Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Discretionary Time
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 57
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the print book

Book description

A healthy work-life balance has become increasingly important to people trying to cope with the pressures of contemporary society. This trend highlights the fallacy of assessing well-being in terms of finance alone; how much time we have matters just as much as how much money. The authors of this book have developed a novel way to measure 'discretionary time': time which is free to spend as one pleases. Exploring data from the US, Australia, Germany, France, Sweden and Finland, they show that temporal autonomy varies substantially across different countries and under different living conditions. By calibrating how much control people have over their time, and how much they could have under alternative welfare, gender or household arrangements, this book offers a new perspective for comparative cross-national enquiries into the temporal aspects of human welfare.

Reviews

‘Only a group of scholars led by Bob Goodin could be sufficiently intellectually daring to replace money with leisure time as the metric of welfare achievement. In an era in which 'time to stand and stare' becomes ever scarcer, this is a book on the impacts of public policy which really matters.’

Francis G. Castles - University of Edinburgh

'Confronting Marx’s capitalist 'realm of necessity' head on, Goodin and his co-authors replace money with time as the measure of freedom and ask: 'how much control do citizens of OECD countries have over their allotments of time?' Don’t be intimidated by the numbers and tables - the result is a fresh view of cross-national inequities, replete with new recipes for reform.’

Stephan Leibfried - University of Bremen and Head of the Research Center for Transformations of the State

'The conclusion of Discretionary Time, an academic text based on a wealth of data from OECD countries, is that most of us have no one but ourselves to blame for our time-scarce predicament. Time pressure, they argue, suggests compulsion.'

Source: Financial Times

'The book articulates its argument over roughly 450 pages … Its substantial length and technicalities go unnoticed, partly for the easily accessible language, partly for the neat and rational organization of the argument’s frame … case studies … provide a wide and attractive empirical articulation for [the authors'] theoretical framework.'

Source: Journal of Economics and Philosophy

'Discretionary Time: A New Measure of Freedom is an interesting work of theory and policy … a notable work.'

Source: Political Studies Review

'This is a carefully thought-out and crafted book … with strong conceptual and methodological contributions indeed.'

Source: Feminist Economics

'This book makes fascinating reading and invites further questions.'

Source: Managing Leisure

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
×

Contents


Page 1 of 2



Page 1 of 2


Bibliography
Abraham, Katharine G. and Mackie, Christopher, eds. 2005. Beyond the Market: Designing Nonmarket Accounts for the United States. Report of the Panel to Study the Design of Nonmarket Accounts, Committee on National Statistics, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences & Education, National Research Council. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Abrahamson, Peter. 1999. The Scandinavian model of welfare. Vol. IV, pp. 15–30 in Comparing Social Welfare Systems in Nordic Europe and France, ed. Bouget, Denis and Palier, Bruno. Paris: MIRE-DREES.
Abramson, L. Y., Metalsky, G. I. and Alloy, L. B.. 1989. Hopelessness depression: a theory-based subtype of depression. Psychological Review 96: 358–72.
Adam, Barbara. 2004. Time. Cambridge: Polity.
Adam Smith Institute. 2005. About Tax Freedom Day. Available at www.adamsmith.org/tax/Tax%20Freedom%20Day/About%20TFD.html.
Adams, Charles. 2000. Slavery reexamined. Available at: www.fff.org/freedom/0100g.asp (Part I) and www.fff.org/freedom/0200e.asp (Part II).
Alessina, Alberto, Edward Glaeser and Bruce Sacerdote. 2005. Work and leisure in the US and Europe: why so different? NBER Working Paper No. 11278. Boston: NBER. Available at: www.nber.org/papers/w11278.
Ambler, John S., ed. 1991. The French Welfare State. New York University Press.
Andorka, Rudolf. 1987. Time budgets and their uses. Annual Review of Sociology 13: 149–64.
Anonymous. n.d. France 1994: survey information. Available at: www.lisproject.org/techdoc/fr/fr94survey.pdf.
Arneson, Richard J. 1989. Equality and equality of opportunity for welfare. Philosophical Studies 56: 77–93.
Arneson, Richard J. 1997. Egalitarianism and the undeserving poor. Journal of Political Philosophy 5: 327–50.
Ås, Dagfinn. 1978. Studies of time use: problems and prospects. Acta Sociologica 15: 125–41.
Ås, Dagfinn1982. Designs for large scale, time use studies of the 24-hour day. Pp. 17–53 in It's About Time: Proceedings of the International Research Group on Time Budgets and Social Activities, ed. Staikov, Z. Sofia: Institute of Sociology at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and Bulgarian Sociological Association.
Ashford, Douglas E. 1991. Advantages of complexity: social insurance in France. In Ambler 1991, pp. 32–57.
Atkinson, A. B. 1987. On the measurement of poverty. Econometrica 55: 749–64.
Atkinson, A. B. 1995. Incomes and the Welfare State. Cambridge University Press.
Atkinson, A. B. 1998. Poverty in Europe. Oxford: Blackwell.
Atkinson, A. B., Rainwater, L. and Smeeding, T. M.. 1995. Income Distribution in OECD Countries: The Evidence from the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS), Social Policy Studies 18. Paris: OECD.
Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS). 1993. Time Use Survey, Australia, 1992: User's Guide. ABS catalogue No. 4150.0. Canberra: ABS.
Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS)1994. How Australians Use Their Time. Revised edn. Catalogue No. 4153.0. Canberra: ABS.
Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS).1996. In Tune: Time Use News & Events 1 (June). Available at: www.stmarys.ca/partners/iatur/choi7103.htm.
Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS)1998a. How Australians Use Their Time, 1997. Rev. edn. Catalogue No. 4153. Canberra: ABS.
Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS)1998b. Time Use Survey, Australia: User's Guide, 1997. Catalogue No. 4150. Canberra: ABS.
Baldwin, Peter. 1990. The Politics of Social Solidarity: Class Bases of the European Welfare State 1875–1975. Cambridge University Press.
Bane, Mary Jo. 1988. Politics and policies of the feminization of poverty. In Weir et al. 1988, pp. 381–96.
Barr, Nicholas. 2001. The Welfare State as Piggy Bank. Oxford University Press.
Barrett, Garry F. 2001. The dynamics of participating in Parenting Payment (Single) and the Sole Parent Pension. Policy Research Paper Number 14. Canberra: Department of Family & Community Services, Commonwealth of Australia.
Barry, Brian. 1989. Chance, choice and justice. Pp. 142–58 in Liberty and Justice. Oxford University Press.
Baxter, Janeen and Gibson, Diane. 1990. Double Take: The Links Between Paid and Unpaid Work. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.
Becker, Gary S. 1965. A theory of the allocation of time. Economic Journal 75: 493–517.
Becker, Gary S. 1976. The Economic Approach to Human Behavior. University of Chicago Press.
Becker, Gary S. 1981. A Treatise on the Family. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Beckerman, Wilfred. 1978. Measures of Leisure, Equality and Welfare. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Bell, Linda and Freeman, Richard. 2001. The incentive for working hard: explaining hours worked differences in the US and Germany. Labour Economics 8: 181–202.
Bergman, Solveig. 2004. Collective organizing and claim making on child care in Norden: blurring the boundaries between inside and outside. Social Politics 11: 217–46.
Berlin, Isaiah. 1958. Two concepts of liberty. Pp. 118–72 in Four Essays on Liberty. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Besharov, Douglas J., Jeffrey S. Morrow and Anne Fergyan Shi. 2006. Childcare data in the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP): inaccuracies and corrections. Mimeo., Welfare Reform Academy, University of Maryland. Available at: www.welfareacademy.org/pubs/sipp_childcare_data.pdf.
Beveridge, William H. 1942. Social Insurance and Allied Services. Cmnd. 6404. London: HMSO.
Bianchi, Suzanne M., Robinson, John P. and Milkie, Melissa A.. 2006. Changing Rhythms of American Family Life. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Bittman, Michael. 1992. Juggling Time: How Australian Families Use Time. 2nd edn. Canberra: Office of the Status of Women.
Bittman, Michael 1999a. Parenthood without penalty: time use and public policy in Australia and Finland. Feminist Economics 5 (3: Nov.): 27–42.
Bittman, Michael1999b. Social participation and family welfare: the money and time cost of leisure. SPRC Discussion Papers No. 95 (Feb. 1999). Kensington, NSW: Social Policy Research Centre, University of New South Wales.
Bittman, Michael, England, Paula, Sayer, Liana, Folbre, Nancy and Matheson, George. 2002. When does gender trump money? Bargaining and time in household work. American Journal of Sociology 109 (1: July): 186–214.
Bittman, Michael and Pixley, Jocelyn. 1997. The Double Life of the Family. Sydney: Allen & Unwin.
Bittman, Michael and Rice, James Mahmud. 2002. The spectre of overwork: an analysis of trends between 1974 and 1997 using Australian time-use diaries. Labour and Industry 12: 5–25.
Bittman, Michael and Wajcman, Judy. 2000. The rush hour: the character of leisure time and gender equity. Social Forces 79 (1: Sept.): 165–89.
Bjørnskov, Christian. 2003. The happy few: cross-country evidence on social capital and life satisfaction. Kyklos 56: 3–16.
Blake, William. 1804. Jerusalem. Pp. 635–847 in The Complete Poems of William Blake, ed. Ostriker, Alicia. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1977.
Blanchflower, David and Andrew Oswald. 2006. Happiness and the Human Development Index: the paradox of Australia. National Bureau of Economics Working Paper No. 11416. Available at: www.nber.org/papers/w11416.
Blaug, Marc. 1963. The myth of the old poor law and the making of the new. Journal of Economic History 23: 151–84.
Blomfield, L. et al. 1834. Report from His Majesty's Commission for Enquiring into the Administration and Practical Operation of the Poor Law. London: HMSO. Reprinted in part as The Poor Law Report of 1834, ed. , S. G. and Checkland, E. O. A. (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1974).
Böheim, René and Taylor, Mark P.. 2004. Actual and preferred working hours. British Journal of Industrial Relations 42: 149–66.
Boulin, Jean-Yves and Ulrich Mückenberger. 1999. Times in the city and quality of life. Best: European studies on time. European Foundation. Available at: www.fr.eurofound.eu.int/publications/files/EF9940EN.pdf.
Bowles, Samuel and Park, Yongjin. 2005. Emulation, inequality and work hours: was Thorsten Veblen right? Economic Journal 115 (Nov.): F397–412.
Bradshaw, Jonathan, Ditch, John, Holmes, Hilary and Whiteford, Peter. 1993. Support for Children: A Comparison of Arrangements in Fifteen Countries. Department of Social Security Research Report No. 21. London: HMSO.
Braybrooke, David. 1987. Meeting Needs. Princeton University Press.
Brock, Daniel W. 1995. Justice and the ADA: does prioritizing and rationing health care discriminate against the disabled? Social Philosophy & Policy 12: 159–85.
Bryson, Lois, Michael Bittman and Sue Donath. 1994. Men's welfare state, women's welfare state: tendencies to convergence in practice and theory? In Sainsbury 1994, pp. 118–31.
Burger, Jerry 1989. Negative reactions to increases in perceived personal control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 56 (2): 246–56.
Butler, Eamonn. 2005. Tax Freedom Day points up Europe's problems. Available at: www.adamsmith.org/cissues/tax-and-economy/wsj-tax.htm.
Calmfors, Lars and Skedinger, Per. 1995. Does active labour-market policy increase employment? Theoretical considerations and empirical evidence from Sweden. Oxford Review of Economic Policy 11 (1: Spring): 91–109.
Campbell, Angus, Converse, Philip E. and Rogers, Willard L.. 1976. The Quality of American Life. New York: Russell Sage.
Carney, Terry and Hanks, Peter. 1994. Social Security in Australia. Oxford University Press.
Castles, Francis G. 1985. The Working Class and the Welfare State: Reflections on the Political Development of the Welfare State in Australia and New Zealand, 1890–1980. Sydney: Allen & Unwin.
Castles, Francis G.ed. 1993. Families of Nations. Aldershot: Dartmouth.
Castles, Francis G.1996. Needs-based strategies of social protection in Australia and New Zealand. Pp. 88–115 in Welfare States in Transition, ed. Esping-Andersen, Gøsta. London: Sage for the United Nations Research Institute for Social Development.
Castles, Francis G.ed. 1998. Comparative Public Policy: Patterns of Post-war Transformation. Cheltenham: Elgar.
Castles, Francis G. 2001. A farewell to Australia's welfare state. International Journal of Health Services 31: 537–44.
Castles, Francis G. and Michael Flood. 1993. Why divorce rates differ: law, religious belief and modernity. In Castles 1993, pp. 293–326.
Castles, Francis G. and Mitchell, Deborah. 1992. Identifying welfare state regimes: the links between politics, instruments and outcomes. Governance 5: 1–26.
Chambaz, Christine and Claude Martin. 2001. Lone parents, employment and social policy in France: lessons from a family-friendly policy. Pp. 129–50 in Lone Parent, Employment and Social Policy: Cross-national Comparisons, ed. Millar, Jane and Rowlingson, Karen. Bristol: Policy Press.
Citro, Constance F. and Michael, Robert T.. 1995. Measuring Poverty: A New Approach. Washington, DC: National Academic Press.
Clark, Colin. 1958. The economics of housework. Bulletin of the Oxford Institute of Statistics 20: 205–11.
Clarkberg, Marin and Moen, Phyllis. 2001. The time-squeeze: is the increase in working time due to employer demands or employee preferences? American Behavioral Scientist 44: 1115–35.
Cohen, G. A. 1983. The structure of proletarian unfreedom. Philosophy & Public Affairs 12: 3–33.
Cohen, G. A. 1989. On the currency of egalitarian justice. Ethics 99: 906–44.
Coleman, M. T. and Pencavel, J.. 1993a. Changes in work hours of male employees 1945–1988. Industrial and Labor Relations Review 46: 262–81.
Coleman, M. T. and Pencavel, J. 1993b. Trends in market work behavior of women since 1940. Industrial and Labor Relations Review 46: 653–76.
Daprè, Bob. 2006. A Compendium of Legislative Changes in Social Security 1983–2000: Part 1, 1983–1993. Occasional Paper No. 13. Canberra: Department of Families, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs.
Darwall, Stephen. 2006. The value of autonomy and autonomy of the will. Ethics 116: 263–84.
Deaton, Angus. 1997. The Analysis of Household Surveys: A Microeconomic Approach to Development Policy. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press for the World Bank.
Deeming, Christopher. 2005. Minimum income standards: how might budget standards be set for the UK? Journal of Social Policy 34: 619–36.
DeLay, Tom. 1998. The Reagan legacy lives on. Special Order Speech before the US House of Representatives, Washington, DC, on 3 February, 1998. Available at: nlc.natca.org/archive/delay.htm.
Swaan, Abram. 1988. In Care of the State. Oxford: Polity.
Dickens, Charles. 1854. Hard Times. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1969.
Diener, Ed. 1984. Subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin 95 (3): 542–75.
Diener, Ed, Gohm, Carol L., Shu, Eunkook M. and Oishi, Shigehiro. 2000. Similiarity of the relations between marital status and subjective well-being across cultures. Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology 31: 419–36.
Diener, Ed, Shu, Eunkook M., Lucas, Richard E. and Smith, Heidi L.. 1999. Subjective well-being: three decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin 125: 276–302.
Donovan, Nick and Halpern, David. 2002. Life Satisfaction. London: Cabinet Office Strategy Unit. Available at: www.wcfia.harvard.edu/conferences/socialcapital/papers.asp.
Douglas, Mary and Isherwood, Brian. 1979. The World of Goods. London: Allen Lane.
Dow, Greg K. and F. Thomas Juster. 1985. Goods, time and well-being: the joint dependence problem. In Juster and Stafford 1985b, pp. 397–414.
Doyal, Len and Gough, Ian. 1991. A Theory of Human Need. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
Dubay, Curtis S., Sumeet Sagoo and Scott A. Hodge. 2005. America celebrates Tax Freedom Day®. Special Report No. 134 (April). Available at: www.taxfoundation.org/taxfreedomday.
Duncan-Myers, Audrey and Huebner, Ruth. 2000. Relationship between choice and quality of life among residents in long-term-care facilities. American Journal of Occupational Therapy 54 (5): 504–8.
Dusenberry, James. 1949. Income, Savings and the Theory of Consumer Behavior. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Dworkin, Gerald. 1982. Is more choice better than less? Midwest Studies in Philosophy 7: 47–61. Reprinted pp. 62–84 in Dworkin 1988.
Dworkin, Gerald 1988. The Theory and Practice of Autonomy. Cambridge University Press.
Dworkin, Ronald M. 1978. Liberalism. Pp. 113–43 in Public and Private Morality, ed. Hampshire, Stuart. Cambridge University Press.
Dworkin, Ronald M. 1981. What is equality? Philosophy & Public Affairs 10: 185–246, 283–345.
Dworkin, Ronald M. 2000. The Sovereign Virtue. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Easterlin, Richard. 2001. Income and happiness: towards a unified theory. Economic Journal 111: 465–84.
Edwards, Meredith. 2001. From child maintenance to child support: an unlikely policy. Pp. 57–96 in Social Policy, Public Policy: From Problem to Practice. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.
Eekelaar, John. 1991. Regulating Divorce. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Ehrenreich, Barbara. 2002. Nickel and Dimed: On (Not) Getting By in America. New York: Owl Books, Henry Holt.
Eisenstein, Hester. 1984. Contemporary Feminist Thought. London: Allen & Unwin.
Eisner, Robert. 1988. Extended accounts for national income and product. Journal of Economic Literature 26: 1611–84.
Ekirch, A. Roger. 2001. Sleep we have lost: pre-industrial slumber in the British Isles. American Historical Review 106 (2: April): 343–86.
Ekirch, A. Roger 2005. At Day's Close: Night in Times Past. New York: Norton.
Engels, Friedrich. 1844. The Condition of the Working Class in England, ed. and trans. Henderson, W. O. and Chaloner, W. H.. Oxford: Blackwell, 1958.
England, Paula and Folbre, Nancy. 1999. The cost of caring. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 561 (1): 39–51.
Epstein, Cynthia Fuchs and Kallenberg, Arne L., eds. 2004. Fighting for Time: Shifting Boundaries of Work and Social Life. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Erikson, Robert. 1993. Descriptions of inequality: the Swedish approach to welfare research. Pp. 67–83 in The Quality of Life, ed. Nussbaum, Martha and Sen, Amartya. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Erikson, Robert and Åberg, Rune. 1987. The nature and distribution of welfare. Pp. 1–13 in Erikson and Åberg, Welfare in Transition: A Survey of Living Conditions in Sweden 1968–1981. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Eriksson, Lina and Goodin, Robert E.. 2007. The measuring rod of time: the example of Swedish day-fines. Journal of Applied Philosophy 24: 125–36.
Eriksson, Lina, Rice, James Mahmud and Goodin, Robert E.. 2007. Temporal aspects of life satisfaction. Social Indicators Research 80: 511–33.
Esping-Andersen, Gøsta. 1990. The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism. Oxford: Polity.
Esping-Andersen, Gøsta 1999. Social Foundations of Post Industrial Economies. Oxford University Press.
Esping-Andersen, Gøsta 2002. Why We Need a New Welfare State. Oxford University Press.
Esping-Andersen, Gøsta and Walter Korpi. 1984. Social policy as class politics in post-war capitalism: Scandinavia, Austria and Germany. In Goldthorpe 1984, pp. 179–208.
Etzioni, Amitai. 1993. The Spirit of Community. New York: HarperCollins.
European Commission (EC), Social Protection Committee. 2001. Report on Indicators in the Field of Poverty and Social Exclusion. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/employment_social/social_inclusion/indicators_en.htm.
Eurostat, . 2000a. Guidelines on Harmonized European Time Use Surveys. Luxembourg: Eurostat. Available at: www.scp.nl/onderzoek/tbo/achtergronden/guidelines.pdf.
Eurostat, 2000b. Survey on Time Use: Activity Coding List. Final draft, replacing Guidelines on Harmonized European Time Use Surveys. Doc E2/TUS/5/00. Luxembourg: Eurostat. Available at: unstats.un.org/unsd/methods/timeuse/tusresource_manuals/ eurostat_man.pdf.
Feinberg, Joel. 1980. The idea of a free man. Pp. 3–29 in Feinberg, Rights, Justice and the Bounds of Liberty. Princeton University Press.
Figart, D. and Golden, L.. 1998. The social economics of work time: an introduction. Review of Social Economy 56: 411–24.
Fineman, Martha Albertson. 1991. The Illusion of Equality: The Rhetoric and Reality of Divorce Reform. University of Chicago Press.
Fisher, Irving. 1928. The Money Illusion. New York: Adelphi.
Folbre, Nancy. 1982. Exploitation comes home: a critique of the Marxian theory of family labor. Cambridge Journal of Economics 6: 317–29.
Folbre, Nancy 1991. The unproductive housewife: her evolution in nineteenth century economic thought. Signs 16: 463–84.
Folbre, Nancy 1994. Who Pays for the Kids? Gender and the Structures of Constraint. London: Routledge.
Folbre, Nancy 2001. The Invisible Heart: Economics and Family Values. New York: New Press.
Folbre, Nancy 2006. Greed and Lust: A History of Economic Ideas.Mimeo, Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Forthcoming from Oxford University Press.
Folbre, Nancy 2008. Valuing Children: Rethinking the Economics of the Family. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Forssén, Katja. 1997. Gender equality and welfare states models: outcomes perspective. Series B:14/1997. Turku, Finland: Department of Social Policy, University of Turku.
Forssén, Katja 1998. Children, Families and the Welfare State: Studies on the Outcomes of Finnish Family Policy. STAKES Research Report 92. Helsinki: STAKES National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health.
Forssén, Katja and Hakovirta, Mia. 1998. Work incentives in single parent families. Series B:15/1998. Turku, Finland: Department of Social Policy, University of Turku.
Foucault, Michel. 1977. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison, trans. Alan Sheridan. Harmondsworth: Penguin; originally published 1975.
Frank, Robert H. 1985. Choosing the Right Pond. Oxford University Press.
Fraser, Nancy. 1994. After the family wage: gender equity and the welfare state. Political Theory 22: 591–618.
Fraser, Nancy and Gordon, Linda. 1992. Contract versus charity: why is there no social citizenship in the United States?Socialist Review 22 (3): 45–68.
Fraser, Nancy and Gordon, Linda 1994. A genealogy of dependency: tracing a keyword of the US welfare state. Signs 19: 309–36.
Frey, Bruno S. and Stutzer, Alois. 2002a. Happiness & Economics. Princeton University Press.
Frey, Bruno S. and Stutzer, Alois 2002b. What can economists learn from happiness research?Journal of Economic Literature 40 (2: June): 402–35.
Friedman, Milton. 1962. Capitalism and Freedom. University of Chicago Press.
Friedman, Milton and Friedman, Rose. 1980. Free to Choose. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Fromm, Erich. 1941. Escape from Freedom. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Galston, William A. 1991. Liberal Purposes. Cambridge University Press.
Garfinkel, Irving and Haveman, Robert H.. 1977. Earnings capacity, economic status and poverty. Journal of Human Resources 12: 49–70.
Garfinkel, Irving and Haveman, Robert H. 1978. Earnings Capacity, Poverty and Inequality. New York: Academic Press.
Garfinkel, Irwin, Hochschild, Jennifer L. and McLanahan, Sara S., eds. 1996. Social Policies for Children. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.
Gauthier, Anne. 1996. The State and the Family: A Comparative Analysis of Family Policies in Industrialized Countries. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Germany. 1949. Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany of 23 May 1949. Pp. 127–207 in Comparing Constitutions, ed. Finer, S. E., Bogdanor, Vernon and Rudden, Bernard. Oxford University Press.
Gershuny, Jonathan. 1992. Are we running out of time?Futures 24 (1: Jan./Feb.): 3–22.
Gershuny, Jonathan 2000. Changing Times: Work and Leisure in Post-Industrial Society. Oxford University Press.
Gershuny, Jonathan 2005a. Business as the badge of honor for the new superordinate working class. Social Research 72: 287–314.
Gershuny, Jonathan 2005b. Time Allocation and the Comprehensive Accounting of Economic Activity. ISER Working Paper No. 2005–8. Colchester: University of Essex.
Gershuny, Jonathan and Robinson, John P.. 1988. Historical changes in the household division of labor. Demography 25: 537–52.
Gershuny, Jonathan and Sullivan, Oriel. 1998. The sociological uses of time-use diary analysis. European Sociological Review 14: 69–85.
Gershuny, Jonathan and Sullivan, Oriel 2003. Time use, gender, and public policy regimes. Social Politics 10: 205–28.
Gilligan, Carol. 1982. In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Glass, D. V. 1940. Population Policies and Movements in Europe. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Goldschmidt-Clermont, Luisella. 1993. Monetary valuation of non-market productive time – methodological considerations. Review of Income and Wealth 39: 419–33. Available at: www.roiw.org/1993/419.pdf.
Goldschmidt-Clermont, Luisella and Pagnossin-Aligisakis, Elisabetta. 1995. Measures of Unrecorded Economic Activities in Fourteen Countries. Human Development Report Office Occasional Paper No. 20. New York: United Nations Development Programme. Available at: hdr.undp.org/docs/publications/ ocational_papers/oc20a.htm.
Goldschmidt-Clermont, Luisella and Pagnossin-Aligisakis, Elisabetta 1999. Households' non-SNA production: labour time, value of labour and of product, and contribution to extended private consumption. Review of Income and Wealth 45: 519–29. Available at: www.roiw.org/1999/519.pdf.
Goldschneider, Frances K. and Waite, Linda J.. 1991. New Families, No Families?Berkeley: University of California Press.
Goldthorpe, John H., ed. 1984. Order and Conflict in Contemporary Capitalism. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Goodin, Robert E. 1982. Political Theory & Public Policy. University of Chicago Press.
Goodin, Robert E. 1985. Protecting the Vulnerable. University of Chicago Press.
Goodin, Robert E. 1988. Reasons for Welfare. Princeton University Press.
Goodin, Robert E1990a. Relative needs. Pp. 12–33 in Needs and Welfare, ed. Ware, Alan and Goodin, Robert E.. London: Sage.
Goodin, Robert E. 1990b. Stabilizing expectations: the role of earnings-related benefits in social welfare policy. Ethics 100: 530–53.
Goodin, Robert E. 1995. Utilitarianism as a Public Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
Goodin, Robert E1998. Social welfare as a collective social responsibility. Pp. 97–194 in Social Welfare and Individual Responsibility, by Schmidtz, David and Goodin, Robert E.. Cambridge University Press.
Goodin, Robert E. 2001. Toward a post-productivist welfare state. British Journal of Political Science 31: 13–40.
Goodin, Robert E. 2002. Structures of mutual obligation. Journal of Social Policy 31: 579–96.
Goodin, Robert E. 2004. Support with strings: workfare as an ‘impermissible condition’. Journal of Applied Philosophy 21: 297–308.
Goodin, Robert E2005. Responsibilities for children's well-being. Pp. 60–88 in No Time to Lose: The Wellbeing of Australia's Children, ed. Prior, Margot and Richardson, Sue. Melbourne University Press.
Goodin, Robert E2008. Women's work: its irreplaceability and exploitability. In The Illusion of Consent: Essays after Carole Pateman, ed. O'Neill, Daniel, Shanley, Mary Lyndon and Young, Iris Marion. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press. Forthcoming.
Goodin, Robert E., Headey, Bruce, Muffels, Ruud and Dirven, Henk-Jan. 1999. The Real Worlds of Welfare Capitalism. Cambridge University Press.
Goodin, Robert E. and Mitchell, Deborah, eds. 2000. The Foundations of the Welfare State. Aldershot: Edward Elgar.
Goodin, Robert E., Parpo, Antti and Kangas, Olli. 2004. The temporal welfare state: the case of Finland. Journal of Social Policy 33: 531–52.
Goodin, Robert E., Rice, James Mahmud, Bittman, Michael and Saunders, Peter. 2005. The time-pressure illusion: discretionary time vs free time. Social Indicators Research 73: 43–70.
Goodnow, Jacqueline J. and Bowes, Jennifer M.. 1994. Men, Women and Household Work. Oxford University Press.
Gordon, Linda. 1979. The struggle for reproductive freedom: three stages of feminism. Pp. 107–32 in Capitalist Patriarchy, ed. Eisenstein, Zillah R.. New York: Monthly Review Press.
Gordon, Linda 1994. Pitied But Not Entitled: Single Mothers and the History of Welfare, 1890–1935. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Gornick, Janet C. and Jacobs, Jerry A.. 1996. A cross-national analysis of the wages of part-time workers: evidence from the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada and Australia. Work, Employment and Society 10 (1: March): 1–27.
Gornick, Janet C. and Meyers, Marcia K.. 2003. Families that Work: Policies for Reconciling Parenthood and Employment. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Gornick, Janet C., Meyers, Marcia K. and Ross, Katherin E.. 1997. Supporting the employment of mothers: policy variation across fourteen welfare states. Journal of European Social Policy 7: 45–70.
Griffin, James. 1986. Well-being. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Gustafsson, Siv. 1994. Childcare and types of welfare states. In Sainsbury 1994, pp. 45–61.
Haataja, A. 1998. Tasaetu, tarveharkinta vai ansioperiaate? Sosiaalipolitiikkamallit, mikrosimulaatiot ja työttömien taloudellinen asema. Sosiaalipolitiikan laitos. Turun yliopiston julkaisuja. Sarja C. Osa 141. Turku. English summary: Means tested, flat rate or earnings related benefits? Social policy models, microsimulation and the economic position of the unemployed. Department of Social Policy. Annales Universitatis Turkuensis, C:141. Turku.
Hakim, Catherine. 2000. Work-Lifestyle Choices in the 21st Century. Oxford University Press.
Hakim, Catherine 2003a. Competing family models, competing social policies. Family Matters 64: 52–61.
Hakim, Catherine 2003b. Public morality versus personal choice: the failure of social attitude surveys. British Journal of Sociology 54: 339–45.
Hale, Sir Matthew. 1778. The History of the Pleas of the Crown. London: Sollom Emlyn.
Hamermesh, D. S. and J. Lee. 2005. The Economics of Workaholism: We Should Not Have Worked on This Paper. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 11566. Available at: www.nber.org/papers/w11566.
Hamermesh, D. S. and Lee, J. 2007. Stressed out on four continents: time crunch or yuppie kvetch? Review of Economics & Statistics 89: 374–83.
Hancock, Keith. 1979. The first half-century of Australian wage policy. Journal of Industrial Relations 21: 129–60.
Hantrais, Linda. 1993. Women, work and welfare in France. Pp. 116–37 in Women and Social Policies in Europe: Work, Family and the State, ed. Lewis, Jane. Aldershot: Elgar.
Harvey, Andrew S. 1984. Special time budget measures. In Harvey et al. 1984, pp. 116–35.
Harvey, Andrew S., Szalai, Alexander, Elliott, David H., Stone, Philip J. and Clark, Susan N.. 1984. Time Budget Reseach: An ISSC Workbook in Comparative Analysis. Frankfurt: Campus Verlag.
Haveman, Robert H. 1993. Who are the nation's truly poor? Problems and pitfalls in (re)defining and measuring poverty. Brookings Review 11 (1: Winter): 24–7.
Haveman, Robert H. and Bershadker, Andrew. 1998. Self-reliance as a poverty criterion: trends in earnings-capacity poverty, 1975–1992. American Economic Review (Papers & Proceedings) 88 (2: May): 342–7.
Haveman, Robert H. and Bershadker, Andrew 2001. The inability to be self-reliant. Review of Income & Wealth 47: 335–60.
Haveman, Robert H. and Buron, L. F.. 1993. Escaping poverty through work – the problem of low earnings capacity in the United States, 1973–88. Review of Income and Wealth 38: 1–15.
Hawrylyshyn, O. 1977. Towards a definition of non-market activities. Review of Income and Wealth 23: 79–96.
Heidenheimer, Arnold J., Heclo, Hugh and Adams, Carolyn Teich. 1990. Comparative Public Policy: The Politics of Social Choice in America, Europe, and Japan. 3rd edn. New York: St Martin's Press.
Hernes, Helga. 1984. Welfare State and Woman Power. Oslo: Universiteitsforlaget.
Hillsman, Sally T. 2002. Best practices along the criminal justice process: criminal fines as an intermediate sanction. Speech to ‘Beyond Prisons Symposium’, Kingston, Ont. Available at: www.csc-ssc/gc/ca/text/forum/bprisons/speeches/11_e.shtml.
Hirsch, Fred. 1976. Social Limits to Growth. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Hochschild, Arlie Russell. 1989. The Second Shift: Working Parents and the Revolution at Home. New York: Viking.
Hochschild, Arlie Russell 1997. The Time Bind. New York: Metropolitan Books.
Holloway, Sue, Short, Sandra and Tamplin, Sarah. 2002. Household Satellite Account (Experimental) Methodology. London: Office of National Accounts, National Statistics. Available at: www.statistics.gov.uk/hhsa/hhsa/resources/fileattachments/hhsa.pdf.
Honoré, Tony. 1982. The Quest for Security: Employees, Tenants, Wives. London: Stevens.
International Labour Office (ILO). 1935/1996. Convention concerning the reduction of hours of work to forty a week [signed 1935; came into force 1957]. Vol. I, pp. 261–3 in International Labour Conventions and Recommendations. Geneva: ILO.
Ironmonger, Duncan. 1996. Counting outputs, capital inputs and caring labour: estimating gross household product. Feminist Economics 2 (3): 37–64.
Jacobs, Jerry A. and Kathleen Gerson. 2000. The overworked American debate: new evidence comparing ideal and actual working hours. Pp. 71–95 in Work and Family: Research Informing Policy, ed. Parcel, Toby and Cornfield, Daniel B.. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Jacobs, Jerry A. and Gerson, Kathleen 2004. The Time Divide: Work, Family and Gender Inequality. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Jahoda, Marie, Lazarsfeld, Paul F. and Zeisel, Hans. 1933/1971. Marienthal: The Sociography of an Unemployed Community, trans. by the authors with John Reginait and Thomas Elsaesser. Chicago: Aldine-Atherton; originally published 1933.
Jephcott, P. with Seear, N. and Smith, J. H., under the direction of R. Titmuss. 1962. Married Women Working. London: Allen & Unwin.
Johansson, Sten. 1973. The Level of Living Survey: a presentation. Acta Sociologica 16: 211–19.
Juster, F. Thomas. 1985a. Conceptual and methodological issues involved in the measurement of time use. In Juster and Stafford 1985b, pp. 19–32.
Juster, F. Thomas1985b. Preferences for work and leisure. In Juster and Stafford 1985b, pp. 333–51.
Juster, F. Thomas, Paul N. Courant and Greg K. Dow. 1985. A conceptual framework for the analysis of time allocation data. In Juster and Stafford 1985b, pp. 113–31.
Juster, F. Thomas and Frank P. Stafford, eds. 1985a. Introduction and overview. In Juster and Stafford 1985b, pp. 1–18.
Juster, F. Thomas and Stafford, Frank P. 1985b. Time, Goods and Well-Being. Ann Arbor: Survey Research Centre, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan.
Juster, F. Thomas and Stafford, Frank P. 1991. The allocation of time: empirical findings, behavioral models and problems of measurement. Journal of Economic Literature 29: 471–552.
Kahneman, Daniel, Diener, Ed and Schwarz, Norbert, eds. 1999. Well-Being: The Foundations of Hedonic Psychology. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Kajanoja, Jouko. 1999. Lasten päivähoito investointina [Child Day Care as an Investment]. VATT-tutkimuksia 50. Helsinki: Valtion taloudellinen tutkimuskeskus / Government Institute of Economic Research.
Kamerman, Sheila B. 2003. Welfare states, family policies, and early childhood education, care, and family support: options for the Central and Eastern European (CEE) and Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) countries. Paper presented to the Council of Europe and UNESCO ‘Consultation Meeting on Family Support Policy in Central and Eastern Europe’, September 3–5, 2003, Budapest, Hungary. Available at: www.childpolicyintl.org/intpublications.html.
Kamerman, Sheila B. and Kahn, Alfred J., eds. 1978. Family Policy: Government and Families in Fourteen Countries. New York: Columbia University Press.
Kamerman, Sheila B., Neuman, Michelle, Waldfogel, Jane and Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne. 2003. Social Policies, Family Types and Child Outcomes in Selected OECD Countries. OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers, No. 6. Paris: OECD. Available at: www.childpolicy.org/oecd-workingpaper_6_2003.pdf.
Kangas, Olli. 1992. The politics of universalism: the case of Finnish sickness insurance. Journal of Social Policy 21: 25–52.
Kangas, Olli and Joakim Palme. 1996. The development of occupational pensions in Finland and Sweden: class politics and institutional feedbacks. Pp. 211–40 in Privatization of Social Policy, ed. Shalev, Michael. London: Macmillan.
Kant, Immanuel. 1785. Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals. In Kant, Practical Philosophy, trans. and ed. Gregor, Mary J.. Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Karasek, R. 1979. Job demands, job latitude and mental strain: implications for job redesign. Administrative Science Quarterly 24: 285–308.
John Maynard, Keynes. 1930. Economic possibilities for our grandchildren. Pp. 358–73 in Essays in Persuasion. London: Macmillan, 1931.
King, Desmond. 1995. Actively Seeking Work? The Politics of Unemployment and Welfare Policy in the United States and Great Britain. University of Chicago Press.
King, Desmond S. and Waldron, Jeremy. 1988. Citizenship, social citizenship and the defence of welfare provision. British Journal of Political Science 18: 415–43.
Korpi, Walter. 1983. The Democratic Class Struggle. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Korpi, Walter 1989. Power, politics and state autonomy in the growth of social citizenship: social rights during sickness in eighteen OECD countries since 1930. American Sociological Review 54: 309–28.
Korpi, Walter 1990. The development of the Swedish welfare state in a comparative perspective. Stockholm: Swedish Institute. Reprinted in Goodin and Mitchell 2000, vol. II, pp. 314–23.
Korpi, Walter 2000. Faces of inequality: gender, class and patterns of inequalities in different types of welfare states. Social Politics 7: 127–91.
Koven, Seth and Michel, Sonya. 1990. Womanly duties: maternalist policies and the origins of welfare states in France, Germany, Great Britain and the United States, 1880–1920. American Historical Review 95: 1076–108.
Kymlicka, Will. 2001. Contemporary Political Philosophy: An Introduction. 2nd edn. Oxford University Press.
Lai, D. W. and McDonald, J. R.. 1995. Life satisfaction of Chinese elderly immigrants in Calgary. Canadian Journal on Aging 14: 536–52.
Lake, Marilyn. 1992. Mission impossible: how men gave birth to the Australian nation – nationalism, gender and other seminal acts. Gender and History 4 (3: Autumn): 305–22.
Land, Hilary. 1994. The demise of the male breadwinner – in practice but not in theory: a challenge for social security systems. Pp. 100–15 in Social Security in Transition, ed. Baldwin, Sally and Falkingham, Jane. New York: Harvester-Wheatsheaf.
Land, Hilary and Hilary Rose. 1985. Compulsory altruism for some or an altruistic society for all. Pp. 74–96 in In Defence of Welfare, ed. Bean, Philipet al. London: Tavistock.
Landers, Renee M., Rebitzer, James B. and Taylor, Lowell J.. 1996. Rat race redux: adverse selection in the determination of work hours in law firms. American Economic Review 86: 329–48.
Langer, E. J. and Rodin, J.. 1976. The effects of choice and enhanced personal responsibility for the aged. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 34: 191–8.
Lasch, Christopher. 1977. Haven in a Heartless World: The Family Besieged. New York: Basic Books.
Layard, Richard. 2005. Happiness: Lessons from a New Science. London: Allen Lane.
Lebergott, Stanley. 1984. The Americans: An Economic Record. New York: Norton.
Lefaucheur, Nadine. 1996. ‘At risk families’ and ‘family risks’: a brief history of social welfare provision for single parent families in France. Vol. I, pp. 419–38 in Comparing Social Welfare Systems in Europe, ed. Palier, Bruno. Paris: MIRE.
Lenoir, Rémi. 1991. Family policy in France since 1938. In Ambler 1991, pp. 144–86.
Lewis, Jane. 1980. The Politics of Motherhood: Child and Maternal Welfare in England, 1900–1939. London: Croom Helm.
Lewis, Jane 1986. Lone parent families: politics and economics. Journal of Social Policy 18: 595–600.
Lewis, Jane1990. Women's two roles: Myrdal, Klein and post-war feminism. Pp. 167–88 in British Feminism in the Twentieth Century, ed. Smith, Harold. Cheltenham: Elgar.
Lewis, Jane 1992. Gender and welfare regimes. Journal of European Social Policy 2: 159–73.
Lewis, Jane 1997. Gender and welfare regimes: further thoughts. Social Politics 4: 160–77.
Lewis, Jane 2001. The End of Marriage? Individualism and Intimate Relations. Cheltenham: Elgar.
Lewis, Jane and Åström, Gertrud. 1992. Equality, difference and state welfare: labor markets and family policies in Sweden. Feminist Studies 18: 59–87.
Liljeström, Rita. 1978. Sweden. In Kamerman and Kahn 1978, pp. 19–48.
Linder, Steffan B. 1970. The Harried Leisure Class. New York: Columbia University Press.
Lindgren, Jarl. 1978. Finland. In Kamerman and Kahn 1978, pp. 270–94.
Luce, R. Duncan and Raiffa, Howard. 1957. Games and Decisions. New York: Wiley.
Lundberg, Shelly. 1985. Tied wage-hours offers and the endogeneity of wages. Review of Economics & Statistics 67: 405–10.
Lundberg, Shelly and Pollak, Robert A.. 1994. Noncooperative bargaining models of marriage. American Economic Review (Papers & Proceedings) 84 (2: May): 132–7.
Lynd, Robert S. and Merrell Lynd, Helen. 1937. Middletown in Transition. New York: Harcourt, Brace.
Machan, Tibor R. 2000. Tax slavery. Available at: www.mises.org/story/410.
Macintyre, Stuart. 1985. Winners & Losers: The Pursuit of Social Justice in Australian History. Sydney: Allen & Unwin.
MacKinnon, Catharine A. 1989. Toward a Feminist Theory of the State. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
McRae, Susan. 2003. Constraints and choices in mothers' employment careers: a consideration of Hakim's Preference Theory. British Journal of Sociology 54: 317–38.
Mahoney, Barry with Greene, Judith A., Eigler, Julie and Green, Joan B.. 1996. How to Use Structured Fines (Day Fines) as an Intermediate Sanction. US Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Assistance Monograph NCJ 156242. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Assistance. Available at: www.vera.org/publications/publications_5.asp?publication_id=96.
Malthus, T. R. 1826. An Essay on the Principles of Population. 6th edn. London: J. Murray.
Marmot, Michael G. 2004. The Status Syndrome: How Social Standing Affects our Health and Longevity. New York: Henry Holt.
Marmot, Michael G., Smith, George Davey, Stansfeld, Stephen, Patel, Chandra, North, Fiona, Head, Jenny, White, Ian, Brunner, Eric and Feeney, Amanda. 1991. Health inequalities among British civil servants: the Whitehall II study. The Lancet 337: 1387–93.
Marshall, T. H. 1949. Citizenship and social class. Reprinted pp. 70–134 in Marshall, Class, Citizenship and Social Development. University of Chicago Press, 1963.
Marx, Karl. 1858/1972. Grundrisse, ed. and trans. McLellan, David. New York: Harper & Row, 1972.
Marx, Karl. 1858/1973. Grundrisse, trans. Martin Nicholaus. London: Penguin, 1973.
Marx, Karl1867/1906. Capital, ed. Engels, Frederick, trans. Samuel Moore and Edward Aveling, rev. Ernest Untermann. New York: Modern Library, 1906.
Marx, Karl.1875/1978. Critique of the Gotha Program. In The Marx–Engels Reader, ed. Tucker, Robert C.. 2nd edn. New York: Norton.
Masnick, George S. and Jo Bane, Mary. 1980. The Nation's Families. Boston: Auburn Press.
Maume, David J. Jr and Bellas, Marcia L.. 2001. The overworked American or the time bind: assessing competing explanations for time spent in paid labor. American Behavioral Scientist 44: 1137–56.
Merz, Joachim. 2002. Time and economic well-being – a panel analysis of desired versus actual working hours. Review of Income and Wealth 48: 317–46.
Mill, John Stuart. 1869. The Subjection of Women. Pp. 425–58 in John Stuart Mill, Three Essays, ed. Wollheim, Richard. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1975.
Miller, Pavla. 2005. Useful and priceless children in contemporary welfare states. Social Politics 12: 3–41.
Moene, Karl Ove and Wallerstein, Michael. 1995. How social democracy worked: labor-market institutions. Politics & Society 23: 185–212.
Morgan, Kimberly J. 2005. The ‘production’ of child care: how labor markets shape social policy and vice versa. Social Politics 12: 243–63.
Morgan, Kimberly J. 2006. Working Mothers and the Welfare State: Religion and the Politics of Work-family Policies in Western Europe and the United States. Stanford University Press.
Morris, Norval and Tonry, Michael. 1990. Between Prison and Probation: Intermediate Punishments in a Rational Sentencing System. Oxford University Press.
Moynihan, D. P. 1995. ‘It will shame the Congress’: a statement on the Senate floor on September 16, 1995. New York Review of Books 62 (16): 71–2.
Murray, Charles. 1984. Losing Ground: American Social Policy, 1950–80. New York: Basic.
Myrdal, Alva. 1944. Nation and Family: The Swedish Experiment in Democratic Family and Population Policy. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner.
Myrdal, Alva and Klein, Viola. 1956. Women's Two Roles. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Myrdal, Alva and Myrdal, Gunnar. 1934. Kris i befolkningsfrågan. Stockholm: Bonniers.
Myrdal, Gunnar. 1940. Population: A Problem for Democracy, The Godkin Lectures, 1938. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Nelson, Barbara J. 1990. The origins of the two-channel welfare state: Workmen's Compensation and Mothers' Aid. Pp. 123–51 in Women, the State and Welfare, ed. Gordon, Linda. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
Nichols, Shaun, Stephen Stich, Alan Leslie and David Klein. 1994. Varieties of off-line simulation. Reprinted pp. 39–74 in Theories of Theories of Mind, ed. Carruthers, P. and Smith, P.. Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Niemi, Iris. 1993. Systematic error in behavioural measurement: comparing results from interview and time budget studies. Social Indicators Research 30: 229–44.
Niemi, Iiris and Pääkkönen, Hannu. 2001. Time Use Changes in Finland through the 1990s. Culture and the Media 2002:2. Helsinki: Statistics Finland.
Nowotny, Helga. 1994. Time: The Modern and Postmodern Experience, trans. Neville Plaice. Oxford: Polity.
Nozick, Robert. 1974. Anarchy, State and Utopia. Oxford: Blackwell.
Nussbaum, Martha C. 1994. The Therapy of Desire: Theory and Practice in Hellenistic Ethics. Princeton University Press.
Nussbaum, Martha C. 2006. Frontiers of Justice: Disability, Nationality, Species Membership. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
O'Connor, Julia S. 1993. Gender, class and citizenship in the comparative analysis of welfare regimes: theoretical and methodological issues. British Journal of Sociology 44: 501–18.
O'Connor, Julia S., Orloff, Ann S. and Shaver, Sheila. 1999. States, Markets, Families: Gender and Social Policy in Australia, Canada, Great Britain and the United States. Cambridge University Press.
Offe, Claus and Heinze, Rolf G.. 1992. Beyond Employment: Time, Work, and the Informal Economy, trans. Alan Braley. Oxford: Polity.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). 1993. Education at a Glance. Paris: OECD.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)1995. Household Production in OECD Countries: Data Sources and Measurement Methods. Paris: OECD.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)1996. Education at a Glance. Paris: OECD.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)1997a. Education at a Glance. Paris: OECD.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)1997b. Making Work Pay: Taxation, Benefits, Employment and Unemployment. Paris: OECD.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)National Accounts, 1983–1995, Volume II: Detailed Tables. Paris: OECD.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)2001. OECD Employment Outlook, 2001. Paris: OECD.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)2002a. OECD Employment Outlook, 2002. Paris: OECD. ‘Statistical annex’ available at: www.oecd.org/pdf/M00032000/M0003207.pdf.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)2002b. Society at a Glance, 2002. Paris: OECD. ‘Statistical indicators and related data’. Available at: www.oecd.org/EN/document/0,,\\.EN-document-notheme-5-no-1-22006-0,00.html.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)2003. Education at a Glance. Paris: OECD.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)2005a. OECD Employment Outlook, 2005. Paris: OECD. www.oecd.org/document/1/0,2340,en_2649_201185_34855489_1_1_1_1,00.html.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)2005b. Society at a Glance, 2005. Paris: OECD. Available at: www.oecd.org/document/24/0,2340, en_2825_497118_2671576_1_1_1_1,00.html.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)2005c. What are Equivalence Scales?Paris: OECD. Available at: www.oecd.org/dataoecd/61/52/35411111.pdf.
Orloff, Ann Shola. 1993. Gender and the social rights of citizenship: the comparative analysis of gender relations and welfare states. American Sociological Review 58: 303–28.
Orloff, Ann Shola 1997. Comments on Jane Lewis's ‘Gender and Welfare Regimes: Further Thoughts’. Social Politics 4: 188–202.
Orloff, Ann Shola 2002a. Explaining US welfare reform: power, gender, race and the US policy legacy. Critical Social Policy 22: 96–118.
Orloff, Ann Shola 2002b. Women's Employment and Welfare Regimes. Social Policy & Development Paper No. 12. Geneva: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development.
Orshansky, Mollie. 1969. How poverty is measured. Monthly Labor Review 92: 37–41.
Ostner, Ilona. 1993. Slow motion: women, work and the family in Germany. Pp. 92–115 in Women and Social Policies in Europe: Work, Family and the State, ed. Lewis, Jane. Aldershot: Elgar.
Ostner, Ilona and Jane Lewis. 1995. Gender and the evolution of European social policies. Pp. 159–93 in European Social Policy, ed. Liebfried, Stephan and Pierson, Paul. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.
Oswald, Andrew J. 1997. Happiness and economic performance. Economic Journal 107: 1815–31.
Padavic, Irene and Reskin, Barbara. 1994. Women and Men at Work. London: Pine Forge Press.
Palda, Filip. 1997. Fiscal churning and political efficiency. Kyklos 50: 189–206.
Palme, Joakim. 1990. Models of old-age pensions. Pp. 104–25 in Needs and Welfare, ed. Ware, Alan and Goodin, Robert E.. London: Sage.
Parker, Stephen. 1990. The Australian Child Support scheme. Family Law 20: 210–14.
Pateman, Carole. 1988a. The patriarchal welfare state. Pp. 231–60 in Democracy and the Welfare State, ed. Gutmann, Amy. Princeton University Press.
Pateman, Carole 1988b. The Sexual Contract. Cambridge: Polity.
Perlmuter, L. C. and Monty, R. A.. 1977. The importance of perceived control: fact or fantasy?American Scientist 65: 759–65.
Peterson, Christopher. 1999. Personal control and well-being. In Kahneman et al. 1999, pp. 288–301.
Pettit, Philip. 2001. A Theory of Freedom. Oxford: Polity.
Petty, William. 1899. The Economic Writings of Sir William Petty Together with the Observations upon the Bills of Mortality More Probably by Captain John Graunt, ed. Hull, Charles Henry. Cambridge University Press.
Pharr, Susan J. and Putnam, Robert D., eds. 2000. Disaffected Democracies: What's Troubling the Trilateral Countries?Princeton University Press.
Phillips, Anne. 1983. Hidden Hands: Women and Economic Policies. London: Pluto Press.
Phillips, Roderick. 1988. Putting Asunder: A History of Divorce in Western Society. Cambridge University Press.
Pigou, A. C. 1932. The Economics of Welfare. 4th edn. London: Macmillan.
Piven, Frances Fox and Cloward, Richard A.. 1971. Regulating the Poor. New York: Pantheon.
Polanyi, Karl. 1944. The Great Transformation. New York: Rinehart.
Pollak, Robert A. and Wachter, M. L.. 1975. The relevance of the household production function and its implications for the allocation of time. Journal of Political Economy 83: 255–77.
Postone, Moishe. 1978. Necessity, labour and time: a reinterpretation of the Marxian critique of capitalism. Social Research 45: 739–88.
Pulkkinen, Lea, Kokkonen, Marja and Makiaho, Ari. 1998. Positive affectivity, self-mastery, and a sense of failure as predictors of self-assessed health. European Psychologist 3 (2): 133–42.
Questlaux, Nicole and Jacques Fournier. 1978. France. In Kamerman and Kahn 1978, pp. 117–82.
Radin, Margaret Jane. 1996. Contested Commodities. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Ransom, Roger L. and Sutch, Richard. 1977. One Kind of Freedom: The Economic Consequences of Emancipation. Cambridge University Press.
Rawls, John. 1971. A Theory of Justice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Raz, Joseph. 1986. The Morality of Freedom. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Reagan, Ronald. n.d. Quotes. Available at: www.quotesforall.com/r/reaganronald.htm.
Rhode, Deborah L. and Martha Minow. 1990. Reforming the questions, questioning the reforms: feminist perspectives on divorce law. Pp. 191–210 in Divorce Reform at the Crossroads, ed. Sugarman, Stephen D. and Kay, Herma Hill. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Rice, James Mahmud, Goodin, Robert E. and Parpo, Antti. 2006. The temporal welfare state: a crossnational comparison. Journal of Public Policy 26: 195–228.
Rimlinger, Gaston V. 1971. Welfare Policy and Industrialization in Europe, America and Russia. New York: Wiley.
Ringen, Stein. 1988. Direct and indirect measures of poverty. Journal of Social Policy 17: 351–65.
Robinson, John P. 1977. How Americans Use Time. New York: Praeger.
Robinson, John P1985. The validity and reliability of diaries versus alternative time use measures. In Juster and Stafford 1985b, pp. 33–62.
Robinson, John P. and Bostrom, Ann. 1994. The overestimated workweek? What time diary measures suggest. Monthly Labor Review 117: 11–23.
Robinson, John P. and Philip E. Converse. 1972. Social change reflected in the use of time. Pp. 17–86 in The Human Meaning of Social Change, ed. Campbell, Angus and Converse, Philip E.. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Robinson, John P., Philip E. Converse and Alexander Szalai. 1972. Everyday life in twelve countries. In Szalai et al. 1972, pp. 113–44.
Robinson, John P. and Godbey, G.. 1997. Time for Life: The Surprising Ways Americans Use their Time. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Robinson, John P. and Godbey, G. 1999. Time for Life: The Surprising Ways Americans Use their Time. 2nd edn. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Robson, W. A. 1976. Welfare State and Welfare Society. London: Allen & Unwin.
Roemer, John E. 1982. Exploitation, alternatives and socialism. Economic Journal 92: 87–107.
Roemer, John E. 1988. Free to Lose. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Rones, Phillip L., Ilg, Randy E. and Garner, Jennifer M.. 1997. Trends in hours of work since the mid-1970s. Monthly Labor Review 120 (4: April): 3–14. Available at: www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/1997/04/art1abs.htm.
Rosanvallon, Pierre. 2000. The New Social Question: Rethinking the Welfare State, trans. Barbara Harshav. Princeton University Press.
Ruddick, Sara. 1980. Maternal thinking. Feminist Studies 6: 342–67.
Ruddick, Sara 1989. Maternal Thinking. New York: Ballantine Books.
Ruggles, Patricia. 1990. Drawing the Line: Alternative Poverty Measures and their Implications for Public Policy. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.
Sainsbury, Diane, ed. 1994. Gendering Welfare States. London: Sage.
Sainsbury, Diane 1996. Gender, Equality and Welfare States. Cambridge University Press.
Saunders, Peter. 1994. Welfare and Inequality: National and International Perspectives on the Australian Welfare State. Cambridge University Press.
Saunders, Peter, Inge O'Connor and Timothy Smeeding. 1994. The distribution of welfare: inequality, earnings capacity and household production in comparative perspective. SPRC Discussion Papers No. 51 (Nov. 1994). Kensington, NSW: Social Policy Research Centre, University of New South Wales.
Sawhill, Isabel V. 1999. Families at risk. Pp. 97–135 in Setting National Priorities: The 2000 Election and Beyond. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.
Schor, Juliet B. 1992. The Overworked American: The Unexpected Decline of Leisure. New York: Basic Books.
Schor, Juliet B. 1993. Preface to the paperback edition. Pp. xv–xvi in The Overworked American: The Unexpected Decline of Leisure. New York: Basic Books.
Schor, Juliet B2000. Working hours and time pressure: the controversy about trends in time use. Pp. 73–86 in Working Time: International Trends, Theory, and Policy Perspectives, ed. Golden, Lonnie and Figart, Deborah M.. London: Routledge.
Schwartz, Barry. 1975. Queuing and Waiting: Studies in the Social Organization of Access and Delay. University of Chicago Press.
Scitovsky, Tibor. 1976. The Joyless Economy: An Inquiry into Human Satisfaction and Consumer Dissatisfaction. Oxford University Press.
Self, Peter. 1975. Econocrats and the Policy Process: The Politics and Philosophy of Cost-Benefit Analysis. London: Macmillan.
Sen, Amartya. 1980. Equality of what?Tanner Lectures on Human Values 1: 195–220.
Sen, Amartya 1981. Poverty and Famines. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Sen, Amartya 1983. Poor, relatively speaking. Oxford Economic Papers 35: 153–69.
Sen, Amartya 1985. Commodities and Capabilities. Amsterdam: North-Holland.
Sen, Amartya 1987. The Standard of Living. Cambridge University Press.
Sen, Amartya 1992. Inequality Reexamined. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Sen, Amartya1996. Social commitment and democracy: the demands of equity and financial conservatism. Pp. 9–38 in Living as Equals, ed. Barker, Paul. Oxford University Press.
Sen, Amartya 1999. Development as Freedom. New York: Random House.
Shafir, E., Diamond, Peter A. and Tversky, Amos. 1997. Money illusion. Quarterly Journal of Economics 112: 341–74.
Shaver, Sheila. 2000. Inequalities, regimes and typologies. Social Politics 7: 215–19.
Shaver, Sheila 2002. Gender, welfare, regimes and agency. Social Politics 9: 203–11.
Shubik, Martin. 1971. Games of status. Behavioral Science 16: 117–29.
Silvers, Anita, Wasserman, David and Mahowald, Mary B.. 1998. Disability, Difference and Dilemmas: Perspectives on Justice in Bioethics and Public Policy. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Simon, Herbert A. 1951. A formal theory of the employment relationship. Econometrica 19: 293–305.
Sirianni, Carmen. 1991. The self-management of time in post-industrial society. In Working Time in Transition, ed. Hinrichs, Karl, Roche, William and Sirianni, Carmen. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Skinner, Quentin. 2001. The third concept of liberty. Proceedings of the British Academy 112: 237–68.
Skocpol, Theda. 1992. Protecting Soldiers and Mothers: The Political Origins of Social Policy in the United States. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Smeeding, Timothy M. 1997. Time and public policy: why do we care and what instruments are needed? Presented to conference on ‘Time-use, Non-market Work and Family Well-being’, Washington, DC, 20–21 Nov. 1997. Available at: www-cpr.maxwell.syr.edu/faculty/Smeeding/papers/timepolicy.pdf.
Smeeding, Timothy M. and Joseph T. Marchand. 2003. Family time and public policy in the United States. Mimeo., Center for Policy Research, University of Syracuse.
Smeeding, Timothy M., Saunders, P., Coder, J., Jenkins, S., Fritzell, J., Hagenaars, A. J. M., Hauser, R. and Wolfson, M.. 1993. Poverty, inequality and family living standards impacts across seven nations: the effect of noncash subsidies for health, education and housing. Review of Income & Wealth 39: 229–54.
Solow, Robert M. 2000. Welfare: the cheapest country. New York Review of Books 47 (5: 23 Mar.): 20–3.
Sorokin, P. A. and Merton, R. K.. 1937. Social time: a methodological and functional analysis. American Journal of Sociology 42: 615–29.
Sorokin, Pitrim and Berger, Clarence. 1939. Time-budgets of Human Behavior. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Spengler, Joseph J. 1979. France Faces Depopulation: Postulate Edition, 1936–1976. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Stafford, Frank P. 1985. Issues in modeling behavior with time use data. In Juster and Stafford 1985b, pp. 383–96.
Stark, Cynthia A. 2007. How to include the severely disabled in a contractarian theory of justice. Journal of Political Philosophy 15: 127–45.
Statistics Finland. 2001. Tulonjakotilasto 1999. Tulot ja kulutus [Income Distribution Survey 1999: Incomes and Consumption] 2001: 16. Helsinki: Tilastokeskus/Statistics Finland.
Stinchcombe, Arthur L. 1995. Sugar Island Slavery in the Age of Enlightenment: The Political Economy of the Caribbean World. Princeton University Press.
Stinson, Linda L. 1999. Measuring how people spend their time: a time-use survey design. Monthly Labour Review 122 (8: Aug.), 12–19. Available at: http://stats.bls.gov/opub/mlr/1999/08/art3full.pdf.
Stoljar, Samuel. 1989. A history of the French law of divorce. International Journal of Law and the Family 4: 137–59.
Strasser, Susan. 1982. Never Done: A History of American Housework. New York: Pantheon.
Sullivan, Oriel and Gershuny, Jonathan. 2001. Cross-national changes in time use: some sociological (hi)stories re-examined. British Journal of Sociology 52: 331–47.
Sweden. 1931. Proposition 1931: 188.
Sweden.1968. The Status of Women in Sweden. Swedish Government's Report to the United Nations Economic and Social Council. Stockholm: Swedish Institute.
Szalai, Alexander, Converse, Philip, Feldheim, Pierre, Scheuch, Erwin and Stone, Philip. 1972. The Use of Time. The Hague: Mouton.
Tax Foundation. 2005. America celebrates Tax Freedom Day®. Available at: www.taxfoundation.org/taxfreedomday/.
Jacobus, tenBroek and Matson, Floyd W.. 1966. The disabled and the law of welfare. California Law Review 54: 809–40.
Therborn, Göran. 1995. European Modernity and Beyond. London: Sage.
Thompson, E. P. 1967. Time, work-discipline, and industrial capitalism. Past & Present 38: 56–97.
Tilton, Timothy A. 1990. The Political Theory of Swedish Social Democracy. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Titmuss, Richard M. 1955. The social division of welfare: some reflections on the search for equity. Reprinted pp. 39–59 in The Philosophy of Welfare, ed. Abel-Smith, B. and Titmuss, K.. London: Allen & Unwin, 1987.
Titmuss, Richard M. 1958. Essays on ‘the Welfare State’. London: Allen & Unwin.
Titmuss, Richard M. 1974. Social Policy. London: Allen & Unwin.
Tobin, James. 1970. On limiting the domain of inequality. Journal of Law and Economics 13: 263–78.
Alexis, Tocqueville. 1835. Address to the Royal Academy of Cherbourg. Pp. 1–27 in Tocqueville and Beaumont on Social Reform, ed. and trans. Seymour Drescher. New York: Harper & Row, 1968. Reprinted as: Memoir on pauperism. The Public Interest 70 (1983): 102–20.
Townsend, Peter. 1979. Poverty in the United Kingdom. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Travers, Peter and Richardson, Sue. 1993. Living Decently: Material Well-being in Australia. Oxford University Press.
UK Parliament. 1999. Welfare Reform and Pensions Act of 1999. In Acts of the UK Parliament 1999, c. 30. Available at: www.legislation.hmso.gov.uk/acts/acts1999/19990030.htm.
UN Department of Economic & Social Affairs, Statistics Division. 2005. Guide to Producing Statistics on Time Use: Measuring Paid and Unpaid Work. ST/ESA/STAT/SER.F.93. New York: United Nations. Available at: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/publication/SeriesF/SeriesF_93E.pdf.
UN Statistics Division. 1993. System of National Accounts. New York: United Nations. Available at: unstats.un.org/unsd/sna1993;toctop.asp.
US Bureau of the Census. 1965. The Statistical History of the United States from Colonial Times to the Present. Stamford, CT: Fairfield.
US Congress. 1996. Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 [Welfare Reform Act of 1996]. PL 104–193 [HR 3734], August 22, 1996, 100 Stat 2105. Available at: http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=104_cong_public_laws&docid=f:publ193.104.pdf.
US Council of Economic Advisers (US CEA). 1999. Families and the Labor Market, 1969–1999: Analyzing the ‘Time Crunch’. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. Available at: http://clinton4.nara.gov/media/pdf/famfinal.pdf.
US Social Security Administration (US SSA). 1994. Social Security Programs Throughout the World. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
US Social Security Administration (US SSA)2006. Social Security Programs Throughout the World. Available at: www.ssa.gov/policy/docs/progdesc/ssptw/.
Väisänen, Paavo. 2002. Estimation procedure of the Finnish Time Use Survey 1999–2000. Paper presented to the IATUR Annual Conference, Lisbon, 15–18 Oct. 2002. Available at: http://pascal.iseg.utl.pt/~cisep/IATUR/Papers/Vaisanen102f.pdf.
Margot, Doef and Maes, Stan. 1999. The Job Demand-Control (-Support) Model and psychological well-being: a review of 20 years of empirical research. Work and Stress 13 (2): 87–114.
Robert, Veen and Groot, Loek. 2006. Post-productivism and welfare states: a comparative analysis. British Journal of Political Science 36: 593–618.
Kersbergen, Kees. 1995. Social Capitalism: A Study of Christian Democracy and the Welfare State. London: Routledge.
Parijs, Philippe. 1995. Real Freedom for All. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Praag, Bernard M. S. and Ferrer-i-Carbonell, Ada. 2005. Happiness Quantified: A Satisfaction Calculus Approach. Oxford University Press.
Wanrooy, Brigid and Wilson, Shaun. 2006. Convincing the toilers? Dilemmas of long working hours in Australia. Work, Employment and Society 20: 349–68.
Vanek, Joann. 1974. Time spent in housework. Scientific American 231 (5 Nov.): 116–20.
Varjonen, Johanna and Eeva Hamunen. 1999. Proposal for a satellite account of household production. Statistics Directorate, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, STD/NA(99)17. Paris: OECD. Available at: www.oecd.org/dataoecd/61/62/2680989.pdf.
Veenhoven, Ruud. 1984. Conditions of Happiness. Boston: Kluwer Academic.
Veenhoven, Ruud 1999. Quality-of-life in individualistic society. Social Indicators 48: 157–86.
Vickery, Claire. 1977. The time-poor: a new look at poverty. Journal of Human Resources 12: 27–48.
Walby, Sylvia. 1989. Theorizing patriarchy. Sociology 23: 213–34.
Walby, Sylvia 1990. Theorizing Patriarchy. Oxford: Blackwell.
Walby, Sylvia1992. Post-post-modernism: theorizing social complexity. Pp. 31–52 in Destabilizing Theory, ed. Barratt, Michèle and Phillips, Anne. Oxford: Polity.
Walzer, Michael. 1983. Spheres of Justice. Oxford: Martin Robertson.
Waring, Marilyn. 1988. If Women Counted: A New Feminist Economics. New York: Harper & Row.
Warr, Peter. 1990. Decision latitude, job demands, and employee well-being. Work and Stress 4: 285–94.
Warren, Charles. 1926. The Supreme Court in United States History. Rev. edn. Boston: Little, Brown.
Weaver, R. Kent. 2000. Ending Welfare as We Know It. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.
Weiner, Bernard. 1985. An attributional theory of achievement motivation and emotion. Psychological Review 92: 548–73.
Weir, Margaret, Orloff, Ann Shola and Skocpol, Theda, eds. 1988. The Politics of Social Policy in the United States. Princeton University Press.
Weitzman, Lenore J. 1985. The Divorce Revolution: The Unexpected Social and Economic Consequences for Women and Children in America. New York: Free Press.
Wennemo, Irene. 1994. Sharing the Costs of Children. Dissertation Series 25. Stockholm: Swedish Institute for Social Research.
Whiteford, Peter and Bradshaw, Jonathan. 1994. Benefits and incentives for lone parents: a comparative analysis. International Social Security Review 47 (3–4): 69–89.
Whiteford, Peter, Stanton, David and Gray, Matthew. 2001. Families and income security: changing patterns of social security and related policy issues. Family Matters 60: 24–35.
Whitehouse, Gillian. 2001. Recent trends in pay equity: beyond the aggregate statistics. Journal of Industrial Relations 43: 66–78.
Wilensky, Harold L. 1961. The uneven distribution of leisure: the impact of economic growth on ‘free time’. Social Problems 9 (1): 32–56.
Wilensky, Harold L. 2002. Rich Democracies: Political Economy, Public Policy and Performance. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Wilensky, Harold and Lebeaux, C. N.. 1958. Industrial Society and Social Welfare. New York: Russell Sage.
Williams, Joan. 2000. Unbending Gender: Why Family and Work Conflict and What to Do about It. Oxford University Press.
Wilson, John, Thomson, Jane and McMahon, Anthony, eds. 1996. The Australian Welfare State: Key Documents and Themes. Melbourne: Macmillan Education.
Wollstein, Jarret B. 2005. We must end tax slavery now. Available at: www.free-market.net/resources/lit/end-tax-slavery.html.
Wooden, Mark. 1997. Enterprise bargaining and the gender earnings gap. Australian Bulletin of Labour 23: 214–26.
World Bank. 1994. Averting the Old Age Crisis: Policies to Protect the Old and Promote Growth. Oxford University Press.
World Bank2005. Human Development Report 2005: International Cooperation at a Crossroads: Aid, Trade and Security in an Unequal World. Oxford University Press for the World Bank. Available at: hdr.undp.org/reports/global/2005/.
World Health Organization (WHO). 2005. The World Health Report 2005: Make Every Mother and Child Count. Geneva: WHO. Available at: www.who.int/whr/2005/en/.
Young, Iris Marion. 1995. Mothers, citizenship and independence: a critique of pure family values. Ethics 105: 535–6.
Young, Michael and Willmott, Peter. 1973. The Symmetrical Family: A Study of Work and Leisure in the London Region. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Zeckhauser, Richard J. 1973. Time as the ultimate source of utility. Quarterly Journal of Economics 87: 668–75.
Zeckhauser, Richard J1974. Risk spreading and distribution. Pp. 206–28 in Redistribution through Public Choice, ed. Hochman, Harold M. and Peterson, George E.. New York: Columbia University Press.
Zelizer, Viviana A. 1985. Pricing the Priceless Child: The Changing Social Value of Children. New York: Basic Books.
Zelizer, Viviana A. 1994. The Social Meaning of Money. New York: Basic Books.