Skip to main content
×
×
Home
Diglossia and Language Contact
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 4
  • Cited by
    This (lowercase (translateProductType product.productType)) has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Horesh, Uri and Cotter, William M. 2016. Current Research on Linguistic Variation in the Arabic-Speaking World. Language and Linguistics Compass, Vol. 10, Issue. 8, p. 370.


    Horesh, Uri 2016. Reem Bassiouney. Language and Identity in Modern Egypt. Edinburgh, U.K.: Edinburgh University Press. 2014. 416 pp. Hb (9780748689644) £70.00/US$120.00 / Pb (9780748699940) £19.98/US$40.00.. Journal of Sociolinguistics, Vol. 20, Issue. 2, p. 249.


    Shiri, Sonia 2015. Intercultural Communicative Competence Development During and After Language Study Abroad: Insights From Arabic. Foreign Language Annals, Vol. 48, Issue. 4, p. 541.


    2014. BIBLIOGRAPHY. Contemporary Arab Affairs, Vol. 7, Issue. 4, p. 611.


    ×
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    Diglossia and Language Contact
    • Online ISBN: 9781139035576
    • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139035576
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to *
    ×
  • Buy the print book

Book description

This volume provides a detailed analysis of language contact in North Africa and explores the historical presence of the languages used in the region, including the different varieties of Arabic and Berber as well as European languages. Using a wide range of data sets, it provides a comprehensive analysis of the mechanisms of language contact under classical diglossia and societal bilingualism, examining multiple cases of oral and written code-switching. It also describes contact-induced lexical and structural change in such situations and discusses the possible appearance of new varieties within the context of diglossia. Examples from past diglossic situations are examined, including the situation in Muslim Spain and the Maltese Islands. An analysis of the current situation of Arabic vernaculars, not only in the Maghreb but also in other Arabic-speaking areas, is also presented. This book will appeal to anyone interested in language contact, the Arabic language, and North Africa.

Reviews

‘Sayahi’s fascinating history of the collision of languages in the Maghreb reclaims the original definition of diglossia and will transform the way linguists conceptualize its role as a mechanism of language change.’

Barbara E. Bullock - University of Texas, Austin

‘Combining synchronic and diachronic research on Arabic and the languages with which it has been in contact around the western Mediterranean, this book masterfully demonstrates the role diglossia can play in language change.’

Keith Walters - Portland State University

'I have found the book as a whole to be very illuminating. It contains a great deal of new information, and also newly-packaged older information.'

Uri Horesh Source: Journal of Sociolinguistics

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send
    ×

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
×

References

Abbassi, Abdelaziz. 1977. A sociolinguistic analysis of multilingualism in Morocco. University of Texas Ph.D. dissertation. Austin, TX.
Abd-el Jawad, Hassan R. 1986. The emergence of an urban dialect in the Jordanian urban centers. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 61. 53–64.
Abd-el Jawad, Hassan R. 1987. Cross-dialectical variation in Arabic: competing prestigious forms. Language in Society 16 (3). 359–367.
Abd-el Jawad, Hassan R. and Saleh M. Suleiman. 1990. Lexical conditioning of phonological variation. Language Sciences 12 (4). 291–330.
Abu-Absi, Samir. 1986. The modernization of Arabic: problems and prospects. Anthropological Linguistics 28 (3). 337–348.
Abu-Haidar, Farida. 2000. Arabisation in Algeria. International Journal of Francophone Studies 3 (3). 151–163.
Abun-Nasr, Jamil. 1987. A History of the Maghrib in the Islamic Period. Cambridge University Press.
Alberti Russell, Janice. 1977. The Italian community in Tunisia, 1861–1961: a viable minority. Columbia University Ph.D. dissertation. New York, NY.
Alexiou, Margaret. 1982. Diglossia in Greece, in Standard Languages, Spoken and Written, edited by William Haas. Manchester University Press, 156–192.
Al-Māchita, Majīd. 1986. al-ʻalatqa bayn al-ʻarabiya al-fuṣḥa wa al-lahaǧatt al-ʻammíya fī al-matḍī wa al-ḥaḍir wa al-mustaqbil, in Actes du IIIème Colloque International de Linguistique, Tunis 18–23 Février 1985, edited by Centre d’Études et de Recherches Économiques et Sociales. Tunis: Université de Tunis, 213–223.
Ameur, Meftaha. 2008. Les Contacts amazighe-arabe – le cas des noms de nombre, in Berber in Contact: Linguistic and Sociolinguistic Perspectives, edited by Mena Lafkioui and Vermondo Brugnatelli. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag, 63–80.
Antón, Marta. 2006. Patrones de uso lingüístico entre el alumnado arabófono de Ceuta. Paper presented at “Ciudades del Mediterráneo-Seminario IEIOP sobre Sociolingüística,” Cádiz (Spain), May 30.
Applegate, Joseph R. 1970. The Berber languages, in Current Trends in Linguistics, VI: Linguistics in South West Asia and North Africa, edited by Thomas A. Sebeok, Charles A. Ferguson, Carleton T. Hodge, Herbert H. Paper, John R. Krueger and Gene M. Schramm. The Hague: Mouton, 586–664.
Aquilina, Joseph. 1958. Maltese as a mixed language. Journal of Semitic Studies 3. 58–79.
Aquilina, Joseph. 1959. The Structure of Maltese: a Study in Mixed Grammar and Vocabulary. Valletta: Royal University of Malta.
Aquilina, Joseph. 1975. The Berber element in Maltese, in Hamito-Semitica: Proceedings of a Colloquium Held by the Historical Section of the Linguistics Association (Great Britain) at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, 18th–20th March, edited by James Bynon and Theodora Bynon. The Hague: Mouton, 297–313.
Arberry, A. J. 1996. The Koran Interpreted: a Translation. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Assabah. 2008. kāmil at-tafāṣīl ʻan ḥādith al-murūr al-murīʻ alladhī kāna at-tījāni bilʻīd ṭarafan fīh wa khallafa 3 qatlā. Available at: www.assabah.com.tn/article-6339.html. Retrieved on December 7, 2012.
Assabah. 2011. al- ʼitiḥād lam yamnaḥ “carte blanche” li-al-ḥukūma al-muʼaqqata wa sayuḥāsibuhā. Available at: www.assabah.com.tn/article-48939.html. Retrieved on December 7, 2012.
Assarih. 2010. bitāqa, editorial by Salah Hajja. Available at: http://assarih.tn/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=68&Itemid=69. Retrieved on December 7, 2012.
Baalbaki, Ramzi. 2008. The Legacy of the Kitāb: Sībawayhi’s Analytical Methods within the Context of the Arabic Grammatical Theory. Boston: Brill.
Baccouche, Taïeb. 1994. L’Emprunt en arabe moderne. Carthage: Académie tunisienne des sciences des lettres et des arts, Beït al-Hikma.
Badawi, El-Said M. 1973. Mustawayāt al-ʻArabīyah al-muʻāṣirah fī Miṣr. Egypt: Dār al-Maʻārif.
Baina, Abdelkader. 1981. Le Système de l’enseignement au Maroc. Casablanca: Editions maghrébines.
Baklouti, Naceur. 1988. Contes populaires de Tunisie. Sfax: Institut national d’archéologie et d’arts.
Backus, Ad. 2005. Codeswitching and language change: one thing leads to another?International Journal of Bilingualism 9 (3–4). 307–340.
Balegh, Hédi. 1997. Translation of Le Petit Prince, avec des dessins de l’auteur by Antoine de Saint-Exupéry. Tunis: Maison tunisienne de l’édition.
Barletta, Vincent. 2005. Covert Gestures: Crypto-Islamic Literature as Cultural Practice in Early Modern Spain. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
Basset, André. 1929. La Langue berbère: morphologie, le verbe, étude de thèmes. Paris: E. Leroux.
Basset, André. 1952. La Langue berbère. London, New York: Oxford University Press.
Basset, René. 1906. Les Mots arabes passés en berbère. Orientalische Studien Thodor Noldeke Gewidment 1. 439–443.
Bassiouney, Reem. 2006. Functions of Code-Switching in Egypt: Evidence from Monologues. Leiden, Boston: Brill.
Bateson, Mary Catherine. 1967. Arabic Language Handbook. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.
Battenburg, John. 1996. English in the Maghreb. English Today: The International Review of the English Language 12 (4). 3–14.
Battenburg, John. 1997. English versus French: language rivalry in Tunisia. World Englishes 16 (2). 281–290.
Battenburg, John. 1999. The gradual death of the Berber language in Tunisia. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 13. 147–161.
Bayley, Robert. 2005. Second Language Acquisition and Sociolinguistic Variation. Intercultural Communication Studies 14 (2). 1–13.
Belazi, Hedi M. 1991. Multilingualism in Tunisia and French/Arabic code switching among educated Tunisian bilinguals. Unpublished Cornell University Ph.D. dissertation. Ithaca, NY.
Belazi, Hedi M., Edward J. Rubin and Almeida Jacqueline Toribio. 1994. Code switching and X-bar theory: the functional head constraint. Linguistic Inquiry 25. 221–237.
Ben Abdelkader, Rached, Abdeljelil Ayed, and Aziza Naouar. 1977. Peace Corps English–Tunisian Arabic dictionary. Washington, DC: Peace Corps.
Ben Jemia, Mohamed Nejib. 1987. La Langue des derniers musulmans de l’Espagne: linguistique hispanique. Tunis: Imprimerie officielle de la République tunisienne.
Benoliel, José. 1926. Dialecto judeo-hispano-marroquí o hakitía. Boletín de la Real Academia Española 13. 209–233.
Benrabah, Mohamed. 2007a. The Language Planning Situation in Algeria, in Language Planning and Policy in Africa, vol. II, edited by Robert Kaplan and Richard Baldauf. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 25–147.
Benrabah, Mohamed. 2007b. Language maintenance and spread: French in Algeria. International Journal of Francophone Studies 10 (1–2). 193–215.
Bentahila, Abdelali. 1983. Language Attitudes among Arabic-French Bilinguals in Morocco. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Bentahila, Abdelali and Eirlys E Davies. 1983. The syntax of Arab–French code-switching. Lingua 59. 301–330.
Bentahila, Abdelali and Eirlys E. Davies. 1992. Convergence and divergence: two cases of language shift in Morocco, in Maintenance and Loss of Minority Languages, edited by Willem Fase, Koen Jaspaert, and Sjaak Kroon. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 197–210.
Bentahila, Abdelali and Eirlys E. Davies. 1995. Patterns of code-switching and patterns of language contact. Lingua 96 (2–3). 75–93.
Benzakour, Fouzia, Driss Gaadi and Ambroise Queffélec. 2000. Le Français au Maroc: lexique et contacts de langue. Brussels: Duculot.
Bidwell, Robin Leonard. 1973. Morocco under Colonial Rule: French Administration of Tribal Areas 1912–1956. London: Cass.
Blanc, Haim. 1960. Style variations in spoken Arabic: a sample of inter-dialectal conversation, in Contributions to Arabic Linguistics, edited by Charles Ferguson. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 81–158.
Blanc, Haim. 1970. Dual and pseudo-dual in the Arabic dialects. Language 46 (1). 42–57.
Blau, Joshua. 1977. The beginning of the Arabic diglossia: a study of the origin of Neo-Arabic. Afroasiatic Linguistics 4 (4). 1–28.
Bohas, Georges, Jean-Patrick Guillaume and Djamel Eddin Kouloughli. 1990. The Arabic Linguistic Tradition. London, New York: Routledge.
Bonmatí Antón, José Fermín. 1992. Los españoles en el Magreb (siglos XIX y XX). Madrid: MAPFRE.
Borg, Alexander. 1994. Observations on some evolutionary parallels and divergences in Cypriot Arabic and Maltese, in Actas del Congreso Internacional sobre Interferencias Lingüísticas Arabo-Romances y Paralelos Extra-Iberos, edited by Jordi Aguadé, Federico Corriente and Marina Marugán. Zaragoza: Navarro & Navarro, 21–40.
Borg, Alexander. 2004. A Comparative Glossary of Cypriot Maronite Arabic (Arabic-English): with an Introductory Essay. Boston, MA: Brill.
Borg, Alexander. 1973. The segmental phonemes of Maltese. Linguistics 109. 5–11.
Borg, Albert and Marie Azzopardi-Alexander. 1997. Maltese. London, New York: Routledge.
Bosch-Vilá, Jacinto. 1978. A propósito de la berberización de al-Andalus. Les Cahiers de Tunisie 26. 129–141.
Boukous, Ahmed. 1989. L’Emprunt linguistique en berbère: dépendance et créativité. Études et documents berbères 6. 5–18.
Boukous, Ahmed. 1995a. La Langue berbère: maintien et changement. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 112. 9–28.
Boukous, Ahmed. 1995b. Société, langues et cultures au Maroc: enjeux symboliques. Rabat: Publications de la Faculté des Lettres et des Sciences Humaines.
Boukous, Ahmed. 1997. Situation sociolinguistique de l’amazighe. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 123. 41–60.
Boukous, Ahmed. 2000. L’Amazighe: perte irréversible ou changement linguistique?, in Etudes berbrères et chamito-sémitiques, mélanges offerts à Karl-G. Prasse, edited by Salem Chaker and Andrjez Zaborski. Paris, Leuven: Editions Peeters, 43–59.
Boukous, Ahmed. 2008. Globalization and sociolinguistic stratification in North Africa: the case of Morocco, in Globalization and Language Vitality: Perspectives from Africa, edited by Cécile Vigouroux and Salikoko Mufwene. London: Continuum, 126–141.
Boumans, Louis. 2006. The attributive possessive in Moroccan Arabic spoken by young bilinguals in the Netherlands and their peers in Morocco. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 9. 213–231.
Boumans, Louis. 2005. Lexical variation in Moroccan Arabic. Estudios de dialectología norteafricana y andalusí 9. 125–137.
Boumans, Louis and Dominique Caube. 2000. Modelling intrasentential codeswitching: a comparative study of Algerian/French in Algeria and Moroccan/Dutch in the Netherlands, in Arabic as a Minority Language, edited by Jonathan Owens. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 113–180.
Boussofara-Omar, Naima. 1999. Arabic diglossic switching in Tunisia: an application of Myers-Scotton’s MLF model. University of Texas at Austin Ph.D. dissertation. Austin, TX.
Boussofara-Omar, Naima. 2003. Revisiting Arabic diglossic switching in light of the MLF model and its sub-models: the 4-M model and the Abstract Level model. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 6 (1). 33–46.
Boussofara-Omar, Naima. 2006. Neither third language nor middle varieties but Arabic diglossic switching. Zeitschrift für Arabische Linguistik 45. 55–80.
Bramon, Dolors. 1987. Aglutinación y deglutinación del artículo en los arabismos del castellano y del catalán. Vox Romanica 46. 138–179.
Brousse, Lucienne and Zahia Talbi. 2008. Traduction en arabe dialectal du Petit Prince d’Antoine de Saint Exupéry. Alger: Editions Barzakh.
Bullock, Barbara and Chip Gerfen. 2004. Phonological convergence in a contracting language variety. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 7 (2). 95–104.
Bullock, Barbara and Almeida Jacqueline Toribio. 2004. Introduction: convergence as an emergent property in bilingual speech. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 7. 91–93.
Bullock, Barbara and Almeida Jacqueline Toribio. 2007. Kreyol incursions into Dominican Spanish: the percept of Haitianized speech among Dominicans, in Linguistic Identity and Bilingualism, edited by Mercedes Niño-Murcia and Jason Rothman. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 175–198.
Bullock, Barbara, Almeida Jacqueline Toribio, Kristopher A. Davis, and Christopher G. Bolero. 2004. Phonetic convergence in bilingual Puerto Rican Spanish, in Proceedings of the 23rd West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics, edited by Vineeta Chand, Ann Kelleher, Angelo J. Rodríguez, and Benjamin Schmeiser. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press, 113–125.
Bussell Thompson, Billy. 1969. Bilingualism in Moorish Spain. University of Virginia Ph.D. dissertation. Charlottesville, VA.
Cadi, Kaddour. 1997. Constance et variabilité syntaxiques interdialectales en Berbère. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 123. 147–162.
Callahan, Laura. 2004. Spanish/English codeswitching in a written corpus. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Cameron, Richard. 1992. Pronominal and null subject variation in Spanish: constraints, dialects, and functional compensation. University of Pennsylvania Ph.D. dissertation. Philadelphia, PA.
Castillo, Dennis A. 2006. The Maltese Cross: a strategic history of Malta. Westport, CN: Praeger Security International.
Cervantes Saavedra, Miguel de. 2000. El Ingenioso Hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha. Barcelona: Editorial Optima.
Chabbi, Morched. 2004. Potentialités et obstacles à la constitution d’une région urbaine – le cas du Grand Tunis, paper presented at 40th ISoCaRP Congress 2004. Available at: www.isocarp.net/Data/case_studies/548.pdf. Retrieved on September 19, 2012.
Chabbi, Morched. 1997. Evolution du Grand Tunis: territorialités et centralité, in Sciences sociales et phénomènes urbains dans le monde arabe, edited by Mohamed Naciri et André Raymond. Casablanca: Fondation du Roi Abdul-Aziz Al Saoud, 257–269.
Chaker, Salem. 1984. Textes en linguistique berbère: introduction au domaine berbère. Paris: Editions du Centre national de la recherche scientifique.
Chaker, Salem. 1995. Linguistique berbère, études de syntaxe et de diachronie. Paris, Leuven: Editions Peeters.
Chaker, Salem. 1997. La Kabylie: un processus de développement linguistique autonome. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 123. 81–100.
Chaker, Salem. 2001. Berber challenge in Algeria, the state of the question. Race, Gender and Class 8 (3). 135–156.
Chaker, Salem. 2003. Le Berbère, in Les Langues de France, edited by Bernard Cerquiglini. Paris: PUF, 215–227.
Chambers, J. K. 2003. Sociolinguistic Theory: Linguistic Variation and Its Social Significance, 2nd edition. Oxford, Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Cheriguen, Foudil. 2002. Les Mots des uns, les mots des autres: le français au contact de l’arabe et du berbère. Algiers: Casbah éditions.
Chtatou, Mohamed. 1997. The influence of the Berber language on Moroccan Arabic. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 123. 101–118.
Cifoletti, Guido. 1998. Osservazioni sugli italianismi nel dialetto di Tunisi. Incontri Linguistici 21. 137–153.
Cifoletti, Guido. 2004. La Lingua Franca Barbaresca. Roma: Il calamo.
Cifoletti, Guido. 2009. Italianismes dans les dialectes arabes, in Romanisierung in Afrika: der Einfluss des Französischen, Italienischen, Portugiesischen und Spanischen auf die indigenen Sprachen Afrikas, edited by Thomas Stolz, Dik Bakker and Rosa Salas Palomo. Bochum: Universitätsverlag Dr. N. Brockmeyer, 31–39.
Clyne, Michael. 1980. Typology and grammatical convergence among related languages in contact. ITL Review of Applied Linguistics 49. 21–35.
Cohen, David. 1964. Le Parler arabe des juifs de Tunis; textes et documents linguistiques et ethnographiques. Paris, The Hague: Mouton.
Cohen, David. 1970. Etudes de linguistique semitique et arabe. The Hague: Mouton.
Colin, Georges S. 1921. Notes sur le parler arabe du nord de la région de Taza. Bulletin de l’Institut français d’archéologie orientale 17. 32–119.
Colin, Georges S. 1957. Mots berbères dans le dialecte arabe de Malte, in Mémorial André Basset, edited by Georges Marçais. Paris: Maisonneuve, 7–16.
Colin, Georges S. 1966. Quelques calques syntaxiques et sémantiques sur le berbère dans les parlers arabes du Maghreb. GLECS 10. 173–176.
Comrie, Bernard. 2009. Maltese and the world atlas of language structures, in Introducing Maltese Linguistics, edited by Bernard Comrie, Ray Fabri, Elizabeth Hume, Manwel Mifsud, Thomas Stolz and Martine Vanhove. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 3–11.
Comrie, Bernard. 2011. Maltese loanword typology: a preliminary assessment, paper presented at GĦILM 3rd Conference on Maltese Linguistics University of Malta, 2011, April 8–10.
Comrie, Bernard and Norval Smith. 1977. Linguistic descriptive studies: questionnaire. Lingua 42. 1–72.
Comrie, Bernard, Ray Fabri, Elizabeth Hume, Manwel Mifsud, Thomas Stolz and Martine Vanhove. 2009. Introducing Maltese Linguistics. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas. 1971. La acción de España en el Sahara. Madrid: CSIC.
Cordero Torres, José María. 1943. Organización del protectorado español en Marruecos. Madrid: Editora nacional.
Corriente, Federico. 1975. Marginalia on Arabic diglossia and evidence thereof in the Kitab Al-Agani. Journal of Semitic Studies 20 (1). 38–61.
Corriente, Federico. 1977. A Grammatical Sketch of the Spanish Arabic Dialect Bundle. Madrid: Instituto Hispano-Árabe de Cultura.
Corriente, Federico. 1978. Los fonemas /p/, /č/ y /g/ en árabe hispánico. Vox Romanica 37. 214–218.
Corriente, Federico. 1981. Nuevos berberismos del hispanoarabe. Awraq 4. 27–30.
Corriente, Federico. 1983a. Algunos sufijos derivativos romances en mozárabe, hispanoárabe y en los arabismos hispánicos. Aula Orientalis 1. 55–60.
Corriente, Federico. 1983b. La serie mozárabe-hispanoárabe adálah, adáqal, adass … y la preposición castellana hasta. Zeitschrift für romanische Philologie 99. 29–32.
Corriente, Federico. 1992a. Árabe andalusí y lenguas romances. Madrid: Editorial MAPFRE.
Corriente, Federico. 1992b. Linguistic interference between Arabic and the Romance languages of the Iberian Peninsula, in The legacy of Muslim Spain, edited by Salma Khadra Jayyusi. Leiden, New York: Brill, 443–451.
Corriente, Federico. 1997a. Poesía dialectal árabe y romance en Alandalús: cejeles y xarajāt de muwaššaḥāt. Madrid: Gredos.
Corriente, Federico. 1997b. A Dictionary of Andalusi Arabic. Leiden: Brill.
Corriente, Federico. 1999. Diccionario de arabismos y voces afines en iberorromance. Madrid: Gredos.
Corriente, Federico. 2008. Romania arábica: tres cuestiones básicas: arabismos, “mozárabes” y “jarchas.”Madrid: Editorial Trotta.
Coulmas, Floran. 2002. Writing is crucial. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 157. 59–62.
Crystal, David. 1966. Language and religion, in Twentieth Century Catholicism, edited by Lancelot C. Sheppard. New York: Hawthorn Books, 11–28.
Crystal, David. 2006. Language and the Internet, 2nd edition. Cambridge University Press.
Crystal, David. 2008. Txtng: the Gr8 Db8. 2008. Oxford University Press.
Crystal, David. 2011. Internet Linguistics: a Student Guide. New York: Routledge.
Dallet, Jean-Marie. 1985. Dictionnaire français–kabyle: parler des At Mangellat, Algérie. Paris: SELAF.
Ḍannāwī, Saʻdī. 2004. al-Muʻjam al-mufaṣṣal fī al-muʻarrab wa-al-dakhīl. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʻilmīyah.
Daoud, Mohamed. 1996. English Language Development in Tunisia. TESOL Quarterly 30 (3). 598–605.
Daoud, Mohamed. 2000. LSP in North Africa: status, problems, and challenges. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 20. 77–96.
Daoud, Mohamed. 2001. The language situation in Tunisia. Current Issues in Language Planning 2 (1). 1–52.
Daoud, Mohamed. 2007. The language planning situation in Tunisia, in Language Planning and Policy in Africa, vol. II, edited by Robert Kaplan and Richard Baldauf. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 256–307.
Daoud, Mohamed. 2011. The sociolinguistic situation in Tunisia: language rivalry or accommodation?International Journal of the Sociology of Language 211. 9–33.
Davies, Eirlys E. and Abdelali Bentahila. 2008. Code switching as a poetic device: examples from rai lyrics. Language and communication 28 (1). 1–20.
DeGraff, Michel. 2003. Against Creole exceptionalism. Language 79 (2). 391–410.
DeGraff, Michel. 2009. Creole exceptionalism and the (mis)education of the Creole speaker, in The Languages of Africa and the Diaspora: Educating for Language Awareness, edited by Jo Anne Kleifgen and George Bond. Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 124–156.
DeGraff, Michel. 2005. Linguists’ most dangerous myth: the fallacy of Creole exceptionalism. Language in Society 34 (4). 533–591.
De Granda, Germán. 1978. Estudios lingüísticos hispánicos, afrohispánicos y criollos. Madrid: Gredos.
Dejean, Yves. 1993. An overview of the language situation in Haiti. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 102. 73–83.
De la Cruz Cabanillas, Isabel, Cristina Tejedor Martínez, Mercedes Díez Prados and Esperanza Cerdá Redondo. 2007. English loanwords in Spanish computer language. English for Specific Purposes 26. 52–78.
Dell, François and Mohamed Elmedlaoui. 2003. Syllables in Tashlhiyt Berber and in Moroccan Arabic. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Dhaouadi, Mohmoud. 1996. Un essai de théorisation sur le penchant vers l’accent parisien chez la femme tunisienne. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 122. 107–126.
Djité, Pauline. 1992. The arabization of Algeria: linguistic and sociopolitical motivations. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 98 (1). 15–28.
Djité, Pauline. 1993. Language and development in Africa. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 100/101. 149–166.
Eckert, Penelope. 1980. Diglossia: separate and unequal. Linguistics 18 (11–12). 1053–1064.
Edey, Maitland A. 1974. The Sea Traders. New York: Time-Life Books.
Eid, Mushira. 1982. The non-randomness of diglossic variation. Glossa 16 (1). 54–84.
Eid, Mushira. 1988. Principles for switching between Standard and Egyptian Arabic. Al-Arabiyya 21. 51–80.
Eid, Mushira. 1996. Things are not what they seem: pronoun doubling in bilingual and monolingual grammars, in Perspectives on Arabic Linguistics VIII: Papers from the Annual Symposium on Arabic Linguistics, edited by Mushira Eid. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 7–30.
Eksell Harning, Kerstin. 1980. The Analytic Genitive in the Modern Arabic Dialects. Gothenburg: Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis.
Elcock, William Denis. 1960. The Romance Languages. London: Faber & Faber.
El Harrak, Mariama. 1998. Estudio sociolingüístico sobre la influencia del español en el vocabulario pesquero del noroeste de Marruecos: (Tánger, Arcila y Larache). Complutense University of Madrid Ph.D. dissertation. Madrid, Spain.
Elmedlaoui, Mohamed. 1996. Intégration de l’emprunt en arabe dialectal marocain, in JAREL Judeo-Arabe Recherche Ethnolinguistique N 6, edited by Georgette Bensimon-Choukroun. Paris: LACITO, 7–20.
Elmedlaoui, Mohamed. 1998. Le Substrat berbère en Arabe Marocain: un système de contraintes. Langues et Littératures 16. 137–165.
Elmedlaoui, Mohamed. 2000. L’Arabe Marocain: un lexique sémitique inséré sur un fond grammatical berbère, in Etudes berbrères et chamito-sémitiques, mélanges offerts à Karl-G. Prasse, edited by Salem Chaker and Andrjez Zaborski. Paris, Leuven: Editions Peeters, 155–187.
Ennaji, Moha. 1991. Aspects of multilingualism in the Maghreb. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 87. 7–26.
Ennaji, Moha. 1997. The sociology of Berber: change and continuity. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 123. 23–40.
Ennaji, Moha. 2002. Language contact, Arabization policy and education in Morocco, in Language Contact and Language Conflict in Arabic: Variations on a Sociolinguistic Theme, edited by Aleya Rouchdy. London: Curzon, 70–88.
Ennaji, Moha. 2005. Multilingualism, Cultural Identity, and Education in Morocco. New York: Springer.
Epalza, Míkel de. 1992. Los moriscos antes y después de la expulsión. Madrid: Editorial MAPFRE.
Epalza, Mikel de and Abdel-Hakim Gafsi Slama. 1999. Léxico y onomástica hispánicos de los moriscos conservados en Tunicia, in Actas del VII Simposio Internacional de Mudejarismo, Teruel, 19–21 de septiembre de 1996. Teruel: Centro Estudios Mudéjares, Instituto de Estudios Turolenses, 633–641.
Essafi, Tahar. 1942. Dictionnaire français–arabe (dialecte tunisien). Tunis: S.A.P.I.
Eurosport Arabia. 2010. Newscast. http://arabia.eurosport.com/. Retrieved January 13, 2010.
Fabri, Ray. 1996. The construct state and the pseudo-construct state in Maltese. Revista di Linguistica 8 (1). 229–244.
Fasold, Ralph. 1984. The Sociolinguistics of Society. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Fellman, Jack. 1973. Concerning the “revival” of the Hebrew language. Anthropological Linguistics 15. 250–257.
Fellman, Jack. 1975. On “diglossia.”Language Sciences 34. 38–39.
Ferguson, Charles A. 1959a. Diglossia. Word 15. 325–340.
Ferguson, Charles A. 1959b. The Arabic Koine. Language 35 (4). 616–630.
Ferguson, Charles A. 1962. The language factor in national development. Anthropological Linguistics 4 (1). 23–27.
Ferguson, Charles A. 1963. Problems of teaching languages with diglossia, in Report of the Thirteenth Annual Round Table Meeting on Linguistics and Language Studies, edited by Elisabeth Woodworth and Robert DiPietro. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 165–177.
Ferguson, Charles A. 1988. Standardization as a form of language spread, in Language Spread and Language Policy: Issues, Implications, and Case Studies, edited by Peter Lowenberg. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 119–131.
Ferguson, Charles A. 1990. “Come Forth with a Surah like it”: Arabic as a Measure of Arabic Society, in Perspectives on Arabic Linguistics I: Papers from the First Annual Symposium on Arabic Linguistics, edited by Mushira Eid. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 39–51.
Ferguson, Charles A. 1991. Diglossia revisited. Southwest Journal of Linguistics 10. 214–234.
Fernández, Mauro. 1993. Diglossia: a Comprehensive Bibliography, 1960–1990 and Supplements. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Fernández Smith, Gérard, Ana María Rico Martín, M. Angeles Jiménez Jiménez and María José Molina García. 2006. Proyecto sobre la disponibilidad léxica en alumnos preuniveristarios de Melilla, in Discurso y sociedad: contribuciones al estudio de la lengua en contexto social, edited by José Luis Blas Arroyo, Manuela Casanova Ávalos and Mónica Velando Casanova. Castellón: Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universitat Jaume I, 767–778.
Ferrando, Ignacio. 1995. El dialecto andalusí de la Marca Media: los documentos mozárabes toledanos de los siglos XII y XIII. Universidad de Zaragoza.
Ferrando, Ignacio. 2000. The Arabic language among the Mozarabs of Toledo during the 12th and 13th centuries, in Arabic as a Minority Language, edited by Jonathan Owens. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 45–64.
Fishman, Joshua A. 1967. Bilingualism with and without diglossia; diglossia with and without bilingualism. Journal of Social Issues 23 (2). 29–38.
Fishman, Joshua A. 1980. Bilingualism and biculturism as individual and societal phenomena. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 1. 3–15.
Fishman, Joshua A. 2002. Diglossia and societal multilingualism: dimensions of similarity and difference. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 157. 93–100.
Flores-Ferrán, Nydia. 2004. Spanish subject personal pronoun use in New York City Puerto Ricans: can we rest the case of English contact?Language Variation and Change 16 (1). 49–73.
Gabsi, Zouhir. 2003. An outline of the Shilha (Berber) vernacular of Douiret (Southern Tunisia). University of Western Sydney Ph.D. dissertation. Sydney, Australia.
Gabsi, Zouhir. 2011. Attrition and maintenance of the Berber language in Tunisia. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 211. 135–164.
Gabsi, Zouhir and LotfiSayahi. The Berber element in Tunisian Arabic (ms.).
Galmés de Fuentes, Alvaro. 1966. Los plurales femeninos en los dialectos mozárabes. Boletín de la Real Academia Española 177. 53–68.
Galmés de Fuentes, Alvaro. 1983. Dialectología Mozárabe. Madrid: Gredos.
Galmés de Fuentes, Alvaro. 1996a. Mozárabe, in Manual de dialectología hispánica: el español de España, edited by Manuel Alvar. Barcelona: Ariel, 73–85.
Galmés de Fuentes, Alvaro. 1996b. Influencias sintácticas y estilísticas del árabe en la prosa medieval castellana. Madrid: Gredos.
García Figueras, Tomás. 1947. España en Marruecos (la obra social). Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Instituto de Estudios Africanos.
Garmadi, Salah. 1966. Quelques faits de contact linguistique franco-arabe en Tunisie. Revue Tunisienne des Sciences Sociales 8. 23–56.
Garmadi-Le Cloirec, Juliette. 1974. Le Français parlé en Tunisie: description synchronique de la phonologie et de la syntaxe du français parlé par les arabophones tunisiens de classe sociale moyenne. Université de Paris V Ph.D. dissertation. Paris, France.
Garmadi-Le Cloirec, Juliette. 1976. La Dénomination des couleurs en arabe tunisien et en français, essai d’étude contrastive. La Linguistique 12 (2). 55–86.
Garmadi-Le Cloirec, Juliette. 1977. Remarques sur la syntaxe du français de Tunisie. Langue française 35. 86–91.
Gasselin, Édouard. 1898. Dictionnaire français–arabe: arabe grammatical, arabe vulgaire; dialectes algérien, tunisien, marocain & saharien. Algiers: P. Fontana & cie.
Gaudefroy-Demombynes, Roger. 1928. L’œuvre française en matière d’enseignement au Maroc. Paris: Librairie orientaliste P. Geuthner.
Ghailani, Abdellatif. 1997. El español hablado en el Norte de Marruecos. University of Granada Ph.D. Dissertation. Granada, Spain.
Ghazali, Salem, Rym Hamdi and Melissa Barkat. 2002. Speech rhythm variation in Arabic dialects, in Proceedings from Speech Prosody 2002, edited by Bernard Bel and Isabelle Marlien. Aix-en-Provence: Laboratoire Parole et Langage, 331–334. Available at: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.2.6127.
Gibson, Maik. 2002. Dialect levelling in Tunisian Arabic: towards a new spoken standard, in Language Contact and Language Conflict in Arabic: Variations on a Sociolinguistic Theme, edited by Aleya Rouchdy. New York: RoutledgeCurzon, 24–40.
García Gómez, Emilio. 1952. Veinticuatro jarŷas romances en muwaššaḥas árabes (Ms. G. S. Colin). Al-Andalus 17. 57–127.
Goyette, Stéphane. 2000. From Latin to Early Romance, in Language Change and Language Contact in Pidgins and Creoles, edited by John McWhorter. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 103–131.
Grandguillaume, Gilbert. 1983. Arabisation et politique linguistique au Maghreb. Paris: Editions Maisonneuve et Larose.
Grion, Giusto. 1891. Farmacopea e Lingua Franca del dugento. Archivo Glottologico Italiano 12. 181–186.
Gumperz, John. 1982. Discourse Strategies. Cambridge University Press.
Haas, William. 1982. Standard Languages: Spoken and Written. Manchester University Press.
Haeri, Niloofar. 1996. The Sociolinguistic Market of Cairo: Gender, Class, and Education. London, New York: Kegan Paul International.
Haeri, Niloofar. 2000. Form and ideology: Arabic sociolinguistics and beyond. Annual Review of Anthropology 29. 61–87.
Hajja, Salah. 2010. bitāqa. Editorial in Assarih. Available at: http://assarih.tn/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=68&Itemid=69. Retrieved on June 1, 2011.
Hamzaoui, Mohammed Rached. 1979. L’Emprunt linguistique dans le passé en présent: sa place dans la néologie linguistique et l’enrichissement du lexique arabe moderne. Annales de l’Université de Tunis 17. 5–24.
Haspelmath, Martin and Matthew S. Dryer, David Gil and Bernard Comrie. 2005. The World Atlas of Language Structures. New York: Oxford University Press.
Haspelmath, Martin and Uri Tadmor. 2009. Loanwords in the World’s Languages: a Comparative Handbook. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.
Haugen, Einar. 1950. The analysis of linguistic borrowing. Language 26 (2). 210–231.
Haugen, Einar. 1953. The Norwegian Language in America: a Study in Bilingual Behavior. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Heath, Jeffery. 1984a. Language contact and language change. Annual Review of Anthropology 13. 367–384.
Heath, Jeffery. 1984b. Book notice of Deutsch als Muttersprache in Australien: Zur Ökologie einer Einwanderersprache, by Michael Clyne. Language 60 (1). 192–193.
Heath, Jeffery. 1987. Ablaut and Ambiguity: Phonology of a Moroccan Arabic Dialect. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Heath, Jeffery. 1989. From Code-Switching to Borrowing: Foreign and Diglossic Mixing in Moroccan Arabic. London: Kegan Paul International.
Heath, Jeffery. 1997. Moroccan Arabic phonology, in Phonologies of Africa and Asia, vol. I, edited by Alan Kaye. Winona Lake, Indiana: Eisenbrauns, 205–218.
Heath, Jeffery. 2002. Jewish and Muslim Dialects of Moroccan Arabic. London: Curzon.
Heath, Jeffery. 2005. A Grammar of Tamashek (Tuareg of Mali). Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
Hernández Fernández, Carmen. 2001. Un viaje por Sefarad: la fortuna del judeoespañol, in El español en el mundo, edited by Instituto Cervantes. Barcelona: Círculo de lectores, 281–332.
Hernández-Pacheco, Eduardo. 1935. Expedición científica a Ifni. Madrid: Publicaciones de la Sociedad Geográfica Nacional.
Hill, Jane and Kenneth Hill. 1977. Language death and relexification in Tlaxcalan Nahuatl. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 12. 55–70.
Hill, Jane and Kenneth Hill. 1986. Speaking Mexicano: Dynamics of Syncretic Language in Central Mexico. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
Holes, Clives. 2004. Modern Arabic: Structures, Functions, and Varieties. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
Holm, John. 2000. An Introduction to Pidgins and Creoles. Cambridge University Press.
Hornberger, Nancy H. and Kendall A. King. 1996. Language revitalisation in the Andes: can the schools reverse language shift?Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 17 (6). 427–441.
Hudson, Alan. 1991. Towards the systematic study of diglossia. Southwest Journal of Linguistics 10 (1). 1–22.
Hudson, Alan. 1992. Diglossia: a bibliographic review. Language in Society 21. 611–674.
Hudson, Alan. 2001 Diglossia, in Concise Encyclopedia of Sociolinguistics, edited by Rajend Mesthrie. Amsterdam, New York: Elsevier, 226–231.
Hudson, Alan. 2002a. Outline of a theory of diglossia. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 157 (1). 1–48.
Hudson, Alan. 2002b. Toward the systematic study of diglossia. Southwest Journal of Linguistics 7. 5–15.
Ibn Azzuz Haquím, Mohammad. 1953. Glosario de 1.500 voces españolas usadas entre marroquíes en árabe vulgar. Madrid: C.S.I.C.
IbnKhaldun. 1958. The Muqaddimah: an Introduction to History, translated from Arabic by Franz Rosenthal. New York: Pantheon Books.
Institut National de la Statistique. 2009. Recensement de la population 2004. Available at: www.ins.nat.tn/. Retrieved on April 10, 2009.
Instituto Nacional de Estadística. 2009. Movimiento natural de la población de españoles en el extranjero. Available at: http://www.ine.es. Retrieved on December 5, 2010.
ʻIrwī, ʻAbd al-ʻAzīz. 1973. Ḥikāyāt al-ʻIrwī. Tunis: al-Dār al-Tūnisīyah.
Jabeur, Momahed. 1987. A sociolinguistic study in Tunisia, Rades. University of Reading Ph.D. dissertation. Reading, UK.
Jabeur, Momahed. 1995. Women, social change and linguistic variation in the urban dialect of Tunis, in Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference of Aida held at Cambridge 10-14 Sept. 1995, edited by Clive Holes. Cambridge: University Publications Centre, 85–94.
Jawālīqī, Mawhūb ibn Aḥmad. 1990. al-Muʻarrab min al-kalām al-aʻjamī: ʻalá ḥurūf al-muʻjam. Damascus: Dar al-Qalam.
Jones, Alan. 1988. Romance Kharjas in Andalusian Arabic Muwashshah Poetry. London: Ithaca Press.
Judy, Ronald A. T. 1999. Some notes on the status of global English in Tunisia. Boundary 2: an International Journal of Literature and Culture 26 (2). 3–29.
Kahane, Henry. 1986. A typology of the prestige language. Language 62 (3). 495–508.
Kahane, Henry and Renée Kahane. 1976. Lingua franca: the story of a term. Romance Philology 30. 25–51.
Kaye, Alan S. 1972. Remarks on diglossia in Arabic: well-defined vs. ill-defined. Linguistics 81. 32–48.
Kaye, Alan S. 1994. Formal vs. informal in Arabic: diglossia, triglossia, tetraglossia, etc., polyglossia-multiglossia viewed as a continuum. Zeitschrift für arabische Linguistik 27. 47–66.
Kaye, Alan S. 2001. Diglossia: the state of the art. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 152. 117–129.
Kaye, Alan S. 2002. Comment. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 157. 117–125.
Kaye, Alan S. and Judith Rosenhouse. 1997. Arabic dialects and Maltese, in The Semitic Languages, edited by Robert Hetzron. London: Routledge, 263–311.
Kiparsky, Paul. 2003. Syllables and moras in Arabic, in The Syllable in Optimality Theory, edited by Caroline Fery and Ruben van de Vijver. Cambridge University Press, 147–182.
Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria. 1996. Possessive noun phrases in Maltese: alienability, iconicity, and grammaticalization. Rivista di Linguistica 8 (1). 245–274.
Kossmann, Maarten. 2009. Loanwords in Tarifiyt, a Berber language of Morocco, in Loanwords in the World’s Languages, edited by Martin Haspelmath and Uri Tadmor. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton, 191–214.
Krumbacher, Karl. 1902. Das Problem der neugriechischen Schriftsprache. Munich: K. B. Akademie in kommission des G. Franz’schen verlags.
Labarta, Ana. 1978. Oraciones cristianas aljamiadas en procesos inquisitoriales de moriscos valencianos. Boletín de la Real Academia de Buenas Letras de Barcelona 37. 177–197.
Labov, William. 2001. Principles of Linguistic Change, vol. II: Social Factors. Oxford: Blackwell.
Lafkioui, Mena and Vermondo Brugnatelli. 2008. Berber in Contact: Linguistic and Sociolinguistic Perspectives. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag.
Landau, Rom. 1952. Portrait of Tangier. London: Hale.
Lapesa, Rafael. 1981. Historia de la lengua española. Madrid: Gredos.
Lapidus Shin, Naomi. 2010. Efficiency in lexical borrowing in New York Spanish. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 203. 45–59.
Laroui, Abdallah. 1977. The History of the Maghrib: an Interpretive Essay. Princeton University Press.
Laroussi, Foued. 1996. Le Français en Tunisie aujourd’hui, in Le français dans l’espace francophone: description linguistique et sociolinguistique de la francophonie, vol. II, edited by Didier de Robillard, Michel Beniamino and Claudine Bavoux. Paris: H. Champion, 705–721.
Laroussi, Foued. 1997. Plurilinguisme et identités au Maghreb. Université de Rouen.
Laroussi, Foued. 1999. Un nouveau regard sur la situation linguistique tunisienne. Cahiers de sociolinguistique 4. 155–168.
Lawson, Sarah and Itesh Sachdev. 2000. Codeswitching in Tunisia: attitudinal and behavioural dimensions. Journal of Pragmatics 32 (9). 1343–1361.
Lipski, John. 2005. Code-switching or borrowing? No sé so no puedo decir, you know, in Selected Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Spanish Sociolinguistics, edited by Lotfi Sayahi and Maurice Westmoreland. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project, 1–15.
Lipski, John. 2006. Too close for comfort? The genesis of “Portuñol/Portunhol,” in Selected Proceedings of the 8th Hispanic Linguistics Symposium, edited by Timothy L. Face and Carol A. Klee. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project, 1–22.
Lipski, John. 2008. Varieties of Spanish in the United States. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
Lloyd, Paul M. 1987. From Latin to Spanish. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society.
López García, Ángel. 2000. Cómo surgió el español: introducción a la sintaxis histórica del español antiguo. Madrid: Gredos.
Maamouri, Mohamed. 1967. The phonology of Tunisian Arabic. Cornell University Ph.D. dissertation. Ithaca, NY.
Maamouri, Mohamed. 1983. The linguistic situation in independent Tunisia, in Language in Tunisia, edited by R. M. Payne. Tunis: Bourguiba Institute of Modern Languages, 11–21.
Maamouri, Mohamed. 1998. Language education and human development: Arabic diglossia and its impact on the quality of education in the Arab region. Available at: http://www.literacyonline.org. Retrieved on November 6, 2010.
Maas, Utz. 2000. Moroccan: a language in emergence, in Arabic as a Minority Language, edited by Jonathan Owens. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 383–404.
Machado, José Pedro. 1991. Vocabulário Português de Origem Árabe. Lisbon: Editorial Notícias.
Machfar, Mohamed. 2009. khutab. Available at: www.zitounafm.net/ar/. Retrieved on December 24, 2010.
Manzano, Francis. 2011. Le Français en Tunisie, enracinement, forces et fragilités systémiques: rappels historiques, sociolinguistiques et brefs éléments de prospective. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 211. 53–81.
Marçais, Philippe. 1956. Le Parler arabe de Djidjelli. Paris: Maisonneuve.
Marçais, William. 1977. Esquisse grammaticale de l’arabe maghrébin. Paris: Maisonneuve.
Marçais, William. 1902. Le Dialecte arabe parlé à Tlemcen; grammaire, textes et glossaire. Paris: E. Leroux.
Marçais, William. 1930. La Diglossie arabe. L’Enseignement public 97. 401–409.
Marcos Marín, Francisco. 1984. Review of Latín tardío y romance temprano, by Roger Wright. Revista de Filología Española 64. 129–145.
Martínez Ruiz, Juan. 1988. Lenguas en contacto: hispanoárabe granadino y castellano de repoblación, in Actas del I Congreso Internacional de Historia de la Lengua Española. Madrid: Arco/Libros, 149–164.
Martínez Ruiz, Juan. 1994. Languages in contact in Morisco Granada (XVI century), in Actas del Congreso Internacional sobre Interferencias Lingüísticas Arabo-Romances y Paralelos Extra-Iberos, edited by Jordi Aguadé, Federico Corriente and Marina Marugán. Zaragoza: Navarro & Navarro, 141–156.
McGuinness, Justin. 1997. Political context and professional ideologies: French urban conservation planning transferred to the Medina of Tunis. The Journal of North African Studies 2 (2). 34–56.
Meiseles, Gustav. 1979. Informal written Arabic, a preliminary evaluation of data. Israel Oriental Studies 9. 273–313.
Meiseles, Gustav. 1980. Educated spoken Arabic and the Arabic language continuum. Archivum Linguisticum 11 (2). 118–43.
Mejri, Salah. 2011. L’Atlas linguistique de Tunisie: un outil pour décrire le dialectal tunisien. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 211. 35–51.
Menéndez Pidal, Ramón. 1986. Orígenes del español: estado lingüístico de la península ibérica hasta el siglo XI. Madrid: Espasa-Calpe.
Metoui, Mongi. 1989. Contribution à la phonétique et phonologie arabe: étude acoustique et articulatoire des voyelles du parler de Tunis. Idstein: Schulz-Kirchner.
Micaud, Charles A. 1983. Bilingualism in North Africa: cultural and sociopolitical implications, in Language in Tunisia, edited by R. M. Payne. Tunis: Bourguiba Institute of Modern Languages, 273–283.
Mifsud, Manwel. 1995. Loan Verbs in Maltese: a Descriptive and Comparative Study. Leiden, New York: Brill.
Mifsud, Manwel. 1996. The loanverb in Maltese: a Romance-Arabic crossbreed, in Romania Arabica, edited by Jens Lüdtke and Reinhold Kontzi. Tübingen: Narr, 117–128.
Miller, Catherine. 2004. Variation and changes in Arabic urban vernaculars, in Approaches to Arabic Dialects, edited by Martine Haak, Rudolf de Jong and Kees Versteegh. Amsterdam: Brill, 177–206.
Miller, Catherine, Enam Al-Wer, Dominique Caubet and Janet C. E. Watson. 2007. Arabic in the City: Issues in Dialect Contact and Language Variation. New York: Routledge.
Milroy, Lesley and Matthew Gordon. 2003. Sociolinguistics: Method and Interpretation. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Mitchell, T. F. 1986. What is educated spoken Arabic?International Journal of the Sociology of Language 61. 7–32.
Mkilifi, Abdulaziz M. 1978. Triglossia and Swahili–English bilingualism in Tanzania, in Advances in the Study of Societal Multilingualism, edited by Joshua Fishman. The Hague: Mouton, 129–152.
Monroe, James T. 1974. Hispano-Arabic Poetry: a Student Anthology. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Montes-Alcalá, Cecilia. 2005. “Dear Amigo”: Exploring Code-switching in Personal Letters, in Selected Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Spanish Sociolinguistics, edited by Lotfi Sayahi and Maurice Westmoreland. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project, 102–108.
Montes-Alcalá, Cecilia. 2007. Blogging in two languages: code-switching in bilingual blogs, in Selected Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Spanish Sociolinguistics, edited by Jonathan Holmquist, Augusto Lorenzino and Lotfi Sayahi. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project, 162–170.
Morales, Amparo. 1986. Gramáticas en contacto: Análisis sintácticos sobre el Español de Puerto Rico. Madrid: Editorial Playor.
Mori, Laura. 2009. The shaping of Maltese throughout the centuries, in Introducing Maltese Linguistics, edited by Bernard Comrie, Ray Fabri, Elizabeth Hume, Manwel Mifsud, Thomas Stolz, and Martine Vanhove. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 291–307.
Morsly, Dalila. 1995. El Watan, El Moujahid, Algérie-Actualités, El-Djeich, Liberté, Le Matin … La presse algérienne de langue française et l’emprunt à l’arabe. Plurilinguismes 9–10. 35–53.
MosaiqueFM. 2010. Les fonds des droits TV vont aux clubs de foot. Available at: www.mosaiquefm.net/index/a/ActuDetail/Element/9364-Les-fonds-des-droits-TV-vont-aux-clubs-de-foot.html. Retrieved on January 12, 2010.
Mufwene, Salikoko. 2001. The Ecology of Language Evolution. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press.
Mufwene, Salikoko. 2005. Créoles, écologie sociale, évolution linguistique: cours donnés au Collège de France durant l’automne 2003. Paris: L’Harmattan.
Mufwene, Salikoko. 2007. Population movements and contacts: competition, selection, and language evolution. Journal of Language Contact 1. 63–91.
Mufwene, Salikoko. 2008. Language Evolution: Contact, Competition, and Change. London, New York: Continuum Press.
Muñoz Sánchez-Brunete, Javier. 2003. La enseñanza del español en los países del Magreb, datos generales. Anuario del Instituto Cervantes. 307–349.
Muysken, Pieter. 2000. Bilingual Speech: a Typology of Code-mixing. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press.
Myers-Scotton, Carol. 1986. Diglossia and codeswitching, in The Fergusonian Impact, vol. II, edited by Joshua A. Fishman. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 403–415.
Myers-Scotton, Carol. 1992. Codeswitching as a mechanism of deep borrowing, language shift, and language death, in Language Death in East Africa, edited by Matthias Brenzinger. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 31–58.
Myers-Scotton, Carol. 1993. Elite closure as a powerful language strategy: the African case. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 103. 149–164.
Myers-Scotton, Carol. 2002. Contact Linguistics: Bilingual Encounters and Grammatical Outcomes. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.
Naït M’Barek, Mohamed and David Sankoff. 1988. Le discours mixte arabe/français: des emprunts ou des alternances de langue?Revue Canadienne de Linguistique 33 (2). 143–154.
Navarro Tomás, Tomás. 1948. El español en Puerto Rico. Río Piedras: Universidad de Puerto Rico.
Nebrija, Antonio de. 1980. Grámatica de la lengua castellana: Estudio y edición Antonio Quilis. Madrid: Editora Nacional.
Nicolas, Alfred. 1983. Dictionnaire français-arabe idiome Tunisien. Tunis: E. Saliba & Cie.
Nortier, Jacomine. 1990. Dutch–Moroccan Arabic Code Switching among Moroccans in the Netherlands. Dordrecht, Providence, RI: Foris.
Otheguy, Ricardo. 1993. A reconsideration of the notion of loan translation in the analysis of U. S. Spanish, in Spanish in the United States: Linguistic Contact and Diversity, edited by Ana Roca and John Lipski. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 21–45.
Otheguy, Ricardo, Ana Celia Zentella and David Livert. 2007. Language and dialect contact in Spanish in New York: towards the formation of a speech community. Language 83. 1–33.
Owens, Jonathan. 1988. The Foundations of Grammar: an Introduction to Medieval Arabic Grammatical Theory. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Owens, Jonathan. 2000. Loanwords in Nigerian Arabic: a quantitative approach, in Arabic as a Minority Language, edited by Jonathan Owens. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 259–346.
Owens, Jonathan. 2002. Processing the world piece by piece: iconicity, lexical insertion, and possessives in Nigerian Arabic codeswitching. Language Variation and Change 14 (2). 173–210.
Owens, Jonathan. 2005a. Bare forms and lexical insertions in codeswitching: A processing-based account. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 8 (1). 23–39.
Owens, Jonathan. 2005b. Hierarchicalized matrices: codeswitching among urban Nigerian Arabs. Linguistics 43. 957–994.
Peñarroja Torrejón, Leopoldo. 1990. El mozárabe de Valencia. Madrid: Gredos.
Pencheon, Thomas G. 1983. La Langue Berbère en Tunisie et la scolarisation des enfants berbérophones, in Language in Tunisia, edited by R. M. Payne. Tunis: The Bourguiba Institute of Modern Languages, 23–34.
Penny, Ralph. 2004. Variation and Change in Spanish. Cambridge University Press.
Penny, Ralph. 2002. A history of the Spanish Language. Cambridge University Press.
Platt, John T. 1977. A model for polyglossia and multilingualism (with special reference to Singapore and Malaysia). Language in Society 6 (3). 361–78.
Poplack, Shana. 1980. Sometimes I’ll start a sentence in Spanish Y TERMINO EN ESPAÑOL: Toward a typology of code-switching. Linguistics, 18. 581–618.
Poplack, Shana and Stephen Levey. 2010. Contact-induced grammatical change, in Language and Space: An International Handbook of Linguistic Variation, vol. I: Theories and Methods, edited by Peter Auer and Jürgen Erich Schmidt. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 391–419.
Poplack, Shana, Lauren Zentz and Nathalie Dion. 2012. Phrase-final prepositions in Quebec French: an empirical study of contact, code-switching and resistance to convergence. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 15 (2). 203–225.
Posner, Rebecca. 1996. The Romance Languages. Cambridge University Press.
Procházka, Stephan. 2005. The Turkish contribution to the Arabic lexicon, in Linguistic Convergence and Areal Diffusion: Case Studies from Iranian, Semitic and Turkic, edited by Éva Ágnes Csató, Bo Isaksson and Carina Jahani. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 191–202.
Prody, Jill. 1995. Lending the “unborrowable”: Spanish discourse markers in indigenous American languages, in Spanish in Four Continents: Studies in Language Contact and Bilingualism, edited by Carmen Silva-Corvalán. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 132–147.
Psichari, Jean. 1928. Un pays qui ne veut pas de sa langue. Mercure de France 207. 63–121.
Queffélec, Ambroise, Yacine Derradji, Valéry Debov, Dalila Smaali-Dekdouk and Yasmina Cherrad-Benchefra. 2002. Le Français en Algérie: lexique et dynamique des langues. Brussels: Duculot.
Rampton, Ben. 1995. Crossing: Language and Ethnicity among Adolescents. London, New York: Longman.
Razouk, Muhammed. 1998. Los Moriscos y sus migraciones a Marruecos durante los siglos XVI y XVII[text in Arabic]. Casablanca: Ifriqiya-al-Sharq.
Real Academia Española. 2001. Diccionario de la lengua española. Madrid: Editorial Espasa Calpe.
Reguigui, Ali. 1986. Emprunt et normalisation en langue arabe. Langues et linguistique 12. 197–227.
Reguigui, Ali. 1994. La Créativité lexicale en terminologie arabe. Sudbury: Université Laurentienne.
RodríguezAlberich and Real Academia Española. 2011. Diccionario inverso de la Real Academia Española. Available at: http://dirae.es/. Retrieved on October 6, 2011.
Romaine, Suzanne. 1988. Pidgin and Creole Languages. London: Longman.
Romaine, Suzanne. 1989. Bilingualism. Oxford: Blackwell.
Rosenbach, Anette. 2002. Genitive Variation in English: Conceptual Factors in Synchronic and Diachronic Studies. New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
Ruiz Domínguez, Maria del Mar. 2001. El español y el chelja: dos realidades lingüísticas en los hablantes musulmanes de Melilla. Textos de didáctica de la lengua y la literatura 26. 65–74.
Saad, Zohra. 1992. Language planning and policy attitudes: a case study of Arabization in Algeria. Columbia University D.Ed. dissertation. New York.
Saada, Lucienne. 1984. Eléments de description du parler arabe de Tozeur, Tunisie: phonologie, morphologie, syntaxe. Paris: Librairie Orientaliste P. Geuthner.
Sadiqi, Fatma. 1991. The spread of English in Morocco. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 87. 99–114.
Sadiqi, Fatma. 1997. The place of Berber in Morocco. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 123. 7–22.
Salafranca Ortega, Jesús. 2001. El sistema colonial español en África. Málaga: Algazara.
Sankoff, Gillian. 2006. Apparent time and real time, in Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, vol. I, edited by Keith Brown. Oxford: Elsevier, 110–116.
Sankoff, Gillian and Hélène Blondeau. 2007. Language change across the lifespan: /r/ in Montreal French. Language 83 (3). 560–588.
Sankoff, Gillian, Pierrette Thibault, Naomi Nagy, Hélène Blondeau, Marie-Odile Fonollosa and Lucie Gagnon. 1997. Variation in the use of discourse markers in a language contact situation. Language Variation and Change 9. 191–217.
Sayahi, Lotfi. 2004a. ‘Aquí todo el mundo hablaba español’: History of the Spanish language in Tangier. Journal of North African Studies 9 (1). 36–48.
Sayahi, Lotfi. 2004b. The Spanish language presence in Tangier, Morocco: a sociolinguistic perspective. Afro-Hispanic Review 23 (2). 54–61.
Sayahi, Lotfi. 2005a. Final /s/ retention and deletion in Spanish: the role of the speaker’s type of competence. Journal of Language Science 27 (5). 515–529.
Sayahi, Lotfi. 2005b. Language and identity among speakers of Spanish in Northern Morocco: between ethnolinguistic vitality and acculturation. Journal of Sociolinguistics 9 (1). 95–107.
Sayahi, Lotfi. 2005c. El español en el norte de Marruecos: historia y análisis. Hispanic Research Journal 6 (3). 195–207.
Sayahi, Lotfi. 2005d. Phonological adaptation of Spanish loanwords in Northern Moroccan Arabic. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics 11 (1). 253–263.
Sayahi, Lotfi. 2007. Diglossia and contact-induced language change. International Journal of Multilingualism 4 (1). 38–51.
Sayahi, Lotfi. 2011a. Code-switching and language change in Tunisia. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 211. 113–133.
Sayahi, Lotfi. 2011b. Introduction: current perspectives on Tunisian sociolinguistics. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 211. 1–8.
Sayahi, Lotfi. 2011c. Spanish in Contact with Arabic, in the Handbook of Spanish Sociolinguistics, edited by Manuel Díaz. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 473–490.
Sayahi, Lotfi. 2012. Contacto y préstamo léxico: el elemento español en el árabe. Revista Internacional de Lingüística Iberoamericana 18. 85–100.
Scham, Alan. 1970. Lyautey in Morocco; Protectorate Administration, 1912–1925. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Schmitt-Brandt, R. 1979. Berber Influences in Maghrebian Arabic. Folia Linguistica 13 (3–4). 229–235.
Schwegler, Armin, Juergen Kempff and Ana Ameal-Guerra. 2010. Fonética y fonología españolas. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Selbach, Rachel. 2008. The superstrate is not always the lexifier: Lingua Franca in the Barbary Coast 1530–1830, in Creole Structures between Substrate and Superstrates, edited by Susanne Michaelis. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 29–58.
Shihābī, Muṣṭafá. 1965. al-Musṭalaḥāt al-ʻilmiyah fī al-lughah al-ʻArabiyah fī al-qadīm wa-al-ḥadīth. Damascus: al-Majmaʻ al-ʻilmī al-ʻArabī.
S’hiri, Sonia. 2002. Speak Arabic please!: Tunisian Arabic speakers’ linguistic accommodation to Middle Easterners, in Language Contact and Language Conflict in Arabic Variations on a Sociolinguistic Theme, edited by Aleya Rouchdy. New York: Curzon, 149–174.
Silva-Corvalán, Carmen. 1994. Language Contact and Change: Spanish in Los Angeles. Oxford: Clarendon.
Silva-Corvalán, Carmen. 2008. The limits of convergence in language contact. Journal of Language Contact 2 (1). 213–224.
Simon, Reeva S., Michael M. Laskier and Sara Reguer. 2003. The Jews of the Middle East and North Africa in Modern Times. New York: Columbia University Press.
Solà-Solé, Josep Maria. 1968. El artículo al- en los arabismos del iberorrománico. Romance Philology 21. 275–285.
Stambouli, Fredj. 1996. Tunis city in transition. Environment and Urbanization 8. 51–63.
Steiger, Arnald. 1932. Contribución a la fonética del hispano-árabe y de los arabismos en el ibero-románico y el siciliano. Madrid: Casa Editorial Hernando.
Stokes, Craig. 2011. Castilian transcodic markers in Internet Catalan: analysis of generic, regional and linguistic factors. University at Albany Ph.D. dissertation. Albany, NY.
Stolz, Thomas. 2003. Chamorro and Malti as mixed languages, in The Mixed Language Debate: Theoretical and Empirical Advances, edited by Yaron Matras and Peter Bakker. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 271–315.
Taifi, Miloud. 1997. Le Lexique berbère: entre l’emprunt massif et la néologie sauvage. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 123. 61–80.
Taine-Cheikh, Catherine. 2000. A propos de l’opposition “type synthétique” vs “type analytique” en arabe, in Aspects of the Dialects of Arabic Today. Proceedings of the 4th Conference of the International Arabic Dialectology Association (AIDA), edited by Abderrahim Youssi, Fouzia Benjelloun, and Mohamed Dahbi. Rabat: AMAPATRIL, 234–244.
Talmoudi, Fathi. 1986. A Morphosemantic Study of Romance Verbs in the Arabic Dialects of Tunis, Sūsa, and Sfax. Gothenburg: Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis.
Talmoudi, Fathi. 1984. The Diglossic Situation in North Africa: a Study of Classical Arabic/Dialectical Arabic Diglossia with Sample Text in “Mixed Arabic”. Gothenburg: Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis.
Teyssier, Paul. 1980. Histoire de la langue portugaise. Vendôme: Presses Universitaire de France.
Thomas, Juan Antonio, and Lotfi Sayahi. 2005. Morphophonological and semantic adaptation of Arabisms in Galician. Cahiers Linguistiques d’Ottawa 33. 23–42.
Thomas, Juan Antonio, and Lotfi Sayahi. 2012. A quantitative analysis of code-switching in the Arabic-Romance kharjas. Journal of Language Contact 5 (2). 1–17.
Thomason, Sarah G. 2001. Language Contact. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
Thomason, Sarah G. and Alaa Elgibali. 1986. Before the Lingua Franca: pidginized Arabic in the. eleventh century A.D. Lingua 68 (4). 317–349.
Thomason, Sarah G. and Terrence Kaufman. 1988. Language Contact, Creolization, and Genetic Linguistics. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Tilmatine, Mohand. 1999. Substrat et convergences: le berbére et l’arabe nord-africain. Estudios de dialectología norteafricana y andalusí 4. 99–119.
Toribio, Almeida Jacqueline. 2003. Spanish-English code-switching among US Latinos. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 158. 89–119.
Torres, Lourdes. 2002. Bilingual discourse markers in Puerto Rican Spanish. Language in Society 31 (1). 65–83.
Toufexis, Notis. 2008. Diglossia and register variation in Medieval Greek. Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies 32 (2). 203–217.
Trabelsi, Chedia. 1991. De quetques aspects du langage des femmes de Tunis. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 87. 87–98.
Treffers-Daller, Jeanine. 1992. French–Dutch codeswitching in Brussels: social factors explaining its disappearance. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 13 (1–2). 143–156.
UNESCO. 2010. Estimates and projections of adult literacy for population aged 15 and above, by country and by gender 1970–2015. Available at: http://stats.uis.unesco.org/unesco/ReportFolders/ReportFolders.aspx. Retrieved on November 14, 2010.
UNICEF. 2004. Tunisia Statistics. Available at: www.unicef.org/infobycountry/Tunisia_statistics.html. Retrieved on January 13, 2010.
Valderrama Martínez, Fernando. 1956. Historia de la acción cultural de España en Marruecos, 1912–1956. Tetuán: Editora Marroquí.
van Coetsem, Frans. 1988. Loan Phonology and the Two Transfer Types in Language Contact. Dordrecht, Providence, RI: Foris Publications.
Vermeren, Pierre. 2002. Ecole, élite et pouvoir: au Maroc et en Tunisie au XXe siècle. Rabat: Alizés.
Versteegh, Kees, 1984. Pidginization and Creolization: the Case of Arabic. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Versteegh, Kees, 1997. The Arabic Language. New York: Columbia University Press.
Vicente, Ángeles. 2005. Ceuta, une ville entre deux langues: une étude sociolinguistique de sa communauté musulmane. Paris: L’Harmattan.
Walters, Keith. 1989. Social change and linguistic variation in Korba, a small Tunisian town. University of Texas Ph.D. dissertation. Austin, TX.
Walters, Keith. 1992. A sociolinguistic description of (u:) in korba Arabic: defining linguistic variables in contact situations and relic areas, in Perspectives on Arabic Linguistics, edited by Ellen Broselow, Mushira Eid, and John McCarthy. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 181–217.
Walters, Keith. 1996a. Gender, identity and the political economy of language: Anglophone wives in Tunisia. Language in Society 25 (4). 515–555.
Walters, Keith. 1996b. Diglossia, linguistic variation, and language change in Arabic, in Perspectives on Arabic Linguistics: Papers from the Annual Symposium on Arabic Linguistics, edited by Mushira Eid. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 157–197.
Walters, Keith. 1996c. Intrasentential codeswitching in diglossic settings and its implications for linguistic variation and language change, in Sociolinguistic Variation: Data, Theory, and Analysis, in Selected Papers from NWAV23 at Stanford, edited by Jennifer Arnold, Renée Blake, Brad Davidson, Scott Schwenter and Julie Solomon. Stanford, CA: CSLI, 401–416.
Walters, Keith. 2003. Fergie’s prescience: the changing nature of diglossia in Tunisia. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 163. 77–109.
Watson, Janet C. E. 2002. The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic. Oxford University Press.
Weinreich, Uriel. 1963. Languages in Contact: Findings and Problems. The Hague: Mouton.
Winford, Donald. 2003. An Introduction to Contact Linguistics. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers.
Winford, Donald. 1985. The concept of “diglossia” in Caribbean creole situations. Language in Society 14 (3). 345–356.
Wolford, Tonya E. 2006. Variation in the expression of possession by Latino children. Language Variation and Change 18. 1–13.
Wright, Roger. 1982. Late Latin and Early Romance in Spain and Carolingian France. Liverpool: Cairns.
Wright, Roger. 1994. Early Ibero-Romance: twenty-one studies on language and texts from the Iberian Peninsula between the Roman Empire and the Thirteenth Century. Newark, DE: Juan de la Cuesta.
Youssi, Abderrahim. 1995. The Moroccan triglossia: facts and implications. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 112. 29–44.
Zapata, Gabriela, Liliana Sánchez, and Almeida Jacqueline Toribio. 2005. Contact and contracting Spanish. International Journal of Bilingualism 3–4. 377–395.
Zwartjes, Otto Jeroen. 1995. The Andalusian Xarja-s: Poetry at the Crossroads of Two Systems?Nijmegen: University of Nijmegen.
Zwettler, Michael. 1978. The Oral Tradition of Classical Arabic Poetry: Its Character and Implications. Columbus: Ohio State University Press.

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 24
Total number of PDF views: 572 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 1210 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 18th December 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.