and the Garment Industry.” Harvard Civil Rights and Civil Liberties Law Review 31, 383414.
Hofstadter, Richard. 1964. “What Happened to the Antitrust Movement? Notes on the Evolution of an American Creed,” in The Business Establishment (Cheit, Earl F., ed.), 113151.
Holdsworth, W.S. 1914. “Rules of Venue and the Beginnings of the Commercial Jurisdiction of Common Law Courts.” Columbia Law Review XIV 7, 551562.
Hopkins, James Love. 1917. The Law of Trademarks, Trade Names, and Unfair Competition. Cincinnati: W.H. Anderson.
Hopmann, P. Terrence. 1995. “Two Paradigms of Negotiation: Bargaining and Problem Solving.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 542:1, 2447.
Hornbeck, Sean K. 1995. “Transnational Litigation and Personal Jurisdiction over Foreign Defendants.” Alabama Law Review 59, 13891448.
Hovencamp, Herbert. 2005. The Antitrust Enterprise: Principle and Execution. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Hudec, R.E. 2003. “Private Anticompetitive Behavior in World Markets: A WTO Perspective.” Antitrust Bulletin 48, 1045.
Hufbauer, Gary Clyde and Mitrokostas, Nicholas K.. 2003. Awakening Monster: The Alien Tort Statute of 1789. Peterson Institute.
Huffman, Max. 2007. “A Retrospective on Twenty-Five Years of the Foreign Trade Antitrust Improvements Act.” Houston Law Review 44:2, 285347.
Hughes, Justin. 2006. “Copyright and Incomplete Historiographies: Of Piracy, Propertization, and Thomas Jefferson.” Southern California Law Review 79, 9931084.
Ikenberry, G. John. 2009. After Victory: Institutions, Strategic Restraint, and the Rebuilding of Order after Major Wars. Princeton University Press.
Iselin, J.F. 1898. “The Protection of Intellectual Property.” Journal of the Society of the Arts 46, 293304.
Jacquemin, Alexis. 1993. “The International Dimension of European Competition Policy.” Journal of Common Market Studies 31:1, 91101.
Jägers, Nicola, Jesse, Katinka, and Verschuuren, Jonathan. 2013. “The Future of Corporate Liability for Extraterritorial Human Rights Abuses: The Dutch Case against Shell.” American Journal of International Law 107, E36E41.
Janey, Jay J., Dess, Greg, and Forlani, Victor. 2009. “Glass Houses? Market Reactions to Firms Joining the UN Global Compact.” Journal of Business Ethics 90:3, 407423.
Jennings, Robert Y. 1957. “Extraterritorial Jurisdiction and the United States Antitrust Laws.” British Yearbook of International Law 33, 146175.
Johns, Adrian. 2009. Piracy: The Intellectual Property Wars from Gutenberg to Gates. University of Chicago Press.
Jones, Clifford A. 1999. Private Enforcement of Antitrust Law in the EU, UK, and USA. Oxford University Press.
Jones, Clifford A. 2004. “Exporting Antitrust Courtrooms to the World: Private Enforcement in a Global Market.” Loyola Consumer Law Review 16, 409429.
Joseph, Sarah. 2004. Corporations and Transnational Human Rights Litigation. Hart Publishing Company.
Joyner, Christopher C. and Lawson, Scott A.. 1985/1986. “The United States and UNESCO: Rethinking the Decision to Withdraw.” International Journal 41:1, 3771.
Juenger, Friedrich K. 1988. “Forum Shopping, Domestic and International.” Tulane Law Review 63, 553, 606.
Juenger, Friedrich K. 1992. Choice of Law and Multistate Justice. Springer Netherlands.
Julian, Ku and Nzelibe, Jide. 2006. “Do International Criminal Tribunals Deter or Exacerbate Humanitarian Atrocities.” Washington University Law Review 84:4, 777833.
Kaczmarek, Sarah and Newman, Abraham. 2011. “The Long Arm of the Law: Extraterritoriality and the National Implementation of Foreign Bribery Legislation.” International Organization 65, 745770.
Kaeb, Caroline. 2008. “Emerging Issues of Human Rights Responsibility in the Extractive and Manufacturing Industries: Patterns and Liability Risks.” Northwestern Journal of International Human Rights 6:2, 327353.
Kahneman, Daniel and Tversky, Amos. 1972. “Subjective Probability: A Judgment of Representativeness.” Cognitive Psychology 3, 430.
Muel, Kaptein. 2004. “Business Codes of Multinational Firms: What Do They Say?Journal of Business Ethics 50, 1531.
Kastellec, John and Lax, Jeffrey. 2008. “Case Selection and the Study of Judicial Politics.” Journal of Empirical Legal Studies 5:3, 407446.
Kastellec, Johnathan P. 2010. “Panel Composition and Voting on the US Courts of Appeals Over Time.” Political Research Quarterly 42:2, 226256.
Katzenstein, Peter J. 1985. Small States in World Markets. Cornell University Press.
Keck, Margaret E. and Sikkink, Kathryn A.. 1998. Activists Beyond Borders: Advocacy Networks in International Politics. Cornell University Press.
Keitner, Chimene I. 2008. “Conceptualizing Complicity in Alien Tort Cases.” Hastings Law Journal 60, 61104.
Keitner, Chimene I. 2012. “The Reargument Order in Kiobel v. Royal Dutch Petroleum and Its Potential Implications for Transnational Human Rights Cases.” ASIL Insights 16, 10.
Kelemen, R. Daniel. 2011. Eurolegalism: The Transformation of Law and Regulation in the European Union. Harvard University Press.
Kelemen, R. Daniel and Sibbitt, Eric. 2004. “The Globalization of American Law.” International Organization 58:1, 103136.
Keohane, Robert O. and Nye, Joseph S. Jr. 1977. Power and Interdependence: World Politics in Transition. Little, Brown.
Kestenbaum, Lionel. 1982. “Antitrust’s ‘Extraterritorial’ Jurisdiction: A Progress Report on the Balancing of Interests Test.” Stanford Journal of International Law 18, 311346.
Khan, B. Zorina. 2005. The Democratization of Invention: Patents and Copyrights in American Economic Development 170–1920. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Khan, B. Zorina and Sokoloff, Kenneth L.. 2001. “History Lessons: The Early Development of Intellectual Property Institutions in the United States.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 15:3, 233246.
Kim, Won-Ki. 2003. “The Extraterritorial Application of U.S. Antitrust Law and Its Adoption in Korea.” Singapore Journal of International and Comparative Law 7, 386411.
Kinley, David and Tadaki, Junko. 2004. “From Talk to Walk: The Emergence of Human Rights Responsibilities for Corporations at International Law.” Virginia Journal of International Law 44, 9311023.
Klein, Joel. 1999. “The War against International Cartels: Lessons from the Battlefront.” US Department of Justice, available at
Kmiec, Keenan D. 2004. “The Origin and Current Meanings of ‘Judicial Activism’.” California Law Review 92, 14411477.
Knox, John H. 2010. “A Presumption Against Extrajurisdictionality.” American Journal of International Law 104, 351396.
Knox, John H. 2011. “The Unpredictable Presumption Against Extraterritoriality.” Southwestern Law Review 40, 635653.
Kobrin, Stephen J. 2009. “Private Political Authority and Public Responsibility: Transnational Politics, Transnational Firms, and Human Rights.” Business Ethics Quarterly 19:3, 349374.
Koebele, Michael. 2009. Corporate Responsibility under the Alien Tort Statute: Enforcement of International Law through U.S. Torts Law. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
Koh, Harold Hongju. 1998. “How Is International Human Rights Law Enforced?Indiana Law Journal 74, 13971417.
Koh, Harold Hongju. 2004. “Separating Myth from Reality about Corporate Responsibility Litigation.” Journal of International Economic Law 7:2, 263274.
Kolko, Gabriel. 1962. “American Business and Germany, 1930–1941.” The Western Political Quarterly 15:4, 713728.
Kontorovich, Eugene. 2014. “Kiobel Surprise: Unexpected by Scholars but Consistent with International Trends.” Notre Dame Law Review 89, 16711694.
Kovacic, William E. 2006. “The Role of Non-Litigation Strategies: Advocacy, Reports, and Studies as Instruments of Competition Policy” in Handbook of Research in Trans-Atlantic Antitrust (Marsden, Philip, ed.). Edward Elgar Publishers, 541551.
Kovacic, William E. and Shapiro, Carl. 2000. “Antitrust Policy: A Century of Legal and Policy Thinking.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 14, 4360.
Kozlowski, Mark. 2003. The Myth of the Imperial Judiciary: Why the Right is Wrong About the Courts. N.Y.U. University Press.
Kramer, Larry. 1991. “Vestiges of Beale: Extraterritorial Application of American Law.” The Supreme Court Review 1991, 179224.
Kramer, Larry. 1995. “Extraterritorial Application of American Law after the Insurance Antitrust Case: A Reply to Professors Lowenfeld and Trimble.” American Journal of International Law 89:4, 750758.
Krasner, Stephen D. 1976. “State Power and the Structure of International Trade.” World Politics 28:3, 317347.
Krasner, Stephen D. 1991. “Global Communications and National Power: Life on the Pareto Frontier.” World Politics 43:3, 336366.
Krasner, Stephen D. 1999. Sovereignty: Organized Hypocrisy. Princeton University Press.
Krisch, Nico. 2005. “International Law in Times of Hegemony: Unequal Power and the Shaping of the International Legal Order.” European Journal of International Law 16:3, 369408.
Ladas, Stephen P. 1949. “The Lanham Act and International Trade.” Law and Contemporary Problems 14:2, 269287.
Lamoreaux, Naomi R. and Sokoloff, Kenneth L.. 2001. “Market Trade in Patents and the Rise of a Class of Specialized Inventors in the 19th Century United States.” American Economic Review 91:2, 3144.
Lande, Robert H. and Davis, Joshua P.. 2008. “Benefits from Private Antitrust Enforcement: An Analysis of Forty Cases.” University of San Francisco Law Review 42, 879.
Landers, Amy L. 2012. Understanding Patent Law (Second Edition). LexisNexis.
Langer, Maximo. 2011. “The Diplomacy of Universal Jurisdiction: The Political Branches and the Transnational Prosecution of International Crimes.” American Journal of International Law 105:1, 150.
Lasserre, B. 2009. “The New French Competition Law Enforcement Regime.” Competition Law International 5, 1520.
Lasswell, Harold D. 1936. Politics: Who Gets What, When, How. Meridian Books.
Lauderdale, Benjamin E. and Clark, Tom S.. 2012. “The Supreme Court’s Many Median Justices.” American Political Science Review 106:4, 847866.
Laura, Ho, Powell, Catherine, and Volpp, Leti. 1996. “(Dis)assembling the Rights of Women Workers Along the Global Assembly Line.” Harvard Civil Rights and Civil Liberties Law Review 31, 383414.
Lax, Jeffrey R. 2011. “The New Judicial Politics of Legal Doctrine.” Annual Review of Political Science 14, 131157.
Layne, Christopher. 2012. “This Time It’s Real: The End of Unipolarity and the Pax Americana.International Studies Quarterly 56:1, 203213.
Leaffer, Marshall A. 1991. “Protecting United States Intellectual Property Abroad: Toward a New Multilateralism.” Iowa Law Review 76, 273308.
Leaffer, Marshall A. 2010. Understanding Copyright Law (Fifth Edition). LexisNexis.
Legro, Jeffrey W. 1996. “Culture and Preferences in the International Cooperation Two-Step.” American Political Science Review 90:1, 118137.
Letwin, William. 1981. Law and Economic Policy in America: The Evolution of the Sherman Antitrust Act. University of Chicago Press.
Leveque, Francois. 2007. “Merger Control: More Stringent in Europe than in the United States?” CERNA Working Paper.
Levy, David L. and Prakash, Aseem. 2003. “Bargains Old and New: Multinational Corporations in Global Governance.” Business and Politics 5:2, 131150.
Lin, Li-Wen. 2009. “Legal Transplants Through Private Contracting: Codes of Vendor Conduct in Global Supply Chains as an Example.” American Journal of Comparative Law 57, 711744.
Litman, Jessica D. 1986. “Copyright, Compromise, and Legislative History.” Cornell Law Review 72, 857905.
Loevinger, Lee. 1964. “The Rule of Reason in Antitrust Law.” Virginia Law Review 50, 2335.
Lowenfeld, Andreas. 1979. “Public Law in the International Arena: Conflicts of Laws, International Law, and Some Suggestions for Their Interaction” in II Recuiel des Cours. Martinus Nijhoff, 311.
Lowenfeld, Andreas. 1997. “Forum Shopping, Antisuit Injunctions, Negative Declarations, and Related Tools of International Litigation.” American Journal of International Law 91:2, 314324.
Macedo, Stephen. 2004. Universal Jurisdiction: National Courts and the Prosecution of Serious Crimes under International Law. University of Pennsylvania Press.
Macey, Jonathan R. 2003. “Regulatory Globalization as a Response to Regulatory Competition.” Emory Law Journal 52, 13531380.
Maier, Harold G. 1982. “Extraterritorial Jurisdiction at a Crossroads: An Intersection Between Public and Private International Law.” American Journal of International Law 76, 280320.
Maier, Harold G. 1983. “Interest Balancing and Extraterritorial Jurisdiction.” American Journal of Comparative Law 31:4, 579597.
March, James G. and Simon, Herbert A.. 1958. Organizations. Wiley (USA).
Marcks, Eric. 2001. “Avoiding Liability for Human Rights Violations in Project Finance.” Energy Law Journal 22, 301333.
Mark, Gideon. 2012. “Private FCPA Enforcement.” American Business Law Journal 49:3, 419506.
Matheson, John H. 2008. “The Modern Law of Corporate Groups: An Empirical Study of Piercing the Corporate Veil in the Parent-Subsidiary Context.” North Carolina Law Review 87, 10911155.
Matsushita, Mitsuo, Schoenbaum, Thomas J., and Mavrodis, Petros C.. 2006. The World Trade Organization: Law, Practice, and Policy (Second Edition). Oxford University Press.
Mattei, Ugo and Lena, Jeffrey. 2001. “U.S. Jurisdiction over Conflicts Arising Outside of the United States: Some Hegemonic Implications.” Hastings International and Comparative Law Review 24, 381400.
Mattli, Walter and Büthe, Tim. 2005. “Global Private Governance: Lessons from a National Model of Setting Standards in Accounting.” Law and Contemporary Problems 68, 225262.
May, Christopher and Sell, Susan K.. 2006. Intellectual Property Rights: A Critical History. Lynne Rienner.
McClellan, William Smith. 1912. Smuggling in the Colonies at the Outbreak of the American Revolution: With Special Reference to the West Indies Trade. (Monograph) Williams College.
McConnaughay, Philip J. 1999. “Reviving the Public Law Taboo in International Conflict of Laws.” Stanford Journal of International Law 35, 255312.
McDougal, Myres S. 1956. “Law as a Process of Decision: A Policy-Oriented Approach to Legal Study.” National Law Forum 1, 5372.
McGinnis, John O. 2003. “The Political Economy of Antitrust Harmonization.” William and Mary Law Review 45:2, 549594.
McGowan, Lee. 2010. The Antitrust Revolution in Europe: Exploring the European Commission’s Cartel Policy. Edward Elgar Publishers.
Meessen, Karl M. 1989. “Competition of Competition Laws.” Northwestern Journal of International Law and Business 10, 1730.
Meessen, Karl M. 1996. Extraterritorial Jurisdiction in Theory and Practice. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
Mehra, Salil K. 2002–2003. “‘A’ Is for Anachronism: The FTAIA Meets the World Trading System.” Dickinson Law Review 107:4, 763774.
Mehra, Salil K. 2004. “More Is Less: A Law and Economics Approach to the International Scope of Antitrust Enforcement.” Temple Law Review 77, 4770.
Melitz, Marc J. and Ottaviano, Giancarlo I.P.. 2008. “Market Size, Trade, and Productivity.” Review of Economic Studies 75:1, 295316.
Mendez, Juan E. 2001. “National Reconciliation, Transnational Justice, and the International Criminal Court.” Ethics and International Affairs 15:1, 2544.
Merges, Robert P. 2000. “One Hundred Years of Solicitude: Intellectual Property Law, 1900-2000.” California Law Review 88, 21872240.
Merryman, John H. and Pérez-Perdomo, Rogelio. 2007. The Civil Law Tradition: An Introduction to the Legal Systems of Europe and Latin America. Stanford University Press.
Michaels, Ralf. 2005. “Two Paradigms of Jurisdiction.” Michigan Journal of International Law 27:4, 10031069.
Michaels, Ralf. 2011. “Empagran’s Empire: International Law and Statutory Interpretation in the U.S. Supreme Court in the Twenty-First Century,” available at
Miller, Sidney T. 1910. “The Reasons for Some Legal Fictions.” Michigan Law Review 8:8, 623636.
Milner, Helen V. 1988. Resisting Protectionism: Global Industries and the Politics of International Trade. Princeton University Press.
Milner, Helen V. 1997. Interests, Institutions, and Information. Princeton University Press.
Mnookin, Robert H. and Kornhauser, Louis. 1979. “Bargaining in the Shadow of the Law: The Case of Divorce.” The Yale Law Journal 88:5, 950997.
Moravcsik, Andrew T. 1991. “Negotiating the Single European Act: National Interests and Conventional Statecraft in the European Community.” International Organization 45:1, 1956.
Moravcsik, Andrew T. 1993. “Preferences and Power in the European Community: A Liberal Intergovernmentalist Approach.” Journal of Common Market Studies 31:4, 473524.
Moravscik, Andrew T. 1998. The Choice for Europe: Social Purpose and State Power from Messina to Maastricht. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Moravcsik, Andrew T. 2000. “The Origins of Human Rights Regimes.” International Organization 54: 217252.
Muchilinksi, Peter T. 2001. “Human Rights and Multinationals: Is there a Problem?International Affairs 77L1, 3147.
Mwaura, Kiarie. 2012. “Internalization of Costs to Corporate Groups: Part-Whole Relationships, Human Rights Norms and the Futility of the Corporate Veil.” Journal of International Business and Law 11, 85110.
Neuman, Gerald L. 2008. “Import, Export, and Regional Consent in the Inter-American Court of Human Rights.” European Journal of International Law 19:1, 101123.
Neumeyer, Eric. 2005. “Do International Human Rights Treaties Improve Respect for Human Rights?Journal of Conflict Resolution 49:6, 925953.
Newman, Abraham. 2008. Protectors of Privacy: Regulating Personal Data in the Global Economy. Cornell University Press.
Nicolson, Rachel and Howie, Emily. 2007. “The Impact of the Corporate Form on Corporate Liability for International Crimes: Separate Legal Personality, Limited Liability, and the Corporate Veil – An Australian Law Perspective.” Paper for ICJ Expert Legal Panel on Corporate Complicity in International Crimes. Available at
Nimmer, Melville B. 1967. “Implications of the Prospective Revisions of the Berne Convention and the United States Copyright Law.” Stanford Law Review 19, 499554.
Nollkaemper, Andre. 2007. “Internationally Wrongful Acts in Domestic Courts.” American Journal of International Law 101:4, 760799.
Noonan, C. 2008. The Emerging Principles of International Competition Law. Oxford University Press.
Norton, Joseph Jude. 1979. “Extraterritorial Jurisdiction of U.S. Antitrust and Securities Laws.” International and Comparative Law Quarterly 28, 575597.
Nye, Joseph. 1974. “Multinational Corporations in World Politics.” Foreign Affairs 53, 153175.
Ortblad, Vanessa. 2008. “Criminal Prosecution in Sheep’s Clothing: The Punitive Effect of OFAC Freezing Sanction.” The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 98:4, 14391465.
Paradise, Paul R. 1999. Trademark Counterfeiting, Product Piracy, and the Dollar Threat to the U.S. Economy. Quorum Books.
Parrish, Austen L. 2008. “The Effects Test: Extraterritoriality’s Fifth Business.” Vanderbilt Law Review 61, 14551505.
Parrish, Austen L. 2011. “Morrison, the Effects Test, and the Presumption against Extraterritoriality: A Reply to Professor Dodge.” Proceedings of the 105th Annual Meeting of the American Society of International Law 105, 399402.
Paust, Jordan J. 1992. “The Other Side of Right: Private Duties under International Law.” Harvard Human Rights Journal 5, 5164.
Paust, Jordan J. 1999. “Non-Extraterritoriality of Special Territorial Jurisdiction of the United States: Forgotten History and the Errors of Erdos.” Yale Journal of International Law 24, 305328.
Paust, Jordan J. 2002. “Human Rights Responsibilities of Private Corporations.” Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law 35, 801825.
Pelc, Krzyzstof. 2014. “The Politics of Precedent in International Law: A Social Network Analysis.” American Political Science Review 108:3, 547564.
Pelzman, Sam. 1976. “Toward a More General Theory of Regulation.” Journal of Law and Economics 19, 211240.
Peritz, Rudolph A. 1990. “A Counter-History of Antitrust Law.” Duke Law Journal 2, 263320.
Pettit, P.C.F. and Styles, C.J.D.. 1982. “The International Response to the Extraterritorial Application of United States Antitrust Laws.” The Business Lawyer 37:2, 697715.
Pierson, Paul. 2000. “Increasing Returns, Path Dependence, and the Study of Politics.” American Political Science Review 94:2, 251267.
Pierson, Robert W. Jr. 2007. “Extraterritorial Reach of U.S. Patent Law: Has the Federal Circuit Gone Too Far.” Fordham Intellectual Property Media and Entertainment Law Journal 17, 651692.
Pogge, Thomas. 2008. World Poverty and Human Rights (Second Edition). Polity Press.
Polinsky, Mitchell A. and Shavell, Steven. 1998. “Punitive Damages: An Economic Analysis.” Harvard Law Review 111:4, 869962.
Ponsoldt, J.F. and David, C.D.. 2006. “Comparison between US and EU Antitrust Treatment of Tying Claims against Microsoft: When Should the Bundling of Computer Software be Permitted.” Northwestern Journal of International Law and Business 27, 421452.
Posner, Richard A. 1970. “A Statistical Study of Antitrust Enforcement.” Journal of Law and Economics 13:2, 365419.
Posner, Richard. A. 1979. “The Chicago School of Antitrust Analysis.” University of Pennsylvania Law Review 127:4, 925948.
Posner, Richard A. 1981. “The Present Situation in Legal Scholarship.” The Yale Law Journal 90, 11131130.
Poteet, Scott. 2011. “The Temporary Presence Defense to Patent Infringement and Its Applicability to Airline Security Patents.” Journal of Air Law and Commerce 76, 559593.
Priest, George and Klein, Benjamin. 1984. “The Selection of Legal Disputes for Litigation.” Journal of Legal Studies 13, 155.
Putnam, Tonya L. 2002. “Human Rights and Sustainable Peace” in Ending Civil Wars: The Implementation of Peace Agreements (Stedman, Stephen J., Rothchild, Donald, and Cousens, Elizabeth, eds.). Lynne Rienner, 237272.
Putnam, Tonya L. 2009. “Courts Without Borders: Domestic Sources of U.S. Extraterritoriality in the Regulatory Sphere.” International Organization 63, 459490.
Quintanilla, Marcus S. and Whytock, Christopher A.. 2011. “The New Multipolarity in International Judgments: Transnational Litigation, Foreign Courts, Foreign Judgments, and Foreign Law.” Southwestern Journal of International Law 18, 3152.
Rahl, James A. 1974. “American Antitrust and Foreign Operations: What Is Covered?Cornell International Law Journal 8:1, 115.
Raustiala, Kal. 2002. “The Architecture of International Cooperation: Transgovernmental Networks and the Future of International Law.” Virginia Journal of International Law 43, 192.
Raustiala, Kal. 2006. “The Evolution of Territoriality: International Relations & American Law” in Territoriality and Conflict in an Era of Globalization (Kahler, Miles and Walter, Barbara, eds.). Cambridge University Press.
Raustiala, Kal. 2009. Does the Constitution Follow the Flag? The Evolution of Territoriality in U.S. Law. Oxford University Press.
Raustiala, Kal and Sprigman, Christopher. 2009. “The Piracy Paradox Revisited.” Stanford Law Review 61:5, 12011225.
Reichman, Jerome H. 1996. “Enforcing the Enforcement Procedures of the TRIPS Agreement.” Virginia Journal of International Law 37, 335356.
Rich, Giles S. 1953. “Infringement Under Section 271 of the Patent Act of 1952.” Journal of the Patent Office Society 35, 476500.
Riesenfeld, Stefan A. 1954. “The New U.S. Patent Act in the Light of Comparative Law I.” University of Pennsylvania Law Review 102:3, 291322.
Rill, James F. 1988. “Antitrust: Where We Stand Today.” Antitrust Law Journal 57:3, 311.
Ringer, Barbara A. 1966–1967. “The Stockholm Intellectual Property Conference of 1967.” Bulletin of the Copyright Society, USA 14, 417434.
Ringer, Barbara A. 1968. “The Role of the United States in International Copyright – Past, Present, and Future.” Georgetown Law Journal 56, 10501079.
Risse, Thomas, Ropp, Stephen C., and Sikkink, Kathryn. 1999. The Power of Human Rights: International Norms and Domestic Change. Cambridge University Press.
Roberts, Anthea. 2011. “Comparative International Law? The Role of National Courts in Creating and Enforcing International Law.” International and Comparative Law Quarterly 60:1, 5792.
Rodman, Kenneth A. 1998. “‘Think Globally, Punish Locally’: Non-State Actors, Multinational Corporations, and Human Rights Sanctions.” Ethics and International Affairs 12, 1941.
Rodman, Kenneth A. 2001. Sanctions Beyond Borders: Multinational Corporations and US Economic Statecraft. Rowman and Littlefield.
Rodrik, Dani. 2000. “How Far Will International Economic Integration Go?The Journal of Economic Perspectives 14:1, 177186.
Rogowski, Ronald. 1987. “Political Cleavages and Changing Exposure to Trade.” American Political Science Review 81:4, 11211137.
Roht-Arriaza, Naomi. 2005. The Pinochet Effect: Transnational Justice in the Age of Human Rights. University of Pennsylvania Press.
Rosamond, Ben. 2005. “The Uniting of Europe and the Foundations of EU Studies: Revisiting the Neofunctionalism of Enrst B. Haas.” Journal of European Public Policy 12:2, 237254.
Rosendorff, B. Peter. 2005. “Stability and Rigidity: Politics and Design of the WTO’s Dispute Settlement Procedure.” American Political Science Review 99:3, 389400.
Rosenthal, Douglas E. and Knighton, William M.. 1982. National Laws and International Commerce – The Problem of Extraterritoriality. Routledge.
Ruggie, John G. 2008. Embedding Global Markets. Ashgate Publishing.
Ruggie, John G. 2013. Just Business: Multinational Corporations and Human Rights. WW Norton and Company.
Ryngaert, Cedric. 2008. Jurisdiction in International Law. Oxford University Press.
Saks, Michael J. and Kidd, Robert F.. 1980–1981. “Human Information Processing and Adjudication: Trial by Heuristics.” Law & Society Review 15:1, 123160.
Salop, Steven C. and White, Lawrence J.. 1986. “Economic Analysis of Private Antitrust Litigation.” Georgetown Law Journal 74, 1176.
Sandholtz, Wayne and Sweet, Alec Stone (eds.). 1998. “Integration, Supranational Governance, and the Institutionalization of the European Polity” in European Integration and Supranational Governance. Oxford University Press.
Sandholtz, Wayne and Sweet, Alec Stone. 2004. “Law, Politics, and International Governance” in The Politics of International Law (Reus-Smit, Christian, ed.). Cambridge University Press, 238271.
Sartori, Giovanni. 1970. “Concept Misformation in Comparative Politics.” American Political Science Review 64, 10331053.
Scafuri, Allison L. 1965. “United States Antitrust Laws in Relation to American Businesses Operating in the Common Market.” Boston College Industrial and Commercial Law Review 6:3, 561567.
Scherer, F.M. 2009. “The Political Economy of Patent Policy Reform in the United States.” Journal of Telecommunications and High Technology Law 7, 167216.
Scheuerman, William E. 1999. “Free Market Anti-Formalism: The Case of Richard Posner.” Ratio Juris 12:1, 8095.
Schuman, Robert. 1950. “The Schuman Declaration,”
Scully, Eileen P. 2001. Bargaining with the State from Afar: American Citizenship in Treaty Port China, 1844-1942. Columbia University Press.
Segal, Jeffrey A. 1997. “Separation-of-Powers Games in the Positive Theory of Congress and Courts.” American Political Science Review 91, 2844.
Segal, Jeffrey. A. and Spaeth, Harold. J.. 2002. The Supreme Court and the Attitudinal Model Revisited. Cambridge University Press.
Sell, Susan K. 2003. Private Power, Public Law: The Globalization of Intellectual Property Rights. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Shamir, Ronen. 2004. “Between Self-Regulation and the Alien Tort Claims Act: On the Contested Concept of Corporate Social Responsibility.” Law and Society Review 38:4, 635664.
Shavell, Steven. 1996. “Any Frequency of Plaintiff Victory is Possible.” Journal of Legal Studies 25, 493502.
Shaw, Jo. 1996. Law of the European Union. Palgrave MacMillan.
Shaw, Malcom. 2008. International Law (Sixth Edition). Cambridge University Press.
Shughart, W.F. Jr. 1990. “Private Antitrust Enforcement: Compensation, Deterrence, or Extortion.” Regulation 13, 5361.
Sikkink, Kathryn A. 2011. The Justice Cascade: How Human Rights Prosecutions are Changing World Politics. W.W. Norton and Company.
Simmons, Beth A. 1994. Who Adjusts? Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Simmons, Beth A. 2001. “The International Politics of Harmonization: The Case of Capital Market Regulation.” International Organization 55:3, 589620.
Simmons, Beth A. 2009. Mobilizing for Human Rights: International Law in Domestic Politics. Cambridge University Press.
Simmons, Beth A., Dobbin, Frank, and Garrett, Geoffrey. 2007. “The Global Diffusion of Public Policies: Social Construction, Coercion, Competition or Learning?Annual Review of Sociology 33, 449472.
Simmons, Beth A. and Elkins, Zachary. 2004. “The Globalization of Liberalization: Policy Diffusion in the International Political Economy.” American Political Science Review 98, 171189.
Singer, David A. 2007. Regulating Capital: Setting Standards for the International Financial System. Cornell University Press.
Skidmore, David. 2005. “Understanding the Unilateralist Turn in U.S. Foreign Policy.” Foreign Policy Analysis 1:2, 207228.
Skowronek, Stephen. 1982. Building a New American State: The Expansion of National Administrative Capacities 1877–1920. Cambridge University Press.
Slaughter, Anne-Marie. 2003. “A Global Community of Courts.” Harvard International Law Journal 44, 191220.
Slaughter, Anne-Marie. 2004. “Sovereignty & Power in a Networked World Order.” Stanford Journal of International Law. 40, 283328.
Slaughter, Anne-Marie. 2009. A New World Order. Princeton University Press.
Sloss, David (ed.). 2009. The Role of Domestic Courts in Treaty Enforcement: A Comparative Study. Cambridge University Press.
Sloss, David L.Kiobel and Extraterritoriality: A Rule without a Rationale.” Maryland Journal of International Law 28, 241255.
Small, David H. 1987. “Managing Extraterritorial Jurisdiction Problems: The United States Government Approach.” Law and Contemporary Problems 50:3, 283302.
Smith, James McCall. 2000. “The Politics of Dispute Settlement Design: Explaining Legalism in Regional Trade Pacts.” International Organization 54:1, 137180.
Snyder, Jack S. and Vinjamuri, Leslie. 2003. “Trials and Errors: Principle and Pragmatism in Strategies of International Justice.” International Security 28:3, 544.
Sokol, Daniel D. 2009. “The Future of International Antitrust and Improving Antitrust Agency Capacity.” Northwestern University Law Review 103, 10811096.
Solberg, Thorvald. 1925. “Copyright Law Reform.” Yale Law Journal 35:1, 4875.
Solberg, Thorvald. 1930. “The Present Copyright Situation.” Yale Law Journal 40:2, 184214.
Spence, David B. 2011. “Corporate Social Responsibility in the Oil and Gas Industry: The Importance of Reputational Risk. Chicago-Kent Law Review 86, 5986.
Sprigman, Christopher. 2005. “Fix Prices Globally, Get Sued Locally? U.S. Jurisdiction over International Cartels.” The University of Chicago Law Review 72:1, 265287.
Standford, J.S. 1978. “The Application of the Sherman Act to Conduct Outside the United States: A View from Abroad.” Cornell International Law Journal 11, 195214.
Stanford, J.S. 1979. “Extraterritorial Application of United States Antitrust Law: A Canadian Comment.” Canada-United States Law Journal 2, 176178.
Stephen, Harris, H. 2001. Competition Law Outside the United States. American Bar Association.
Stephan, Paul B. 2005. “Global Governance, Antitrust, and the Limits of International Cooperation.” Cornell International Law Journal 38, 173218.
Stephan, Paul B. 2011. “Privatizing International Law.” Virginia Law Review 97, 15731664.
Stephens, Beth, Chomsky, Judith, Green, Jennifer, Hoffman, Paul, and Ratner, Michael. 2008. International Human Rights Litigation in U.S. Courts (Second Edition). Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
Stephens, Beth S. 2002. “Translating Filartiga: A Comparative International Law Analysis of Domestic Remedies for International Human Rights Violations.” Yale Journal of International Law 27, 157.
Stephens, Pamela. 2007. “Spinning Sosa: Federal Common Law, the Alien Tort Statute, and Judicial Restraint.” Boston University International Law Journal 25, 136.
Steuer, Richard M. 1999. “Executive Summary of the Antitrust Laws.” Meyer Brown, LLP,
Stigler, George. 1971. “The Theory of Economic Regulation.” Bell Journal of Economics and Management Science 2, 321.
Stiglitz, Joseph E. 2011. “Brief of Amicus Curiae in Support of Petitioners Ester Kiobel et al.” Supreme Court of the United States, Nos. 11–88 and 10–1491.
Stolper, W.F. and Samuelson, P.A. 1941. “Protection and Real Wages.” The Review of Economic Studies 9:1, 5873.
Stone Sweet, Alec and Brunell, Thomas L.. 1998. “Constructing a Supranational Constitution: Dispute Resolution and Governance in the European Community.” American Political Science Review 92:1, 6381.
Swaine, Edward. 2001–2002. “The Local Law of Global Antitrust.” William and Mary Law Review 43, 627786.
Tamura, Jiro, Gidley, J. Mark, and Jasinski, Douglas M.. 2005. “Japan Cartels.” Global Competition Review, available at
Taylor, Graham R. 1979. “The Extraterritoriality of the Australian Antitrust Law.” Journal of International Law and Economics 13, 273310.
Thelen, Kathleen. 1999. “Historical Institutionalism in Comparative Politics.” Annual Review of Political Science 2:1, 369404.
Timberg, Sigmund. 1953. “Restrictive Business Practices: Comparative Legislation and the Problems that Lie Ahead.” American Journal of Comparative Law 2:4, 445473.
Timberg, Sigmund. 1957. Remarks During the Discussion Period on the Subject “Extraterritorial Effects of the U.S. Antitrust Laws”. Section of Antitrust Law, 105110.
Timberg, Sigmund. 1973. “An International Antitrust Convention: A Proposal to Harmonize Conflicting National Policies towards the Multi-National Corporation.” Journal of International Law and Economics 8, 157.
Townsend, James B. 1980. Extraterritorial Antitrust: The Sherman Antitrust Act and U.S. Business Abroad. Westview Press.
Trachtman, Joel P. 1993. “International Regulatory Competition, Externalization, and Jurisdiction.” Harvard International Law Journal 34:1, 48104.
Triggs, Gillian. 1979. “Extraterritorial Reach of United States Anti-Trust Legislation: The International Law Implications of the Westinghouse Allegations of a Uranium Procedures Cartel.” Melbourne University Law Review 12, 250283.
Tritell, Randolph and Kraus, Elizabeth. 2015. The Federal Trade Commission’s International Antitrust Program (May),
Turk, Alexander J. 2009. Judicial Review in EU Law. Edward Elgar Publishing.
Turley, Jonathan. 1990. “When in Rome: Multinational Misconduct and the Presumption against Extraterritoriality.” Northwestern University Law Review 84, 598664.
Tversky, Amos and Kahneman, Daniel. 1973. “Availability: A Heuristic for Judging Frequency and Probability.” Cognitive Psychology 5, 207232.
Tversky, Amos and Kahneman, Daniel. 1974. “Judgment Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases.” Science 185, 11241131.
Twitchell, Mary. 1988. “The Myth of General Jurisdiction.” Harvard Law Review 101, 610681.
Van Schaak, Beth. “With All Deliberate Speed: Civil Human Rights Litigation as a Tool for Social Change.” Vanderbilt Law Review 57, 23052348.
Van Waarden, Frans V. and Drahos, Michaela. 2002. “Courts and (Epistemic) Communities in the Convergence of Competition Policies.” Journal of European Public Policy 9:6, 913934.
Varney, Christine. 2010. “The Capper-Volstead Act, Agricultural Cooperatives, and Antitrust Immunity.” The Antitrust (December),,%20Capper-Volstead%20article.pdf.
Velazquez, Manuel. 2005. “UNOCAL in Burma,”
Verzijl, J.H.W. 1961. “The Controversy Regarding the So-Called Extraterritorial Effect of the American Antitrust Laws.” Netherlands International Law Review 8, 330.
Viscusci, Kip, Harrington, Joseph E., and Vernon, John M.. 2005. Economics of Regulation and Antitrust. Vol. 1 (Fourth Edition). The MIT Press.
Vogel, David. 1997. “Trading Up and Governing Across: Transnational Governance and Environmental Protection.” Journal of European Public Policy 4:4, 556571.
Von Mehren, Arthur T. 1983. “Adjudicatory Jurisdiction: General Theories Compared and Evaluated.” Tel Aviv Universities Studies in Law 6, 50122.
Wai, Robert. 2001. “Transnational Liftoff and Juridical Touchdown: The Regulatory Function of Private International Law in an Era of Globalization.” Columbia Journal of Transnational Law, 40, 209274.
Waller, Spencer Weber. 1990. “The Ambivalence of United States Antitrust Policy Towards Single Country Export Cartels.” Northwestern Journal of Law and Business 10, 98113.
Waller, Spencer Weber. 2002. “The United States as Antitrust Courtroom to the World: Jurisdiction and Standing Issues in Transnational Litigation.” Loyola Consumer Law Review 14, 523536.
Ward, Halina. 2000. “Securing Transnational Corporate Accountability through National Courts: Implications and Policy Questions.” Hastings International and Comparative Law Review 24, 451474.
Ward, James E. 2001. “Is That Your Final Answer – The Patchwork Jurisprudence Surrounding the Presumption against Extraterritoriality.” University of Cincinnati Law Review 70, 715750.
Wasserman, Howard M. 2011. “The Demise of ‘Drive-By Jurisdictional Rulings’.” Northwestern University Law Review Colloquy 105, 947968.
Wasserman, Melissa F. 2007. “Divided Infringement: Expanding the Extraterritorial Scope of Patent Law.” New York University Law Review 82:1, 281309.
Watt, Horatia Muir. 2002. “Yahoo Cyber-Collision of Cultures: Who Regulates?Michigan Journal of International Law 24, 673698.
Watts, Michael J. 2005. “Righteous Oil? Human Rights, the Oil Complex and Corporate Social Responsibility.” Annual Review of Environmental Resources 30, 373407.
Wells, Wyatt. 2002. Antitrust and the Formation of the Postwar World. Columbia University Press.
Westin, David. 1987. “Enforcing Foreign Commercial Judgments and Arbitral Awards in the United States, West Germany, and England.” Law and Policy in International Business 19, 325360.
Wharton, Francis. 1905. A Treastise on the Conflict of Laws, or Private International Law. Vol. 1. The Lawyers’ Cooperative Publishing Co.
White, Peter J. 2010. “International Judicial Assistance in Antitrust Enforcement: The Shortcomings of Current Practices and Legislation, and the Roles of International Organizations.” Administrative Law Review 62, 263278.
Whytock, Christopher A. 2009. “Domestic Courts and Global Governance.” Tulane Law Review 84, 67124.
Whytock, Christopher A. and Robertson, Cassandra B.. 2011. “Forum Non Conveniens and the Enforcement of Foreign Judgments.” Columbia Law Review 111:7, 14441521.
Wigger, Angela and Nolke, Andreas. 2007. “Enhanced Roles of Private Actors in EU Business Regulation and the Erosion of the Rhenish Model of Capitalism.” Journal of Common Market Studies 45, 487513.
Wilks, Stephen. 2005. “Agency Escape: Decentralization or Dominance of the European Commission in the Modernization of Competition Policy?Governance 18:3, 431452.
Willison, Paige Keenan. 2000. Europe and Overseas Commodities Traders v. Banque Paribas London: Zero Steps Forward and Two Steps Back.” Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law 33, 469502.
Wils, Wouter P.J. 2003. “Should Private Antitrust Enforcement Be Encouraged in Europe?World Competition 26:3, 473488.
Wils, Wouter P.J. 2010. “The Increased Level of EU Antitrust Fines, Judicial Review and the ECHR.” World Competition 33:1, 529.
Windsor, Duane. 2001. “The Future of Corporate Social Responsibility.” International Journal of Organizational Analysis 9:3, 225256.
Winston, Morton. 2002. “NGO Strategies for Promoting Corporate Social Responsibility.” Ethics and International Affairs 16:1, 7187.
Wood, Diane P. 1992. “The Impossible Dream: Real International Antitrust.” University of Chicago Legal Forum 1992, 277314.
Wood, Diane P. 1995. “The Internationalization of Antitrust Law: Options for the Future,” remarks at the DePaul Law Review Symposium Cultural Conceptions of Competition: Antitrust in the 1990’s,
Wood, Diane P. 2004. “Cooperation and Convergence in International Antitrust: Why the Light is Still Yellow” in Competition Laws in Conflict: Antitrust Jurisdiction in the Global Economy (Epstein, Richard A. and Greve, Michael S., eds.). AEI Press, 177188.
Woods, Donnacadh. 2004. “Private Enforcement of Antitrust Rules – Modernization of the EU Rules and the Road Ahead.” Loyola Consumer Law Review 16, 431461.
Wuerth, Ingrid B. 2013. “The Supreme Court and the Alien Tort Statute: Kiobel v. Royal Dutch Petroleum Co.” American Journal of International Law 107, 601621.
Wurmnest, Wolfgang. 2005. “A New Era for Private Antitrust Litigation in Germany? A Critical Appraisal of the Modernized Law against Restraints of Competition.” German Law Journal 6:8, 11731189.
Yuan, Arthur Anyuan. 2004. “Enforcing and Collecting U.S. Money Judgments in China from a U.S. Judgment Creditor’s Perspective.” George Washington International Law Review 36, 757782.
Zanettin, Bruno. 2002. Cooperation between Antitrust Agencies at the International Level. Hart Publishing.
Zia-Zarifi, Saman. 1999. “Suing Multinational Corporations in the U.S. for Violating International Law.” UCLA Journal of International Law and Foreign Affairs 4, 81147.
Zimmerman, James Michael. 1992. Extraterritorial Employment Standards of the United States: The Regulation of the Overseas Workplace. Quorum Books.