Skip to main content Accessibility help
Embedded Courts
  • Cited by 33
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the print book

Book description

Embedded Courts is laden with tension. Chinese courts are organized as a singular and unified system yet grassroots courts in urban and rural regions differ greatly in the way they use the law and are as diverse as the populations they serve. Based on extensive fieldwork and in-depth interviews, this book offers a penetrating discussion of the operation of Chinese courts. It explains how Chinese judges rule and how the law is not the only script they follow - political, administrative, social and economic factors all influence verdicts. This landmark work will revise our understanding of the role of law in China - one that cannot be easily understood through the standard lens of judicial independence and separation of powers. Ng and He make clear the struggle facing frontline judges as they bridge the gap between a rule-based application of law and an instrumentalist view that prioritizes stability maintenance.


‘It is a book about the growing heterogeneity and transformation of the Chinese court system, in relation to the nature of China’s partystate and the changing social, political, and economic environment … Through this analytical framework, disparate strands of researches on Chinese courts can be brought together. This book provides an important touchstone for researches on Chinese courts for years to come.’

Juan Wang Source: Journal of Chinese Political Science

‘Every good book raises as many questions as it answers, and this is a very good book. The most obvious concern China, and Embedded Courts will be required reading for those interested in China.’

Frank K. Upham Source: Law & Social Inquiry

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Save to Kindle
  • Save to Dropbox
  • Save to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.




(I) English Language Literature

Abbott, Andrew. 2005. “Linked Ecologies: States and Universities as Environments for Professions.” Sociological Theory 23(3):245274.
Abe, Masaki. 1995. “The Internal Control of a Bureaucratic Judiciary: The Case of Japan.” International Journal of the Sociology of Law 23(4):303320.
Administrative Office of the United States Courts. 2013. Annual Report of the Director: Judicial Business of the United States Courts.
Albrow, Martin. 1970. Bureaucracy. New York: Praeger Press.
Alford, William, and Shen, Yuanyuan. 2003. “Have You Eaten? Have You Divorced? Marriage, Divorce and the Assessment of Freedom in China.” In Ideas of Freedom in the Chinese World, ed. Kirby, William, 234263. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Andersen, Seth S. 2001. “Judicial Retention Evaluation Programs.” Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review 34(4):13751389.
Ang, Yuen Yuen, and Jia, Nan. 2014. “Perverse Complementarity: Political Connections and the Use of Courts among Private Firms in China.” The Journal of Politics 76(2):318332.
Arce, Dwyer. 2010. “China Judges Shot Dead in Courthouse.” Jurist, June 2.
Balme, Stephanie. 2010. “Local Courts in Western China: The Quest for Independence and Dignity.” In Judicial Independence in China: Lessons for Global Rule of Law Promotion, ed. Peerenboom, Randall, 154179. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Barro, Robert J. 1997. Determinants of Economic Growth: A Cross-Country Empirical Study. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Barth, Frederik. 1969. “Introduction.” In Ethnic Groups and Boundaries, ed. Barth, Frederik, 938. London: Little, Brown.
BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific. 2000. “Chinese Judges to Abandon Military-Style Uniforms.” June 30.
Beckert, Jens. 2003. “Economic Sociology and Embeddedness: How Shall We Conceptualize Economic Action?Journal of Economic Issues 37(3):769787.
Beetham, David. 1974. Max Weber and the Theory of Modern Politics. London: George Allen & Unwin.
Beetham, David. 1996. Bureaucracy. 2nd edition. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Belcher, Marc J., and White, Gordon. 1979. Micropolitics in Contemporary China: A Technical Unit during and after the Cultural Revolution. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.
Bell, John. 2001. “Judicial Cultures and Judicial Independence.” Cambridge Yearbook of European Legal Studies 4:4760.
Bell, John. 2006. Judiciaries Within Europe: a Comparative Review. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bendix, Reinhard. 1949. Higher Civil Servants in American Society. Colorado: University of Colorado Press.
Bendix, Reinhard. 1977. Nation Building and Citizenship. 2nd edition. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Bennett, James T., and Johnson, Manuel H.. 1980. The Political Economy of Federal Government Growth, 1959–1978. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.
Bian, Yanjie. 1994. “Guanxi and the Allocation of Jobs in Urban China.” The China Quarterly 140:971999.
Bian, Yanjie. 1997. “Bringing Strong Ties Back In.” American Sociological Review 62(3):366385.
Biddulph, Sarah. 2010. “Legal Education in the People’s Republic of China: The Ongoing Story of Politics and Law.” In Legal Education in Asia: Globalization, Change and Contexts, eds. Steele, Stacey and Taylor, Kathryn, 260277. New York: Routledge.
Biddulph, Sarah, Cooney, Sean and Zhu, Ying. 2012. “Rule of Law with Chinese Characteristics: The Role of Campaigns in Lawmaking.” Law & Policy 34(4):373401.
Blau, Peter M. 1968. “The Hierarchy of Authority in Organizations.” American Journal of Sociology 73(4):453467.
Bourdieu, Pierre. 1987. “The Forces of Law: Towards a Sociology of Juridical Field.” Hastings Law Journal 38:814853.
Bourdieu, Pierre. 1990. The Logic of Practice. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Brody, David C. 2008. “The Use of Judicial Performance Evaluation to Enhance Judicial Accountability, Judicial Independence, and Public Trust.” Denver University Law Review 86(1):115157.
Brown, Jeremy. 2012. City versus Countryside in Mao’s China. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Cabestan, Jean-Pierre, Qinglan, Li, Ping, Sun and Dolais, Yves. 2012. “The Renaissance of the Legal Professional in China.” In China, Democracy, and Law: A Historical and Contemporary Approach, eds. Will, Pierre-Etienne and Delmas-Marty, Mireille, 705739. Leiden: Brill.
Carroll, Glenn R. 1984. “Organizational Ecology.” Annual Review of Sociology 10:7193.
Carroll, Glenn R. 1987. Publish and Perish: The Organizational Ecology of Newspaper Industries. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Carroll, Glenn R. 1990. “The Organizational Ecology of Chester Barnard.” In Organizational Theory: From Chester Barnard to the Present and Beyond, ed. Williamson, Oliver E., 5671. New York: Oxford University Press.
Chen, Bob. 2007. “China: Senior Sues Would-be Samaritan.” Global Voices, September 11.
Chen, Feng, and Xu, Xin. 2012. “‘Active Judiciary’: Judicial Dismantling of Workers’ Collective Action in China.” The China Journal 67:87107.
Chen, Jianfu. 2015. Chinese Law: Context and Transformation. Boston: Martinus Nijhoff.
Chen, Te-Ping. 2016. “Slaying of Beijing Judge prompts Horror in China’s Embattled Legal Community.” Wall Street Journal, February 29.
Chin, Josh. 2014. “China Tries to Hold on to Judges by Offering Freer Hand.” Wall Street Journal, October 21.
China Daily. 2007. “Complaint Bureau Busiest Office in Beijing.” September 2.–09/02/content_6142475.htm
Chung, Jae Ho. 1998. “Appendix: Study of Provincial Politics and Development in the Post-Mao Reform Era: Issues, Approaches and Sources.” In Provincial Strategies of Economic Reform in Post-Mao China: Leadership, Politics and Implementation, eds. Cheung, Peter T. Y., Chung, Jae Ho and Lin, Zhimin, 429456. New York: M. E. Sharpe.
Clarke, Donald. 1996. “Power and Politics in the Chinese Court System: The Execution of Civil Judgments.” Columbia Journal of Asian Law 10(1):1125.
Clarke, Donald. 2003. “Empirical Research into the Chinese Judicial System.” In Beyond Common Knowledge: Empirical Approaches to the Rule of Law, eds. Jensen, Erik Gilbert and Heller, Thomas C., 164192. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Clarke, Donald. 2009. “Lawsuits as Criticisms.” New York Times, June 2.
Clarke, Donald. 2015. “First Successful Case against Administrative Monopoly.” Chinese Law Professor Blog, February 20.
Cohen, Jerome A. 1997. “Reforming China’s Civil Procedure: Judging the Courts.” American Journal of Comparative Law 45(4):793804.
Cohen, Jerome A. 2006. “China’s Legal Reform at the Crossroads.” Far Eastern Economic Review 169(2):2327.
Cohen, Jerome A. 2016. “A Looming Crisis for China’s Legal System.” Foreign Policy.
Constas, Helen. 1958. “Max Weber’s Two Conceptions of Bureaucracy.” American Journal of Sociology 63(4):400409.
Cownie, Fiona, Bradney, Anthony and Burton, Mandy. 2005. English Legal System in Context. 3rd edition. London: LexisNexis UK.
Damaska, Mirjan R. 1986. The Faces of Justice and State Authority: A Comparative Approach to the Legal Process. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
deLisle, Jacques. 2014. “China’s Legal System.” In Politics in China: An Introduction, ed. Joseph, William A., 2nd edition, 224–53. New York: Oxford University Press.
deLisle, Jacques. 2015. “Law and the Economy in China.” In Routledge Handbook of the Chinese Economy, eds. Chow, Gregory C. and Perkins, Dwight H., 255279. New York: Routledge.
Depei, Han, and Kaner, Stephen. 1984. “Legal Education in China.” The American Journal of Comparative Law 32(3):543582.
Diamant, Neil J., Lubman, Stanley B. and O’Brien, Kevin J.. 2005. Engaging the Law in China: State, Society and Possibilities for Justice. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
DiMaggio, Paul. 2001. “Introduction.” In The Twenty-First-Century Firm: Changing Economic Organization in International Perspective, ed. DiMaggio, Paul, 330. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Downs, Anthony. 1967. Inside Bureaucracy. Boston: Little, Brown.
Dunleavy, Patrick. 1991. Democracy, Bureaucracy and Public Choice. New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
Easton, David. 1965. A Systems Analysis of Political Life. New York: John Wiley & Son.
Edin, Maria. 2003. “State Capacity and Local Agent Control in China: CCP Cadre Management from a Township Perspective.The China Quarterly 173:3552.
Eger, Thomas, and Schüller, Margot. 2007. “A Comparison of Chinese and European-Style Federalism from a Law and Economics Perspective.” In Economic Analysis of Law in China, eds. Eger, Thomas, Faure, Michael and Naigen, Zhang, 328. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Erie, Matthew S. 2012. “Property Rights, Legal Consciousness and the New Media in China: The Hard Case of the Toughest Nail-House in History.” China Information 26(1):3559.
Erie, Matthew S. 2015. “Muslim Mandarins in Chinese Courts: Dispute Resolution, Islamic Law, and the Secular State in Northwest China.” Law & Social Inquiry 40(4):10011030.
Ewick, Patricia, and Silbey, Susan. 2003. “Narrating Social Structure: Stories of Resistance to Legal Authority.” American Journal of Sociology 108(6):13281372.
Fei, Xiaotong. 1992. From the Soil: The Foundation of Chinese Society. trans. Hamilton, Gary and Zheng, Wang. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Feng, Yuqing. 2015. “In the Midst of Law and Politics: Legal Consciousness in Chinese Court-related Petitioning.” Ph.D. Dissertation, City University of Hong Kong.
Finder, Susan. 1989. “Like Throwing an Egg against a Stone? Administrative Litigation in the People’s Republic of China.” Journal of Chinese Law 3(1):129.
Finder, Susan. 2015. “New Docketing Procedures Come to the Chinese Courts.” Supreme People’s Court Monitor (Blog) June 18.
Finder, Susan. 2016. “Why are Chinese Judges Resigning?” Supreme People’s Court Monitor (Blog) August 23.
Frecklington, Cameron. 2014. “Rising Divorce Rate Adds to China’s Demographic Problems.” China Outlook, April 22.
Friedman, Lawrence. 1998. “Some Notes on the Civil Jury in Historical Perspective.” DePaul Law Review 48(2):201220.
Friedman, Lawrence. 2004. “Day before Trials Vanished.” Journal of Empirical Legal Study 1(3):689703.
Fu, Hualing. 2003. “Putting China’s Judiciary into Perspective: Is It Independent, Competent, and Fair?” In Beyond Common Knowledge: Empirical Approaches to the Rule of Law, eds. Jensen, Erik Gilbert and Heller, Thomas C., 193219. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Fu, Hualing, and Cullen, Richard. 2011. “From Mediatory to Adjudicatory Justice: The Limits of Civil Justice Reform in China.” In Chinese Justice: Civil Dispute Resolution in Contemporary China, eds. Woo, Margaret Y. K. and Gallagher, Mary E., 2557. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Fu, Yulin. 2011. “Dispute Resolution and China’s Grassroots Legal Services.” In Chinese Justice: Civil Dispute Resolution in Contemporary China, eds. Woo, Margaret Y. K. and Gallagher, Mary E., 314339. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Galanter, Marc. 1974. “Why the ‘Haves’ Come out Ahead: Speculations on the Limits of Legal Change.” Law & Society Review 9(1):95160.
Galanter, Marc. 2004. “The Vanishing Trial: an Examination of Trials and Related Matters in Federal and State Courts.” Journal of Empirical Legal Studies 1(3):459570.
Garland, David. 2001. The Culture of Control. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Gechlik, Mei. 2005. “Judicial Reform in China: Lessons from Shanghai.” Columbia Journal of Asian Law 19(1):97137.
George, Ronald M. 2005. “Challenges Facing an Independent Judiciary.” New York University Law Review 80(5):13451365.
Gibson, James L. 2007. “The Legitimacy of the U.S. Supreme Court in a Polarized Polity.” Journal of Empirical Legal Studies 4(3):507–38.
Ginsburg, Tom. 2008. “Administrative Law and the Judicial Control of Agents in Authoritarian Regimes.” In Rule by Law: The Politics of Courts in Authoritarian Regimes, eds. Ginsburg, Tom and Moustafa, Tamir, 5872. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Global Times. 2016. “Exam Changes to Make It Harder to Enter Legal Profession.” September 26.
Goffee, Rob, and Jones, Gareth. 1998. The Character of a Corporation. New York: Harper Business.
Gold, Thomas, Guthrie, Doug and Wank, David. 2002. “An Introduction to the Study of Guanxi.” In Social Connections in China: Institutions, Culture, and the Changing Nature of Guanxi, eds. Gold, Thomas, Guthrie, Doug and Wank, David, 320. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Gouldner, Alvin. 1954. Patterns of Industrial Bureaucracy. New York: Free Press.
Government of India. 2008. Judge Population Ratio by Public Information Bureau,
Granovetter, Mark. 1973. “The Strength of Weak Ties,” American Journal of Sociology 78:1360–80.
Granovetter, Mark. 1974. Getting a Job. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Granovetter, Mark. 1985. “Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness.” American Journal of Sociology 91(3):481510.
Granovetter, Mark. 1995. “Afterword.” In Getting a Job. 2nd edition Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Grimheden, Jonas. 2011. “Chinese Courts in Law Implementation.” In Making Law Work: Chinese Laws in Context, eds. Burell, Mattias and Svensson, Marina, 103142. Ithaca: Cornell East Asia Series.
Gu, Weixia. 2009. “Judicial Review over Arbitration in China: Assessing the Extent of the Latest Pro-Arbitration Move by the Supreme People’s Court in the People’s Republic of China.” Wisconsin International Law Journal 27(2):222269.
Gu, Weixia. 2015. “Courts in China: Judiciary in the Economic and Societal transitions.” In Asian Courts in Context, eds. Yeh, Jiunn-rong, and Chang, Wen-Chen, 487517. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Guarnieri, Carlo. 2001. “Judicial Independence in Latin Countries of Western Europe.” In Judicial Independence in the Age of Democracy: Critical Perspectives from around the World, eds. Russell, Peter H. and O’Brien, David M., 111130. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia.
Guarnieri, Carlo, and Pederzoli, Patrizia. 2002. The Power of Judges: a Comparative Study of Courts and Democracy. New York: Oxford University Press
Guthrie, Doug. 1999. Dragon in a Three-Piece Suit: The Emergence of Capitalism in China. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Haggard, Stephan, Andrew, MacIntyre and Tiede, Lydia. 2008. “The Rule of Law and Economic Development.” Annual Review of Political Science 11:205234.
Hall, Richard H. 1963. “Concept of Bureaucracy: an Empirical Assessment.” American Journal of Sociology 69(1):3240.
Hand, Keith J. 2011. “Resolving Constitutional Disputes in Contemporary China.” University of Pennsylvania East Asia Law Review 7(1):51159.
Hannan, Michael T., and Freeman, John. 1977. “The Population Ecology of Organizations.” American Journal of Sociology 82(5):929964.
Hannan, Michael T., and Freeman, John. 1984. Organizational Ecology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Hannan, Michael T., and Freeman, John. 1987. “The Ecology of Organizational Founding: American Labor Unions, 1836–1985.” American Journal of Sociology 92(4):910943.
Hannan, Michael T., and Freeman, John. 1988. “The Ecology of Organizational Mortality: American Labor Unions, 1836–1985.” American Journal of Sociology 94(1):2552.
Harding, Harry. 1981. Organizing China. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Hawley, Amos, H. 1950. Human Ecology: a Theory of Community Structure. New York: Ronald Press.
Hazard, Geoffrey C., McNamara, Martin B.Jr. and Sentilles, Irwin F.. 1972. “Court Finance and Unitary Budgeting.” Yale Law Journal 81:12861301.
He, Xin. 2007. “Why Did They Not Take on the Disputes? Law, Power, and Politics in the Decision-Making of Chinese Courts.” International Journal of Law in Context 3(3):203225.
He, Xin. 2009a. “Routinization of Divorce Law Practice in China: Institutional Constraints’ Influence on Judicial Behavior.” International Journal of Law, Policy and the Family 23(1):83109.
He, Xin. 2009b. “Enforcing Commercial Judgments in the Pearl River Delta of China.” American Journal of Comparative Law 57(2):419457.
He, Xin. 2009c. “Court Finance and Court Reactions to Judicial Reforms: a Tale of Two Chinese Courts.” Law & Policy 31(4):463486.
He, Xin. 2009d. “Administrative Law as a Mechanism for Political Control in Contemporary China.” In Building Constitutionalism in China, eds. Balme, Stephanie and Dowdle, Michael, 143162. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
He, Xin. 2010. “The Judiciary Pushes Back: Law, Power, and Politics in Chinese Courts.” In Judicial Independence in China, ed. Peerenboom, Randall, 180195. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
He, Xin. 2012. “Black Hole of Responsibility: The Adjudication Committee’s Role in a Chinese Court.” Law & Society Review 46(4):681712.
He, Xin. 2013. “Judicial Innovation and Local Politics: Judicialization of Administrative Governance in East China.” The China Journal 69:2042.
He, Xin. 2014. “Maintaining Stability by Law: Protest-Supported Housing Demolition Litigation and Social Change in China.” Law & Social Inquiry 39(4):849873.
He, Xin. 2016. “Double Whammy: Lay Assessors as Lackeys in Chinese Courts.” Law & Society Review 50(3):733765.
He, Xin. 2017. “‘No Malicious Incidents’: The Concern for Stability in China’s Divorce Law Practice.” Social and Legal Studies 26(3):123.
He, Xin, and Feng, Yuqing. 2016. “Mismatched Discourses in the Petition Offices of Chinese Courts.” Law & Social Inquiry 41(1):212241.
He, Xin, and Ng, Kwai Hang. 2013a. “Inquisitorial Adjudication and Institutional Constraints in Chinas Civil Justice.” Law & Policy 35(4):290317.
He, Xin, and Ng, Kwai Hang. 2013b. “Pragmatic Discourse and Gender Inequality in China.” Law & Society Review 47(2):279310.
Henisz, Witold J. 2000. “The Institutional Environment for Economic Growth.” Economic & Politics 12(1):131.
Hilbink, Lisa 2007. Judges beyond Politics in Democracy and Dictatorship: Lessons from Chile. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hirschman, Albert O. 1970. Exit, Voice, and Loyalty. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Huang, Philip C. C. 2010. Chinese Civil Justice: Past and Present. London: Rowan and Littlefield.
Hwang, Kwang-kuo. 1987. “Face and Favor: The Chinese Power Game.” American Journal of Sociology 92(4):944974.
Jackall, Robert. 1988. Moral Mazes. New York: Oxford University Press.
Jacob, Herbert. 1996. “Courts and Politics in the United States.” In Courts, Law, and Politics in Comparative Perspective, eds. Jacob, Herbert, Blankenburg, Erhard, Kritzer, Herbert M., Provine, Doris Marie and Sanders, Joseph, 1680. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Jacobs, Andrew. 2011. “Harassment and Evictions Bedevil Even China’s Well-Off.” New York Times, October 28, A4.
Jayasuriya, Kanishka. 2001. “The Exception Becomes the Norm: Law and Regimes of Exception in East Asia.” Asian Pacific Law & Policy Journal 2(1):108124.
Jiang, Huiling. 2010. “Judicial Reform.” In China’s Journey toward the Rule of Law: Legal Reform, 1978–2008, eds. Cai, Dingjian and Wang, Chenguang, 199250. Boston: Brill.
Jones, Peter Blundell. 2013. “The Architecture and Operation of Chinese Imperial Yamen.” In Architecture and Justice: Judicial Meanings in the Public Realm, eds. Simon, Jonathan, Temple, Nicholas and Tobe, Renée, 131147. Burlington: Ashgate Publishing.
Kapferer, Bruce. 1969. “Norms and the Manipulation of Relationships in a Work Context.” In Social Networks in Urban Situations, ed. Mitchell, J. Clyde, 181244. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Keister, Lisa A. 2002. “Guanxi in Business Group.” In Social Connections in China: Institutions, Culture, and the Changing Nature of Guanxi, eds. Gold, Thomas, Guthrie, Doug and Wank, David, 7796. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Keith, Ronald C., Lin, Zhiqiu and Hou, Shumei. 2014. China’s Supreme Court. New York: Routledge.
Kinkel, Jonathan J., and Hurst, William J.. 2015. “The Judicial Cadre Evaluation System in China: From Quantification to Intra-State Legibility.” The China Quarterly 224:933954.
Krippner, Greta, and Alvarez, Anthony S.. 2007. “Embeddedness and the Intellectual Projects of Economic Sociology.” Annual Review of Sociology 33:219240.
Lampton, David. 1992. “A Plum for a Peach: Bargaining, Interest, and Bureaucratic Politics in China.” In Bureaucracy, Politics, and Decision Making in Post-Mao China, eds. Lieberthal, Kenneth G. and Lampton, David M., 3459. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Lee, Sing, and Kleinman, Arthur. 2000. “Suicide as Resistance in China’s Society.” In Chinese Society: Change, Conflict and Resistance, eds. Perry, Elizabeth J. and Selden, Mark, 294317. New York: Routledge.
Li, Ji. 2013. “Suing the Leviathan: an Empirical Analysis of the Changing Rate of Administrative Litigation in China.” Journal of Empirical Legal Studies 10(4):815846.
Li, Li. 2011. “Strategies for Judicial Restraint in Chinese Group Action Cases: a Realistic Reaction to Judicialization.” doi: 10.2139/ssrn.1789564.
Li, Ling. 2010. “Corruption in China’s Courts.” In Judicial Independence in China, ed. Peerenboom, Randall, 196220. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Li, Ling. 2011. “Performing Bribery in China: Guanxi-practice with a Human Face.” Journal of Contemporary China 20(68):120.
Li, Ling. 2012. “The ‘Production’ of Corruption in China’s Courts: Judicial Politics and Decision Making in a One-Party State.” Law & Social Inquiry 37(4):848877.
Li, Yedan, Kocken, Joris and van Rooij, Benjamin. 2016. “Understanding China’s Court Mediation Surge: Insights from a Local Court.” Law & Social Inquiry doi: 10.1111/lsi.12234.
Li, Yuwen. 2002. “Court Reform in China: Problems, Progress and Prospects.” In Implementation of Law in the People’s Republic of China, eds. Chen, Jianfu, Li, Yuwen and Otto, Jan Michiel, 5584. Hague: Kluwer Law.
Li, Yuwen. 2014. The Judicial System and Reform in Post-Mao China: Stumbling towards Justice. London: Routledge.
Liang, Bin. 2008. The Changing Chinese Legal System, 1978-Present: Centralization of Power and Rationalization of the Legal System. New York: Routledge.
Lieberthal, Kenneth. 1992. “Introduction: The ‘Fragmented Authoritarianism’ Model and Its limitations.” In Bureaucracy, Politics, and Decision Making in Post-Mao China. eds. Lieberthal, Kenneth G. and Lampton, David M., 132. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Lieberthal, Kenneth. 2004. Governing China: From Revolution to Reform. 2nd edition. New York: W. W. Norton.
Liebman, Benjamin L. 2007. “China’s Courts: Restricted Reform.” The China Quarterly 191:620638.
Liebman, Benjamin L. 2011. “A Populist Threat to China’s Courts.” In Chinese Justice: Civil Dispute Resolution in Contemporary China, eds. Woo, Margaret Y. K. and Gallagher, Mary E., 269313. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Liebman, Benjamin L. 2012. “Professionals and Populists: The Paradoxes of China’s Legal Reforms.” In China in and beyond the Headlines, 3rd edition, eds. Weston, Timothy B. and Jensen, Lionel M., 214245. London: Rowman and Littlefield.
Lim, Louisa. 2010. “‘Lightning Divorces’ Strike China’s ‘Me Generation.’” NPR, November 17.
Liu, Nanping, and Liu, Michelle. 2011. “Justice without Judges: The Case Filing Division in the People’s Republic of China.” UC Davis Journal of International Law & Policy 17:283.
Liu, Sida. 2006. “Beyond Global Convergence: Conflicts of Legitimacy in a Chinese Lower Court.” Law & Social Inquiry 31(1):75106.
Llewellyn, Karl. 1960. The Common Law Tradition. Boston: Little, Brown.
Long, Cheryl Xiaoning. 2010. “Does the Rights Hypothesis Apply to China?Journal of Law & Economics 53(4):629650.
, Xiaobo. 2002. Cadres and Corruption. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
, Xiaobo, and Perry, Elizabeth. 1997. Danwei: The Changing Chinese Workplace in Historical and Comparative Perspective. New York: M. E. Sharpe.
Lubman, Stanley. 1999. Bird in a Cage: Legal Reform in China after Mao. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Luo, Wangshu, and Lihua, Zhou. 2015. “Judges Shocked by Courthouse Stabbings.” China Daily. September 11.–09/11/content_21842772.htm
Luo, Wei. 2000. The Amended Criminal Procedure Law and the Criminal Court Rules of the People’s Republic of China: With English Translation, Introduction, and Annotation. Buffalo, NY: Hein.
Manion, Melanie. 1985. “The Cadre Management System Post-Mao: The Appointment, Promotion, Transfer, and Removal of Party and State Leaders,” The China Quarterly 102:203233.
Mann, Michael. 1986. The Sources of Social Power, Volume 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Markoff, John. 1975. “Governmental Bureaucratization: General Processes and an Anomalous Case.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 17(4):479503.
Marsden, Peter V., and Campbell, Karen E.. 1984. “Measuring Tie Strength.” Social Forces 63(2):482501.
Marshall, Anna-Maria. 2006. “Social Movement Strategies and the Participatory Potential of Litigation.” In Cause Lawyers and Social Movements, eds. Scheingold, Stuart and Sarat, Austin, 164181. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
McCubbins, Mathew, and Schwartz, Thomas. 1984. “Congressional Oversight Overlooked: Police Patrols vs. Firm Alarms.” American Journal of Political Science 28(1):165179.
McPherson, Miller. 1983. “An Ecology of Affiliation.” American Sociological Review 48(4):519532.
Merryman, John Henry. 1985. The Civil Law Tradition, 2nd edition. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Merton, Robert. 1968. “The Matthew Effect in Science.” Science 159(3810):5663.
Meyer, John W., and Rowan, Brian. 1977. “Institutionalized Organizations: Formal Structure as Myth and Ceremony.” American Journal of Sociology 83(2):340363.
Michelson, Ethan, and Read, Benjamin L.. 2011. “Public Attitudes toward Official Justice in Beijing and Rural China.” In Chinese Justice: Civil Dispute Resolution in Contemporary China, eds. Woo, Margaret Y.K. and Gallagher, Mary E., 169203. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Migdal, Joel. 1994. “The State in Society: an Approach to Struggles for Domination.” In State Power and Social Forces: Domination and Transformation in the Third World, eds. Migdal, Joel S., Kohli, Atul and Shue, Vivienne, 736. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Minzner, Carl. 2006. “Xinfang: an Alternative to Formal Chinese Legal Institutions.” Stanford Journal of International Law 42:103179.
Minzner, Carl. 2009. “Riots and Cover-ups: Counterproductive Control of Local Agents in China.” Journal of International Law 31(1):53123.
Minzner, Carl. 2011a. “Judicial Disciplinary Systems for Incorrectly Decided Cases: The Imperial Chinese Heritage Lives on.” In Chinese Justice: Civil Dispute Resolution in Contemporary China, eds. Woo, Margaret Y. K. and Gallagher, Mary E., 5890. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Minzner, Carl. 2011b. “China’s Turn against Law.” American Journal of Comparative Law 59:935984.
Minzner, Carl. 2013. “The Rise and Fall of Chinese Legal Education.” Fordham International Law Journal 36(2):335396.
Nathan, Andrew. 2003. “Authoritarian Resilience.” Journal of Democracy 14(1):617.
Naughton, David. 1992. “Hierarchy and the Bargaining Economy: Government and Enterprise in the Reform Process.” In Bureaucracy, Politics, and Decision Making in Post-Mao China, eds. Lieberthal, Kenneth G. and Lampton, David M., 245281. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Nee, Victor, and Mozingo, David. 1983. State and Society in Contemporary China. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Neubauer, David W., and Meinhold, Stephen S.. 2012. 6th edition. Judicial Process: Law, Courts, and Politics in the United States. Boston: Wadsworth Publishing.
Ng, Kwai Hang, and He, Xin. 2014. “Internal Contradictions of Judicial Mediation in China.” Law & Social Inquiry 39(2):285312.
Ng, Kwai Hang, and He, Xin. 2017. “The Institutional and Cultural Logics of Legal Commensuration: Blood Money and Negotiated Justice in China.” American Journal of Sociology 122(4):11041143.
Niskanen, William A. 1973. Bureaucracy: Servant or Master. London: Institute of Economic Affairs.
O’Brien, Kevin J., and Li, Lianjiang. 2004. “Suing the Local State: Administrative Litigation in Rural China.” The China Journal 51:7596.
O’Brien, Kevin J., and Li, Lianjiang. 2006. Rightful Resistance in Rural China. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Oi, Jean. 1999. Rural China Takes Off: Institutional Foundations of Economic Reform. California: University of California Press.
Paine, Lynn. 1992. “The Education Policy Process: a Case Study of Bureaucratic Action in China.” In Bureaucracy, Politics, and Decision Making in Post-Mao China, eds. Lieberthal, Kenneth G. and Lampton, David M., 181215. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Parish, William L., and Whyte, Martin King. 1978. Village and Family in Contemporary China. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Pei, Minxin. 1997. “Citizens v. Mandarins: Administrative Litigation in China.” The China Quarterly 152:832862.
People’s Daily. 2000. “Chinese Judges to Discard Military-Style Uniform.” March 9.
Peerendoom, Randell. 2002. China’s Long March towards Rule of Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Peerendoom, Randell. 2009. “More Law, Less Courts: Legalized Governance, Judicialization, and Dejudicialization in China.” In Administrative Law and Governance in Asia: Comparative Perspectives, eds. Ginsburg, Tom and Chen, Albert H. Y., 175202. New York: Routledge.
Peerendoom, Randell. 2010. “Judicial Independence in China: Common Myths and Unfounded Assumptions.” In Judicial Independence in China, ed. Peerenboom, Randall, 6994. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Peerendoom, Randell. 2011. “Assessing Implementation of Law in China: What Is the Standard?” In Making Law Work: Chinese Laws in Context, eds. Burell, Mattias and Svensson, Marina, 3368. Ithaca: Cornell East Asia Series.
Perlez, Jane. 2013. “Chinese Judges Disciplined in Prostitution Scandal after Videos Circulate Online.” New York Times, August 7.
Perrow, Charles. 1967. “A Framework for the Comparative Organizational Analysis.” American Sociological Review 32(2):194208.
Pfeffer, Jeffrey. 1982. Organizations and Organization Theory. Boston: Pitman.
Philips, Susan U. 1990. “The Judge as Third Party in American Trial-Court Conflict Talk.” In Building Constitutionalism in China, ed. Grimshaw, Allen D., 197209. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Pils, Eva. 2005. “Land Disputes, Rights Assertion, and Social Unrest in China: a Case from Sichuan.” Columbia Journal of Asian Law 19(1):235292.
Polanyi, Karl. 1944. The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time. Boston: Beacon.
Pollitt, Christopher. 1986. “Democracy and Bureaucracy.” In New Forms of Democracy, eds. Held, David and Pollitt, Christopher, 158191. London: Sage.
Portes, Alejandro, and Sensenbrenner, Julia. 1993. “Embeddedness and Immigration: Notes on the Social Determinants of Economic Action.” American Journal of Sociology 98(6):13201350.
Potter, Pitman B. 2002. “Guanxi and the PRC Legal System.” In Social Connections in China: Institutions, Culture, and the Changing Nature of Guanxi, eds. Gold, Thomas, Guthrie, Doug and Wank, David, 179196. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Potter, Pitman B. 2004. “Legal Reform in China: Institutions, Culture, and Selective Adaptation.” Law & Social Inquiry 29(2):465495.
Powell, Walter W. 1990. “Neither Market nor Hierarchy: Network Forms of Organization.” In Research in Organizational Behavior, eds. Staw, Barry and Cummings, Lawrence L., 295336. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Rajah, Jothie. 2012. Authoritarian Rule of Law: Legislation, Discourse and Legitimacy in Singapore. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sabel, Charles F., and Zeitlin, Jonathan. 1996. Worlds of Possibility: Flexibility and Mass Production in Western Industrialization. Paris: Maison des Sciences de l’Homme.
Saich, Tony. 2015. Governance and Politics of China. 4th edition. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Sciulli, David. 1986. “Voluntaristic Action as a Distinct Concept: Theoretical Foundations of Societal Constitutionalism.” American Sociological Review 51(6):743766.
Selznick, Philip. 1949. TVA and the Grassroots. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Shambaugh, David. 2000. “The Chinese State in the Post-Mao Era.” In The Modern Chinese State, ed. Shambaugh, David, 161187. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Shapiro, Martin. 1981. Courts: a Political and Comparative Analysis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Shetreet, Shimon. 1985. “Judicial Independence: New Conceptual Dimensions and Contemporary Challenges.” In Judicial Independence: The Contemporary Debate, eds. Shetreet, Shimon and Deschenes, Jules, 590681. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff.
Shirk, Susan. 1992. “The Chinese Political System and the Political Strategy of Economic Reform.” In Bureaucracy, Politics, and Decision Making in Post-Mao China, eds. Lieberthal, Kenneth G. and Lampton, David M., 6088. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Shirk, Susan. 1993. The Political Logic of Economic Reform in China. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Simmel, Georg. 1990. The Philosophy of Money. New York: Routledge.
Singh, Jitendra V., Tucker, David J. and House, Robert J.. 1986. “Organizational Legitimacy and the Liability of Newness.” Administrative Science Quarterly 31(2):171193.
Smart, Josephine, and Smart, Alan. 1991. “Personal Relations and Divergent Economies: a Case Study of Hong Kong Investment in South China.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 15(2):216233.
Solomon, Peter H. 2007. “Courts and Judges in Authoritarian Regimes.” World Politics 60(1):122145.
Stern, Rachel E. 2013. Environmental Litigation in China. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Stinchcombe, Arthur L. 1959. “Bureaucratic and Craft Administration of Production.” Administrative Science Quarterly 4(2):168187.
Su, Yang, and He, Xin. 2010. “Street as Courtroom: State Accommodation of Social Conflicts in South China.” Law & Society Review 44(1):157184.
Tey, Tsun Hang. 2011. Legal Consensus: Supreme Executive, Supine Jurisprudence, Suppliant Profession of Singapore. Hong Kong: Centre for Comparative and Public Law.
Trevaskes, Susan. 2007. Courts and Criminal Justice in Contemporary China. New York: Lexington Books.
Trevaskes, Susan. 2010. Policing Serious Crime in China: From “Strike Hard” to “Kill Fewer”. New York: Routledge.
Trevaskes, Susan. 2011. “Political Ideology, the Party, and Politicking: Justice System Reform in China.” Modern China 37(3):315344.
Trevaskes, Susan, Nesossi, Elisa, Sapio, Flora and Biddulph, Sarah. 2014. “Stability and the Law.” In The Politics of Law and Stability in China, eds. Trevaskes, Susan, Nesossi, Elisa, Sapio, Flora and Biddulph, Sarah, 117. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
Udy, Stanley H. 1959. “‘Bureaucracy’ and ‘Rationality’ in Weber’s Organizational Theory.” American Sociological Review 24(6):791795.
Upham, Frank K. 2011. “Reflections on the Rule of Law in China.” Taiwan University Law Review 6(1):251267.
US Department of State. 2014. “Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2013: China.”
Verbrugge, Lois. 1979. “Multiplexity in Adult Friendships.” Social Forces 57(4):12861309.
Vogel, Ezra. 2011. Deng Xiaoping and the Transformation of China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Walder, Andrew G. 1986. Communist Neo-Traditionalism. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Walder, Andrew G. 1992. “Local Bargaining Relations and Urban Industrial Finance.” In Bureaucracy, Politics, and Decision Making in Post-Mao China, eds. Lieberthal, Kenneth G. and Lampton, David M., 308333. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Walder, Andrew G., Li, Bobai and Treiman, Donald J.. 2000. “Politics and Life Chances in a State Socialist Regime: Dual Career Paths into the Urban Chinese Elite, 1949–1996.” American Sociological Review 65(2):191209.
Wang, Chang, and Madson, Nathan H.. 2013. Inside China’s Legal System. Oxford: Chandos Publishing.
Wang, Yuhua. 2013. “Court Funding and Judicial Corruption in China.” The China Journal. 69:4363.
Wank, David L. 1999. Commodifying Communism. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Wasserstrom, Jeffrey N., and Xinyong, Liu. 1995. “Student Associations and Mass Movements.” In Urban Spaces in Contemporary China: The Potential for Autonomy and Community in Post-Mao China, ed. Davis, Deborah, 362393. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Waters, Malcolm. 1989. “Collegiality, Bureaucratization, and Professionalization: a Weberian Analysis.” American Journal of Sociology 94(5):945972.
Wayne, Vicki, and Xiong, Ping. 2011. “The Relationship between Mediation and Judicial Proceedings in China.” Asian Journal of Comparative Law 6(1):134.
Weber, Max. 1946. From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, eds. Gerth, H. H. and Wright Mills, C.. New York: Oxford University Press.
Weber, Max. 1978. Economy and Society. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Whyte, Martin King. 1989. “Who Hates Bureaucracy?” In Remaking the Economic Institutions of Socialism: China and Eastern Europe, eds. Nee, Victor and Stark, David, 233253. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Whyte, Martin King, and Parish, William L.. 1984. Urban Life in Contemporary China. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Williamson, Oliver E. 1970. Corporate Control and Business Behavior. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Williamson, Oliver E. 1981. “The Economics of Organization: The Transaction Cost Approach.” American Journal of Sociology 87(3):548577.
Wilson, Scott. 2015. Tigers without Teeth. New York: Rowman & Littlefield.
Woo, Margaret Y. K. 2003. “Shaping Citizenship: Chinese Family Law and Women.” Yale Journal of Law & Feminism 15(1):99134.
Woo, Margaret Y. K., and Wang, Yaxin. 2005. “Civil Justice in China: an Empirical Study of Courts in Three Provinces.” American Journal of Comparative Law 53(4):911940.
World Bank. 2015. East Asia’s Changing Urban Landscape: Measuring a Decade of Spatial Growth. Washington: World Bank.
Xin, Catherine R., and Pearce, Jone L. 1996. “Guanxi: Connections as Substitutes for Formal Institutional Support.” Academy of Management Journal 39(6):16411658.
Xinhua News Agency. 2014. “China Unveils Landmark Urbanization Plan.” March 16.–03/16/c_133190495.htm
Xinhua News Agency. 2016. “438,000 Sit China’s National Judicial Exam.” September 24.
Xiong, Hao. 2014a. “Two Sides of Court Mediation in Today’s Southwest Grassroots China: an Empirical Study in T Court, Yunnan Province.” Asian Journal of Law and Society 1(2):367394.
Xiong, Hao. 2014b. “The Feasibility of Court Mediation in the Grassroots Society of Southwest China: a Case Study from Yunnan.” Hong Kong Law Journal 44(1):277302.
Yang, Mayfair Mei-hui. 1994. Gift, Favors, and Banquets: The Art of Social Relationship in China. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Yang, Wanli. 2015. “Rural-Urban Income Gap Narrows.” China Daily, April 22.–04/22/content_20509439.htm
Yang, Yi. 2014. “Tiananmen Square Protest and College Job Placement Reform in the 1980s.” Journal of Contemporary China 23(88):736755.
Yeh, Wen-hsin. 1997. “The Republican Origins of the Danwei: The Case of Shanghai’s Bank of China.” In Danwei: The Changing Chinese Workplace in Historical and Comparative Perspective, eds. , Xiaobo and Perry, Elizabeth J., 6090. New York: M. E. Sharpe.
Young, Melody W. 2013. “The Aftermath of Peng Yu: Restoring Helping Behavior in China.” Pacific Rim Law & Policy Journal. 22(3):691711.
Young, Susan. 1989. “Policy, Practice and the Private Sector in China.” Australia Journal of Chinese Affairs 21:5780.
Zhan, Jing Vivian. 2012. “Filling the Gap of Formal Institutions: The Effects of Guanxi Network on Corruption in Reform-Era China.” Crime, Law, and Social Change 58(2):93109.
Zhang, Qianfan. 2003. “The People’s Court in Transition: The Prospects of Chinese Judicial Reform.” Journal of Contemporary China 12(34):69101.
Zhang, Xianchu. 2011. “Civil Justice Reform with Political Agenda.” In The Development of the Chinese Legal System, ed. Yu, Guanghua, 253271. New York: Routledge.
Zhang, Xinbao. 2014. “Advancing Judicial System Reform.” China Today, December 8.–12/08/content_657401.htm
Zheng, Yongnian. 2004. Globalization and State Transformation in China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Zhou, Xueguang 2010. “The Institutional Logic of Collusion among Local Governments in China.” Modern China 36(1):4778.
Zhu, Lizhen. 2003. “Chinese Marriage and Divorce Registration to Be Easier & More Convenient.” People’s Daily Online, August 22.
Zou, Keyuan. 2006. China’s Legal Reform: Towards the Rule of Law. Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
Zukin, Sharon and DiMaggio, Paul. 1990. “Introduction.” In Structure of Capital: The Social Organization of the Economy, eds. Zuckin, Sharon and DiMaggio, Paul, 136. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Laws Cited

National People’s Congress. 2002. Judges Law of the People’s Republic of China, effective January 1, 2002.
National People’s Congress. 2006. Organic Law of the People’s Courts, effective January 1, 2007. 192007–12/13/content_1384078.htm
National People’s Congress. 2012. Civil Procedure Law of the People's Republic of China, effective January 1, 2013.–12/12/content_1383880.htm

(II) Chinese Language Literature

Anhui High Court. 2016. Anhui sheng gaoji renmin fayuan gongzuo baogao [zhaiyao]. (Summary of Annual Work Report 2015) Anhui ribao (Anhui Daily), February 27.
Apple Daily. 2010. Buman lihun panjue baofu niang Hunan xuean (Revenge Due to Dissatisfaction with the Court’s Divorce Decision Resulted in a Homicide Case in Hunan). June 2. (accessed 13 December 2013)
Baiduwenku. 2011. Nantong. (accessed May 5, 2016)
Beijing Times. 2007. Zhejiang Taizhou tansuo yi yidi guanxia pojie min gao guan nanti (Taizhou in Zhejing Experiments Crossed Jurisdictions over Administrative Litigation). April 12.–04/12/content_5964787.htm (accessed May 5, 2013)
Beijing Youth. 2013. Canji nanzi jichang yinbao “tu zha dan” (Disabled Man Detonated “Hand-Made Bomb” in Beijing Airport). February 2.
Cai, Yanmin. 2013. Zhongguo minshi sifa anjian guanli jizhi touxi (Exploring and Analyzing the Management Mechanism of Civil Judicial Cases in China). Zhongguo faxue (China Legal Science) 2013(1):131143.
Cai, Yanmin. 2014. Duanlie yu xiuzheng: woguo minshi shenpan zuzhi zhi shanbian (Disjuncture and Revision: Changes of China’s Civil Court Structure). Zhengfa luntan (Tribunal of Political Science and Law) 32(2):3849.
CCP News Net. 2010. Zhengdi chaiqian zhong bei chaiqian ren de jizhong biaoxian zhide yanjiu (Several Phenomena of the People Affected by Land Requisition and Housing Demolition Need Attention). (accessed November 21, 2011)
Chen, Haiguang. 2016. Faguan yingdang qinmian jingye (Judges Should Work Hard and Respect Their Job). May 7.
Chen, Weidong. 2008. Youhua sifa zhiquan peizhi jianli gongzheng sifa zhidu (Optimizing the Organization of Judicial Authority and Establishing a Fair Judicial system). Fazhi ribao (Legal Daily), December 9.
Chen, Xuefei. 2007. Lihun anjian shenli zhong de faguan de xingbie pianxiang (Gender Preference in Judges’ Discourse during the Trial of Divorce Cases). Zhongwai faxue (Peking University Law Journal) 8:384411. 2015. Dongguan yi zhen zhengfu lianxu liangtian dengbao ma fayuan: wanggu shishi paimai tudi (A Township Government in Dongguan Accused Court Two Days in a Row: Auctioning Land, Ignoring Facts). December 16.
Chongqing Municipality. 2010. Jiceng fanying zhengdi chaiqian zhong bei chaiqian qunzhong “kua qu chuan lian” xianxiang tuchu ying yu gaodu zhongshi (Trans-Local Association among Residents Stands Out in Housing Demolition and Deserves Special Attention). (accessed October 26, 2010)
Ding, Wei. 2014. Qinyao fating: jiceng sifa de shiqian luoji (Qinyao’s Court: The Logic in Elementary Legal Practice). Beijing: Sanlian Bookstore.
Du, Mong. 2007. Zhengfu fawen jiang chuting lü naru kaohe “bi” guan chuting, fayuan qian yu jian sifa jianyi “cu” guan chuting: jiedu Jiangsu “gao guan jian guan” weihe cheng changtai (Government Directives Pressure Officials into Taking on the Stand, More than One Thousand Judicial Suggestions Facilitate Officials to Take on the Stand: Why Can Plaintiffs Meet the Officials in Citizens vs. Mandarin Litigation in Jiangsu Province?). Fazhi ribao (Legal Daily). September 19. 20070919/n252232641.shtml (accessed May 26, 2011)
Fan, Yu. 2005. Guanyu fayuan tiaojie de shizheng yanjiu (Empirical Analysis to Juridical Mediation). In Falü chengxu yunzuo de shizheng fenxi (An Empirical Analysis to Practice of Legal Procedures), ed. Yaxin, Wang. Beijing: China University of Political Science and Law.
Feng, Junqi. 2010. Zhongxian ganbu (Cadres in Zhong County), Ph.D. dissertation, Peking University Department of Sociology, China.
Fujian High Court. 2016. Fujian sheng gaoji renmin fayuan gongzuo baogao 2015 (Annual Work Report 2015). January 13.–01/28/content_896362.htm?div=-1
Gansu High Court. 2016. Gansu sheng gaoji renmin fayuan gongzuo baogao zhaiyao (Summary of Annual Work Report 2015). Gansu Daily, February 9.
Gao, Qichi, Zhou, Weiping and Jiang, Zhenye. 2009. Xiangtu sifa: shehui bianqian zhong de yangcun renmin fating shizheng fenxi (Rural Justice: Empirical Analysis on People’s Tribunal of Yang Village in Social Change). Beijing: Law Press.
Guan, Shengying. 2004. Shenpan weiyuan hui gongzuo jizhi tansuo ji wanshan (Exploring and Improving the Working Mechanism of the Adjudication Committee). Renmin sifa (People’s Judiciary) 10: 2729.
Guangdong Bureau of Statistics. 2013. Guangdong tongji nianjian 2013 (Guangdong Statistical Yearbook 2013). 192013/directory/020.html
Guizhou High Court. 2016. Guizhou sheng gaoji renmin fayuan gongzuo baogao 2015 (Annual Work Report 2015). January 28.
Guo, Jisheng. 2004. Guanyu sifa jingfei baozhang tizhi gaige de ruogan wenti (Several Issues Regarding Reforms for a System of Guaranteed Funding for the Administration of Justice). In Zhongguode jiancha yuan fayuan gaige (Judicial Reform Report: The Reform of Chinese Procuratorate and Court), eds. Sun, Qian and Zheng, Chengliang. 337344. Beijing: Law Press.
Heilongjiang High Court. 2016. Heilongjiang sheng gaoji renmin fayuan gongzuo baogao 2015 (Annual Work Report 2015). January 31.
Henan High Court. 2014. Henan sheng gaoji renmin fayuan gongzuo baogao 2013 (Annual Work Report 2013). January 18. 2011. Nuzi buyuan he fuhao zhangfu lihun he nongyao yu zisha (Woman Who Refused to Divorce Her Rich Husband Attempted Suicide by Drinking Pesticides). April 12.–04-12/128657632.html (accessed December 13, 2013)
Hong Kong Commercial Daily. 2009. “Divorced Woman Who Was Dissatisfied with the Judgment Placed a Coffin Outside the Court and Insulted the Judges,” 22 August.–08/22/content_2374393.htm (accessed December 13, 2013)
Hubei High Court Research Team, and Jian Zhang. 2009. Gaige yu wanshan renmin fayuan jingfei baozhang tizhi de diaoyan baogao (Survey Report on the Reform and Perfection of People’s Court’s Guaranteed Funding System). Renmin sifa (People’s Judicature) 9:6570.
Jiang, Lina. 2010. Liaohe liangji fayuan minshi tiaojie anjian lüxing qingkuang de tongji fenxi (Statistical Analysis of the Enforcement of Settled Civil Cases of Two Levels of Liaohe Courts). (accessed May 24, 2012)
Jiangsu High Court. 2016a. Quansheng fayuan 2015 nian 1–12 yue shenpan gongzuo jiben qingkuang (The Basic Situation about Judicial Work in 2015).
Jiangxi High Court. 2016b. Jiangxi sheng gaoji renmin fayuan gongzuo baogao 2015 (Annual Work Report 2015).
Li, Jie. 2008. Tiaojielü shuoming shenme? Dui tiaojielü yu hexie zhengxiangguan mingti de fenxi (What Does Mediation Rate Mean? An Analysis on the Assumption that Mediation Rate Reflects Harmony). Falü shiyong (Journal of Law Application) 10:4954.
Liao, Yong’an, and Li, Shenggang. 2005. Woguo minshi susong feiyong zhidu zi yunxing xianzhuang (The Current Operational Status of the System of Civil Litigation Fees in China). Zhongwai faxue (Peking University Law Journal) 3:304327.
Liaowang Newsweek. 2006. Zhongguo jiceng fayuan mianlin min gao guan anjian dafu zengzhang susong yali (Caseload Pressures in Administrative Litigation Mounted for China’s Basic-Level Courts).–04-22/12159690235.shtml
Lin, Jingbiao. 2014. Xiyin he chuilian youxiu faguan de da wutai (The Big Stage for Attracting and Training Outstanding Judges). Renmin fayuan bao (People’s Court Daily). July 12.
Liu, Jie. Directed. 2006. Mabei shang de fating (Courthouse on Horseback).
Liu, Zuoxiang. 2003. Zhongguo sifa difang baohu zhuyi zhi pipan (The Criticism about Local Protectionism in Judicial Practice in China). Faxue yanjiu (Chinese Journal of Law) 1:8398.
Ministry of Civil Affairs of the People’s Republic of China. 2014. 2014 nian shehui fuwu fazhan tongji gongbao (Statistical Bulletin of Social Work Development 2014). June 10.
Peng, Shizhong. 2011. Nengdong sifa shiyexia minshi tiaojie gaige de jingxiang xuanze (Paths of the Civil Mediation Reform from Judicial Activism Perspective). Jinan xuebao [zhexue shehui kexue ban] (Journal of Jinan University [Philosophy and Social Sciences]) 1:5258.
Pengzhou Court Net (Pengzhou fayuanwang). 2004. Pengzhou shi renmin fayuan shenpan weiyuan hui gongzuo guicheng (The Working Rules of the Adjudication Committee of Pengzhou Court). (accessed Mar. 24, 2011)
People’s Net. 2011. Shen Deyong: Zhongguo jue buneng gao “san quan fen li” shi sifa duli (Shen Deyong: No Room in China for Judicial Independence of the Western Style). (accessed May 5, 2013)
Qiao, Shengbiao. 2004. Fayuan guanli tizhi zhizheng jue ji gaige (Problems and Reform of the Management of Court System). In Zhongguo de jiancha yuan fayuan gaige (Judicial Reform Report: The Reform of Chinese Procuratorate and Court), eds. Sun, Qian and Zheng, Chengliang, 265275. Beijing: Law Press.
Shandong High Court. 2014. Shandong sheng gaoji renmin fayuan gongzuo baogao 2013 (Shandong High Court Annual Work Report 2013). January 19.
Shanxi High Court. 2014. Shanxi isheng gaoji renmin fayuan gongzuo baogao 2013 [zhaiyao] (Summary of Annual Work Report 2013). Shanxi Daily, January 28.
Shanxi High Court. 2015. Shanxi sheng gaoji renmin fayuan gongzuo baogao 2014 (Shanxi High Court Annual Work Report 2014). January 27.
Shen, Guoming, and Limin, Wang, eds. 2005. 20 shiji Zhongguo shehui kexue faxuejuan (Twentieth Century China Social Science: Legal Studies Volume). Shanghai: Shanghai People’s Publisher.
Shenzhen Intermediate Court. 2011. Shenzhen fayuan zhishi chanquan sifa baohu zhuangkuang [2006–2010 nian] (IP Protection in Shenzhen Court [2006–2010]).
Sichuan High Court. 2012. Sichuan sheng gaoji renmin fayuan gongzuo baogao 2011(Sichuan High Court Annual Work Report 2011). January 12.
Sichuan High Court. 2013. Sichuan sheng gaoji renmin fayuan gongzuo baogao 2012 (Sichuan High Court Annual Work Report 2012). January 26.
Sina News. 2013. Jinri 43 wan ren canjia guojia sifa kaoshi 18% wei yingjie benke sheng (430,000 People Attend National Judicial Examination Today, 18% Are This Year’s Undergraduates). September 14.–09-14/101728215449.shtml
Su, Li. 2000. Songfa xiaxiang (Bring the Law to the Countryside). Beijing: China’s University of Political Science and Law Press.
Supreme People’s Court. 2010. Guanyu gaige he wanshan renmin fayuan shenpan weiyuan hui zhidu de shishi yijian (The Implementing Opinions on Reforming and Improving the Judicial Committee System of the People’s Court). Promulgated on January 11, 2010.
Supreme People’s Court. 2012a. Renmin fayuan 2011 gongzuo baogao (Annual Work Report 2011). June 14.
Supreme People’s Court. 2012b. Renmin fayuan zhishichanquan shenpanhan 2011 (Intellectual Property Protection by Chinese Courts 2011).’s%20Supreme%20Court%20Intellectual%20Property%20Protection%20in%20China.pdf
Supreme People’s Court. 2014. Renmin fayuan zhishichanquan shenpanhan 2013 (Intellectual Property Protection by Chinese Courts 2013).
Supreme People’s Court. 2015a. Zuigao renmin fayuan guanyu quanmian shenhua renmin fayuan gaige yijian: Renmin fayuan disi ge wunian gaige gangyao [2014–2018]. (Opinion of the Supreme People’s Court on Deepening Reform of the People’s Courts Comprehensively: Outline of the Fourth Five-Year Reform of the People’s Courts [2014–2018]). February 26.
Supreme People’s Court. 2015b. Zuigao renmin fayuan guanyu tiaozheng gaoji renmin fayuan he zhongji renmin fayuan guanxia diyi shen minshang shi anjian biaozhun de tongzhi (The Supreme People’s Court Adjusted the Jurisdiction of Higher and Intermediate Level Courts in First Instance Civil/Commercial Cases). April 30.
Supreme People’s Court. 2015c. Zuigao renmin fayuan guanyu renmin fayuan dengji li’an ruogan wenti de guiding (SPC Provisions on Several Questions regarding Case Registration and Filing).
Supreme People’s Court. 2015d. Zuigao renmin fayuan gongzuo baogao 2014 (SPC Annual Work Report 2014). March 12.
Supreme People’s Court. 2016a. Zuigao renmin fayuan 2016 gongzuo baogao (SPC Annual Work Report 2015).
Supreme People’s Court. 2016b. Zhongguo fayuan de sifa gaige [baipishu] (Judicial Reform of Chinese Courts [White paper]). March 3.–03/03/content_23724636.htm
Tang, Humei, Guo, Feng, and Ji, Jun. 2011. Quanguo fayuan jingfei baozhang tizhi gaige qingkuang (The Survey Report on the National People’s Court’s Guaranteed Funding System). Renmin sifa (People’s Judicature) 17:7579.
Wang, Daojun, and Zhong, Jun. 2010. Xibu ji pinkun diqu faguan duanque wenti yanjiu (Study on the Shortage of Judges in the West and Poor Areas). Zhongong Shanxi shengzhi jiguan dangxiao xuebao (Journal of the Party School for the Departments Directly under Shanxi Provincial Committee of the CPC) 2:3032.
Wang, Lusheng. 2015. Xiangma yu saima: Zhongguo churen faguan xuanren jizhi shizheng yanjiu (Picking Horses and Racing Horses: Empirical Study on the System of New Judge Appointment in China). Fazhi yu shehui fazhan (Law and Social Development) 6:4153.
Wang, Qiliang. 2012. Falü shijie guan wenluan shidai de sifa, minyi, he zhengzhi – yi Li Changkui an wei zhongxin (Judicature, Public Opinion, and Politics at an Age of Disordered Legal World View: A Study on the Case of Li Changkui). Faxue jia (The Jurist) 3:117.
Wang, Qinhua, and Yin, Xin, eds. 2010. Zhongguo jiceng xingzheng zhengyi jiejue jizhi de jingyan yanjiu (An Empirical Study of Administrative Dispute Resolution in Grassroots China). Shanghai: Shanghai Sanlian Press.
Wang, Yaxin. 2010. Sifa chengben yu sifa xiaolü: Zhongguo fayuan de caizheng baozhang yu faguan jili (Judicial Cost and Judicial Efficiency: The Guaranteed Funding and Judges’ Motivation in Chinese Court). Faxue jia (The Jurist) 4:132138.
Wu, Yanping, and Liu, Genju, eds. 2005. Xingshi susong faxue cankao ziliao huibian (A Compilation of References for Criminal Procedure Law Volume 1). Beijing, China: Peking University Press.
Wu, Yingzi. 2006. Shenpan weiyuan hui taolun de qunti juece jiqi guizhi (The Collective Decision-Making of the Adjudication Committee). Nanjing daxue falü pinglun (Nanjing University Law Review) 1:185201.
Xu, Xin, Yanhao, Huang, and Xiaotang, Wang. 2015. Zhongguo sifa gaige niandu baogao (Annual Report on China’s Judicial Reform 2014). Zhengfa luntan (Tribune of Political Science and Law) 33(3):125141.
Xu, Ziliang. 2010. Difang fayuan zai sifa gaige zhong de nengdong xing sikao (The Dynamic Role of Local Court in Judicial Reform). Faxue (Legal Science) 4:153160.
Yan, Lijie. 2013. Qianyi jianyi chengxu minshi anjian shangsheng de yuanyin he jianyi (The Reasons and Suggestions on the Increasing Civil Summary Procedure Cases). January 9.
Yang, Xiaoling. 2010. Feichu yu baoliu zhijian: shenpan weiyuan hui fansi yu chonggou (Between Abolishment or Preservation: A Reflection and Reconstruction of the Adjudication Committee). Chongqin yi zhong fayuan wang (Chongqing No. 1 Intermediate Court Net). (accessed March 28, 2011)
Yi, Jiming. 2012. Zhongguo faxue jiaoyu de sanci zhuanxing (On Three Transitions of Legal Education in China). Huanqiu falu pinglun (Global Law Review) 3:3348.
Ying, Xing, and Xu, Yin. 2009. Lian zhengzhixue yu xingzheng susonglu de paihuai: Huabei liangshi jiceng fayuan de duibi yanjiu (Case Registration Politics and the Stagnation of Administrative Litigation: An Empirical Study of Two Northern China Basic Courts). Zhengfa luntan (Law & Politics Forum) 27(6):111112.
Yu, Jianrong. 2005. Zhongguo xinfang zhidu pipan (Criticisms of the Petition System in China). Zhongguo gaige (China Reform) 2:2628.
Zeng, Xianyi, Jian, Wang, Xiaojun, Yan, eds. 2012. Lüxue yu faxue: Zhongguo falü jiaoyu yu falü xueshu de chuantong jiqi xiandai fazhan (Law and Legal Studies: Tradition and Modern Developments of Chinese Legal Education and Legal Studies). Beijing: Renmin University of China Press.
Zhang, Hongtao. 2014. Zhongguo fayuan yali zhi xiaojie: Yizhong falü zuzhi xue jiedu (How to Dispel the Stress of China’s Courts: an Interpretation from Legal History). Faxue jia (The Jurist) 1:1936.
Zhang, Hongtao. 2015. Sifa jingfei shengji tongguan de zhengzhi fenxi (The Political Analysis of the Provincial Governance of Judicial Finance). Lilun shiye (Theoretical Horizon) 4:3234.
Zhang, Lijun. 2010. Fayuan jingji baozhang tizhi yanjiu (Study on Protecting Court Budgets). July 30.
Zhang, Zhiquan. 2014. Jiceng faguan liushi de yuanyin yu yingdu (Attrition of frontline judges and Measures to Cope with it). August 16.
Zhao, Qiang. 2014. Jiang dang de quanzhong luxian guanchuan renmin fayuan gongzuo quan guocheng (Practicing Party’s Mass Line in the Works of the People’s Court). July 22.
Zhejiang High Court. 2016. Zhejiang sheng gaoji renmin fayuan gongzuo baogao 2015 (Zhejiang High Court Annual Work Report 2015). January 26.
Zhou, Yongkang. 2010. Shenru tuijin shehui maodun huajie (Deeply Push Forward Resolution of Social Conflict). Qiushi (Seeking Truth). February 16.
Zhu, Jingwen. 2007. Zhongguo falü fazhan baogao (Report on China Law Development: Database and Indicators). Beijing: Renmin University of China Press.
Zhu, Jingwen. 2011. Zhongguo falü fazhan baogao (Report on China Law Development). Beijing: Renmin University of China Press.
Zuo, Weimin. 2010. Zhongguo faguan renyong jizhi: jiyu linian de chubu pingxi (Judges’ Appointment in China: a Conceptual Comment and Analysis). Xiandai faxue (Modern Law Science) 32(5):4351.
Zuo, Weimin. 2014. Zhonguo fayuan yuanzhang juese de shizheng yanjiu (An Empirical Study on the Role of Presidents of Courts in China). Zhongguo faxue (Chinese Legal Science) 1:525.
Zuo, Weimin. 2015. Zhongguo jiceng fayuan canzheng zhidu shizheng yanjiu (Empirical Research on the Fiscal System of the People’s Court at the Grassroots Level). Zhongguo faxue (Chinese Legal Science) 1:257271.


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between #date#. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.