Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
The Design and Statistical Analysis of Animal Experiments
  • Cited by 47
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the print book

Book description

Written for animal researchers, this book provides a comprehensive guide to the design and statistical analysis of animal experiments. It has long been recognised that the proper implementation of these techniques helps reduce the number of animals needed. By using real-life examples to make them more accessible, this book explains the statistical tools employed by practitioners. A wide range of design types are considered, including block, factorial, nested, cross-over, dose-escalation and repeated measures and techniques are introduced to analyse the experimental data generated. Each analysis technique is described in non-mathematical terms, helping readers without a statistical background to understand key techniques such as t-tests, ANOVA, repeated measures, analysis of covariance, multiple comparison tests, non-parametric and survival analysis. This is also the first text to describe technical aspects of InVivoStat, a powerful open-source software package developed by the authors to enable animal researchers to analyse their data and obtain informative results.

Reviews

'At last, a readable statistics book focusing solely on preclinical experimental designs, data and its analysis that should form part of an in-vivo scientist’s personal library. The author’s unique insight into the statistical needs of preclinical scientists has allowed them to compile a non-technical guide that can facilitate sound experimental design, meaningful data analysis and appropriate scientific conclusions. I would also encourage all readers to download and explore 'InVivoStat', a powerful software package that both my group and I use on a daily basis.'

Darrel J. Pemberton - Janssen Research and Development

'This book provides an indispensable reference for any in-vivo scientist. It addresses common pitfalls in animal experiments and provides tangible advice to address sources of bias, thus increasing the robustness of the data. … The text links experimental design and statistical analysis in a practical way, easily accessible without any prior statistical knowledge. The statistical concepts are described in plain English, avoiding overuse of mathematical formulas and illustrated with numerous examples relevant to biomedical scientists. … This book will help scientists improve the design of animal experiments and give them the confidence to use more complex designs, enabling more efficient use of animals and reducing the number of experimental animals needed overall.'

Nathalie Percie du Sert - National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research

'This book will transform the way biomedical scientists plan their work and interpret their results. Although the subject matter covers complex points, it is easy to read and packed with relevant examples. There are two particularly striking features. First, at no point do the authors resort to mathematical equations as a substitute for explaining the concepts. Secondly, they explain why the choice of experimental design is so important, why the design affects the statistical analysis and how to ensure the choice of the most appropriate statistical test. The final section describes how to use InvivoStat (a software package, assembled by the authors), which enables researchers to put into practice all the points covered in this book. This is an invaluable combination of resources that should be within easy reach of anyone carrying out experiments in the biomedical sciences, especially if their work involves using live animals.'

Clare Stanford - University College London

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Save to Kindle
  • Save to Dropbox
  • Save to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
×

Contents

References
Afsarinejad, K. (1983). Balanced repeated measurements designs. Biometrika, 70(1), 199–204.
Anderson, V. L. and McLean, R. A. (1974). Design of Experiments. Marcel Dekker Inc.: New York.
Andreasen, J. T., Henningsen, K., Bate, S. T., Christiansen, S. and Wiborg, O. (2011). Nicotine reverses anhedonic-like response and cognitive impairment in the rat chronic mild stress model of depression: comparison with sertraline. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 25(8), 1134–41.
Armitage, P., Berry, G. and Matthews, J. N. S. (2002). Statistical Methods in Medical Research, 4th edition. Wiley-Blackwell: Malden, MA.
Aylott, M., Bate, S. T., Collins, S., Jarvis, P. and Saul, J. (2011). Review of the statistical analysis of the dog telemetry study. Pharmaceutical Statistics, 10(3), 236–49.
Bailey, R. A. (2008). Design of Comparative Experiments. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK.
Bartlett, M. S. (1937). Properties of sufficiency and statistical tests. Proceedings of the Royal Statistical Society Series A – Mathematical and Physical Sciences, 160(901), 268–82.
Barton, N. J., Strickland, I. T., Bond, S. M., et al. (2007). Pressure application measurement (PAM): a novel behavioural technique for measuring hypersensitivity in a rat model of joint pain. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 163(1), 67–75.
Bate, S. T. and Boxall, J. (2008). The construction of multi-factor crossover designs in animal husbandry studies. Pharmaceutical Statistics, 7(3), 179–94.
Bate, S. T. and Jones, B. (2008). A review of uniform cross-over designs. Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference, 138(2), 336–51.
Belluzzi, J. D., Lee, A. G., Oliff, H. S. and Leslie, F. M. (2004). Age-dependent effects of nicotine on locomotor activity and conditioned place preference in rats. Psychopharmacology, 174, 389–95.
Benjamini, Y. and Hochberg, Y. (1995). Controlling the false discovery rate: a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B, 57, 289–300.
Bennett, C. M., Wolford, G. L. and Miller, M. B. (2009). The principled control of false positives in neuroimaging. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 4(4), 417–22.
Bianchi, M. and Baulieu, E. E. (2012). 3β-methoxy-pregnenolone (MAP4343) as an innovative therapeutic approach for depressive disorders. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(5), 1713–18.
Biggers, J. D., Baskar, J. F. and Torchiana, D. F. (1981). Reduction of fertility of mice by the intrauterine injection of prostaglandin antagonists. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, 63, 365–72.
Bison, S., Carboni, L., Arban, R., et al. (2009). Differential behavioral, physiological, and hormonal sensitivity to LPS challenge in rats. International Journal of Interferon, Cytokine and Mediator Research, 1, 1–13.
Blakesley, R. E., Mazumdar, S., Dew, M. A., et al. (2009). Comparisons of methods for multiple hypothesis testing in neuropsychological research. Neuropsychology, 23(2), 255–64.
Bonferroni, C. E. (1936). Teoria statistica delle classi e calcolo delle probabilita. Pubblicazioni del R Istituto Superiore di Scienze Economiche e Commerciali di Firenze, 8, 3–62.
Box, G. E. P. (1953). Non-normality and tests on variance. Biometrika, 40(3/4), 318–35.
Boxall, J., Heath, S., Bate, S. and Brautigam, J. (2004). Modern concepts of socialisation for dogs: implications for their behaviour, welfare and use in scientific procedures. ATLA. Alternatives to Laboratory Animals, 32, 81–93.
Brammer, R. J. (2003). Modelling covariance structure in ascending dose studies of isolated tissues and organs. Pharmaceutical Statistics, 2(2), 103–12.
Bright, J., Aylott, M., Bate, S., et al. (2011). Recommendations on the statistical analysis of the Comet assay. Pharmaceutical Statistics, 10(6), 485–93.
Brooks, K. J., Bunce, K. T., Hasse, M. V., et al. (2005). MRI quantification in vivo of corticosteroid induced thymus involution in mice: correlation with ex vivo measurements. Steroids, 70(4), 267–72.
Brown, M. B. and Forsythe, A. B. (1974). Robust tests for equality of variances. Journal of the American Statistical Society, 69(346), 364–7.
Burden, R. L. and Faires, J. D. (2011). Numerical Analysis, 9th edition. Brooks/Cole Publishing: Pacific Grove, CA.
Button, K. S., Ioannidis, J. P., Mokrysz, C., et al. (2013). Power failure: why small sample size undermines the reliability of neuroscience. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 14, 365–76.
Chaves, A. A., Keller, W. J., O’Sullivan, S., et al. (2006). Cardiovascular monkey telemetry: sensitivity to detect QT interval prolongation. Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods, 54(2), 150–8.
Clark, R. A., Shoaib, M., Hewitt, K. N., Stanford, S. C. and Bate, S. T. (2012). A comparison of InVivoStat with other statistical software packages for analysis of data generated from animal experiments. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 26(8), 1136–42.
Clarke, G. M. and Kempson, R. E. (1997). Introduction to the Design and Analysis of Experiments. Arnold: London.
Cochran, W. G. and Cox, G. M. (1957). Experimental Designs, 2nd edition. Wiley & Sons, Inc.: New York, London.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioural Sciences, 2nd edition. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Hillsdale, NJ.
Crowder, M. J. and Hand, D. J. (1990). Analysis of Repeated Measures. Chapman and Hall/CRC: London.
Cumming, G., Fidler, F. and Vaux, D. L. (2007). Error bars in experimental biology. The Journal of Cell Biology, 177(1), 7–11.
Curran-Everett, D. (2000). Multiple comparisons: philosophies and illustrations. American Journal of Physiology – Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 279(1), R1–8.
Curtin, L. I., Grakowsky, J. A., Suarez, M., et al. (2009). Evaluation of buprenorphine in a postoperative pain model in rats. Comparative Medicine, 59(1), 60–71.
Downie, D., Antipatis, C., Delday, M. I., Maltin, C. A. and Sneddon, A. A. (2005). Moderate maternal vitamin A deficiency alters myogenic regulatory protein expression and perinatal organ growth in the rat. American Journal of Physiology – Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 288(1), 73–9.
Dudchenko, P. A., Wood, E. R. and Eichenbraum, H. (2000). Neurotoxic hippocampal lesions have no effect on odor span and little effect on odor recognition memory but produce significant impairments on spatial span, recognition, and alteration. The Journal of Neuroscience, 20(8), 2964–77.
Duncan, D. B. (1955). Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics, 11(1), 1–42.
Dunnett, C. W. (1955). A multiple comparison procedure for comparing several treatments with a control. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 50(272), 1096–121.
Dunnett, C. W. (1964). New tables for multiple comparisons with a control. Biometrics, 20(3), 482–91.
Elashoff, J. D. (1981). Down with multiple t-tests!Gastroenterology, 80, 615–20.
Festing, M. F. W. (1994). Reduction of animal use: experimental design and quality of experiments. Laboratory Animals, 28(3), 212–21.
Festing, M. F. W. (2003a). Principles: the need for better experimental design. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 24(7), 341–5.
Festing, M. F. W. (2003b). We should be designing better experiments. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 30, 58–60.
Festing, M. F. W. and Altman, D. G. (2002). Guidelines for the design and statistical analysis of experiments using laboratory animals. ILAR Journal, 43(4), 244–58.
Festing, M. F. W., Diamanti, P. and Turton, J. A. (2001). Strain differences in haematological response to chloroamphenicol succinate in mice: implications for toxicological research. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 39(4), 375–83.
Festing, M. F. W., Overend, P., Gaines Das, R., Cortina-Borja, M. and Berdoy, M. (2002). The Design of Animal Experiments: Reducing the Use of Animals in Research through Better Experimental Design. Royal Society of Medicine Press: London.
Field, A. (1998). A bluffer’s guide to… sphericity. The British Psychological Society: Mathematical, Statistical & Computing Section Newsletter, 6, 13–22.
Findlay, J. W. A. and Dillard, R. F. (2007). Appropriate calibration curve fitting in ligand binding assays. The AAPS Journal, 9(2), E260–7.
Ford, D. J. (1977). Effect of autoclaving and physical structure of diets on their utilization by mice. Laboratory Animals, 11(4), 235–9.
Gaines Das, R. (2004). ‘Statistics’ is not a sausage machine: a statistician’s viewpoint and some comments on experimental design. ATLA. Alternatives to Laboratory Animals, 32(2), 5–8.
Gaines Das, R., Fry, D., Preziosi, R. and Hudson, M. (2009). Planning for reduction. ATLA. Alternatives to Laboratory Animals, 37(1), 27–32.
Giesbrecht, F. G. and Gumpertz, M. L. (2004). Planning, Construction, and Statistical Analysis of Comparative Experiments. Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ.
Godolphin, J. D. (2004). Simple pilot procedures for the avoidance of disconnected experimental designs. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series C (Applied Statistics), 53(1), 133–47.
Gore, K. H. and Stanley, P. J. (2005). An illustration that statistical design mitigates environmental variation and ensures unambiguous study conclusions. Animal Welfare, 14(4), 361–5.
Grayson, B., Idris, N. F. and Neill, J. C. (2007). Atypical antipsychotics attenuate a sub-chronic PCP-induced cognitive deficit in the novel object recognition task in the rat. Behavioural Brain Research, 184(1), 31–8.
Green, C. R., Ham, K. N. and Tange, J. D. (1969). Kidney lesions induced in rats by p-aminophenol. British Medical Journal, 18(1), 162–4.
Harris, R. B. S., Zhou, J., Youngblood, B. D., et al. (1998). Effect of repeated stress on body weight and body composition of rats fed low- and high-fat diets. American Journal of Physiology – Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 275(6), R1928–38.
Hatcher, P. D., Brown, V. J., Tait, D. S., et al. (2005). 5-HT6 receptor antagonists improve performance in an attentional set shifting task in rats. Psychopharmacology, 181(2), 253–9.
Hedenqvist, P., Roughan, J. V., Antunes, L., Orr, H. and Flecknell, P. A. (2001). Induction of anaesthesia with desflurane and isoflurane in the rabbit. Laboratory Animals, 35(2), 172–9.
Hille, C., Bate, S., Davis, J. and Gonzalez, M. I. (2008). 5-HT4 receptor agonism in the five-choice serial reaction time task. Behavioural Brain Research, 195(1), 180–6.
Hochberg, Y. (1988). A sharper Bonferroni procedure for multiple tests of significance. Biometrika, 75(4), 800–3.
Hoenig, J. M. and Heisey, D. M. (2001). The abuse of power: the pervasive fallacy of power calculations for data analysis. The American Statistician, 55(1), 19–24.
Holland, B. S. and Copenhaver, M. D. (1988). Improved Bonferroni-type multiple testing procedures. Psychological Bulletin, 104(1), 145–9.
Holm, S. (1979). A simple sequentially rejective multiple test procedure. Scandinavian Journal of Statistics, 6, 65–70.
Holson, R. R., Freshwater, L., Maurissen, J. P. J., Moser, V. C. and Phang, W. (2008). Statistical issues and techniques appropriate for developmental neurotoxicity testing: a report from the ILSI Research Foundation/Risk Science Institute expert working group on neurodevelopmental endpoints. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 30(4), 326–48.
Hommel, G. (1988). A stagewise rejective multiple test procedure based on a modified Bonferroni test. Biometrika, 75(2), 383–6.
Hsu, J. (1996). Multiple Comparisons: Theory and Methods. Chapman and Hall/CRC: London.
Hulshoff, J. E. G, Van Dijk, K., van der Waerden, J. P. C. M., et al. (1996). Evaluation of plasma-spray and magnetron-sputter Ca-P-coated implants: an in vivo experiment using rabbits. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, 31(3), 329–37.
Ingram-Ross, J. L., Curran, A. K., Miyamoto, M., et al. (2012). Cardiorespiratory safety evaluation in non-human primates. Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods, 66, 114–24.
Jones, B. and Kenward, M. G. (2003). Design and Analysis of Cross-Over Trials. Chapman and Hall/CRC: London.
Kalinichev, M., Bate, S. T. and Jones, D. N. C. (2009). Models of aspects of schizophrenia: behavioral sensitization induced by subchronic phencyclidine administration. Current Protocols in Pharmacology, 45, 5.54.1–13.
Karp, N. A., Segonds-Pichon, A., Gerdin, A. K. B., Ramirez-Solis, R. and White, J. K. (2012). The fallacy of ratio correction to address confounding factors. Laboratory Animals, 46(3), 245–52.
Keuls, M. (1952). The use of the ‘studentized range’ in connection with an analysis of variance. Euphytica, 1(2), 112–22.
Kilkenny, C., Brown, W. J., Cuthill, I. C., Emerson, M. and Altman, D. G. (2010). Improving bioscience research: the ARRIVE guidelines for reporting animal research. PLoS Biol, 8(6), e1000412.
Kilkenny, C., Parsons, N., Kadyszewski, E., et al. (2009). Survey of the quality of experimental design, statistical analysis and reporting of research using animals. PLoS One, 4(11), e7824.
Kleinbaum, D. G. and Klein, M. (2005). Survival Analysis: A Self-Learning Text, 2nd edition. Springer: New York.
Kolmogorov, A. N. (1933). Sulla determinazione empirica di una legge di distribuzione. Giornale dell’Istituto Italiano degli Attuari, 4(1), 83–91.
Kramer, C. Y. (1956). Extension of multiple range tests to group means with unequal numbers of replications. Biometrics, 12(3), 307–10.
Kuentz, M., Rothlisberger, D. and Richter, W. (2003). Design of experiment (DoE) methods maximize information from a minimal number of animals in special cases of preclinical bioavailability testing. Pharmaceutical Development and Technology, 8(4), 453–8.
Kwan, K. Y., Allchome, A. J., Vollrath, M. A., et al. (2006). TRPA1 contributes to cold, mechanical, and chemical nociception but is not essential for hair-cell transduction. Neuron, 50, 277–89.
Lazic, S. E. (2010). The problem of pseudoreplication in neuroscientific studies: is it affecting your analysis?BMC Neuroscience, 11(1), 5.
Lehmann, E. L. (1999). Elements of Large-Sample Theory. Springer: New York.
Levene, H. (1960). Robust tests for equality of variances. In Contributions to Probability and Statistics: Essays in Honor of Harold Hotelling, editors Olkin, I., Ghurye, S. G., Hoeffding, W., Madow, W. G. and Mann, H. B.278–292. Stanford University Press: Stanford, CA.
Liao, J. J. Z. and Liu, R. (2009). Re-parameterization of five-parameter logistic function. Journal of Chemometrics, 23(5), 248–53.
Ludbrook, J. (1998). Multiple comparison procedures updated. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, 25(12), 1032–7.
Macleod, M. R., Fisher, M., O’Collins, V., et al. (2009). Reprint: good laboratory practice: preventing introduction of bias at the bench. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, 29, 2213.
Maheswaran, S., Barjat, H., Rueckert, D., et al. (2009). Longitudinal regional brain volume changes quantified in normal aging and Alzheimer’s APP × PS1 mice using MRI. Brain Research, 1270, 19–32.
Manser, C. E., Broom, D. M., Overend, P. and Morris, T. H. (1998). Investigations into the preferences of laboratory rats for nest-boxes and nesting materials. Laboratory Animals, 32(1), 23–35.
Mathew, G., Watson, D. I., Rofe, A. M., et al. (1996). Wound metastases following laparoscopic and open surgery for abdominal cancer in a rat model. British Journal of Surgery, 83(8), 1087–90.
Mauchly, J. W. (1940). Test for sphericity of a normal n-variate distribution. Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 11(2), 204–9.
McCance, I. (1995). Assessment of statistical procedures used in papers in the Australian Veterinary Journal. Australian Veterinary Journal, 72(9), 322–8.
McQuade, R., Creton, D. and Stanford, S. C. (1999). Effect of novel environmental stimuli on rat behaviour and central noradrenaline function measured by in vivo microdialysis. Psychopharmacology, 145(4), 393–400.
Mead, R. (1988). The Design of Experiments: Statistical Principles for Practical Applications. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
Mead, R., Curnow, R. N. and Hasted, A. M. (2003). Statistical Methods in Agriculture and Experimental Biology, 3rd edition. Chapman and Hall/CRC: London.
Miller, R. G. (1981). Simultaneous Statistical Inference, 2nd edition. Springer-Verlag: New York.
Milliken, G. A. and Johnson, D. E. (2002). Analysis of Messy Data Volume III: Analysis of Covariance. Chapman & Hall/CRC: New York.
Miyazaki, H., Watanabe, H., Kitayama, T., et al. (2005). QT PRODACT: sensitivity and specificity of the canine telemetry assay for detecting drug-induced QT interval prolongation. Journal of Pharmacological Sciences, 99, 523–9.
Montgomery, D. C. (1997). Design and Analysis of Experiments, 4th edition. Wiley: New York.
Morris, T. R. (1999). Experimental Design and Analysis in Animal Sciences. CABI Publishing: Wallingford, UK.
Murphy, N., Bruckdorfer, K. R., Grimsditch, D. C., et al. (2003). Temporal relationships between circulating levels of CC and CXC chemokines and developing atherosclerosis in Apolipoprotein E*3 Leiden mice. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 23, 1615–20.
Nakagawa, S. (2004). A farewell to Bonferroni: the problems of low statistical power and publication bias. Behavioral Ecology, 15(6), 1044–5.
Nesnow, S., Mass, M. J., Ross, J. A., et al. (1998). Lung tumourigenic interactions in strain A/J mice of five environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Environmental Health Perspectives, 106(Suppl 6), 1337–46.
Newman, D. (1939). The distribution of range in samples from a normal population, expressed in terms of an independent estimate of standard deviation. Biometrika, 31(1/2), 20–30.
Nieuwenhuis, S., Forstmann, B. U. and Wagenmakers, E. J. (2011). Erroneous analyses of interactions in neuroscience: a problem of significance. Nature Neuroscience, 14(9), 1105–7.
Onyango, E. M. and Adeola, O. (2011). Dietary cholecalciferol lowers the maximal activity of intestinal mucosa phytase in ducklings fed low-phosphorus diets. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 91(3), 399–404.
Parkin, S. L., Pritchett, J. P., Grimsditch, D. C., et al. (2004). Circulating levels of the chemokines JE and KC in female C3H apolipoprotein-E-deficient and C57BL apolipoprotein-E-deficient mice as potential markers of atherosclerosis development. Biochemical Society Transactions, 32(1), 128–30.
Patel, S. R., Murphy, K. G., Thompson, E. L., et al. (2008). Pyroglutamylated RFamide peptide 43 stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis via gonadotropin-releasing hormone in rats. Endocrinology, 149(9), 4747–54.
Pinheiro, J., Bates, D., DebRoy, S. and Sarkar, D. (2008). The R Development Core Team. nlme: linear and nonlinear mixed effects models. R package version 3.1–93. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. .
Plackett, R. L. and Burman, J. P. (1946). The design of optimal multifactorial experiments. Biometrika, 33(4), 305–25.
Pugh, P. L., Richardson, J. C., Bate, S. T., Upton, N. and Sunter, D. (2007). Non-cognitive behaviours in an APP/PS1 transgenic model of Alzheimer’s disease. Behavioural Brain Research, 178(1), 18–28.
R Development Core Team (2012). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. ISBN 3–900051–07–0, .
Rooke, E. D. M., Vesterinen, H. M., Sena, E. S., Egan, K. J. and Macleod, M. R. (2011). Dopamine agonists in animal models of Parkinson’s disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Parkinsonism and Related Disorders, 17(5), 313–20.
Rosnow, R. L. and Rosenthal, R. (1989). Statistical procedures and the justification of knowledge in psychological science. American Psychologist, 44(10), 1276–84.
Rumble, R., Saville, M., Simmons, L., et al. (2005). The preference of the common marmoset for nest boxes made from three different materials – wood, plastic, metal. Animal Technology and Welfare, 4(3), 185–7.
Russell, W. M. S. and Burch, R. L. (1959). The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. Methuen & Co. Ltd: London.
Ruxton, G. G. and Colegrave, N. (2006). Experimental Design for the Life Sciences. OxfordUniversity Press: Oxford.
Scheffé, H. (1953). A method for judging all contrasts in the analysis of variance. Biometrika, 40(1–2), 87–110.
Schleiss, M. R., Anderson, J. L. and McGregor, A. (2006). Cyclic cidofovir (cHPMPC) prevents congenital cytomegalovirus infection in a guinea pig model. Virology Journal, 3, 9.
Seacat, A. M., Thomford, P. J., Hansen, K. J., et al. (2002). Subchronic toxicity studies on perfluorooctanesulfonate potassium salt in cynomolgus monkeys. Toxicological Sciences, 68(1), 249–64.
Semela, D., Piguet, A. C., Kolev, M., et al. (2007). Vascular remodeling and antitumoral effects of mTOR inhibition in a rat model of hepatocellular carcinoma. Journal of Hepatology, 46(5), 840–8.
Sena, E. S., van der Worp, H. B., Bath, P. M. W., Howells, D. W. and Macleod, M. R. (2010). Publication bias in reports of animal stroke studies leads to major overstatement of efficacy. PLoS Biol, 8(3), e1000344.
Shaffer, J. P. (1995). Multiple hypothesis testing. Annual Review of Psychology, 46, 561–84.
Shapiro, S. S. and Wilk, M. B. (1965). An analysis of variance test for normality (complete samples). Biometrika, 52(3–4), 591–9.
Shaw, R. (2004). Reduction in laboratory animal use by factorial design. Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA, 32(2), 49–51.
Shaw, R., Festing, M. F. W., Peers, I. and Furlong, L. (2002). Use of factorial designs to optimize animal experiments and reduce animal use. ILAR Journal, 43(4), 223–32.
Shoaib, M., Sidhpura, N. and Shafait, S. (2003). Investigating the actions of bupropion on dependence-related effects of nicotine in rats. Psychopharmacology 165, 404–12.
Shirley, E. A. C. (1977). The analysis of organ weight data. Toxicology, 8, 13–22.
Šidák, Z. (1967). Rectangular confidence regions for the means of multivariate normal distributions. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 62(318), 626–33.
Singleton, K. D. and Wischmeyer, P. E. (2003). Distance of cecum ligated influences mortality, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 expression following cecal ligation and puncture in the rat. European Surgical Research, 35(6), 486–91.
Sjödin, L., Visser, S. and Al-Saffar, A. (2011). Using pharmacokinetic modeling to determine the effect of drug and food on gastrointestinal transit in dogs. Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods, 64(1), 42–52.
Skene, S. S. and Kenward, M. G. (2010). The analysis of very small samples of repeated measurements I: an adjusted sandwich estimator. Statistics in Medicine, 29(27), 2825–37.
Slob, W. (2002). Dose-response modeling of continuous endpoints. Toxicological Sciences, 66(2), 298–312.
Slotten, H. A., Kalinichev, M., Hagan, J. J., Marsden, C. A. and Fone, K. C. F. (2006). Long-lasting changes in behavioural and neuroendocrine indices in the rat following neonatal maternal separation: gender-dependent effects. Brain Research, 1097(1), 123–32.
Smirnov, N. V. (1939). Estimation of deviation between empirical distribution functions in two independent samples. Bulletin Moscow University, 2(2), 3–16.
Smith, P. F. (2012). A note on the advantages of using linear mixed model analysis with maximal likelihood estimation over repeated measures ANOVAs in psychopharmacology: comment on Clark et al. (2012). Journal of Psychopharmacology, 26(12), 1605–7.
Smith, C. C., Adkins, D. J., Martin, E. A. and O’Donovan, M. R. (2008). Recommendations for design of the rat comet assay. Mutagenesis, 23(3), 233–40.
Snedecor, G. W. and Cochran, W. G. (1989). Statistical Methods, 8th edition. Iowa State University Press: Ames, IA.
Stufken, J. (1996). Optimal crossover designs. In Handbook of Statistics 13: Design and Analysis of Experiments, editors Ghosh, S. and Rao, C. R.63–90. North-Holland: Amsterdam.
Tallarida, R. J. (2000). Drug Synergism and Dose-Effect Data Analysis. Chapman and Hall/CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL.
Tallarida, R. J. and Jacob, L. S. (1979). The Dose-Response Relation in Pharmacology. Springer-Verlag: New York.
Teng, Y. D., Lavik, E. B., Qu, X., et al. (2002). Functional recovery following traumatic spinal cord injury mediated by a unique polymer scaffold seeded with neural stem cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 99(5), 3024–9.
Toothaker, L. E. (1993). Multiple Comparison Procedures. No. 89. SAGE Publications Inc.: London, UK.
Torrallardona, D., Conde, M. R., Badiola, I., Polo, J. and Brufau, J. (2003). Effect of fishmeal replacement with spray-dried animal plasma and colistin on intestinal structure, intestinal microbiology, and performance of weanling pigs challenged with Escherichia coli K99. Journal of Animal Science, 81(5), 1220–6.
Tufte, E. R. (1983). The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT.
Tukey, J. W. (1953). The Problem of Multiple Comparisons. Unpublished Notes, Princeton University.
van der Worp, H. B., Howells, D. W., Sena, E. S., et al. (2010). Can animal models of disease reliably inform human studies?PLoS Medicine, 7(3), e1000245.
Vesterinen, H. M., Sena, E. S., ffrench-Constant, C., et al. (2010). Improving the translational hit of experimental treatments in multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis, 16(9), 1044–55.
Wiklund, S. J. and Agurell, E. (2003). Aspects of design and statistical analysis in the Comet assay. Mutagenesis, 18(2), 167–75.
Williams, E. J. (1949). Experimental designs balanced for the estimation of residual effects of treatments. Australian Journal of Scientific Research Series A, 2, 149–68.
Wolfram, S., Raederstorff, D., Preller, M., et al. (2006). Epigallocatechin gallate supplementation alleviates diabetes in rodents. The Journal of Nutrition, 136, 2512–18.
Woolley, M. L., Pemberton, D. J., Bate, S., Corti, C. and Jones, D. N. C. (2008). The mGlu2 but not the mGlu3 receptor mediates the actions of the mGluR2/3 agonist, LY379268, in mouse models predictive of antipsychotic activity. Psychopharmacology, 196(3), 431–40.

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between #date#. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.