Aanes, S., Engen, S., Saether, B.E., Willebrand, T. and Marcstrom, V. (2002) Sustainable harvesting strategies of Willow Ptarmigan in a fluctuating environment. Ecological Applications, 12, 281–290.
Abdallah, S., Michaelson, J., Shah, S., Stoll, L. and Marks, N. (2012) Happy Planet Index: 2012 Report. A Global Index of Sustainable Well-Being. London: New Economics Foundation.
Abunge, C., Coulthard, S. and Daw, T.M. (2013) Connecting marine ecosystem services to human well-being: insights from participatory well-being assessment in Kenya. Ambio, 42, 1010–1021.
Adams, W.M. (2004) Against Extinction: The Story of Conservation. London: Earthscan.
Adams, W.M. and Sandbrook, C. (2013) Conservation, evidence and policy. Oryx, 47, 329–335.
Adato, M. (2008) Integrating survey and ethnographic methods to evaluate conditional cash transfer programs. IFPRI Discussion Paper. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute.
Addison, P.F.E., de Bie, K. and Rumpff, L. (2015) Setting conservation management thresholds using a novel participatory modelling approach. Conservation Biology, 29, 1411–1422.
Addison, P.F.E., Rumpff, L., Bau, S.S., et al. (2013) Practical solutions for making models indispensable in conservation decision-making. Diversity and Distributions, 19, 490–502.
Aguilera, P.A., Fernández, A., Fernández, R., Rumí, R. and Salmerón, A. (2011) Bayesian networks in environmental modelling. Environmental Modelling & Software, 26, 1376–1388.
Ajzen, I. (1991) The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179–211.
Alkemade, R., Oorschot, M., Miles, L., et al. (2009) GLOBIO3: a framework to investigate options for reducing global terrestrial biodiversity loss. Ecosystems, 12, 374–390.
Andersen, O., Kaltenborn, B.P., Vitterso, J. and Willebrand, T. (2014) Preferred harvest principles and regulations amongst willow ptarmigan hunters in Norway. Wildlife Biology, 20, 285–290.
Andrèn, H., Linnell, J.D.C., Liberg, O., et al. (2006) Survival rates and causes of mortality in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in multi-use landscapes. Biological Conservation, 131, 23–32.
Arcese, P., Hando, J. and Campbell, K. (1995) Historical and present-day anti-poaching efforts in Serengeti. In Sinclair, A.R.E. and Arcese, P., eds. Serengeti II: Dynamics, Management, and Conservation of an Ecosystem. Chicago: Chicago University Press, pp. 506–533.
Arlettaz, R., Schaub, M., Fournier, J., et al. (2010) From publications to public actions: when conservation biologists bridge the gap between research and implementation. BioScience, 60, 835–842.
Arrow, K.J. (1974) The Limits of Organization. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
Ascough II, J.C., Maier, H.R., Ravalico, J.K. and Strudley, M.W. (2008) Future research challenges for incorporation of uncertainty in environmental and ecological decision-making. Ecological Modelling, 219, 383–399.
Atickem, A., Loe, L.E., Langangen, O., et al. (2011) Estimating population size and habitat suitability for mountain nyala in areas with different protection status. Animal Conservation, 14, 409–418.
Australian Bureau of Statistics (2011) Information Paper: Census of Population and Housing – Products and Services. Australian Bureau of Statistics.
Australian Bureau of Statistics (2012) State and Territory Statistical Indicators. Technical Report 1367.0. Australian Bureau of Statistics.
Baillie, J.E.M., Collen, B., Amin, R., et al. (2008) Toward monitoring global biodiversity. Conservation Letters, 1, 18–26.
Bain, M.B. (1987) Structured decision making in fisheries management. North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 7, 475–481.
Baird, T.D., Leslie, P.W. and McCabe, J.T. (2009) The effect of wildlife conservation on local perceptions of risk and behavioral response. Human Ecology, 37, 463–474.
Balmford, A., Crane, P., Dobson, A., Green, R.E. and Mace, G.M. (2005) The 2010 challenge: data availability, information needs and extraterrestrial insights. Philosophical Transactions of Royal Society B, 360, 221–228.
Barnett, R. (2000) Food for Thought: The Utilisation of Wild Meat in Eastern and Southern Africa. Nairobi, Kenya: TRAFFIC/WWF/IUCN.
Barrett, C.B. and Arcese, P. (1998) Wildlife harvest in integrated conservation and development projects: linking harvest to household demand, agricultural production, and environmental shocks in the Serengeti. Land Economics, 74, 449–465.
Barton, D.N., Kuikka, S., Varis, O., et al. (2012) Bayesian networks in environmental and resource management. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, 8, 418–429.
Baylis, K., Honey-Rosés, J., Börner, J., et al. (2016) Mainstreaming impact evaluation in nature conservation. Conservation Letters, 9, 58–64.
Bayliss, P., Buckworth, R. and Dichmont, C.M. (2014) Assessing the Water Needs of Fisheries and Ecological Values in the Gulf of Carpentaria. Brisbane, Australia: Queensland Department of Natural Resources and Mines (DNRM).
Beauchamp, E. (2016) Seeing the people for the trees: Impacts of conservation on human well-being in Northern Cambodia. PhD thesis, Imperial College London. Available online at: www.iccs.org.uk
Beddington, J.R., Agnew, D.J. and Clark, C.W. (2007) Current problems in the management of marine fisheries. Science, 316, 1713–1716.
Ben-Haim, Y. (2006) Info-Gap Decision Theory: Decisions under Severe Uncertainty. Sydney: Academic Press.
Beratan, K.K. (2014) Summary: addressing the interactional challenges of moving collaborative adaptive management from theory to practice. Ecology and Society, 19(1), 46.
Beverton, R.J.H. and Holt, S.J. (1957) On the Dynamics of Exploited Fish Populations. London: Chapman and Hall.
Bhagwat, S.A. and Rutte, C. (2006) Sacred groves: potential for biodiversity management. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 4, 519–524.
Biggs, D., Courchamp, F., Martin, R. and Possingham, H.P. (2013) Legal trade of Africa’s rhino horns. Science, 339, 1038–1039.
Binder, C.R., Hinkel, J., Bots, P.W.G. and Pahl-Wostl., C. (2013) Comparison of frameworks for analyzing social-ecological systems. Ecology and Society, 18, 26.
Bischof, R., Nilsen, E.B., Brøseth, H., et al. (2012) Implementation uncertainty when using recreational hunting to manage carnivores. Journal of Applied Ecology, 49, 824–832.
Blomquist, S.M., Johnson, T.D., Smith, D.R., et al. (2010) Structured decision-making and rapid prototyping to plan a management response to an invasive species. Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management, 1, 19–32.
Bond, S.D., Carlson, K.A. and Keeney, R.L. (2008). Generating objectives: Can decision makers articulate what they want? Management Science, 54(1), 56–70.
Bradbury, R.B., Stoate, C. and Tallowin, J.R.B. (2010) FORUM: lowland farmland bird conservation in the context of wider ecosystem service delivery. Journal of Applied Ecology, 47, 986–993.
Branch, T.A., Jensen, O.P., Ricard, D., Ye, Y. and Hilborn, R. (2011) Contrasting global trends in marine fishery status obtained from catches and from stock assessments. Conservation Biology, 25, 777–786.
Branch, T.A., Watson, R., Fulton, E.A., et al. (2010) The trophic fingerprint of marine fisheries. Nature, 468, 431–435.
Britton, E. and Coulthard, S. (2013) Assessing the social wellbeing of Northern Ireland’s fishing society using a three-dimensional approach. Marine Policy, 37, 28–36.
Bromley, J., Jackson, N.A., Clymer, O.J., Giacomello, A.M. and Jensen, F.V. (2005) The use of Hugin® to develop Bayesian networks as an aid to integrated water resource planning. Environmental Modelling & Software, 20, 231–242.
Brøseth, H. and Pedersen, H.C. (2000) Hunting effort and game vulnerability studies on a small scale: a new technique combining radio-telemetry, GPS and GIS. Journal of Applied Ecology, 37, 182–190.
Brosius, J.P. (2006) Common ground between anthropology and conservation biology. Conservation Biology, 20, 683–685.
Brosius, J.P. (2010) Conservation trade-offs and the politics of knowledge. In Leader-Williams, N., Adams, W.M. and Smith, R.J., eds., Trade-Offs in Conservation: Deciding What to Save. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 311–328.
Buckland, S.T., Magurran, A.E., Green, R.E. and Fewster, R.M. (2005) Monitoring change in biodiversity through composite indices. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 360, 243–254.
Buckland, S.T., Studeny, A.C., Magurran, A.E., Illian, J.B. and Newson, S.E. (2011) The geometric mean of relative abundance indices: a biodiversity measure with a difference. Ecosphere, 2, art100.
Buckworth, R., Venables, W.N., Lawrence, E., et al. (2014) Incorporation of predictive models of banana prawn catch for MEY-based harvest strategy development for the Northern Prawn Fishery. Fisheries Research and Development Corporation Report No. 2011/239. Brisbane, Australia: CSIRO.
Bull, J., Nilsen, E.B., Mysterud, A. and Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2009) Survival on the border: a population model to evaluate management options for Norway’s wolves Canis lupus. Wildlife Biology, 15, 412–424.
Bunnefeld, N., Hoshino, E. and Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2011) Management strategy evaluation: a powerful tool for conservation? Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 26, 441–447.
Bunnefeld, N., Edwards, C., Atickem, A., Hailu, F. and Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2013) Incentivizing monitoring and compliance in trophy hunting. Conservation Biology, 27, 1344–1354.
Burgman, M., Carr, A., Godden, L., et al. (2011a) Redefining expertise and improving ecological judgment. Conservation Letters, 4, 81–87.
Burgman, M.A., McBride, M., Ashton, R., Speirs-Bridge, A., Flander, L., Wintle, B., Fidler, F., Rumpff, L. and Twardy, C. (2011b). Expert status and performance. PLoS One, 6(7), e22998.
Butchart, S.H.M., Stattersfield, A.J., Bennun, L.A., et al. (2004) Measuring global trends in the status of biodiversity: Red List Indices for birds. PLoS Biology, 2, e383.
Butchart, S.H.M., Akçakaya, H.R., Chanson, J., et al. (2007) Improvements to the Red List Index. PLoS One, 2, e140.
Butchart, S.H.M., Walpole, M., Collen, B., et al. (2010) Global biodiversity: indicators of recent declines. Science, 328, 1164–1168.
Butler, J.K. (1991) Toward understanding and measuring conditions of trust: evolution of a conditions of trust inventory. Journal of Management, 17, 643–663.
Cain, J. (2001) Planning Improvements in Natural Resources Management. Wallingford, UK: Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH).
Camfield, L., Crivello, G. and Woodhead, M. (2009) Wellbeing research in developing countries: reviewing the role of qualitative methods. Social Indicators Research, 90, 5–31.
Carbone, C. and Gittleman, J.L. (2002) A common rule for the scaling of carnivore density. Science, 295, 2273–2276.
Carmona, G., Molina, J., Bromley, J., Varela-Ortega, C. and García-Aróstegui, J. (2011) Object-oriented Bayesian networks for participatory water management: two case studies in Spain. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, 137, 366–376.
Carr, G.W., Bedgood, S.E., Muir, A.M. and Peake, P. (1994) Distribution and Management of Willows (Salix) in the Australian Alps National Parks. Victoria, Australia: Ecology Australia Pty Limited.
Carwardine, J., O’Connor, T., Legge, S., et al. (2012) Prioritizing threat management for biodiversity conservation. Conservation Letters, 5, 196–204.
Caswell, H. (2001) Matrix Population Models: Construction, Analysis, and Interpretation, 2nd ed. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.
Catley, A., Burns, J., Abebe, D. and Suji, O. (2013) Participatory impact assessment: A guide for practitioners. Somerville: Feinstein International Centre, Tufts University.
Caughley, G. (1994) Directions in conservation biology. Journal of Animal Ecology, 63, 215–244.
Chapron, G., Kaczensky, P., Linnell, J.D.C., et al. (2014) Recovery of large carnivores in Europe’s modern human-dominated landscapes. Science, 346, 1517–1519.
Chee, Y.E. and Wintle, B.A. (2010) Linking modelling, monitoring and management: an integrated approach to controlling overabundant wildlife. Journal of Applied Ecology, 47, 1169–1178.
Chu, C. (2009) Thirty years later: the global growth of ITQs and their influence on stock status in marine fisheries. Fish and Fisheries, 10, 217–230.
Cinner, J.E., Folke, C., Daw, T. and Hicks, C.C. (2011) Responding to change: using scenarios to understand how socioeconomic factors may influence amplifying or dampening exploitation feedbacks among Tanzanian fishers. Global Environmental Change, 21, 7–12.
Clark, C.W. (1990) Mathematical Bioeconomics: The Optimal Management of Renewable Resources, 2nd edn. New York: Wiley.
Clark, C.W. (2006) The Worldwide Crisis in Fisheries: Economic Models and Human Behavior. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Clemen, R.T. (1991) Making Hard Decisions: An Introduction to Decision Analysis. Belmont, CA: Duxbury Press, p. 557.
Clements, T. (2010) Reduced expectations: the political and institutional challenges of REDD+. Oryx, 44, 309–310.
Clements, T., John, A., Nielsen, K., et al. (2010) Payments for biodiversity conservation in the context of weak institutions: comparison of three programs from Cambodia. Ecological Economics, 69, 1283–1291.
Clements, T. and Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2015) Impact of payments for environmental services and protected areas on local livelihoods and forest conservation in northern Cambodia. Conservation Biology, 29, 78–87.
Cockburn, J., Rouget, M., Slotow, R., et al. (2016) How to build science-action partnerships for local land-use planning and management: lessons from Durban, South Africa. Ecology and Society, 21(1), 28.
Collen, B. and Baillie, J.E.M. (2010) Barometer of life: sampling. Science, 329, 140.
Collen, B., Loh, J., Whitmee, S., et al. (2009a) Monitoring change in vertebrate abundance: the Living Planet Index. Conservation Biology, 23, 317–327.
Collen, B. and Nicholson, E. (2014) Taking the measure of change. Science, 346, 166–167.
Collen, B., Ram, M., Dewhurst, N., et al. (2009b) Broadening the coverage of biodiversity assessments. In Vie, J-C., Hilton-Taylor, C. and Stuart, S.N., eds. Wildlife in a Changing World – An Analysis of the 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Gland: IUCN, pp. 67–76.
Conroy, M.J. and Peterson, J.T. (2013) Decision Making in Natural Resource Management. A Structured, Adaptive Approach. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.
Conroy, M.M. and Evans-Cowley, J. (2006) E-participation in planning: an analysis of cities adopting on-line citizen participation tools. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 24, 371–384.
Convention on Biological Diversity (2011) Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020, including Aichi Biodiversity Targets. Retrieved from www.cbd.int/sp/.
Converse, S.J., Shelley, K.J., Morey, S., et al. (2011) A decision-analytic approach to the optimal allocation of resources for endangered species consultation. Biological Conservation, 144, 319–329.
Converse, S.J., Moore, C.T. and Armstrong, D.P. (2013a) Demographics of reintroduced populations: estimation, modeling, and decision analysis. Journal of Wildlife Management, 77, 1081–1093.
Converse, S.J., Moore, C.T., Folk, M.J. and Runge, M.C. (2013b) A matter of tradeoffs: reintroduction as a multiple objective decision. Journal of Wildlife Management, 77, 1145–1156.
Converse, S.J., Royle, J.A., Adler, P.H., Urbanek, R.P. and Barzen, J.A. (2013c) A hierarchical nest survival model integrating incomplete temporally varying covariates. Ecology and Evolution, 3, 4439–47.
Copestake, J. and Camfield, L. (2009) Measuring subjective wellbeing in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Peru and Thailand using a personal life goal satisfaction approach. WeD Working Paper 09. Bath: University of Bath.
Costello, C., Gaines, S.D. and Lynham, J. (2008) Can catch shares prevent fisheries collapse? Science, 321, 1678–1681.
Costelloe, B.T., Collen, B., Milner-Gulland, E.J., et al. (2016) Global biodiversity indicators reflect the modelled impacts of protected area policy change. Conservation Letters, 9, 14–20.
Costin, A., Gray, M., Totterdell, C. and Wimbush, D. (2000) Kosciuszko alpine flora. Collingwood, Victoria: CSIRO Publishing.
Coulthard, S., Johnson, D. and McGregor, J.A. (2011) Poverty, sustainability and human wellbeing: a social wellbeing approach to the global fisheries crisis. Global Environmental Change, 21, 453–463.
Craigie, I.D., Baillie, J.E.M., Balmford, A., et al. (2010) Large mammal population declines in Africa’s protected areas. Biological Conservation, 143, 2221–2228.
Cremer, K. (2003) Introduced willows can become invasive pests in Australia. Biodiversity and Conservation, 4, 17–24.
Cremer, K., van Kraayenoord, C., Parker, N. and Streatfield, S. (1995) Willows spreading by seed. Implications for Australian River Management. Australian Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 8, 18–27.
Cross, M.S., Zavaleta, E.S., Bachelet, D., et al. (2012) The adaptation for conservation targets (ACT) framework: a tool for incorporating climate change into natural resource management. Environmental Management, 50, 341–351.
Crowder, L. and Norse, E. (2008) Essential ecological insights for marine ecosystem-based management and marine spatial planning. Marine Policy, 32, 772–778.
DAFF (2007) Commonwealth Fisheries Harvest Strategy: Policy and Guidelines. Canberra, Australia: Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry.
Damania, R., Milner-Gulland, E.J. and Crookes, D.J. (2005) A bioeconomic analysis of bushmeat hunting. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 272, 259–266.
Daniel, T.C., Muhar, A., Arnberger, A., et al. (2012) Contributions of cultural services to the ecosystem services agenda. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109, 8812–8819.
Daniell, K.A., Coad, P., Ferrand, N., et al. (2008) Participatory values-based risk management for the water sector [online]. In Lambert, M., Daniell, T.M., and Leonard, M., eds. Proceedings of Water Down Under 2008. Modbury, SA: Engineers Australia; Causal Productions, pp. 969–981. Available at: http://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=573777437948042;res=IELENG ISBN: 0858257351.
Danielsen, F., Mendoza, M.M., Alviola, P.A., et al. (2003) Biodiversity monitoring in developing countries: what are we trying to achieve? Oryx, 37, 407–409.
Danielsen, F., Burgess, N.D. and Balmford, A. (2005) Monitoring matters: examining the potential of locally-based approaches. Biodiversity & Conservation, 14, 2507–2542.
Danielsen, F., Burgess, N.D., Balmford, A., et al. (2009) Local participation in natural resource monitoring: a characterization of approaches. Conservation Biology, 23, 31–42.
Davies, R. and Smith, W. (1998) The Basic Necessities Survey: The Experience of ActionAid Vietnam. Hanoi: ActionAid.
Daw, T., Brown, K., Rosendo, S. and Pomeroy, R. (2011) Applying the ecosystem services concept to poverty alleviation: the need to disaggregate human well-being. Environmental Conservation, 38, 370–379.
Daw, T.M., Coulthard, S., Cheung, W.W.L., et al. (2015) Evaluating taboo trade-offs in ecosystems services and human well-being. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112, 6949–6954.
Daw, T.M., Hicks, C.C., Brown, K., et al. (2016) Elasticity in ecosystem services: exploring the variable relationship between ecosystems and human well-being. Ecology and Society, 21(2), 11
De Lange, E., Woodhouse, E. and Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2016) Approaches used to evaluate the social impacts of protected areas. Conservation Letters. doi: 10.1111/conl.12223
De Ornellas, P., Milner-Gulland, E.J. and Nicholson, E. (2011) The impact of data realities on conservation planning. Biological Conservation, 144, 1980–1988.
Deb, K. (2001) Multi-Objective Optimisation Using Evolutionary Algorithms. Chichester: John Wiley.
Deci, E.L. and Ryan, R.M. (2000) The ‘what’ and ‘why’ of goal pursuits: human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227–268.
Degteva, S.V., Ponomarev, V.I., Eisenman, S.W. and Dushenkov, V. (2015) Striking the balance: challenges and perspectives for the protected areas network in northeastern European Russia. Ambio, 44, 473–490.
Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (2013) Approved Conservation Advice for the Alpine Sphagnum Bogs and Associated Fens ecological community. Species Profile and Threats Database. Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities, Canberra.
Di Marco, M., Boitani, L., Mallon, D., et al. (2014) A retrospective evaluation of the global decline of carnivores and ungulates. Conservation Biology, 28, 1109–1118.
Dichmont, C.M., Punt, A.E., Deng, A., Dell, Q. and Venables, W. (2003) Application of a weekly delay-difference model to commercial catch and effort data for tiger prawns in Australia’s Northern Prawn Fishery. Fisheries Research, 65, 335–350.
Dichmont, C.M., Deng, A.R., Punt, A.E., Venables, W. and Haddon, M. (2006a) Management strategies for short lived species: the case of Australia’s Northern Prawn Fishery 2. Choosing appropriate management strategies using input controls. Fisheries Research, 82, 221–234.
Dichmont, C.M., Deng, A.R., Punt, A.E., Venables, W. and Haddon, M. (2006b) Management strategies for short lived species: the case of Australia’s Northern Prawn Fishery 3. Factors affecting management and estimation performance. Fisheries Research, 82, 235–245.
Dichmont, C.M., Deng, A.R., Punt, A.E., Venables, W. and Haddon, M. (2006c) Management strategies for short-lived species: the case of Australia’s Northern Prawn Fishery 1. Accounting for multiple species, spatial structure and implementation uncertainty when evaluating risk. Fisheries Research, 82, 204–220.
Dichmont, C.M., Loneragan, N.R., Brewer, D.T. and Poiner, I.R. (2007) Partnerships towards sustainable use of Australia’s Northern Prawn Fishery. In Fisheries Management. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 205–230.
Dichmont, C.M., Deng, A., Punt, A. E., et al. (2008) Beyond biological performance measures in management strategy evaluation: bringing in economics and the effects of trawling on the benthos. Fisheries Research, 94, 238–250.
Dichmont, C.M. and Brown, I.W. (2010) A case study in successful management of a data-poor fishery using simple decision rules: the Queensland Spanner Crab Fishery. Marine and Coastal Fisheries, 2, 1–13.
Dichmont, C.M., Deng, R.A., Punt, A.E., Venables, W.N. and Hutton, T. (2012) From input to output controls in a short-lived species: the case of Australia’s Northern Prawn Fishery. Marine and Freshwater Research, 63, 727.
Dichmont, C.M., Ellis, N., Bustamante, R.H., et al. (2013) Evaluating marine spatial closures with conflicting fisheries and conservation objectives. Journal of Applied Ecology, 50, 1060–1070.
Dietz, G. and Den Hartog, D.N. (2006) Measuring trust inside organizations. Personnel Review, 35, 557–588.
Dietz, T., Ostrom, E. and Stern, P.C. (2003) The struggle to govern the commons. Science, 302, 1907–1912.
Diez, E. and McIntosh, B. (2009) A review of the factors which influence the use and usefulness of information systems. Environmental Modelling & Software, 24, 588–602.
Dirzo, R., Young, H.S., Galetti, M., et al. (2014) Defaunation in the Anthropocene. Science, 345, 401–406.
Dowling, N.A., Smith, D.C., Knuckey, I., et al. (2008) Developing harvest strategies for low-value and data-poor fisheries: case studies from three Australian fisheries. Fisheries Research, 94, 380–390.
Dowling, N.A., Dichmont, C.M., Venables, W., et al. (2013) From low- to high-value fisheries: Is it possible to quantify the trade-off between management cost, risk and catch? Marine Policy, 40, 41–52.
Drury, R., Homewood, K. and Randall, S. (2010) Less is more: the potential of qualitative approaches in conservation research. Animal Conservation, 14, 18–24.
Dutra, L.X.C., Ellis, N., Perez, P., et al. (2014) Drivers influencing adaptive management: a retrospective evaluation of water quality decisions in South East Queensland (Australia). Ambio, 43, 1069–1081
Dutra, L.X.C., Thebaud, O., Boschetti, F., Smith, A.D.M. and Dichmont, C.M. (2015) Key issues and drivers affecting coastal and marine resource decisions: participatory management strategy evaluation to support adaptive management. Ocean & Coastal Management, 116, 382–395.
Edwards, C.T.T., Bunnefeld, N., Balme, G.A. and Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2014) Data-poor management of African lion hunting using a relative index of abundance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111, 539–543.
Edwards, W. (1977) How to use multiattribute utility measurement for social decision-making. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 7, 326–340.
Elston, D.A., Spezia, L., Baines, D. and Redpath, S.M. (2014) Working with stakeholders to reduce conflict – modelling the impact of varying hen harrier Circus cyaneus densities on red grouse Lagopus lagopus populations. Journal of Applied Ecology, 51, 1236–1245.
FAO (1995) Code of Conduct for Responsible Fishing. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organisation.
FAO (1996) FAO Technical Guidelines for Responsible Fisheries: 2 Precautionary approach to capture fisheries and species introductions. Lysekil, Sweden, 6–13 June 1995.
FAO (2003) FAO Technical Guidelines for Responsible Fisheries: 4 Fisheries management (2) The ecosystem approach to fisheries. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organisation.
Fay, G., Large, S.I., Link, J.S. and Gamble, R.J. (2013) Testing systemic fishing responses with ecosystem indicators. Ecological Modelling, 265, 45–55.
Ferraro, P.J. and Pattanayak, S.K. (2006) Money for nothing? A call for empirical evaluation of biodiversity conservation investments. PLoS Biology, 4, e105.
Ferraro, P.J., Hanauer, M.M. and Sims, K.R.E. (2011) Conditions associated with protected area success in conservation and poverty reduction. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108, 13913–13918.
Firmstone, J. and Coleman, S., (2015) Public engagement in local government: the voice and influence of citizens in online communicative spaces. Information, Communication & Society, 18, 680–695.
Fischhoff, B., Slovic, P. and Lichtenstein, S. (1982) Lay foibles and expert fables in judgments about risk. American Statistician, 36, 240–255.
Fisher, R. (1993) Social desirability bias and the validity of indirect questioning. Journal of Consumer Research, 20, 303–315.
Fitzgibbon, C.D., Mogaka, H. and Fanshawe, J.H. (1995) Subsistence hunting in Arabuko-Sokoke Forest, Kenya, and its effects on mammal populations. Conservation Biology, 9, 1116–1126.
Foley, J., Clifford, D., Castle, K., Cryan, P. and Ostfeld, R.S. (2011). Investigating and managing the rapid emergence of White-Nose Syndrome, a novel, fatal, infectious disease of hibernating bats. Conservation Biology, 25(2), 223–231.
Friis-Hansen, E. and Duveskog, D. (2012) The empowerment route to well-being: an analysis of farmer field schools in East Africa. World Development, 40, 414–427.
Fryxell, J.M., Packer, C., McCann, K., Solberg, E.J. and Sæther, B.E. (2010) Resource management cycles and the sustainability of harvested wildlife populations. Science, 328, 903–906.
Fulton, E.A., Smith, A.D.M. and Punt, A.E. (2005) Which ecological indicators can robustly detect effects of fishing? ICES Journal of Marine Science, 62, 540–551.
Fulton, E.A., Gray, R., Sporcic, M., et al. (2011a) Ningaloo Collaboration Cluster: Adaptive Futures for Ningaloo. Ningaloo Collaboration Cluster Final Report. No. 5.3.
Fulton, E.A., Link, J.S., Kaplan, I. C., et al. (2011b) Lessons in modelling and management of marine ecosystems: the Atlantis experience. Fish and Fisheries, 12, 171–188.
Fulton, E.A., Smith, A.D.M., Smith, D.C. and van Putten, I.E. (2011c) Human behaviour: the key source of uncertainty in fisheries management. Fish and Fisheries, 12, 2–17.
Fulton, E.A. and Link, J.S. (2014) Approaches for marine ecosystem-based management. In Fogarty, M.J. and McCarthy, J.J., eds. The Sea: Marine Ecosystem-based Management. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Fulton, E.A., Smith, A.D.M., Smith, D.C. and Johnson, P. (2014) An integrated approach is needed for ecosystem based fisheries management: insights from ecosystem-level management strategy evaluation. PLOS One, 9, e84242.
Fulton, E.A., Bax, N.J., Bustamante, R.H., et al. (2015) Modelling marine protected areas: insights and hurdles. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 370, 20140278.
Fyumagwa, R., Gereta, E., Hassan, S., et al. (2013) Roads as a Threat to the Serengeti Ecosystem. Conservation Biology, 27, 1122–1125.
Gabizon, S. (2016) Women’s movements’ engagement in the SDGs: lessons learned from the Women’s Major Group. Gender & Development, 24, 99–110.
Gangaas, K.E., Kaltenborn, B.P. and Andreassen, H.P. (2013) Geo-spatial aspects of acceptance of illegal hunting of large carnivores in Scandinavia. PLoS ONE, 8, e68849.
Garcia, S.M., Kolding, J., Rice, J., et al. (2012) Reconsidering the consequences of selective fisheries. Science, 335, 1045–1047.
Gavin, M.C., Solomon, J.N. and Blank, S.G. (2010) Measuring and monitoring illegal use of natural resources. Conservation Biology, 24, 89–100.
Gee, G.F., Nicholich, J.M., Nesbitt, S.A., et al. (2001) Water conditioning and whooping crane survival after release in Florida. Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop, 8, 160–165.
Gell, F.R. and Roberts, C.M. (2003) Benefits beyond boundaries: the fishery effects of marine reserves. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 18, 448–455.
Gervasi, V., Brøseth, H., Nilsen, E.B., et al. (2015) Compensatory immigration counteracts contrasting conservation strategies of wolverines (Gulo gulo) within Scandinavia. Biological Conservation, 191, 632–639.
Gervasi, V., Nilsen, E.B., Sand, H., et al. (2012) Predicting the potential demographic impact of predators on their prey: a comparative analysis of two carnivore-ungulate systems in Scandinavia. Journal of Animal Ecology, 81, 443–454.
Gervasi, V., Nilsen, E. B., Odden, J., Bouyer, Y. and Linnell, J.D.C. (2014) The spatio-temporal distribution of wild and domestic ungulates modulates lynx kill rates in a multi-use landscape. Journal of Zoology, 292, 175–183.
Ghebremichael, L.T., Veith, T.L. and Hamlett, J.M. (2013) Integrated watershed- and farm-scale modeling framework for targeting critical source areas while maintaining farm economic viability. Journal of Environmental Management, 114, 381–394.
Gibbons, P., Zammit, C., Youngentob, K., et al. (2008) Some practical suggestions for improving engagement between researchers and policy-makers in natural resource management. Ecological Management and Restoration, 9, 182–186.
Giljohann, K.M. (2009) Modelling the distribution of the invasive willow Salix cinerea on the Bogong High Plains of the Victorian Alpine National Park. Honours thesis, University of Melbourne.
Giljohann, K.M. and Moore, J.L. (2011a) Optimal allocation model update for the prioritisation of willow Salix cinerea control effort on the Bogong High Plains 2010–2011. Report to Parks Victoria. University of Melbourne.
Giljohann, K.M. and Moore, J.L. (2011b) Optimal allocation model update for the prioritisation of willow Salix cinerea control effort on the Bogong High Plains 2011–2012. Report to Parks Victoria. University of Melbourne.
Giljohann, K.M., Hauser, C.E., Williams, N.S.G. and Moore, J.L. (2009) Prioritising control of an invasive willow, Salix cinerea, across the Bogong High Plains of the Victorian National Park. Report to Parks Victoria. University of Melbourne.
Giljohann, K.M., Hauser, C.E., Williams, N.S.G. and Moore, J.L. (2011) Optimizing invasive species control across space: willow invasion management in the Australian Alps. Journal of Applied Ecology, 48, 1286–1294.
Gillett, R. (2008) Global Study of Shrimp Fisheries. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 475. Rome: Food and Agricultural Organisation.
Gislason, H., Sinclair, M., Sainsbury, K. and O’Boyle, R. (2000) Symposium overview: incorporating ecosystem objectives within fisheries management. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 57, 468–475.
Gockel, C.K. and Gray, L.C. (2009) Integrating conservation and development in the Peruvian Amazon. Ecology and Society, 14, 11.
Goodwin, P. and Wright, G. (2004) Decision Analysis for Management Judgment. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons.
Gordon, H.S. (1954) The economic theory of a common-property resource: the Fishery. Journal of Political Economy, 62, 124–142.
Gordon, A., Bastin, L., Langford, W.T., Lechner, A.M. and Bekessy, S.A. (2013) Simulating the value of collaboration in multi-actor conservation planning. Ecological Modelling, 249, 19–25.
Grafton, Q., Arnason, R., Bjørndal, T., et al. (2006) Incentive-based approaches to sustainable fisheries. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 63, 699–710.
Grafton, R.Q., Kompas, T. and Hilborn, R. W. (2007) Economics of overexploitation revisited. Science, 318, 1601–1601.
Grafton, Q.R., Kompas, T., Che, T.N., Chu, L. and Hilborn, R. (2012) BMEY as a fisheries management target. Fish and Fisheries, 13, 303–312.
Grand, J., Cummings, M.P., Rebelo, T.G., Ricketts, T.H. and Neel, M.C. (2007) Biased data reduce efficiency and effectiveness of conservation reserve networks. Ecology Letters, 10, 364–374.
Gray, R., Fulton, E.A. and Little, L.R. (2013) Human–ecosystem interaction in large ensemble-model systems. In Smajgl, A., and Barreteau, O., eds. Empirical Agent-Based Modeling: Challenges and Solutions. Berlin: Springer, 249 pp.
Gregory, R. and Long, G. (2009) Using structured decision making to help implement a precautionary approach to endangered species management. Risk Analysis, 29, 518–532.
Gregory, R., Failing, L., Harstone, M., et al. (2012) Structured Decision Making: A Practical Guide to Environmental Management Choices. Chichester: John Wiley.
Gregory, R., Arvai, J. and Gerber, L.R. (2013) Structuring decisions for managing threatened and endangered species in a changing climate. Conservation Biology, 27, 1212–1221.
Greig, L.A., Marmorek, D.R., Murray, C. and Robinson, D.C.E. (2013) Insight into enabling adaptive management. Ecology and Society, 18(3).
Groves, R.M. (2006) Nonresponse rates and nonresponse bias in household surveys. Public Opinion Quarterly, 70, 646–675.
Gurney, G.G., Cinner, J., Ban, N.C., et al. (2014) Poverty and protected areas: an evaluation of a marine integrated conservation and development project in Indonesia. Global Environmental Change, 26, 98–107.
Gutrich, J., Donovan, D., Finucane, M., et al. (2005) Science in the public process of ecosystem management: lessons from Hawaii, Southeast Asia, Africa and the US Mainland. Journal of Environmental Management, 76, 197–209.
Haddon, M. (2012) Reducing Uncertainty in Stock Status: Harvest Strategy Testing Evaluation and Development. General Discussion and Summary. Hobart: CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research.
Hadorn, G.H., Hoffmann-Riem, H., Biber-Klemm, S., et al. (2008) Handbook of Transdisciplinary Research. Dordrecht: Springer.
Halpern, B.S., Klein, C.J., Brown, C.J., et al. (2013) Achieving the triple bottom line in the face of inherent trade-offs among social equity, economic return, and conservation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110, 6229–34.
Hammond, J.S., Keeney, R.L. and Raiffa, H. (1999). Smart choices: a practical guide to making better decisions. Medical Decision Making, 19(3), 364–365.
Hardin, G. (1968) The tragedy of the commons. Science, 162(3859), 1243–1248.
Harrison, M., Roe, D., Baker, J., et al. (2015) Wildlife Crime: A Review of the Evidence on Drivers and Impacts in Uganda. London: International Institute for Environment and Development.
Harwood, J. and Stokes, K. (2003) Coping with uncertainty in ecological advice: lessons from fisheries. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 18, 617–622.
Hauser, C.E. and McCarthy, M.A. (2009) Streamlining ‘search and destroy’: cost-effective surveillance for invasive species management. Ecology Letters, 12, 683–692.
Haywood, M., Hill, B., Donovan, A., et al. (2005) Quantifying the Effects of Trawling on Seabed Fauna in the Northern Prawn Fishery. Final Report on FRDC Project 2002/102.
Head, B.W. (2008) Wicked problems in public policy. Public Policy, 3, 101–118.
Henriksen, H.J. and Barlebo, H.C. (2008) Reflections on the use of Bayesian belief networks for adaptive management. Journal of Environmental Management, 88, 1025–1036.
Henriksen, H.J., Zorrilla-Miras, P., de la Hera, A. and Brugnach, M. (2012) Use of Bayesian belief networks for dealing with ambiguity in integrated groundwater management. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, 8, 430–444.
Hilborn, R. (2007) Defining success in fisheries and conflicts in objectives. Marine Policy, 31, 153–158.
Hilborn, R., Arcese, P., Borner, M., et al. (2006) Effective enforcement in a conservation area. Science, 314, 1266.
Hilborn, R. and Sinclair, A.R.E. (2010) Summary of Wildebeest 2009 Count Evaluation. Technical report.
Hilborn, R., Walters, C.J. and Ludwig, D. (1995) Sustainable exploitation of renewable resources. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 26, 45–67.
Hobday, A.J. and Pecl, G.T. (2013) Identification of global marine hotspots: sentinels for change and vanguards for adaptation action. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 24, 415–425.
Hofer, H., Campbell, K., East, M.L. and Huish, S.A. (1996) The impact of game meat hunting on target and non-target species in the Serengeti. In Taylor, V.J. and Dunstone, N., eds. The Exploitation of Mammal Populations. London: Chapman & Hall, pp. 117–146.
Holdo, R.M., Galvin, K.A., Knapp, E., et al. (2010) Responses to alternative rainfall regimes and antipoaching in a migratory system. Ecological Applications, 20, 381–397.
Holdo, R.M., Fryxell, J.M., Sinclair, A.R.E., Dobson, A.P. and Holt, R.D. (2011a) Predicted impact of barriers to migration on the Serengeti wildebeest population. PloS One, 6, e16370.
Holdo, R.M., Sinclair, A.R.E., Holt, R.D., Godley, B. and Thirgood, S. (2011b) Migration impacts on communities and ecosystems: empirical evidence and theoretical insights. In Milner-Gulland, E.J., Fryxell, J.M. and Sinclair, A.R.E., eds. Animal Migration: A Synthesis.
Holland, D. and Herrera, G. (2009) Uncertainty in the management of fisheries: contradictory implications and a new approach. Marine Resource Economics, 24, 289–299.
Holland-Clift, S. and Davies, J. (2007) Willows National Management Guide: Current Management and Control Options for Willows (Salix spp.) in Australia. Victorian Department of Primary Industries.
Holling, C.S. (1978) Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management. Chichester: John Wiley.
Holmern, T., Muya, J. and Røskaft, E. (2007) Local law enforcement and illegal bushmeat hunting outside the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. Environmental Conservation, 34, 55–63.
Homewood, K., Brockington, D. and Sullivan, S. (2010) Alternative view of Serengeti road. Nature, 467, 788–789.
Homewood, K., Kristjanson, P. and Chenevix Trench, P. (2009) Staying Maasai? Livelihoods, Conservation and Development in East African Rangelands. Studies in Human Ecology and Adaptation Volume 5. Berlin: Springer.
Hopcraft, J.G.C., Mduma, S.A.R., Borner, M., et al. (2015) Conservation and economic benefits of a road around the Serengeti. Conservation Biology, 29, 932–936.
Hopley, T. and Young, A.G. (2015) Knowledge of the reproductive ecology of the invasive Salix cinerea, in its invaded range, assists in more targeted management strategies. Australian Journal of Botany, 63, 477–483.
Hörnberg, S. (2001) Changes in population density of moose (Alces alces) and damage to forests in Sweden. Forest Ecology and Management, 149, 141–151.
Hornborg, S., Belgrano, A., Bartolino, V., Valentinsson, D. and Ziegler, F. (2013) Trophic indicators in fisheries: a call for re-evaluation. Biology Letters, 9, 20121050.
Howe, C. and Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2012) Evaluating indices of conservation success: A comparative analysis of outcome- and output-based indices. Animal Conservation, 15, 217–226.
Hulme, P.E., Pysek, P., Pergl, J., et al. (2014) Greater focus needed on alien plant impacts in protected areas. Conservation Letters, 7, 459–466.
Ives, M.C., Scandol, J.P. and Greenville, J. (2013) A bio-economic management strategy evaluation for a multi-species, multi-fleet fishery facing a world of uncertainty. Ecological Modelling, 256, 69–84.
Jack, B.K., Kousky, C. and Sims, K.R.E. (2008) Designing payments for ecosystem services: Lessons from previous experience with incentive-based mechanisms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105, 9465–70.
Jenkins, C. N. and Joppa, L. (2009) Expansion of the global terrestrial protected area system. Biological Conservation, 142, 2166–2174.
Johannesen, A.B. (2005) Wildlife conservation policies and incentives to hunt: an empirical analysis of illegal hunting in western Serengeti, Tanzania. Environment and Development Economics, 10, 271–292.
Johnson, F.A., Breininger, D.R., Duncan, B.W., et al. (2011) A Markov decision process for managing habitat for Florida scrub-jays. Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management, 2, 234–246.
Jokinen, M., Mäkeläinen, S. and Ovaskainen, O. (2014) ‘Strict’, yet ineffective: legal protection of breeding sites and resting places fails with the Siberian flying squirrel. Animal Conservation, 18, 167–175.
Jones, J.P.G., Andriamarovololona, M.M. and Hockley, N. (2008) The importance of taboos and social norms to conservation in Madagascar. Conservation Biology, 22, 976–986.
Jones, J.P.G., Collen, B., Atkinson, G., et al. (2011) The why, what and how of global biodiversity indicators beyond the 2010 target. Conservation Biology, 25, 450–457.
Joseph, L.N., Maloney, R.F. and Possingham, H.P. (2009) Optimal allocation of resources among threatened species: a project prioritization protocol. Conservation Biology, 23, 328–338.
Juffe-Bignoli, D., Burgess, N.D., Bingham, H., et al. (2014) Protected Planet Report 2014. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK.
Kahneman, D. (2011) Thinking, Fast and Slow. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Kålås, J.A., Husby, M., Nilsen, E.B. and Vang, R. (2014) Bestandsvariasjoner for terrestriske fugler i Norge 1996–2014. NOF Rapport 4-2014.
Kaltenborn, B.P., Nyahongo, J.W. and Tingstad, K.M. (2005) The nature of hunting around the Western Corridor of Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. European Journal of Wildlife Research, 51, 213–222.
Keane, A., Jones, J.P.G., Edwards-Jones, G. and Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2008) The sleeping policeman: understanding issues of enforcement and compliance in conservation. Animal Conservation, 11, 75–82.
Keane, A., Jones, J.P.G. and Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2011) Encounter data in ecology and resource management: pitfalls and possibilities. Journal of Applied Ecology 48, 1164–1173.
Keeney, R.L. (1994) Creativity in decision making with value-focused thinking. Sloan Management Review, Summer, 33–41.
Keeney, R.L. (2007) Developing objectives and attributes. In Edwards, W, Miles, R.F.J and Von Winterfeldt, D, eds. Advances in Decision Analysis: From Foundations to Applications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 104–128.
Keith, D.A., McCarthy, M.A., Regan, H., eds. (2004) Protocols for listing threatened species can forecast extinction. Ecology Letters, 7, 1101–1108.
Keith, D.A., Martin, T.G., McDonald-Madden, E. and Walters, C. (2011) Uncertainty and adaptive management for biodiversity conservation. Biological Conservation, 144, 1175–1178.
Kell, L.T., Mosqueira, I., Grosjean, P., et al. (2007) FLR: an open-source framework for the evaluation and development of management strategies. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 64, 640–646.
Kideghesho, J.R. and Mtoni, P.E. (2008) The potentials for co-management approaches in western Serengeti, Tanzania. Tropical Conservation Science, 1, 334–358.
Knapp, E.J. (2007) Who poaches? Household economies of illegal hunters in western Serengeti, Tanzania. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 12, 195–196.
Knapp, E.J. (2012) Why poaching pays: a summary of risks and benefits illegal hunters face in Western Serengeti, Tanzania. Tropical Conservation Science, 5, 434–445.
Knott, E.J., Bunnefeld, N., Huber, D., et al. (2014) The potential impacts of changes in bear hunting policy for hunting organisations in Croatia. European Journal of Wildlife Research, 60, 85–97.
Kompas, T., Dichmont, C.M., Punt, A.E., et al. (2010) Maximizing profits and conserving stocks in the Australian Northern Prawn Fishery. Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 54, 281–299.
Korb, K.B. and Nicholson, A.E. (2010) Bayesian Artificial Intelligence, 2nd edn, Boca Raton, FL: Chapman & Hall/CRC Press.
Kramer, R.M. (1999) Trust and distrust in organizations: emerging perspectives, enduring questions. Annual Review of Psychology, 50, 569–598.
Krebs, C.J. (2001) Ecology: The Experimental Analysis of Distribution and Abundance, 5th edn. San Francisco, CA: Benjamin-Cummings.
Kujala, H., Burgman, M.A. and Moilanen, A. (2013) Treatment of uncertainty in conservation under climate change. Conservation Letters, 6, 73–85.
Lande, R., Engen, S. and Saether, B. E. (1994) Optimal harvesting, economic discounting and extinction risk in fluctuating populations. Nature, 372, 88–90.
Lande, R., Engen, S. and Saether, B.E. (1995) Optimal harvesting of fluctuating populations with a risk of extinction. American Naturalist, 145, 728–745.
Lande, R., Engen, S. and Sæther, B. E. (2003) Stochastic Population Dynamics in Ecology and Conservation, Oxford Series in Ecology and Evolution, 1st ed., Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Larrosa, C., Carrasco, L.R. and Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2016) Unintended feedbacks: challenges and opportunities for improving conservation effectiveness. Conservation Letters, 9(5), 316–326.
Laurance, W.F., Useche, D.C., Rendeiro, J., et al. (2012) Averting biodiversity collapse in tropical forest protected areas. Nature, 489, 290–294.
Leadley, P., Pereira, H.M., Alkemade, R., et al. (2010) Biodiversity Scenarios: Projections of 21st Century Change in Biodiversity and Associated Ecosystem Services. Technical Series no. 50. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal.
Lee, J.D. and See, K.A. (2004) Trust in automation: designing for appropriate reliance. Human Factors, 46, 50–80.
Leeuw, F. and Vaessen, J. (2009) Impact Evaluations and Development: NONIE Guidance on Impact Evaluation. Washington, DC: NONIE – The Network of Networks on Impact Evaluation.
Lehikoinen, A., Green, M., Husby, M., Kålås, J.A. and Lindström, Å. (2014) Common montane birds are declining in northern Europe. Journal of Avian Biology, 45, 3–14.
Leisher, C., Hess, S., Boucher, T.M., et al. (2012) Measuring the impacts of community-based grasslands management in Mongolia’s Gobi. PloS One, 7, e30991.
Lewis, J. and Nkuintchua, T. (2012) Accessible technologies and FPIC: independent monitoring with forest communities in Cameroon. Participatory Learning and Action, 65, 151–165.
Liberg, O., Chapron, G., Wabakken, P., et al. (2012) Shoot, shovel and shut up: cryptic poaching slows restoration of a large carnivore in Europe. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, 279, 910–915.
Link, J.S., Yemane, D., Shannon, L.J., et al. (2010) Relating marine ecosystem indicators to fishing and environmental drivers: an elucidation of contrasting responses. ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil, 67, 787–795.
Linnell, J.D.C. and Boitani, L. (2012) Building biological realism into wolf management policy: the development of the population approach in Europe. Hystrix, 23, 80–91.
Linnell, J.D.C., Broseth, H., Odden, J. and Nilsen, E.B. (2010) Sustainably harvesting a large carnivore? Development of Eurasian lynx populations in Norway during 160 years of shifting policy. Environmental Management, 45, 1142–1154.
Linnell, J.D.C., Nilsen, E.B., Lande, U.S., et al. (2005) Zoning as a means of mitigating conflicts with large carnivores: principles and reality. In Woodrof, R., Thirgood, S. and Rabinowitz, A., eds. People and Wildlife: Conflict or Coexistence? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 162–175.
Little, L.R., Wayte, S.E., Tuck, G.N., et al. (2011) Development and evaluation of a cpue-based harvest control rule for the southern and eastern scalefish and shark fishery of Australia. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 68, 1699–1705.
Liu, J., Dietz, T., Carpenter, S.R., et al. (2007) Complexity of coupled human and natural systems. Science, 317, 1513–1516.
Liu, S., Walshe, T., Long, G., and Cook, D. (2012) Evaluation of potential responses to invasive non-native species with structured decision making. Conservation Biology, 26, 539–546.
Loh, J., Green, R.E., Ricketts, T., et al. (2005) The Living Planet Index: using species population time series to track trends in biodiversity. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 360, 289–295.
Loibooki, M., Hofer, H., Campbell, K. and East, M.L. (2002) Bushmeat hunting by communities adjacent to the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania: the importance of livestock ownership and alternative sources of protein and income. Environmental Conservation, 29, 391–398.
Lötter, M.C. (2014) Technical report for the Mpumalanga Biodiversity Sector Plan – MBSP. Mpumalanga Tourism & Parks Agency, Nelspruit.
Ludwig, D. (2001) The era of management is over. Ecosystems, 4, 758–764.
Mace, G.M. (2014) Whose conservation? Science, 345, 1558–1560.
Mace, G.M. and Baillie, J.E.M. (2007) The 2010 biodiversity indicators: challenges for science and policy. Conservation Biology, 21, 1406–1413.
Mace, G.M. and Lande, R. (1991) Assessing extinction threats: toward a reevaluation of IUCN Threatened Species categories. Conservation Biology, 5, 148–157.
Mace, G.M., Collar, N.J., Gaston, K.J., et al. (2008) Quantification of extinction risk: IUCN’s system for classifying threatened species. Conservation Biology, 22, 1424–1442.
Mace, G. M., Cramer, W., Diaz, S., et al. (2010) Biodiversity targets after 2010. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 2, 1–6.
Mace, G.M., Norris, K. and Fitter, A.H. (2012) Biodiversity and ecosystem services: a multilayered relationship. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 27, 19–26.
Madsen, J., Bunnefeld, N., Nagy, S., et al. (2015) Guidelines on Sustainable Harvest of Migratory Waterbirds. AEWA Conservation Guidelines No. 5, AEWA Technical Series No. 62. Bonn, Germany.
Madsen, J. and Williams, J.H. (2012) International species management plan for the Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose Anser brachyrhynchus. AEWA Technical Series No. 48. Bonn, Germany.
Maguire, L.A. (2004) What can decision analysis do for invasive species management? Risk Analysis, 24, 859–68.
Maher, S.P., Kramer, A.M., Pulliam, J.T., Zokan, M.A., Bowden, S.E., Barton, H.D., Magori, K. and Drake, J.M. (2012). Spread of white-nose syndrome on a network regulated by geography and climate. Nature Communications, 3, 1306.
Malthus, T.R. (1798) An Essay on the Principle of Population. London: Johnson, J..
Mapstone, B., Little, L., Punt, A., et al. (2008) Management strategy evaluation for line fishing in the Great Barrier Reef: balancing conservation and multi-sector fishery objectives. Fisheries Research, 94, 315–329.
Marcot, B.G., Thompson, M.P., Runge, M.C., et al. (2012) Recent advances in applying decision science to managing national forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 285, 123–132.
Mardle, S. and Pascoe, S. (2002) Modelling the effects of trade-offs between long and short-term objectives in fisheries management. Journal of Environmental Management, 65, 49–62.
Martin, J., Fackler, P.L., Nichols, J.D., et al. (2011) An adaptive-management framework for optimal control of hiking near Golden Eagle nests in Denali National Park. Conservation Biology, 25, 316–323.
Martin, J., Runge, M.C., Nichols, J.D., Lubow, B.C. and Kendall, W.L. (2009) Structured decision making as a conceptual framework to identify thresholds for conservation and management. Ecological Applications, 19, 1079–1090.
Martin, T.G., Burgman, M.A., Fidler, F., et al. (2012) Eliciting expert knowledge in conservation science. Conservation Biology, 26, 29–38.
Matthews, R. (2007) Modelling the sustainability of rural systems: concepts, approaches and tools. Journal of Agricultural Science, 145, 636–641.
Mattisson, J., Odden, J., Nilsen, E.B., et al. (2011) Factors affecting Eurasian lynx kill rates on semi-domestic reindeer in northern Scandinavia: can ecological research contribute to the development of a fair compensation system? Biological Conservation, 144, 3009–3017.
Maxwell, S., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Jones, J.P.G., et al. (2015) Being smart about SMART environmental targets. Science, 347, 1075–1076.
Mayer, R.C., Davis, J.H. and Schoorman, F.D. (1995) An integrative model of organizational trust. Academy of Management Review, 20, 709–734.
McAllister, M., Starr, P.J., Restrepo, V.R. and Kirkwood, G. (1999) Formulating quantitative methods to evaluate fishery-management systems: what fishery processes should be modelled and what trade-offs should be made? ICES Journal of Marine Science, 56, 900–916.
McCarthy, M.A., Moore, A.L., Krauss, J., Morgan, J.W. and Clements, C.F. (2014) Linking indices for biodiversity monitoring to extinction risk theory. Conservation Biology, 28, 1575–1583.
McDonald-Madden, E., Baxter, P.W.J., Fuller, R.A., et al. (2010) Monitoring does not always count. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 25, 547–550.
McDonald-Madden, E., Baxter, P.W.J. and Possingham, H.P. (2008) Making robust decisions for conservation with restricted money and knowledge. Journal of Applied Ecology, 45, 1630–1638.
McDonald-Madden, E., Chades, I., McCarthy, M.A., Linkie, M. and Possingham, H.P. (2011) Allocating conservation resources between areas where persistence of a species is uncertain. Ecological Applications, 21, 844–858.
McDougall, K.L. (1982) Alpine vegetation of the Bogong High Plains in Victoria. Victorian Ministry for Conservation, Melbourne.
McDougall, K.L. (2007) Grazing and fire in two subalpine peatlands. Australian Journal of Botany, 55, 42–47.
McDougall, K.L. and Walsh, N.G. (2007) Treeless vegetation of the Australian Alps. Cunninghamia, 10, 1–57.
McDougall, K.L., Morgan, J.W., Walsh, N.G. and Williams, R.J. (2005) Plant invasions in treeless vegetation of the Australian Alps. Perspectives in Plant Ecology Evolution and Systematics, 7, 159–171.
McFall, L. (1987) Integrity. Ethics, 98, 5–20.
McGraw, J.B. and Furedi, M.A. (2005) Deer browsing and population viability of a forest understory plant. Science, 307, 920–922.
McGregor, J.A. (2004) Researching well-being: communicating between the needs of policy makers and the needs of people. Global Social Policy, 4, 337–358.
McGregor, J.A. (2007) Researching wellbeing: from concepts to methodology. In Gough, I. and McGregor, J.A., eds., Wellbeing in Developing Countries: From Theory to Research. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 316–350.
McGregor, J.A., Camfield, L., Masae, A. and Promphaking, B. (2008) Wellbeing, development and social change in Thailand. Thammasat Economic Journal, 26, 1–27.
McGregor, J.A. and Sumner, A. (2010) Beyond business as usual: what might 3-D wellbeing contribute to MDG momentum? IDS Bulletin, 41, 104–112.
McIntosh, B. S., Giupponi, C., Smith, C., et al. (2008) Bridging the gaps between design and use: developing tools to support environmental management and policy. In Jakeman, A.J., Voinov, A., Rizzoli, A.E. and Chen, S.H., eds. Environmental Modelling and Software, Developments in Integrated Environmental Assessment. Amsterdam: Elsevier. pp. 33–48.
McIntosh, B.S., Ascough, J.C., Twery, M., et al. (2011) Environmental decision support systems (EDSS) development – challenges and best practices. Environmental Modelling & Software, 26, 1389–1402.
McKinnon, M.C., Cheng, S.H., Dupre, S., et al. (2016) What are the effects of nature conservation on human well-being? A systematic map of empirical evidence from developing countries. Environmental Evidence, 5, 8.
McShane, T.O., Hirsch, P.D., Trung, T.C., et al. (2011) Hard choices: Making trade-offs between biodiversity conservation and human well-being. Biological Conservation, 144, 966–972.
Mduma, S., Sinclair, A.R.E. and Hilborn, R. (1999) Food regulates the Serengeti wildebeest: a 40-year record. Journal of Animal Ecology, 68, 1101–1122.
Mech, L.D. (1996) A new era for carnivore conservation. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 24, 397–401.
Mendoza, G.A. and Martins, H. (2006) Multi-criteria decision analysis in natural resource management: a critical review of methods and new modelling paradigms. Forest Ecology and Management, 230, 1–22.
Messer, N. and Tomsley, P. (2003) Local Institutions and Livelihoods: Guidelines for Analysis. Rome: Food and Agricultural Organisation.
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Synthesis. Washington, DC: Island Press.
Miller, B.W., Caplow, S.C. and Leslie, P.W. (2012) Feedbacks between conservation and social-ecological systems. Conservation Biology, 26, 218–227.
Mills, M., Nicol, S., Wells, J.A., et al. (2014) Minimizing the cost of keeping options open for conservation in a changing climate. Conservation Biology, 28, 646–653
Milner-Gulland, E.J. (1994) A population model for the management of the saiga antelope. Journal of Applied Ecology, 31, 25–39.
Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2011) Integrating fisheries approaches and household utility models for improved resource management. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108, 1741–1746.
Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2012) Interactions between human behaviour and ecological systems. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 367, 270–278.
Milner-Gulland, E.J. and Rowcliffe, J.M. (2007) Conservation and Sustainable Use: A Handbook of Techniques. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Milner-Gulland, E.J., Beddington, J.R. and Leader-Williams, N. (1992) Dehorning African rhinos: a model of optimal frequency and profitability. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 249, 83–87.
Milner-Gulland, E.J., Arroyo, B., Bellard, C., et al. (2010) New directions in management strategy evaluation through cross-fertilization between fisheries science and terrestrial conservation. Biology Letters, 6, 719–722.
Milner-Gulland, E.J., McGregor, J.A., Agarwala, M., et al. (2014) Accounting for the impact of conservation on human well-being. Conservation Biology, 28, 1160–1166.
Ministerial Taskforce on Bushfire Recovery (2003) Final report from the Ministerial Taskforce on Bushfire Recovery The Victorian State Government, Melbourne
MNRT (1998) The Wildlife Policy of Tanzania. Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism, united Republic of Tanzania, Dar es Salaam.
Moore, J.L. (2007) Managing willow invasion in alpine bogs. 3 month report to Parks Victoria. University of Melbourne.
Moore, J.L. (2008) Managing willow invasion on the Bogong High Plains. 12 month report to Parks Victoria. University of Melbourne.
Moore, J.L. (2009) Managing willow invasion on the Bogong High Plains. 24 month report to Parks Victoria. University of Melbourne.
Moore, J.L. (2013) Estimating willow search effectiveness on the Bogong High Plains. Report to Parks Victoria. Australian Research Centre for Urban Ecology, Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne.
Moore, J.L. and Runge, M.C. (2010a) Developing a long term strategy for managing willow invasion on the Bogong High Plains: Building the prototype model Technical Report. Report for Parks Victoria. University of Melbourne.
Moore, J.L. and Runge, M.C. (2010b) Developing a long term strategy for managing willow invasion on the Bogong High Plains: Prototype model results. Report for Parks Victoria. University of Melbourne.
Moore, J.L. and Runge, M.C. (2012) Combining structured decision making and value-of-information analyses to identify robust management strategies. Conservation Biology, 26, 810–820.
Moore, J.L. and McAllister, A.J. (2013) Willow Population Structure study 2011–12. Report to Parks Victoria. Australian Research Centre for Urban Ecology, Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne.
Moro, M., Fischer, A., Czajkowski, M., et al. (2013) An investigation using the choice experiment method into options for reducing illegal bushmeat hunting in western Serengeti. Conservation Letters, 6, 37–45.
Moro, M., Fischer, A., Milner-Gulland, E.J., et al. (2015) A stated preference investigation of household demand for illegally hunted bushmeat in the Serengeti, Tanzania. Animal Conservation, 18, 377–386.
Mueller, T., O’Hara, R.B., Converse, S.J., Urbanek, R.P. and Fagan, W.F. (2013) Social learning of migratory performance. Science, 341, 999–1002.
Mukherjee, N., Hugé, J., Sutherland, W.J., et al. ( 2015 ) The Delphi technique in ecology and biological conservation: applications and guidelines. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 6, 1097–1109.
Muradian, R., Corbera, E., Pascual, U., Kosoy, N. and May, P.H. (2010) Reconciling theory and practice: an alternative conceptual framework for understanding payments for environmental services. Ecological Economics, 69, 1202–1208.
Myers, N., Mittermeier, R.A., Mittermeier, C.G., da Fonseca, G.A. and Kent, J. (2000) Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature, 403, 853–858.
Mysterud, A. (2004) Temporal variation in the number of car-killed red deer Cervus elaphus in Norway. Wildlife Biology, 10, 203–211.
Naidoo, R., Balmford, A., Ferraro, P.J., et al. (2006) Integrating economic costs into conservation planning. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 21, 681–687.
Narayan, D., Chambers, R., Shah, M.K. and Petesch, P. (2000) Voices of the Poor: Crying Out for Change. New York: Oxford University Press for the World Bank.
Narayanan, P., Vineetha, S., Sarangan, G. and Bharadwaj, S. (2015) Charting new territory: community participation at the centre of global policy making. Community Development Journal, 50, 608–623.
Narloch, U., Pascual, U. and Drucker, A.G. (2013) How to achieve fairness in payments for ecosystem services? Insights from agrobiodiversity conservation auctions. Land Use Policy, 35, 107–118.
Naumann, J.D. and Jenkins, A.M. (1982) Prototyping: the new paradigm for systems development. MIS Q, 6, 29–44.
Neckles, H.A., Lyons, J.E., Guntenspergen, G.R., Shriver, W.G. and Adamowicz, S.C. (2014) Use of structured decision making to identify monitoring variables and management priorities for salt marsh ecosystems. Estuaries and Coasts, 1–18.
Nichols, J.D., Runge, M.C., Johnson, F.A. and Williams, B.K. (2007) Adaptive harvest management of North American waterfowl populations: a brief history and future prospects. Journal of Ornithology, 148, S343–S349.
Nichols, J.D. and Williams, B.K. (2006) Monitoring for conservation. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 21, 668–673.
Nicholson, E. and Possingham, H.P. (2007) Making conservation decisions under uncertainty for the persistence of multiple species. Ecological Applications, 17, 251–265.
Nicolson, C.R., Starfield, A.M., Kofinas, G.P. and Kruse, J.A. (2002) Ten heuristics for interdisciplinary modeling projects. Ecosystems, 5, 376–384.
Nicholson, E., Westphal, M.I., Frank, K., et al. (2006) A new method for conservation planning for the persistence of multiple species. Ecology Letters, 9, 1049–1060.
Nicholson, E., Collen, B., Barausse, A., et al. (2012) Making robust policy decisions using global biodiversity indicators. PLoS One, 7, e41128.
Nilsen, E.B., Pettersen, T., Gundersen, H., et al. (2005) Moose harvesting strategies in the presence of wolves. Journal of Applied Ecology, 42, 389–399.
Nilsen, E.B., Gaillard, J.M., Andersen, R., et al. (2009a) A slow life in hell or a fast life in heaven: demographic analyses of contrasting roe deer populations. Journal of Animal Ecology, 78, 585–594.
Nilsen, E.B., Skonhoft, A., Mysterud, A., et al. (2009b) The role of ecological and economic factors in the management of a spatially structured moose Alces alces population. Wildlife Biology, 15, 10–23.
Nilsen, E.B., Brøseth, H., Odden, J., Andrén, H. and Linnell, J.D.C. (2011) Prognosemodell for bestanden av gaupe i Norge. NINA Rapport 774: NINA.
Nilsen, E.B., Broseth, H., Odden, J. and Linnell, J.D.C. (2012a) Quota hunting of Eurasian lynx in Norway: patterns of hunter selection, hunter efficiency and monitoring accuracy. European Journal of Wildlife Research, 58, 325–333.
Nilsen, E.B., Linnell, J.D.C., Odden, J., Samelius, G. and Andren, H. (2012b) Patterns of variation in reproductive parameters in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx). Acta Theriologica, 57, 217–223.
Nielsen, M.R., Pouliot, M. and Bakkegaard, R. (2012) Combining income and assets measures to include the transitory nature of poverty in assessments of forest dependence: evidence from the Democratic Republic of Congo. Ecological Economics, 78, 37–46.
Norton-Griffiths, M. (1978) Counting Animals. Nairobi, Kenya: African Wildlife Leadership Foundation.
Norton-Griffiths, M. (2007) How many wildebeest do you need? World Economics, 8, 41–64.
Nuno, A. (2013) Managing social-ecological systems under uncertainty: implications for conservation. PhD thesis, Imperial College London, UK.
Nuno, A., Bunnefeld, N. and Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2013) Matching observations and reality: using simulation models to improve monitoring under uncertainty in the Serengeti. Journal of Applied Ecology, 50, 488–498.
Nuno, A., Bunnefeld, N., Naiman, L.C. and Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2013) A novel approach to assessing the prevalence and drivers of illegal bushmeat hunting in the Serengeti. Conservation Biology, 27, 1355–1365.
Nuno, A., Bunnefeld, N. and Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2014) Managing social–ecological systems under uncertainty: implementation in the real world. Ecology and Society, 19, 52.
Nuno, A., Milner-Gulland, E.J. and Bunnefeld, N. (2015) Detecting abundance trends under uncertainty: the influence of budget, observation error and environmental change. Animal Conservation, 18, 331–340.
Nuno, A. and St John, F.A.V. (2015) How to ask sensitive questions in conservation: a review of specialised questioning techniques. Biological Conservation, 189, 5–15.
Nystrom, J., Dalen, L., Hellstrom, P., et al. (2006) Effect of local prey availability on gyrfalcon diet: DNA analysis on ptarmigan remains at nest sites. Journal of Zoology, 269, 57–64.
Nystrom, J., Ekenstedt, J., Engstrom, J. and Angerbjorn, A. (2005) Gyr Falcons, ptarmigan and microtine rodents in northern Sweden. Ibis, 147, 587–597.
Odden, J., Linnell, J.D.C. and Andersen, R. (2006) Diet of Eurasian lynx, Lynx lynx, in the boreal forest of southeastern Norway: the relative importance of livestock and hares at low roe deer density. European Journal of Wildlife Research, 52, 237–244.
Odden, J., Nilsen, E.B. and Linnell, J.D.C. (2013) Density of wild prey modulates lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep. PLoS One, 8, e79261.
Ostrom, E. (1990) Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ostrom, E. (2009) A general framework for analyzing sustainability of social-ecological systems. Science, 325, 419–422.
Pagiola, S., Arcenas, A. and Platais, G. (2005) Can payments for environmental services help reduce poverty? An exploration of the issues and the evidence to date from Latin America. World Development, 33, 237–253.
Palmer Fry, B., Agarwala, M., Atkinson, G., et al. (2015) Monitoring local wellbeing in environmental interventions: A consideration of practical trade-offs. Oryx. [online] doi:10.1017/S003060531500112X.
Parks Victoria, (2014) Bogong High plains and Mount Buffalo Seeding Willow Strategy. Prepared for Parks Victoria, North East, by Sarah Nicholas.
Pauly, D., Christensen, V., Dalsgaard, J., Froese, R. and Torres, F. (1998) Fishing down marine food webs. Science, 279, 860–863.
Pauly, D., Christensen, V. and Walters, C. (2000) Ecopath, Ecosim, and Ecospace as tools for evaluating ecosystem impact of fisheries. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 57, 697–706.
Pauly, D. and Watson, R. (2005) Background and interpretation of the ‘Marine Trophic Index’ as a measure of biodiversity. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 360, 415–423.
Pauly, D., Hilborn, R. and Branch, T.A. (2013) Fisheries: does catch reflect abundance? Nature, 494, 303–306.
Pearl, J. (1991) Probabilistic Reasoning in Intelligent Systems: Networks of Plausible Inference, Revised second printing. ed., San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.
Pedersen, H.C., Steen, H., Kastdalen, L., et al. (2004) Weak compensation of harvest despite strong density-dependent growth in willow ptarmigan. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences, 271, 381–385.
Pereira, H.M., Leadley, P.W., Proença, V., et al. (2010) Scenarios for global biodiversity in the 21st century. Science, 330, 1496–1501.
Pereira, H.M., Navarro, L.M. and Martins, I.S. (2012) Global biodiversity change: the bad, the good, and the unknown. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 37, 25.
Pereira, H.M., Ferrier, S., Walters, M., et al. (2013) Essential biodiversity variables. Science, 339, 277–278.
Perrings, C., Naeem, S., Ahrestani, F., et al. (2010) Ecosystem services for 2020. Science, 330, 323–324.
Perrings, C., Duraiappah, A., Larigauderie, A. and Mooney, H. (2011) The biodiversity and ecosystem services science–policy interface. Science, 331, 1139–1140.
Phillips, S.J. and Dudik, M. (2008) Modeling of species distributions with Maxent: new extensions and a comprehensive evaluation. Ecography, 31, 161–175.
Pikitch, E.K., Santora, C., Babcock, E.A., et al. (2004) Ecosystem-based fishery management. Science, 305, 346–347.
Pitcher, C.R., Burridge, C.Y., Wassenberg, T.J., Hill, B.J. and Poiner, I.R. (2009) A large scale BACI experiment to test the effects of prawn trawling on seabed biota in a closed area of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, Australia. Fisheries Research, 99, 168–183.
Plaganyi, E.E., Rademeyer, R.A., Butterworth, D.S., Cunningham, C.L. and Johnston, S.J. (2007) Making management procedures operational – innovations implemented in South Africa. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 64, 626–632.
Polasky, S. (2008) Why conservation planning needs socioeconomic data. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105, 6505–6506.
Pollnac, R.B. and Poggie, J.J. (2008) Happiness, well-being and psychocultural adaptation to the stresses associated with marine fishing. Human Ecology Review, 15, 194–200.
Pomeroya, R.S., Katonb, B.M. and Harkes, I. (2001) Conditions affecting the success of fisheries co-management: lessons from Asia. Marine Policy, 25, 197–208.
Pooley, S. (2013) Historians are from Venus, ecologists are from Mars. Conservation Biology, 27, 1481–1483.
Pooley, S.P., Mendelsohn, J.A. and Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2014) Hunting down the chimera of multiple disciplinarity in conservation science. Conservation Biology, 28, 22–32.
Possingham, H.P., Andelman, S.J., Noon, B.R., Trombulak, S. and Pulliam, H.R. (2001) Making smart conservation decisions. In Soule, M. and Orians, G., eds. Conservation Biology: Research Priorities for the Next Decade. Washington DC: Island Press, pp. 225–244.
Possingham, H.P., Ball, I. and Andelman, S.J. (2000) Mathematical methods for identifying representative reserve networks. In Ferson, S. and Burgman, M.A., eds. Quantitative Methods for Conservation Biology. New York: Springer, pp. 291–306.
Potts, S.G., Biesmeijer, J.C., Kremen, C., et al. (2010) Global pollinator declines: trends, impacts and drivers. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 25, 345–353.
Prell, C., Hubacek, K., Reed, M., et al. (2007) If you have a hammer everything looks like a nail: traditional versus participatory model building. Interdisciplinary Science Reviews, 32, 263–282.
Pressey, R.L., Humphries, C.J., Margules, C.R., Vanewright, R.I. and Williams, P.H. (1993) Beyond opportunism – key principles for systematic reserve selection. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 8, 124–128.
Pressey, R.L. and Nicholls, A.O. (1989) Application of a numerical algorithm to the selection of reserves in semi-arid New-South-Wales. Biological Conservation, 50, 263–278.
Pullin, A.S., Bangpan, M., Dalrymple, S., et al. (2013) Human well-being impacts of terrestrial protected areas. Environmental Evidence, 2, 1–41.
Pullin, A.S. and Knight, T.T.M. (2003) Support for decision making in conservation practice: an evidence-based approach. Journal for Nature Conservation, 11, 83–90.
Punt, A.E., A’Mar, T., Bond, N.A., et al. (2013) Fisheries management under climate and environmental uncertainty: control rules and performance simulation. ICES Journal of Marine Science, doi:10.1093/icesjms/fst057
Punt, A.E. and Butterworth, D.S. (1995) The effects of future consumption by the Cape fur seal on catches and catch rates of the cape hakes .4. Modelling the biological interaction between Cape fur seals Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus and the cape hakes Merluccius capensis and M-paradoxus. South African Journal of Marine Science, 16, 255–285.
Punt, A.E., Butterworth, D.S., de Moor, C.L., De Oliveira, J.A.A. and Haddon, M. (2016) Management strategy evaluation: best practices. Fish and Fisheries, 17, 303–334.
Punt, A.E., Deng, R.A., Dichmont, C.M., et al. (2010) Integrating size-structured assessment and bioeconomic management advice in Australia’s northern prawn fishery. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 67, 1785–1801.
Punt, A.E., Deng, R., Pascoe, S., et al. (2011) Calculating optimal effort and catch trajectories for multiple species modelled using a mix of size-structured, delay-difference and biomass dynamics models. Fisheries Research, 109, 201–211.
Punt, A.E. and Donovan, G.P. (2007) Developing management procedures that are robust to uncertainty: lessons from the International Whaling Commission. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 64, 603–612.
Putman, R.J. (1986) Foraging by roe deer in agricultural areas and impact on arable crops. Journal of Applied Ecology, 23, 91–99.
Putman, R.J. (2003) Deer-related traffic accidents. Veterinary Record, 153, 64.
Putman, R.J. and Moore, N.P. (1998) Impact of deer in lowland Britain on agriculture, forestry and conservation habitats. Mammal Review, 28, 141–163.
Ravallion, M. (2003) The debate on globalization, poverty and inequality: why measurement matters. International Affairs, 79, 739–753.
Reckhow, K.H. (1999) Water quality prediction and probability network models. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 56, 1150–1158.
Redpath, S.M., Arroyo, B.E., Leckie, F.M., et al. (2004) Using decision modeling with stakeholders to reduce human–wildlife conflict: a Raptor–Grouse case study. Conservation Biology, 18, 350–359.
Redpath, S.M., Gutiérrez, R.J., Wood, K.A. and Young, J.C., eds. (2015) Conflicts in Conservation: Navigating Towards Solutions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Redpath, S.M., Young, J., Evely, A., et al. (2013) Understanding and managing conservation conflicts. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 28, 100–109.
Reed, M.S. (2008) Stakeholder participation for environmental management: a literature review. Biological Conservation, 141, 2417–2431.
Regan, H.M., Ben-Haim, Y., Langford, B., et al. (2005) Robust decision-making under severe uncertainty for conservation management. Ecological Applications, 15, 1471–1477.
Regan, H.M., Colyvan, M. and Burgman, M. (2002) A taxonomy and treatment of uncertainty for ecology and conservation biology. Ecological Applications, 12, 618–628.
Rentsch, D. (2011) The nature of bushmeat hunting in the Serengeti Ecosystem, Tanzania: socio-economic drivers of consumption of migratory wildlife. PhD thesis, University of Minnesota, USA.
Rentsch, D. and Damon, A. (2013) Prices, poaching, and protein alternatives: an analysis of bushmeat consumption around Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. Ecological Economics, 91, 1–9.
Rice, J. (2014) Evolution of international commitments for fisheries sustainability. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 71, 157–165.
Rice, J.C. and Rochet, M.-J. (2005) A framework for selecting a suite of indicators for fisheries management. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 62, 516–527.
Ripple, W.J. and Beschta, R.L. (2003) Wolf reintroduction, predation risk, and cottonwood recovery in Yellowstone National Park. Forest Ecology and Management, 184, 299–313.
Rist, L., Campbell, B.M. and Frost, P. (2013) Adaptive management: where are we now? Environmental Conservation, 40, 5–18.
Rittel, H.W.J. and Webber, M.M. (1973) Dilemmas in a general theory of planning. Policy Sciences, 4, 155–169.
Rochet, M.-J. and Rice, J.C. (2009) Simulation-based management strategy evaluation: ignorance disguised as mathematics? ICES Journal of Marine Sciences, 66, 754–762.
Rout, T.M., Hauser, C.E. and Possingham, H.P. (2009) Optimal adaptive management for the translocation of a threatened species. Ecological Applications, 19, 515–526.
Rout, T., Kirkwood, R., Sutherland, D., Murphy, S. and McCarthy, M.A. (2014) When to declare successful eradication of an invasive predator? Animal Conservation, 17, 125–132.
Rowe, G. and Frewer, L.J. (2000) Public participation methods: a framework for evaluation. Science, Technology & Human Values, 25, 3–29.
Runge, M.C. (2011) An introduction to adaptive management for threatened and endangered species. Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management, 2, 220–233.
Runge, M.C., Bean, E., Smith, D.R. and Kokos, S. (2011a) Non-native fish control below Glen Canyon Dam. Report from a structured decision-making project.
Runge, M.C., Converse, S.J. and Lyons, J.E. (2011b) Which uncertainty? Using expert elicitation and expected value of information to design an adaptive program. Biological Conservation, 144, 1214–1223.
Sæther, B.E., Engen, S. and Solberg, E.J. (2001) Optimal harvest of age-structured populations of moose Alces alces in a fluctuating environment. Wildlife Biology, 7, 171–179.
Sæther, B.E., Engen, S., Solberg, E.J. and Heim, M. (2007) Estimating the growth of a newly established moose population using reproductive value. Ecography, 30, 417–421.
Sæther, B.E., Engen, S., Odden, J., et al. (2010) Sustainable harvest strategies for age-structured Eurasian lynx populations: the use of reproductive value. Biological Conservation, 143, 1970–1979.
Sainsbury, K.J., Punt, A.E. and Smith, A.D.M. (2000) Design of operational management strategies for achieving fishery ecosystem objectives. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 57, 731–741.
Sainsbury, K., Burgess, N.D., Sabuni, F., et al. (2015) Exploring stakeholder perceptions of conservation outcomes from alternative income generating activities in Tanzanian villages adjacent to Eastern Arc Mountain forests. Biological Conservation, 191, 20–28.
Sandbrook, C., Adams, W.M. and Monteferri, B. (2015) Digital games and biodiversity conservation. Conservation Letters, 8, 118–124.
Sandercock, B.K., Nilsen, E.B., Broseth, H. and Pedersen, H.C. (2011) Is hunting mortality additive or compensatory to natural mortality? Effects of experimental harvest on the survival and cause-specific mortality of willow ptarmigan. Journal of Animal Ecology, 80, 244–258.
Schley, L. and Roper, T.J. (2003) Diet of wild boar Sus scrofa in Western Europe, with particular reference to consumption of agricultural crops. Mammal Review, 33, 43–56.
Schlüter, M., McAllister, R.R.J., Arlinghaus, R., et al. (2012) New horizons for managing the environment: a review of coupled social-ecological systems modeling. Natural Resource Modeling, 25, 219–272.
Schoemaker, P.J.H. (1991) The quest for optimality: a positive heuristic of science? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 14, 205–215.
Scholes, R.J., Mace, G.M., Turner, W., et al. (2008) Toward a global biodiversity observing system. Science, 321, 1044–1045.
Secretariat of the CBD (2010) Global Biodiversity Outlook 3. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal.
Seiler, A., Helldin, J.O. and Seiler, C. (2004) Road mortality in Swedish mammals: results of a drivers’ questionnaire. Wildlife Biology, 10, 225–233.
SEMP (2006) Report of a study of stakeholders of the Serengeti ecosystem. Serengeti Ecosystem Management Project.
Sen, A. (1999) Development as Freedom. New York: Knopf Press.
Sen, S. and Neilsen, J.R. (1996) Fisheries co-management a comparative analysis. Marine Policy, 20, 405–418.
Servanty, S., Converse, S.J. and Bailey, L.L. (2014) Demography of a reintroduced population: moving toward management models for an endangered species, the whooping crane. Ecological Applications, 24, 927–937.
Shannon, L., Coll, M., Bundy, A., et al. (2014) Trophic level-based indicators to track fishing impacts across marine ecosystems. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 512, 115–140.
Shea, K. and The NCEAS Working Group on Population Management (1998) Management of populations in conservation, harvesting and control. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 13, 371–374.
Shetler, J.B. (2007) Imagining Serengeti: A History of Landscape Memory in Tanzania from Earliest Times to the Present. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press.
Silvertown, J. (2009) A new dawn for citizen science. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 24, 467–471.
Sinclair, A.R.E. (2003) Mammal population regulation, keystone processes and ecosystem dynamics. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 358, 1729–1740.
Sinclair, A.R.E. (2012) Serengeti Story: Life and Science in the World’s Greatest Wildlife Region. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Sinclair, A.R.E., Mduma, S., Hopcraft, J.G.C., et al. (2007) Long-term ecosystem dynamics in the Serengeti: lessons for conservation. Conservation Biology, 21, 580–590.
Skogen, K. and Thrane, C. (2008) Wolves in context: using survey data to situate attitudes within a wider cultural framework. Society & Natural Resources, 21, 17–33.
Skonhoft, A. (2005) The costs and benefits of a migratory species under different management schemes. Journal of Environmental Management, 76, 167–175.
Skonhoft, A. and Olaussen, J.O. (2005) Managing a migratory species that is both a value and a pest. Land Economics, 81, 34–50.
Smith, A.D.M. (1994) Management strategy evaluation – the light on the hill. In Hancock, D., ed. Population Dynamics for Fisheries Management. Perth: Australian Society for Fish Biology, pp. 249–253.
Smith, D.W., Peterson, R.O. and Houston, D.B. (2003) Yellowstone after wolves. Bioscience, 53, 330–340.
Smith, A.D.M., Sachse, M., Smith, D.C., et al. (2004) Alternative management strategies for the Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark Fishery. Qualitative Assessment, Stage 1. Report to Australian Fisheries Management Authority. Canberra, CSIRO.
Smith, A.D.M., Fulton, E.J., Hobday, A.J., Smith, D.C. and Shoulder, P. (2007a) Scientific tools to support the practical implementation of ecosystem-based fisheries management. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 64, 633–639.
Smith, A.D.M., Sachse, M., Fulton, E.A., et al. (2007b) Evaluation of Alternative Strategies for Management of Commonwealth Fisheries in Southeastern Australia – Report on the Qualitative Evaluation of Additional Scenarios. Canberra: Australian Fisheries Management Authority.
Smith, A.D.M., Smith, D.C., Tuck, G.N., et al. (2008) Experience in implementing harvest strategies in Australia’s south-eastern fisheries. Fisheries Research, 94, 373–379.
Smith, A.D.M., Brown, C.J., Bulman, C.M., et al. (2011a) Impacts of fishing low-trophic level species on marine ecosystems. Science, 333, 1147–1150.
Smith, D.C., Fulton, E.A., Johnson, P., et al. (2011b) Developing Integrated Performance Measures for Spatial Management of Marine Systems. Final Report FRDC Project No: 2004/005.
Smith, A.D.M., Smith, D.C., Haddon, M., et al. (2013) Implementing harvest strategies in Australia: 5 years on. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 71, 195–203.
Solberg, E.J. and Saether, B.E. (1999) Hunter observations of moose Alces alces as a management tool. Wildlife Biology, 5, 107–117.
Solberg, E.J., Sæther, B.-E., Strand, O. and Loison, A. (1999) Dynamics of a harvested moose population in a variable environment. Journal of Animal Ecology, 68, 186–204.
Somers, I. and Wang, Y. (1997) A simulation model for evaluating seasonal closures in Australia’s multispecies Northern Prawn Fishery. North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 17, 114–130.
Somers, I.F. (1994) Species composition and distribution of commercial peneaid prawn catches in the Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia, in relation to depth and sediment type. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 45, 317–335.
Sommerville, M., Jones, J.P.G., Rahajaharison, M. and Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2010) The role of fairness and benefit distribution in community-based payment for environmental services interventions: a case study from Menabe, Madagascar. Ecological Economics, 69, 1262–1271.
St John, F.A.V., Edwards-Jones, G. and Jones, J.P.G. (2010) Conservation and human behaviour: lessons from social psychology. Wildlife Research, 37, 658–667.
Stankey, G.H., Clark, R.N. and Borman, B.T. (2005) Adaptive Management of Natural Resources: Theory, Concepts and Management Institutions. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest service, Pacific Northwest Research Station.
Stanton, J.C. (2014) Present-day risk assessment would have predicted the extinction of the passenger pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius). Biological Conservation, 180, 11–20.
Stephanson, S.L. and Mascia, M.B. (2014) Putting people on the map through an approach that integrates social data in conservation planning. Conservation Biology, 28, 1236–1248.
Stevens, M., Vitos, M., Altenbuchner, J., et al. (2014) Taking participatory citizen science to extremes. IEEE Pervasive Computing, 13, 20–29.
Stiglitz, J., Sen, A. and Fitoussi, J. (2009) Final Report of the Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress. Paris, France.
Storaas, T., Gundersen, H., Henriksen, H. and Andreassen, H.P. (2001) The economic value of moose in Norway – a review. Alces, 37, 97–107.
Summers, J.K., Smith, L.M., Case, J.L. and Linthurst, R.A. (2012) A review of the elements of human well-being with an emphasis on the contribution of ecosystem services. Ambio, 41, 327–340.
Sunderland, T., Sunderland-Groves, J., Shanley, P. and Campbell, B. (2009), Bridging the gap: how can information access and exchange between conservation biologists and field practitioners be improved for better conservation outcomes? Biotropica, 41, 549–554.
Sutherland, W.J., Pullin, A.S., Dolman, P.M. and Knight, T.M. (2004) The need for evidence-based conservation. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 19, 305–308.
Swenson, J.E., Sandegren, F., Bjarvall, A., et al. (1994) Size, trend, distribution and conservation of the brown bear Ursus-Arctos population in Sweden. Biological Conservation, 70, 9–17.
Sylvèn, S. (1995) Moose harvest strategy to maximize yield value for multiple goal management – a simulation study. Agricultural Systems, 49, 277–298.
Szabo, J.K., Briggs, S.V., Lonie, R., et al. (2009) The feasibility of applying a cost-effective approach for assigning priorities for threatened species recovery with a case study from New South Wales, Australia. Pacific Conservation Biology, 15, 238–245.
Szymanski, J.A., Runge, M.C., Parkin, M.J. and Armstrong, M. (2009). White-nose syndrome management: report on structured decision making initiative. Department of Interior, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Fort Snelling, Minn.
Teh, L.S.L., Teh, L.C.L. and Rashid Sumaila, U. (2014) Time preference of small-scale fishers in open access and traditionally managed reef fisheries. Marine Policy, 44, 222–231.
Terama, E., Milligan, B., Jiménez-Aybar, R., Mace, G.M. and Ekins, P. (2015) Accounting for the environment as an economic asset: global progress and realizing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Sustainability Science, 1–6.
Tetlock, P.E. (2003) Thinking the unthinkable: sacred values and taboo cognitions. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7, 320–324.
Vitos, M. Stevens, M., Lewis, J. and Haklay, M. (2013) Making local knowledge matter: supporting non-literate people to monitor poaching in Congo. DEV ‘13, 11–12 January 2013, Bangalore, India.
Thebaud, O., Little, L.R. and Fulton, E.A. (2014) Evaluation of management strategies in Ningaloo Marine Park, Western Australia. International Journal of Sustainable Society, 6, 102–119.
Thogmartin, W.E., Sanders-Reed, C.A., Szymanski, J.A., McKann, P.C., Pruitt, L., King, R.A., Runge, M.C. and Russell, R.E. (2013). White-nose syndrome is likely to extirpate the endangered Indiana bat over large parts of its range. Biological Conservation, 160, 162–172.
Tittensor, D.P., Walpole, M., Hill, S.L., et al. (2014) A mid-term analysis of progress toward international biodiversity targets. Science, 346, 241–244.
Tolsma, A., and Shannon, J. (2007) Evaluating the rehabilitation needs of mossbeds in the Alpine and Mt Buffalo National Parks after the 2006/07 fires. Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research, Department of Sustainability and Environment
Toscas, P.J., Vance, D.J., Burridge, C.Y., et al. (2009) Spatio-temporal modelling of prawns in Albatross Bay, Karumba and Mornington Island. Fisheries Research, 96, 173–187.
Travers, H., Clements, T., Keane, A. and Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2011) Incentives for cooperation: the effects of institutional controls on common pool resource extraction in Cambodia. Ecological Economics, 71, 151–161.
Trimble, M. and Johnson, D. (2013) Artisanal fishing as an undesirable way of life? The implications for governance of fishers’ wellbeing aspirations in coastal Uruguay and southeastern Brazil. Marine Policy, 37, 37–44.
Tyre, A.J., Peterson, J.T., Converse, S.J., et al. (2011) Adaptive management of bull trout populations in the Lemhi Basin. Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management, 2, 262–281.
UNDP (2012) Protected areas In International Guidebook of Environmental Finance Tools – A Sectoral Approach: Protected Areas, Sustainable Forests, Sustainable Agriculture and Pro-Poor Energy. pp. 1–54.
Urbanek, R.P., Fondow, L.E.A., Satyshur, C.D., et al. (2005) First cohort of migratory whooping cranes reintroduced to eastern North America: the first year after release. Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop, 9, 213–223.
Usoro, A., Sharratt, M.W., Tsui, E. and Shekhar, S. (2007) Trust as an antecedent to knowledge sharing in virtual communities of practice. Knowledge Management, Research & Practice, 5, 199–212.
Vačkář, D., ten Brink, B., Loh, J., Baillie, J.E.M. and Reyers, B. (2012) Review of multispecies indices for monitoring human impacts on biodiversity. Ecological Indicators, 17, 58–67.
van Strien, A.J., Soldaat, L.L. and Gregory, R.D. (2012) Desirable mathematical properties of indicators for biodiversity change. Ecological Indicators, 14, 202–208.
Van Vugt, M. (2009) Averting the tragedy of the commons: using social psychological science to protect the environment. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18, 169–173.
Venables, W.N. and Dichmont, C.M. (2004) A generalised linear model for catch allocation: an example from Australia’s Northern Prawn Fishery. Fisheries Research, 70, 409–426.
Venter, O., Sanderson, E.W., Magrach, A., et al. (2016) Sixteen years of change in the global terrestrial human footprint and implications for biodiversity conservation. Nature Communications, 7, 12558.
Victorian Department of Sustainability and Parks Victoria (2008) Great Divide Fire Recovery Plan. Victorian Department of Sustainability and Parks Victoria.
Visconti, P., Bakkenes, M., Baisero, D., et al. (2016) Projecting global biodiversity indicators under future development scenarios. Conservation Letters, 9, 5–13.
Voinov, A. and Bousquet, F. (2010) Modelling with stakeholders. Environmental Modelling & Software, 25, 1268–1281.
Wabakken, P., Sand, H., Liberg, O. and Bjarvall, A. (2001) The recovery, distribution, and population dynamics of wolves on the Scandinavian peninsula, 1978–1998. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 79, 710–725.
Waldron, A., Mooers, A.O., Miller, D.C., et al. (2013) Targeting global conservation funding to limit immediate biodiversity declines. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110, 12144–12148.
Walker, W.E., Harremoës, P., Rotmans, J., et al. (2003) Defining uncertainty: a conceptual basis for uncertainty management in model-based decision support. Integrated Assessment, 4, 5–17.
Walpole, M., Almond, R.E.A., Besançon, C., et al. (2009) Tracking progress toward the 2010 biodiversity target and beyond. Science, 325, 1503–1504.
Walters, C.J. (1986) Adaptive Management of Renewable Resources. New York: Macmillan.
Walters, C.J. (2007) Is adaptive management helping to solve fisheries problems? Ambio, 36, 304–307.
Walters, C.J. and Hilborn, R. (1978) Ecological optimization and adaptive management. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 9, 157–188.
Wam, H.K., Pedersen, H.C. and Hjeljord, O. (2012) Balancing hunting regulations and hunter satisfaction: an integrated biosocioeconomic model to aid in sustainable management. Ecological Economics, 79, 89–96.
Wam, H.K., Andersen, O. and Pedersen, H.C. (2013) Grouse hunting regulations and hunter typologies in Norway. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 18, 45–57.
Wang, Y.G. and Die, D. (1996) Stock-recruitment relationships of the tiger prawns (Penaeus esculentus and Penaeus semisulcatus) in the Australian northern prawn fishery. Marine and Freshwater Research, 47, 87–95.
Wassen, M.J., Runhaar, H., Barendregt, A. and Okruszko, T. (2011) Evaluating the role of participation in modeling studies for environmental planning. Environment & Planning B: Planning and Design, 38, 338–358.
Watling, L. and Norse, E.A. (1998) Disturbance of the seabed by mobile fishing gear: a comparison to forest clearcutting. Conservation Biology, 12, 1180–1197.
Watson, R.M. (1965) Game utilization in the Serengeti: preliminary investigations. I. The British Veterinary Journal, 121, 540–546.
Webb, J.A., Stewardson, M.J., Chee, Y.E., et al. (2010) Negotiating the turbulent boundary: the challenges of building a science-management collaboration for landscape-scale monitoring of environmental flows. Marine and Freshwater Research, 61, 798–807.
West, P., Igoe, J. and Brockington, D. (2006) Parks and peoples: the social impact of protected areas. Annual Review of Anthropology, 35, 251–277.
Westgate, M.J., Likens, G.E. and Lindenmayer, D.B. (2013) Adaptive management of biological systems: a review. Biological Conservation, 158, 128–139.
White, P.C.L. and Ward, A.I. (2010) Interdisciplinary approaches for the management of existing and emerging human–wildlife conflicts. Wildlife Research, 37, 623–629.
White, S.C. (2010) Analysing wellbeing: a framework for development practice. Development in Practice, 20, 158–172.
White, S.C. and Jha, S. (2013) The Politics of Wellbeing, Conservation and Development in Chiawa, Zambia. Wellbeing & Poverty Pathways Briefing No. 2. Bath: University of Bath.
Whitehead, A.L., Kujala, H., Ives, C.D., et al. (2014) Integrating biological and social values when prioritizing places for biodiversity conservation. Conservation Biology, 28, 992–1003.
Williams, B.K. (2001) Uncertainty, learning, and the optimal management of wildlife. Environmental and Ecological Statistics, 8, 269–288.
Williams, B.K., Nichols, J.D. and Conroy, M.J. (2002) Analysis and Management of Animal Populations. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Williams, B.K., Szaro, R.C. and Shapiro, C.D. (2007). Adaptive management: the U.S. Department of the Interior technical guide. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, Adaptive Management Working Group. Available at: http://www.doi.gov/initiatives/AdaptiveManagement/TechGuide.pdf (Accessed November 2011).
Williams, B.K., Szaro, R.C. and Shapiro, C.D. (2009) Adaptive Management. The U.S. Department of the Interior Technical Guide. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC.
Williams, R.J. and Costin, A.B. (1994) Alpine and subalpine vegetation. In Groves, R.H., ed. Australian Vegetation, 2nd edn. Melbourne: Cambridge University Press, pp. 467–500.
Williams, R.J., Wahren, C.H., Tolsma, A.D., et al. (2008) Large fires in Australian alpine landscapes: their part in the historical fire regime and their impacts on alpine biodiversity. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 17, 793–808.
Wilson, K.A., Carwardine, J. and Possingham, H.P. (2009) Setting conservation priorities. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1162, 237–264.
Winkler, R. (2011) Why do ICDPs fail? The relationship between agriculture, hunting and ecotourism in wildlife conservation. Resource and Energy Economics, 33, 55–78.
Woodhouse, E., Mills, M.A., McGowan, P.J.K. and Milner-Gulland, E.J. (2015a) Religious relationships with the environment in a Tibetan rural community: interactions and contrasts with popular notions of indigenous environmentalism. Human Ecology, 43, 295–307.
Woodhouse, E., Homewood, K.M., Beauchamp, E., et al. (2015b) Guiding principles for evaluating the impacts of conservation interventions on human well-being. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 370, 20150103.
Woodhouse, E., de Lange, E. and Milner-Gulland, E.J. and contributors (2016) Evaluating the Impact of Conservation Interventions on Human Wellbeing: Guidance for Practitioners. International Institute for Environment and Development, London.
Wright, J.H., Hill, N.A.O., Roe, D., et al. (2016) Reframing the concept of alternative livelihoods. Conservation Biology, 30, 7–13.
Wynne, B. (1992) Misunderstood misunderstanding: social identities and public uptake of science. Public Understanding of Science, 1, 281–304.
Ye, Y. (2000) Is recruitment related to spawning stock in penaeid shrimp fisheries? ICES Journal of Marine Science, 57, 1103–1109.
Zhou, S.J., Vance, D.J., Dichmont, C.M., Burridge, C.Y. and Toscas, P.J. (2008) Estimating prawn abundance and catchability from catch-effort data: comparison of fixed and random effects models using maximum likelihood and hierarchical Bayesian methods. Marine and Freshwater Research, 59, 1–9.
Zurell, D., Berger, U., Cabral, J.S., Jeltsch, F., Meynard, C.N., Münkemüller, T., Nehrbass, N., Pagel, J., Reineking, B., Schröder, B. and Grimm, V. (2010) The virtual ecologist approach: simulating data and observers. Oikos, 119(4), 622–635.