Skip to main content Accessibility help
The Crisis of Imprisonment
  • Cited by 83
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the print book

Book description

America's prison-based system of punishment has not always enjoyed the widespread political and moral legitimacy it has today. In this groundbreaking reinterpretation of penal history, Rebecca McLennan covers the periods of deep instability, popular protest, and political crisis that characterized early American prisons. She details the debates surrounding prison reform, including the limits of state power, the influence of market forces, the role of unfree labor, and the 'just deserts' of wrongdoers. McLennan also explores the system that existed between the War of 1812 and the Civil War, where private companies relied on prisoners for labor. Finally, she discusses the rehabilitation model that has primarily characterized the penal system in the twentieth century. Unearthing fresh evidence from prison and state archives, McLennan shows how, in each of three distinct periods of crisis, widespread dissent culminated in the dismantling of old systems of imprisonment.


"Deeply researched and deeply reflective, The Crisis of Imprisonment redefines the central themes of 19th and early 20th century American prison history. Its story of the rise and fall of contractual penal servitude shows how questions of imprisonment, prison labor, and the treatment of prisoners lay at the heart of ongoing struggles over the meaning of freedom and unfreedom in America. Few scholars have succeeded so well in tracing the reciprocal relations between the institutions of punishment and the broader fields of economic and political power with which they are connected. Written with clarity and conviction, this is a major new work on the formation of the American penal state." - David Garland, New York University

"Although there have been several fine studies of the thinking and influence of American prison reformers, McLennan has written a revealing study of the impact of popular politics, and especially of the prisoners themselves on the shaping and reshaping of state prison systems. She helps us understand the huge prison business of our times by analyzing controversies and prison revolts that led first to the development of contract prison labor then to its abolition in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries." - David Montgomery, Yale University

"A timely, penetrating look into the horrors of the nineteenth-century prison system, its brutal—and brutalizing—convict labor system, and the mass of ordinary Americans who confronted its abuses and, ultimately, brought about its abolition." - Sister Helen Prejean, author of Dead Man Walking and The Death of Innocents

"This is an extraordinary investigation and analysis of penal servitude and anti-prison labor campaigns in American history. Wonderfully insightful and illuminating, this work has much to teach us about where we've been and what we must consider in confronting the politics of legal punishment." - Bryan Stevenson, New York University School of Law, Executive Director, Equal Justice Initiative

"One of the smartest books about punishment I have ever read. And this is not just a book about prisons. The story Rebecca McLennan narrates so powerfully in these pages—the controversial career of penal servitude in a liberal democratic republic--has much to tell us about the history of American society, politics, and institutions." - Michael Willrich, Brandeis University, author of City of Courts: Socializing Justice in Progressive Era Chicago

"In a nation dedicated to liberty, the topic of the imprisoned deserves attention and the considerate analysis exhibited in this book. Essential." -Choice

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Save to Kindle
  • Save to Dropbox
  • Save to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.


Select Bibliography
Select bibliography
Archival Collections
Lawes, Lewis Edward. Papers. Series I and II. John Jay School of Criminal Justice, New York, New York.
Lawes, Lewis Edward. Papers. Supplemental Series. John Jay School of Criminal Justice, New York, New York.
New York (State). Records of the Legislature. New York State Archives, Cultural Education Center, Albany, New York.
New York (State). Records of the Department of Correction. New York State Archives, Cultural Education Center, Albany, New York.
New York (State). Records of the Governor's Office. New York State Archives, Cultural Education Center, Albany, New York.
Osborne Family Papers. George Arents Research Library, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York.
Thomas Jefferson, Public Papers. 1775–1825. Oxford Text Archive: 1993.
Imprints, Newspapers, and Periodicals
American Periodicals Series, Online, 1740–1900.
Early American Imprints, Series I: Evans, 1639–1800 (Archive of Americana).
Early American Imprints, Series II: Shaw-Shoemaker, 1801–1819 (Archive of Americana).
Early American Newspapers, Series I, 1690–1876 (Archive of Americana).
Historical New York Times (Proquest).
Historical Wall Street Journal (Proquest).
National Committee on Prisons and Prison Labor. Prison Labor Leaflets, 1–58. c.1916 – 1919.
Star of Hope (Sing Sing Prison). 1899–1902; 1905–06.
Star-Bulletin (Sing Sing Prison). 1917–1919.
Annual Reports and Proceedings
American Prison Association. Proceedings of the Annual Congress of the American Prison Association. 1908–1941.
Boston Prison Discipline Society. Annual Report. 1825–1850.
National Prison Association. Transactions. 1873–74.
National Prison Association. Proceedings of the Annual Congress of the National Prison Association of the United States. 1883–1907.
New York (State). Prison Department. Annual Report of the Superintendent of State Prisons. 1890/91–1925/26.
New York (State). Department of Correction. Annual Report of the Commissioner of Correction. 1926/27–1934/35.
New York (State). State Commission of Prisons. Annual Report of the State Commission of Prisons. 1895–1925/26.
New York (State). State Commission of Correction. Annual Report of the State Commission of Correction. 1926/27–1934/35.
New York (State). State Commission on New Prisons. Annual Report. 1907–11.
New York Prison Association. Annual Report. 1844–1941.
Proceedings of the National Conference of Charities and Correction. 1883–1903.
Legislation and Law Reports
Constitution of the United States of America.
Constitution of the State of New York. 1821.
Laws N. Y. 1822, Ch. 250.
Laws N. Y. 1842, Ch. 130.
Laws N. Y. 1889, Ch. 382.
Laws N. Y. 1892, Ch. 662.
Laws N. Y. 1896, Ch. 430.
Laws N. Y. 1896, Ch. 553.
Laws N. Y. 1896, Ch. 909.
Laws N. Y. 1906, Ch. 670.
Laws N. Y. 1907, Ch. 467.
Laws N. Y. 1909, Ch. 15.
Laws N. Y. 1910, Ch. 365.
Slaughter-House Cases, 83 U.S. 36 (1873).
Ruffin v. Commonwealth, 62 Va (21 Gratt) (1871).
Cunningham v. Bay State Shoe and Leather Co., New York Supreme Court, 1881, reported in The American Law Review 2 (Dec. 1881) 811.
Civil Rights Cases, 109 U.S. 3 (1883).
Warren E. Lewis, Appellant, v. The State of New York, Respondent [No number in original] Court of Appeals of New York, 96 N.Y. 71; 1884 N.Y. LEXIS 469 (1884).
Bronk v. Barckley, 7, Sup. Ct. N.Y., 13 A.D. 72; 43 NYS 400; 1897 N.Y. App. Div. LEXIS 25.
United States v. Reynolds 235 U.S. 133 (1914).
People ex rel. Alphonse J. Stephani, Relator, v. Charles H. North, Medical Superintendent of Dannemora State Hospital, Defendant 91 Misc. 616; 155 NYS. 595; 1915 NY. Misc. (LEXIS 1174).
William E. Anderson v. Gabriel Salant, et al [No number in original] Supreme Court of Rhode Island, 38 R.I. 463; 96 A. 425; 1916 R.I. LEXIS 8 (1916).
The People ex rel. James J. Kelley v. George W. Kirchwey 177 AD 706; 164 NYS 511 (NY App. Div., 1917) (LEXIS 5762).
Books, Articles, Reports, Dissertations
Adamson, Christopher. “Toward a Marxist Penology: Captive Criminal Populations as Economic Threats and Resource.” Social Problems 31:4 (Apr. 1984): 435–58.
Alper, Benedict Solomon and Jerry, F. Boren. Crime: International Agenda; Concern in the Prevention of Crime and Treatment of Offenders, 1846–1972. Toronto and Lexington, Massachusetts: Lexington Books, 1972.
American Correctional Association. The American Prison: from the Beginning; a Pictorial History. College Park, Maryland: American Correctional Association, 1983.
Anthony, E. and , H. T.Beauties of the Hudson. New York: E. and H. T. Anthony, c.1860–1875.
Appleby, Joyce. “The American Heritage: The Heirs and the Disinherited.” Journal of American History 74:3 (Dec. 1987): 798–813.
Atkinson, Alan. “The Free-born Englishman Transported.” Past and Present 144 (Aug. 1994): 88–115.
Atkinson, Paul. The Ethnographic Imagination: Textual Construction of Reality. London and New York: Routledge, 1992.
Ayers, Edward L.Vengeance and Justice: Crime and Punishment in the Nineteenth Century American South. New York: Oxford University Press, 1984.
Baker, Amos T.The Psychiatric Clinic of Sing Sing.” Psychiatric Quarterly 2:4 (Dec. 1928): 464–5.
Baker, Amos T.. “Clinical Study of Inmates Sentenced to Sing Sing for Murder—First Degree.” American Journal of Psychiatry 91 (1935): 783–90.
Barnes, Harry Elmer. The Evolution of Penology in Pennsylvania: A Study in American Social History. Indianapolis: Bobbs Merrill, 1929.
Beattie, J. M.Crime and Courts in England, 1600–1800. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1986.
Beaumont, Gustave and Tocqueville, Alexis. On the Penitentiary System in the United States and Its Application in France. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1964.
Beccaría, Cesare (trans. Henry Paolucci). On Crimes and Punishments. Indianapolis: Bobbs Merrill, 1963.
Beccaría, Cesare. (trans unknown). An Essay On Crimes and Punishments. Brookline, Massachusetts: Branden Press, 1983.
Bech, Henning (trans. Teresa Mesquit and Tim Davies). When Men Meet: Homosexuality and Modernity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997.
Bentham, Jeremy. Principles of Morals and Legislation. Buffalo, New York: Prometheus Books, 1988.
Bentham, Jeremy. Panopticon Writings, ed. Bozovic, Miran. London: Verso, 1995.
Bernstein, Iver. The New York City Draft Riots: Their Significance for American Society and Politics in the Age of the Civil War. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.
Blackstone's Commentaries: with Notes of Reference, to the Constitution and Laws of the Federal Government of the United States; and of the Commonwealth of Virginia, vol. IV. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1765–9.
Blake, George W., ed. Sulzer's Short Speeches. New York: J. S. Oglivie Publishing Co., 1912.
Blue, Ethan Van. “Hard Time in the New Deal: Racial Formation and the Cultures of Punishment in Texas and California in the 1930s.” Ph.D. diss., University of Texas at Austin, 2004.
Bodenhamer, David J. and James, W. Ely Jr., eds. Ambivalent Legacy: A Legal History of the South. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1984.
Boesche, Roger. “The Prison: Tocqueville's Model for Despotism.” Western Political Quarterly 33: 4, 550–63.
Boies, Henry. Prisoners and Paupers: a Study in the Increase of Criminals and the Public Burden of Pauperism in the United States; the Causes and the Remedies. New York: Putnam, 1893.
Boies, Henry. The Science of Penology: the Defense of Society Against Crime. London and New York: G. P. Putnam, 1901.
Boyne, Roy. Foucault and Derrida: The Other Side of Reason. London and Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1990.
Browning, Frank and Gerassi, John. The American Way of Crime. New York: G. P. Putnam and Sons, 1980.
Butler, Anne M.Gendered Justice in the American West: Women Prisoners in Men's Penitentiaries. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1997.
Cahalan, Margaret Werner. Historical Corrections Statistics in the United States, 1850–1984. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1986.
Cantor, Nathaniel F.The Prisoner and the Law.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 157 (Sep. 1931): 25–32.
Chamberlin, Rudolph W.There is no Truce: The Life of Thomas Mott Osborne. New York: MacMillan, 1935.
Chandler, Alfred. The Visible Hand. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press, 1977.
Chapin, Bradley. Criminal Justice in Colonial America, 1606–1660. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press, 1983.
Chapin, Charles E.Charles Chapin's Story, Written in Sing Sing Prison. New York: Putnam, 1920.
Chauncey, George. Gay New York: Gender, Urban Culture, and the Making of the Gay Male World, 1890–1940. New York: Basic, 1994.
Colvin, Mark. Penitentiaries, Reformatories, and Chain Gangs: Social Theory and the History of Punishment in Nineteenth-Century America. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1997.
Comas, Joan. Who's Who: The Old Testament. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993.
Conley, John A.Prisons, Production, and Profit: Reconsidering the Importance of Prison Industries.” Journal of Social History 14:2 (Winter 1980): 257–275.
Cooper, Robert Alan. “Jeremy Bentham, Elizabeth Fry, and English Prison Reform.” Journal of the History of Ideas 42:4 (Oct–Dec. 1981): 675–90.
Crites, Laura, ed. The Female Offender. Lexington, Massachusetts: Lexington Books, 1976.
Curtin, Mary Ellen. Black Prisoners and Their World, Alabama 1865–1900. Charlottesville and London: University Press of Virginia, 2000.
Czitrom, Daniel. “Underworlds and Underdogs: Big Tim Sullivan and Metropolitan Politics in New York, 1889–1913.” Journal of American History 78:2 (Sep. 1991): 536–58.
Davis, Katherine Bement, and Weidensall, Clara Jean. The Mentality of the Criminal Woman; A Comparative Study of the Criminal Woman, the Working Girl, and the Efficient Working Woman in a Series of Mental and Physical Tests. Baltimore, Maryland: Warwick and York, 1916.
Dawley, Alan. Struggles for Justice: Social Responsibility and the Liberal State. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap/Harvard University Press, 1991.
Dawley, Alan. Changing the World American Progressives in War and Revolution. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2003.
D'Emilio, John and Estelle, B. Freedman. Intimate Matters: A History of Sexuality in America. New York: Harper and Row, 1989.
Devereaux, Simon. “The Making of the Penitentiary Act, 1775–1779.” The Historical Journal 42:2 (June 1999): 405–33.
Dickens, Charles. American Notes. New York: Modern Library, 1996.
Dix, Dorothea. Remarks on Prisons and Prison Discipline in the United States. Montclair, NJ: Patterson Smith, 1967 (1845).
D.O.C.s Today. Selected articles, 1987–1988.
Doty, Madeline Z.Society's Misfits. New York: Century Co., 1916.
Dougherty, J. Hampden. Constitutional History of the State of New York, 2nd ed. New York: The Neale Publishing Company, 1915.
Dumm, Thomas. “Friendly Persuasion: Quakers, Liberal Toleration, and the Birth of the Prison.” Political Theory 13:3 (Aug. 1985): 387–407.
Edited by Convicts.” The Journalist 8:4 (Oct. 13, 1888).
Ekirch, A. Robert. Bound for America: The Transportation of British Convicts to the Colonies, 1718–1775. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987.
Evans, Robin. The Fabrication of Virtue: English Prison Architecture, 1750–1840. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1982.
Fickle, James E. and Donald, W. Ellis. “P.O.W.s in the Piney Woods: German Prisoners of War in the Southern Lumber Industry, 1943–45.” Journal of Southern History 56 (November 1990): 695–724.
Field, Anne Porter Lynes. The Story of Canada Blackie. New York: E. P. Dutton and Co., 1915.
Fields, Barbara J.Slavery, Race, and Ideology in the United States of America.” New Left Review 181 (May/June 1990): 95–118.
Fishman, Joseph F.Crucibles of Crime: The Shocking Story of the American Jail. New York: Cosmopolis Press, 1923.
Fishman, Joseph F.. Sex in Prison: Revealing Sex Conditions in American Prisons. New York: National Library Press, 1934.
Foner, Eric. The Story of American Freedom. New York: Norton, 1999.
Foner, Eric. Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution. New York: Harper and Row, 1988.
Foner, Philip S.History of the Labor Movement in the United States, vol. 1 (New York: International, 1972).
Foucault, Michel. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. New York: Pantheon, 1977.
Foucault, Michel. Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings, 1972–77. New York: Pantheon, 1980.
Foucault, Michel. History of Sexuality, vol. I: An Introduction. New York: Vintage, 1981.
Foucault, Michel. Ethics: Subjectivity and Truth. New York: New Press, 1997.
Freedman, Estelle B.Their Sisters' Keepers: Women's Prison Reform in America, 1830–1930. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1981.
Freedman, Estelle B.. “Sentiment of Discipline: Women's Prison Experiences in 19th Century America.” Prologue 16 (Dec. 1984): 249–59.
Freedman, Estelle B.. “‘Uncontrolled Desires:’ the Response to the Sexual Psychopath, 1920–60.” Journal of American History 74:1 (June 1987): 83–106.
Friedman, Lawrence. Crime and Punishment in American History. New York: Basic, 1993.
Friedman, Lawrence. A History of American Law. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1974.
Garland, David. Punishment and Modern Society: A Study in Social Theory. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.
Garland, David. Punishment and Welfare: A History of Penal Strategies. London: Ashgate, 1987.
Genovese, Eugene. Roll, Jordan, Roll: The World the Slaves Made. New York: Vintage, 1972.
Gibson, Helen E. “Women's Prisons: Laboratories for Penal Reforms.” In The Female Offender, ed Crites, Laura. Lexington, Massachusetts: Lexington Books, 1976.
Gildemeister, Glen A.Prison Labor and Convict Competition with Free Workers in Industrializing America, 1840–1890. Ph.D diss., Northern Illinois Press, 1977/New York: Garland, 1987.
Gilfoyle, Timothy. A Pickpocket's Tale: The Underworld of Nineteenth-Century New York. New York: Norton, 2006.
Glassman, Michael. New York State, Its History and Its Government. New York: Barron's Educational Series, 1949.
Glenn, Myra. Campaigns Against Corporal Punishment: Prisoners, Sailors, Women, and Children in Ante-bellum America. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1984.
Glueck, Bernard. “A Study of 608 Admissions to Sing Sing.” Mental Hygiene 1:1 (Jan. 1918): 94–105.
Glueck, Bernard. Concerning Prisoners. New York: National Committee for Mental Hygiene, 1917.
Glueck, Sheldon and Glueck, Eleanor. Five Hundred Criminal Careers. New York, Kraus Reprint Corporation, 1965 (1930).
Golay, Frank Hindman. The Face of Empire: United States-Philipinne Relations, 1898–1946. Madison: University of Wisconsin, 1998.
Godwin, John. Alcatraz: 1868–1963. Garden City, NY: 1963.
Goldsmith, Larry. “History from the Inside Out: Prison Life in Nineteenth-century Massachusetts.” Journal of Social History 31 (Fall 1997): 109–25.
Goldsmith, Larry. “Penal Reform, Convict Labor, and Prison Culture in Massachusetts, 1800–1880.” Ph.D. diss., University of Pennsylvania, 1987.
Greenberg, David, ed. Crime and Capitalism: Readings in Marxist Criminology. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1993.
Haber, Samuel. Efficiency and Uplift: Scientific Management in the Progressive Era, 1890–1920. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964.
Hall, David D.Worlds of Wonder, Days of Judgement: Popular Religious Belief in Early New England. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1990.
Hall, Kermit L., ed. Police, Prison, and Punishment: Major Historical Interpretations. New York: Garland, 1987.
Hart, Hastings Hornell. Penology an Educational Problem. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1923.
Hart, Hastings Hornell. Plans and Illustrations of Prisons and Reformatories: New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1922.
Hart, Hastings Hornell. Training Schools for Prison Officers: Plans and Syllabi for the United States Training School for Prison Officers, the New York City Keepers' Training School, and the British Training School for Prison Officers. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1930.
Higginbotham, A. Leon Jr.In the Matter of Color: Race and the American Legal Process: The Colonial Period. New York: Oxford University Press, 1978.
Hindus, Michael S.Prison and Plantation: Crime, Justice and Authority in Massachusetts and South Carolina, 1767–1878. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1980.
Hirsch, Adam Jay. The Rise of the Penitentiary: Prisons and Punishment in Early America. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1992.
Hobbes, Thomas. Leviathan: With Selected Variants from the Latin Edition of 1668. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1994.
The Holy Bible, Standard Revised Edition. New York: Penguin, 1974.
Ignatieff, Michael. A Just Measure of Pain: The Penitentiary in the Industrial Revolution. New York: Pantheon, 1978.
Inciardi, James A., Alan, A. Block, and Lyle, A. Hallowell, Historical Approaches to Crime: Research Strategies and Issues. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications, 1977.
Inciardi, James A. and Charles, E. Faupel. History and Crime: Implications for Criminal Justice Policy. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications, 1980.
Jacobs, James B.Stateville: The Penitentiary in Mass Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1977.
Keane, John. Reflections on Violence. London: Verso, 1996.
Johnston, Norman Bruce. The Human Cage: A Brief History of Prison Architecture. New York: Walker, 1973.
Johnston, Robert D.The Radical Middle Class: Populist Democracy and the Question of Capitalism in Progressive Era Portland, Oregon. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2003.
Jones, David A.History of Criminology: A Philosophical Perspective. New York: Greenwood Press, 1986.
Kealey, Linda. “Patterns of Punishment: Massachusetts in the Eighteenth Century.” The American Journal of Legal History 30:2 (Apr., 1986): 163–86.
Keve, Paul W.Prisons and the American Conscience: A History of U.S. Federal Corrections. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1991.
Keyssar, Alexander. The Right to Vote: The Contested History of Democracy in the United States. New York: Basic, 2000.
Killinger, George Glenn, ed. Penology: the Evolution of Corrections in America. St. Paul, Minnesota: 1973.
Koch, Adrienne, and Peden, William, eds. The Life and Selected Writings of Thomas Jefferson. New York: Modern Library, 1998.
Lawes, Lewis Edward. Man's Judgement of Death: An Analysis of the Operation and Effect of Capital Punishment, Based on Facts, not Sentiment. New York and London: G. P. Putnam and Sons, 1924.
Lawes, Lewis Edward. Meet the Murderer!New York and London: Harper and Bros., 1926.
Lawes, Lewis Edward. Life and Death in Sing Sing. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Doran, and Co., 1928.
Lawes, Lewis Edward. Twenty Thousand Years in Sing Sing. New York: Arno, 1932.
Lawes, Lewis Edward. Cell 202, Sing Sing. New York: Farrar and Reinhart, 1935.
Lawes, Lewis Edward. Invisible Stripes. New York: Farrar and Reinhart, 1938.
Lawes, Lewis Edward. Stone and Steel: The Way of Life in a Penitentiary. Evanston, Illinois: Row, Peterson and Co., 1941.
Lewis, Orlando F.The Development of American Prisons and Prison Customs, 1776–1845: With Special Reference to Early Institutions in the State of New York. Montclair, NJ: P. Smith, 1967.
Lewis, W. David. From Newgate to Dannemora: The Rise of the Penitentiary in New York, 1796– 1848. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1965.
Lichtenstein, Alex. Twice the Work of Labor: The Political Economy of Convict Labor in the New South. London: Verso, 1996.
Litwack, Leon F.Been in the Storm So Long: The Aftermath of Slavery. New York: Vintage, 1980,
Locke, John. Second Treatise of Government. Indianapolis, Indiana: Hackett, 1990.
Lombroso, Cesare. L'homme Criminel; Étude Anthropologique et Médico-legale. Paris: F. Alcan, 1887
Lombroso, Cesare. Crime, Its Causes, and Remedies. Boston, Massachusetts: Little, Brown, and Company, 1911.
Lombroso, Cesare and Ferrero, William, The Female Offender. Littleton, Colorado: 1980 (1895).
Mancini, Matthew. One dies, Get Another: Convict Leasing in the American South, 1866–1928. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1996.
Mann, Michael. The Rise of Classes and Nation-states, 1760–1914. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
Martin, Steve J. and Ekland-Olson, Sheldon. Texas Prisons: And the Walls Came Tumbling Down. Austin: Texas Monthly Press, 1987.
Martineau, Harriet. Retrospect of Western Travel, vol 1. New York: Greenwood Press, 1838.
Massey, Dennis and Myers, Thomas. Doing Time in American Prisons: A Study of Modern Novels. New York: Greenwood Press, 1989.
Masur, Louis P.Rites of Execution: Capital Punishment and the Transformation of American Culture, 1776–1865. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.
McGerr, Michael. A Fierce Discontent: The Rise And Fall of the Progressive Movement in America, 1870–1920. New York: Free Press, 2003.
McKelvey, Blake. American Prisoners; a Study in American Social History Prior to 1936. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1932.
McKelvey, Blake. “Penal Slavery and Southern Reconstruction.” Journal of Negro History 20:2 (Apr. 1935): 153–79.
McLynn, Frank. Crime and Punishment in Eighteenth Century England. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989.
Meranze, Michael. Laboratories of Virtue: Punishment, Revolution, and Authority in Philadelphia, 1760–1835. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1996.
Meyer, Stephen. The Five Dollar Day: Labor, Management, and Social Control in the Ford Motor Company, 1908–1921. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1981.
Mohler, Henry Calvin. “Convict Labor Policies.” MA thes., University of Wisconsin, 1923. Publ. in the Journal of the American Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology 15:4 (Feb. 1925): 530–97.
Monkkonen, Eric, ed. Crime and Justice in American History: The Colonies and Early Republic. Westport, Connecticut: Meckler, 1991.
Monkkonen, Eric. ed. Walking to Work: Tramps in America, 1790–1935. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984.
Montgomery, David. The Fall of the House of Labor. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987.
Montgomery, David. Workers' Control in America. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1979.
Montgomery, David. Citizen Worker, The Experience of Workers in the United States with Democracy and the Free Market During the Nineteenth Century. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
Moran, Tom. Stone Upon Stone; A Sing Sing Anthology. Chicago: Indigo Press, 1954.
Morgan, Edmund S.American Slavery, American Freedom. New York: Norton, 1975.
Morgan, Kenneth. “The Organization of the Convict Trade to Maryland: Stevenson, Randolph and Cheston, 1768–1775.” The William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd Ser., 42:2 (Apr., 1985): 201–27.
Morris, James McGrath. Jailhouse Journalism: The Fourth Estate Behind Bars.Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland and Co., 1998.
Morris, Richard B.The Measure of Bondage in the Slave States.” The Mississippi Valley Historical Review 41:2 (Sep., 1954): 219–40.
Morris, Thomas. Southern Slavery and the Law, 1619–1860. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.
Nash, Gary. The Urban Crucible: Social Change, Political Consciousness, and the Origins of the American Revolution. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1979.
Nash, Gary. The Unknown American Revolution: The Unruly Birth of Democracy and the Struggle to Create America. New York: Viking, 2005.
Nieman, Donald G., ed. Black Southerners and the Law, 1865–1900. New York: Garland, 1994.
Nietzsche, Friedrich. Genealogy of Morals. New York: Anchor, 1990.
Nordau, Max. Degeneration. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1993 (1895).
Nye, Robert A.Crime, Madness, and Politics in Modern France: the Medical Concept of National Decline. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1984.
O'Brien, Patricia. The Promise of Punishment: Prisons in Nineteenth-Century France. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1982.
Oestreicher, Richard. “Urban Working Class Political Behavior and Theories of American Electoral Politics, 1870–1940.” Journal of American History 74:4 (Mar. 1988): 1257–86.
Osborne, Thomas Mott. Within Prison Walls: Being A Narrative of Personal Experience During a Week of Voluntary Confinement in the State Prison at Auburn, New York. New York and London: D. Appleton and Co., 1914.
Osborne, Thomas Mott. Society and Prisons. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1916.
Osborne, Thomas Mott. The Prison of the Future. New York: New York State Prison Council, 1916.
Osborne, Thomas Mott. Prisons and Commonsense. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1924.
Oshinsky, David M.Worse Than Slavery: Parchman Farm and the Ordeal of Jim Crow Justice. New York: Free Press, 1996.
Oxford Companion to the Bible. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
Panetta, Roger. “Up the River: A History of Sing Sing in the Nineteenth Century.” Ph.D. diss, The City University of New York, 1999.
Patterson, Orlando. Feast of Blood: Consequences of Slavery in Two Centuries. New York: Basic, 1998, 177.
Perkinson, Robert. “The Birth of the Texas Prison Empire, 1865–1915.” Ph.D. diss, Yale University, 2001.
Petchesky, Rosalind P. “At Hard Labor: Penal Confinement and Production in Nineteenth-Century America.” In Crime and Capitalism: Readings in Marxist Criminology, ed. David, F.Greenberg.
Peterson, Mark A.The Selling of Joseph: Bostonians, Antislavery, and the Protestant International, 1689–1733.” Massachusetts Historical Review4 (2002): 1–22.
Petit, Jacques. La Prison, Le Gagne, et l'Histoire. Paris: Libraire des Meridiens, 1984.
Philip, Cynthia Owen. Imprisoned in America; Prison Communications, 1776 to Attica. New York: Harper and Row, 1973.
Pick, Daniel M.Faces of Degeneration: a European Disorder, c.1848–c.1918. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
Pickett, Robert S.House of Refuge: Origins of Juvenile Reform in New York State, 1815–57. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1967.
Preyer, Kathryn. “Crime, the Criminal Law, and Reform in Post-Revolutionary Virginia.” Law and History Review 1:1 (Spring 1983): 53–85.
Pugmire, Donald Ross. The Administration of Personnel in Correctional Institutions in New York State. New York: Columbia University Teachers College, 1937.
Radzinowicz, Leon. A History of English Criminal Law and Its Administration from 1750, vol. 5. London: Stevens, 1948.
Rafter, Nicole Hahn. “Gender, Prisons, and Prison History.” Social Science History 9:3 (1985).
Rafter, Nicole Hahn. Partial Justice: Women in State Prisons, 1800–1935. Boston, Massachusetts: Northeastern University Press, 1985.
Report of the Secretary of the Interior, vol. 5, U.S. Commissioner of Labor, Convict Labor in the United States. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1887.
Rice, Jim. “‘This Province, so Meanly and Thinly Inhabited’: Punishing Maryland's Criminals, 1681–1850.” Journal of the Early Republic 19:1 (Spring, 1999): 15–42.
Richardson, Heath Cox. The Death of Reconstruction: Race, Labor, and Politics in the Post-Civil War North, 1865–1901. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2001.
Robinson, Louis. Penology in the United States. Philadelphia: John C. Winston, 1921.
Robinson, Louis. Should Prisoners Work? A Study of the Prison Labor Problem in the United States. Philadelphia and Chicago: John C. Winston, 1931.
Rodgers, Daniel T.Atlantic Crossing: Social Politics in a Progressive Age. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap/Harvard, 1998.
Rothman, David J.Discovery of the Asylum: Social Order and Disorder in the New Republic. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1971.
Rothman, David J.. Conscience and Convenience: the Asylum and its Alternatives in Progressive America. Boston and Toronto: Little, Brown and Co., 1980.
Rothman, David J.. “Social Control: The Uses and Abuses of the Concept in the History of Incarceration.” Rice University Studies 67:1 (Winter 1981): 9–20.
Rothman, David J.. “For the Good of All: The Progressive Tradition in Prison Reform.” In History and Crime: Implications for Criminal Justice Policy, ed. Inciardi, James and Charles, E. Faupel. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications, 1980.
Rousseau, Jean Jacques. The Basic Political Writings. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1983.
Rush, Benjamin. “An Enquiry into the Effects of Public Punishments upon Criminals, and Upon Society, Read in the Society for Promoting Political Enquiries.” Convened at the House of His Excellency Benjamin Franklin, Esquire … in Philadelphia, March 9th 1787. Philadelphia, 1787.
Rusche, Georg and Kirchheimer, Otto. Punishment and Social Structure. New York: Columbia University Press, 1939.
Said, Edward W.Orientalism. New York: Vintage Books, 1979.
Salvatore, Ricardo and Aguirre, Carlos, eds. Birth of the Penitentiary in Latin America: Essays on Criminology, Prison Reform, and Social Control, 1830–1940. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1996.
Sante, Luc. Low Life: Lures and Snares of Old New York. New York: Strauss Farrar Giroux, 1991.
Santiago-Valles, Kelvin A.Subject People” and Colonial Discourse: Economic Transformation and Social Disorder in Puerto Rico, 1898–1947. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1994.
Schwartz, Bernard. Main Currents in American Legal Thought. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press, 1993.
Secondat, Charles, Montesquieu, Baron. The Spirit of the Laws, 1752 (trans. Thomas Nugent). London: G. Bell & Sons, Ltd., 1914.
Sekula, Allan. “The Body and the Archive: the Use and Classification of Portrait Photography by the Police and Social Scientists in the Late 19th and 20th Centuries.” October 39 (Dec. 1986): 3–64.
Sellers, Martin P.The History and Politics of Private Prisons: A Comparative Analysis. Rutherford, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press/London: Associated University Press, 1993.
Sellin, J. Thorsten. Slavery and the Penal System. New York: Elsevier, 1976.
Severo, Richard, and Milford, Lewis. Wages of War: When America's Soldiers Came Home: From Valley Forge to Vietnam. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1989.
Shapiro, Karin. A New South Rebellion: The Battle Against Convict Labor in the Tennessee Coalfields 1871–1896. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.
Shugg, Wallace. A Monument to Good Intentions: The Story of the Maryland Penitentiary, 1804–1995. Baltimore: Maryland Historical Society, 2000.
Simkhovitch, Mary Kingsbury . “Friendship and Politics.” Political Science Quarterly 17:2 (June 1902): 189–205.
Sklar, Martin. The Corporate Reconstruction of American Capitalism, 1890–1916. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988.
Smith, Joan and Fried, William. The Uses of the American Prison: Political Theory and Penal Practice. Lexington, Kentucky: Lexington Books, 1974.
Smith, Abbot Emerson. Colonists in Bondage: White Servitude and Convict Labor in America, 1607 – 1776. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1947.
Smith, Rogers M.Civic Ideals: Conflicting Vision of Citizenship in U.S. History. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1997.
Squire, Amos. Sing Sing Doctor. Garden City, NY: Garden City Publishers, 1937.
Stansell, Christine. City of Women: Sex and Class in New York, 1789–1860. New York: Knopf, 1986.
Steinberg, Allen. The Transformation of Criminal Justice, Philadelphia, 1800–80. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1989.
Sullivan, Larry E.The Prison Reform Movement: Forlorn Hope. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1990.
Sutherland, Edwin and Sellin, Thorsten, eds. Prisons of Tomorrow: Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 157 (Sep. 1931).
Tannenbaum, Frank. Osborne of Sing Sing. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1933.
Tannenbaum, Frank. Wall Shadows: A Study of American Prisons. New York and London: G. P. Putnam and Sons, 1922.
Taylor, Frederick Winslow. Principles of Scientific Management. Easton, Pennsylvania: Hive Publishing Company, 1986.
Teeters, Negley King. The Cradle of the Penitentiary; the Walnut Street Jail at Philadelphia, 1773–1835. Philadelphia: Pennsylvania Prison Society, 1955.
Teeters, Negley King. Deliberations of the International Penal and Penitentiary Congresses: Questions and Answers, 1872–1935. Philadelphia: Temple University Book Store, 1949.
Temin, Peter, ed. Inside the Business Enterprise: Historical Perspectives on the Use of Information. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1991.
Thomson, Winfred Lee. The Introduction of American Law in the Philippines and Puerto Rico, 1898–1905. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1989.
Vita and Bibliography of Bernard Glueck.” Journal of Criminal Pathology 2:1 (July 1940).
Vorenberg, Michael. Final Freedom: The Civil War, the Abolition of Slavery, and the Thirteenth Amendment. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
Walker, Donald R.Penology for Profit: A History of the Texas Prison System 1867–1912. College Station, Texas: Texas A & M University Press, 1988.
Walker, Samuel. Popular Justice: A History of American Criminal Justice. New York: Oxford University Press, 1980.
Walkowitz, Daniel. “Artisans and Builders of 19th Century New York: The Case of the 1834 Stone-cutters.” In Greenwich Village: Culture and Counterculture. New Brunswick, NJ: Published for the Museum of the City of New York by Rutgers University Press, 1993.
Wallack, Walter Mark. Education Within Prison Walls. New York: Teachers College, 1939.
Wallack, Walter Mark. The Training of Prison Guards in the State of New York. New York: Teachers College, 1938.
Wesser, Robert F.A Response to Progressivism: The Democratic Party and New York Politics, 1902–1918. New York: New York University Press, 1986.
Whitin, E. Stagg. Prisoners' Work. Boston: American Unitarian Association, 1915.
Whitman, James Q.Harsh Justice: Criminal Punishment and the Widening Divide between American and Europe. New York: Oxford University Press: 2003.
Wilentz, Sean. Chants Democratic: New York City and the Rise of the American Working Class, 1788–1850. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.
Wilf, Steven Robert. “Anatomy and Punishment in Late Eighteenth Century New York.” Journal of Social History 22:3 (March 1989): 507–30.
Williams, Raymond. Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.
Wilson, Walter. Forced Labor in the United States. New York: International Publishers, 1933.
Wines, Enoch and Dwight, Theodore. Report on the Prisons and Reformatories of the United States and Canada. Albany, NY: Van Benthuysen and Sons, 1867.
Woodward, C. Vann. Origins of the New South, 1877–1913. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1951.
Yates, JoAnne. “Investing in Information: Supply and Demand Forces in the Use of Information in American Firms, 1815–1920.” In Inside the Business Enterprise: Historical Perspectives on the Use of Information, ed. Temin, Peter. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1991.


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between #date#. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.