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Ernest Hemingway in Context
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    Ernest Hemingway in Context
    • Online ISBN: 9780511862458
    • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511862458
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Book description

Ernest Hemingway's literary career was shaped by the remarkable contexts in which he lived, from the streets of suburban Chicago to the shores of the Caribbean islands, to the battlefields of World War I, Franco's Spain and World War II. This volume examines the various geographic, political, social and literary contexts through which Hemingway crystallized his unmistakable narrative voice. Written by forty-four experts in Hemingway studies, the comprehensive yet concise essays collected here explore how Hemingway is both a product and a critic of his times, touching on his relationship to matters of style, biography, letters, cinema, the arts, music, masculinity, sexuality, the environment, ethnicity and race, legacy and women, among other topics. Fans, students and scholars of Hemingway will turn to this reference time and again for a fuller understanding of this iconic American author.

Reviews

'Moddelmog and del Gizzo have given us a concise, content-rich collection that functions as a one-volume seminar on the life and work of the author. The contributor’s list is a Who’s Who of Hemingway scholars and represents the most recent work being done in the field. Any student, scholar, or teacher of Hemingway will find something beneficial in this book; it is a testament to the contributors that the writing is accessible, lively, and informative … this collection is as close to a fully contextualized portrait of the author as we have. Ernest Hemingway in Context is a valuable contribution to this field; it gathers a variety of voices and viewpoints into a single, handsome volume that adds another level of depth to an already nuanced conversation. Regardless of their critical perspectives, newcomers and veterans alike will appreciate the range of topics and resources available in the text.'

Michael D. DuBose Source: The Hemingway Review

'Ernest Hemingway in Context provides an invaluable guide for 21st century readers and scholars to explore the intricacies of Hemingway, a commanding and complicated figure in modern literature whose well-known persona is constructed along fault lines of gender, sexuality, race, and nationality that shift and rumble beneath our feet.'

Scott Donaldson - author of Hemingway vs Fitzgerald: The Rise and Fall of a Literary Friendship

'Every student or reader of Hemingway's writing must own this book. From the brilliant new critics to the long-established ones, Professors Moddelmog and del Gizzo have included a range of perspectives that are consistently illuminating - and often unexpected. Forty-four newly-conceived essays comprise Ernest Hemingway in Context and lead readers to a number of expanded and interesting conclusions. Wars and oceans, films and magazine coverage - this book is truly useful.'

Linda Wagner-Martin - University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

'The study of Hemingway as author and fascinating cultural icon continues unabated and is continually being refreshed by new scholars and their expanding insights as this reference so fully exemplifies.'

Scott Schwar Source: La Busca

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Further Reading

Biography

Baker, Carlos.Hemingway: The Writer as Artist. Princeton University Press, 1972.
Brian, Denis.The True Gen: An Intimate Portrait of Ernest Hemingway by Those Who Knew Him. New York: Grove Press, 1988.
Donaldson, Scott.By Force of Will: The Life and Art of Ernest Hemingway. New York: Viking, 1977.
Fenton, Charles.The Apprenticeship of Ernest Hemingway. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Young, 1954.
Griffin, Peter.Along with Youth: Hemingway, the Early Years. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.
Griffin, Peter.Less Than a Treason: Hemingway in Paris. Oxford University Press, 1990.
Hemingway, Gregory H.Papa: A Personal Memoir. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1976.
Hemingway, Mary.How It Was. New York: Knopf, 1976.
Hemingway, Valerie.Running with the Bulls: My Years with the Hemingways. New York: Ballantine Books, 2004.
Kert, Bernice.The Hemingway Women. New York: Norton, 1983.
Lynn, Kenneth S.Hemingway. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995.
Mellow, James R.Hemingway: A Life Without Consequences. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1992.
Meyers, Jeffrey.Hemingway: A Biography. New York: Harper & Row, 1985.
Raeburn, John.Fame Became of Him: Hemingway as Public Writer. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1984.
Reynolds, Michael S.The Young Hemingway. New York: Norton, 1986.
Reynolds, Michael S.Hemingway: The Paris Years. New York: Norton, 1989.
Reynolds, Michael S.Hemingway: The American Homecoming. Cambridge: Blackwell, 1992.
Reynolds, Michael S.Hemingway: The 1930s. New York: Norton, 1997.
Reynolds, Michael S.Hemingway: The Final Years. New York: Norton, 1999.
Wagner-Martin, Linda.Ernest Hemingway: A Literary Life. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.

Critical Overview of the Biographies

Beegel, Susan F. “Conclusion: The Critical Reputation of Ernest Hemingway,” in Scott Donaldson, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Ernest Hemingway. Cambridge University Press, 1996. 269–99.
Carver, Raymond. “Coming of Age, Going to Pieces.” New York Times, November 17, 1985. www.nytimes.com/books/99/07/04/specials/hemingway-carver.html.
Donaldson, Scott. “Toward a Definitive Biography,” in Frank Scafella, ed. Hemingway: Essays of Reassessment. Oxford University Press, 1991. 93–103.
Junkins, Donald. “Shadowboxing in the Hemingway Biographies,” in Frank Scafella, ed. Hemingway: Essays of Reassessment. Oxford University Press, 1991. 142–53.
Kimbrel, W. W., Jr. “Carlos Baker and the ‘True Gen.’The Hemingway Review 16.1 (1996), 83–96.
Lehmann-Haupt, Christopher. “A Replica of Hemingway So Real It Moves.” New York Times, August 13, 1968. nytimes.com/books/99/07/04/specials/hemingwaybakerbio.html.
Lewis, Robert W.Hemingway’s Lives: A Review.” The Hemingway Review 7.1 (1987), 45–62.
Linde, M. D. A.Hemingway and Gender: Biography Revisited.” Atlantis 27.2 (2005), 15–28.
Meyers, Jeffrey.The Quest for Hemingway.” Virginia Quarterly Review 61 (1985), 584–602.
Moreland, Kim.Plumbing the Iceberg: A Review Essay on Recent Hemingway Biographies.” Southern Humanities Review 23.2 (1989), 145–64.
Reynolds, Michael S. “Up Against the Crannied Wall: The Limits of Biography,” in Frank Scafella, ed. Hemingway: Essays of Reassessment. Oxford University Press, 1991. 170–8.
Stoneback, H. R. “In the Nominal Country of Bogus: Hemingway’s Catholicism and the Biographies,” in Frank Scafella, ed. Hemingway: Essays of Reassessment. Oxford University Press, 1991. 105–40.

Letters

Baker, Carlos, ed. Ernest Hemingway: Selected Letters, 1917–1961. New York: Scribner’s, 1981.
Bruccoli, Matthew J., ed., with Robert W. Trogdon. The Only Thing That Counts: The Ernest Hemingway–Maxwell Perkins Correspondence. New York: Scribner’s, 1996.
DeFazio, Albert J. III, ed. Dear Papa, Dear Hotch: The Correspondence of Ernest Hemingway and A. E. Hotchner. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2005.
Hagemann, E. R.Preliminary Report on the State of Ernest Hemingway’s Correspondence.” Literary Research Newsletter 3.4 (1978), 163–72.
Hanneman, Audre.Ernest Hemingway: A Comprehensive Bibliography. Princeton University Press, 1967.
Hanneman, Audre.Supplement to Ernest Hemingway: A Comprehensive Bibliography. Princeton University Press, 1975.
Hemingway, Leicester.My Brother, Ernest Hemingway. Sarasota, FL: Pineapple Press, 1996.
Miller, Linda Patterson, ed. Letters from the Lost Generation: Gerald and Sara Murphy and Friends. Expanded edn. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2002.
Sanford, Marcelline Hemingway.At the Hemingways: With Fifty Years of Correspondence Between Ernest and Marcelline Hemingway. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho Press, 1999.
Spanier, Sandra, and Robert W. Trogdon, ed. The Letters of Ernest Hemingway: Volume I, 1907–1922. Cambridge University Press, 2011.
Villard, Henry S., and James Nagel, eds. Hemingway in Love and War: The Lost Diary of Agnes von Kurowsky, Her Letters, and Correspondence of Ernest Hemingway. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1989.

Reading

Brasch, J. D., and Joseph Sigman. Hemingway’s Library: A Composite Record. New York: Garland, 1981.
Fitch, Noel.Ernest Hemingway–c/o Shakespeare and Company.” Fitzgerald/Hemingway Annual (1977), 157–81.
Paul, Steve.Preparing For War and Writing: What the Young Hemingway Read in The Kansas City Star, 1917–1918.” The Hemingway Review 23.2 (2004), 5–20.
Plimpton, George.An Interview with Ernest Hemingway.” Paris Review 18 (Spring 1958), 60–89.
Reynolds, Michael S.A Supplement to Hemingway’s Reading: 1910–1940.” Studies in American Fiction 14.1 (1986): 99–108.
Reynolds, Michael S.Hemingway’s Reading: 1910–1940. Princeton University Press, 1981.

Contemporary Reviews

Donaldson, Scott, ed. New Essays on A Farewell to Arms. Cambridge University Press, 1990.
Faulkner, William. Rev. of The Old Man and the Sea. Shenandoah 3 (Autumn 1952), 55.
Flora, Joseph.Reading Hemingway’s Men Without Women: Glossary and Commentary. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 2008.
Ford, Ford Madox. “Introduction” to A Farewell to Arms. New York: Modern Library, 1932, xvi.
Mencken, H. L.Quackery.” American Mercury 5 (August 1925), xxxviii.
Meyers, Jeffrey.Ernest Hemingway: The Critical Heritage. London: Routledge, 1982.
Nagel, James, ed. Critical Essays on Ernest Hemingway’s The Sun Also Rises. New York: Hall, 1995.
Stein, Gertrude.He and They, Hemingway: A Portrait.” Ex Libris 1 (December 1923), 192.

Photos and Portraits

Arnold, Lloyd R.High on the Wild with Hemingway. Caldwell, ID: The Caxton Printers, Ltd., 1968.
Arnold, Tillie, with William L. Smallwood. The Idaho Hemingway. Buhl, ID: Beacon Books, 1999.
Bruccoli, Matthew J., ed., with Judith S. Baughman. Hemingway and the Mechanism of Fame. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2006.
Earle, David M.All Man! Hemingway, 1950s Men’s Magazines, and the Masculine Persona. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 2009.
Hotchner, A. E.Hemingway and His World. New York: The Vendome Press, 1989.
Plath, James.Historic Photos of Ernest Hemingway. Nashville, TN: Turner Publishing Co., 2009.
Raeburn, John.Fame Became of Him: Hemingway as Public Writer. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1984.
Sotolongo, Roberto Herrera, and Norberto Fuentes. Ernest Hemingway Rediscovered. New York: Charles Scribners Sons, 1988.
Vejdovsky, Boris, with Mariel Hemingway. Hemingway: A Life in Pictures. Ontario: Firefly, 2011.
Voss, Frederick.Picturing Hemingway: A Writer in His Time. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999.

Cinema and Adaptations

Bruccoli, Matthew J., ed., with Judith S. Baughman. Hemingway and the Mechanism of Fame. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2006.
Dickstein, Morris. Dancing in the Dark: A Cultural History of the Great Depression. New York: Norton, 2009.
“The Golden Age of Hollywood: 1930s–1940s.” School of Information and Library Science. University of North Carolina. December 11, 2003. www.ils.unc.edu/dpr/path/goldenhollywood.
Jewel, Richard B.The Golden Age of Cinema: Hollywood, 1929–1945. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2007.
Leff, Leonard J.Hemingway and His Conspirators: Hollywood, Scribners, and the Making of American Celebrity Culture. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1997.
Phillips, Gene D.Hemingway and Film. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing, 1980.
Spears, Jack.Hollywood: The Golden Era. New York: Castle Books, 1971.

The Speiser and Easterling-Hallman Foundation Collection, Thomas Cooper Library, University of South Carolina.

Trodd, Zoe.Hemingway’s Camera Eye: The Problem of Language and an Interwar Politics of Form.” The Hemingway Review 26.2 (2007), 7–21.
Trogdon, Robert W.The Lousy Racket: Hemingway, Scribners, and the Business of Literature. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 2007.
Viertel, Peter.Dangerous Friends: At Large with Huston and Hemingway in the Fifties. New York: Doubleday, 1992.
Zollo, Paul. “Bill Heyward.” Hollywood Remembered: An Oral History of Its Golden Age. New York: Cooper Square Press, 2002. 293–300.

Magazines

Earle, David.All Man!: Hemingway, 1950s Men’s Magazines, and the Masculine Persona. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 2009.
Earle, David.Re-Covering Modernism: Pulps, Paperbacks, and the Prejudice of Form. Manchester, UK: Ashgate Publishing, 2009.
Griffin, Peter.Along With Youth: Hemingway, The Early Years. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.
Leff, Leonard J.Hemingway and His Conspirators: Hollywood, Scribners, and the Making of American Celebrity Culture. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1999.
Mott, Frank Luther.A History of American Magazines, Vol IV: 1885–1905. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1957.
Ohmann, Richard.Selling Culture: Magazines, Markets, and Class at the Turn of the Century. London: Verso, 1996.
Peterson, Theodore.Magazines in the Twentieth Century. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1964.
Raeburn, John.Fame Became of Him: Hemingway as a Public Writer. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1984.
Trogdon, Robert W.The Lousy Racket: Hemingway, Scribners, and the Business of Publishing. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 2007.

Critical Overview

Beegel, Susan F. “Conclusion: The Critical Reputation of Ernest Hemingway,” in Scott Donaldson, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Hemingway. Cambridge University Press, 1996. 269–99.
Benson, Jackson J. “Hemingway Criticism: Getting at the Hard Questions,” in Donald R. Noble, ed. Hemingway: A Revaluation. Troy, NY: Whitston Publishing, 1983. 17–47.
Benson, Jackson J.Criticism of the Short Stories: The Neglected and the Oversaturated–An Editorial.” Hemingway Review 8.2 (1989), 30–5.
Hanneman, Audre.Ernest Hemingway: A Comprehensive Bibliography. Princeton University Press, 1967.
Hanneman, Audre.Supplement to Ernest Hemingway: A Comprehensive Bibliography. Princeton University Press, 1975.
Harmon, Robert.Understanding Ernest Hemingway: A Study and Research Guide. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1977.
Hily-Mane, Geneviève.Ernest Hemingway in France: 1926–1994: A Comprehensive Bibliography. Reims: CIRLEP, 1995.
Larson, Kelli A.Ernest Hemingway: A Reference Guide, 1974–1989. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1990.
Larson, Kelli A.Stepping Into the Labyrinth with Hemingway.” Hemingway Review 11.2 (1992), 19–24.
Meyers, Jeffrey.Hemingway: The Critical Heritage. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1982.
Reynolds, Michael S.Unexplored Territory: The Next Ten Years of Hemingway Studies.” College Literature 7 (1980), 189–201.
Reynolds, Michael S.Prospects for the Study of Ernest Hemingway.” Resources for American Literary Study 21.1 (1995), 1–15.
Reynolds, Michael S. “A View from the Dig at Century’s End,” in Joseph Candido and Ray Lewis White, eds. Value and Vision in American Literature. Athens: Ohio University Press, 1999. 1–14.
Wagner, Linda W.Ernest Hemingway: A Reference Guide. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1977.
Young, Philip.Hemingway Papers, Occasional Thoughts.” College Literature 7 (1980), 310–18.

Styles

Cohen, Milton A.Hemingway’s Laboratory: The Paris in our time. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press, 2005.
Didion, Joan.Last Words.” New Yorker (November 9, 1998), 74–80.
Griffin, Peter.Along with Youth: Hemingway, the Early Years. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.
Lamb, Robert Paul. Art Matters: Hemingway, Craft, and the Creation of the Modern Short Story. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 2010.
Reynolds, Michael S.Critical Essays on Ernest Hemingway’s In Our Time. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1983.
Updike, John.Papa’s Sad Testament.” New Statesman (October 16, 1970), 489.

Cult And Afterlife

Bruccoli, Matthew, ed., with Judith S. Baughman. Hemingway and the Mechanism of Fame. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2006.
Earle, David M.All Man!: Hemingway, 1950’s Men’s Magazines, and the Masculine Persona. Kent, OH: The Kent State University Press, 2009.
Glass, Loren. Authors, Inc.: Literary Celebrity in the Modern United States, 1880–1980. New YorkUniversity Press, 2004.
Leff, Leonard J.Hemingway and His Conspirators: Hollywood, Scribners, and the Making of American Celebrity Culture. New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1997
McFarland, Ron.Recent Fictional Takes on the Lost Hemingway Manuscripts.” Journal of Popular Culture 44.4 (2011), 314–32.
Moddelmog, Debra A.Reading Desire: In Pursuit of Ernest Hemingway. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1999.
Moddelmog, Debra A. “Telling Stories From Hemingway’s FBI File: Conspiracy, Paranoia, and Masculinity,” in Claire A. Culleton and Karen Leick, eds. Modernism on File: Writers, Artists, and the FBI, 1920–1950. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008. 53–72.
Raeburn, John.Fame Became of Him: Hemingway as Public Writer. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1984.
Trodgon, Robert W.Hemingway, Scribners, and the Business of Literature. Kent, OH: The Kent State University Press, 2007.

Houses and Museums

Fitch, Noel Riley.Literary Cafes of Paris. Montgomery, AL: Starrhill Press, 1989.
Fitch, Noel Riley.Walks in Hemingway’s Paris: A Guide for the Literary Traveler. New York: St. Martins, 1992.
Hemingway, Carol.907 Whitehead Street.” The Hemingway Review 23.1 (2003), 8–23.
Leland, John.A Guide to Hemingway’s Paris. Chapel Hill, NC: Algonquin Books of Chapel Hill, 1989.
Marek, Kenneth.Hemingway-Related Sites in the Horton Bay/Walloon Lake/Petoskey/Harbor Springs Area. Michigan Hemingway Society Web Site. Web. August 8, 2011. michiganhemingwaysociety.org/hemsites.html.

Posthumous Publications

Brenner, Gerry.Are We Going to Hemingway’s Feast?American Literature 54.4 (1982), 528–44.
Bruccoli, Matthew J. “Packaging Papa: The Garden of Eden,” in J. M. Brook, ed. Dictionary of Literary Biography Yearbook: 1986. Detroit, MI: Gale Research, 1987. 79–82.
Burwell, Rose Marie.Hemingway: The Postwar Years and the Posthumous Novels. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
DeFazio, Albert J. III, ed. Dear Papa, Dear Hotch: The Correspondence of Ernest Hemingway and A. E. Hotchner. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2005.
Fleming, Robert E.The Face in the Mirror: Hemingway’s Writers. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1994.
Griffin, Peter M.A Substantive Error in the Text of Ernest Hemingway’s ‘Summer People.’” American Literature 50.3 (1978), 471–3.
Justice, Hilary K.The Bones of the Others: The Hemingway Text from the Lost Manuscripts to the Posthumous Novels. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 2006.
Lindholt, Paul J.Ernest Hemingway’s ‘Summer People’: More Textual Errors and A Reply.” Studies in Short Fiction 20.4 (1983), 319–20.
Miller, Linda Patterson. “From the ‘African Book’ to Under Kilimanjaro: An Introduction.” The Hemingway Review 25.2 (2006), 79–80.
Scribner, Charles, Jr. In the Company of Writers: A Life in Publishing. New York: Scribner’s, 1990.
Seitz, Susan M. “The Posthumous Editing of Ernest Hemingway’s Fiction.” PhD diss., University of Massachusetts, 1993.
Tavernier-Courbin, Jacqueline.Ernest Hemingway’s A Moveable Feast: The Making of a Myth. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1991.
Trogdon, Robert W.A Moveable Feast: The Restored Edition: A Review and a Collation of Differences.” The Hemingway Review 29.1 (2009), 24–45.

Modernist Paris and The Expatriate Literary Milieu

Cohen, Milton A.Hemingway’s Laboratory: The Paris in our time. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press, 2005.
Donaldson, Scott.Fitzgerald & Hemingway: Works and Days. New York: Columbia University Press, 2009.
Fitch, Noel Riley.Sylvia Beach and the Lost Generation: A History of Literary Paris in the Twenties & Thirties. New York: W. W. Norton, 1983.
Fitzgerald, F. Scott.The Crack-Up with other Uncollected Pieces. Ed. Edmund Wilson. New York: New Directions, 1945.
Ford, Hugh.Published in Paris: American and British Writers, Printers, and Publishers in Paris, 1920–1939. Yonkers, NY: Pushcart Press, 1975.
Joost, Nicholas.Ernest Hemingway and the Little Magazines: The Paris Years. Barre, MA: Barre Publishers, 1968.
Kennedy, J. Gerald.Imagining Paris: Exile, Writing, and American Identity. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993.
MacLeish, Archibald.Act Five and Other Poems. New York: Random House, 1948.
Stein, Gertrude.The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas. New York: The Literary Guild, 1933.
Stein, Gertrude.Paris, France. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1940.
Stoltzfus, Ben.Hemingway and French Writers. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 2010.
Watts, Emily Stipes.Ernest Hemingway and the Arts. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1971.

Literary Friendships, Rivalries, and Feuds

Arthur, Anthony.Literary Feuds: A Century of Celebrated Quarrels–From Mark Twain to Tom Wolfe. New York: Thomas Dunne/St. Martin’s Press, 2002.
Bruccoli, Matthew J.Fitzgerald and Hemingway: A Dangerous Friendship. New York: Carroll & Graff, 1995.
Callaghan, Morley.That Summer in Paris: Memories of Tangled Friendships with Hemingway, Fitzgerald, and Some Others. New York: Coward-McCann, 1963.
Crunden, Robert M. “Gertrude Stein/Sherwood Anderson/Ernest Hemingway,” in Body & Soul: The Making of American Modernism. New York: Basic Books, 2000. 289–310.
Donaldson, Scott.Hemingway vs. Fitzgerald: The Rise and Fall of a Literary Friendship. New York: Overlook Press, 1999.
Fruscione, Joseph.Faulkner and Hemingway: Biography of a Literary Rivalry. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 2012.
Kennedy, J. Gerald, and Kirk Curnutt. “‘Out of the Picture’: Mrs. Krebs, Mother Stein, and ‘Soldier’s Home,’” in Linda Wagner-Martin, ed. Hemingway: Eight Decades of Criticism. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 2009. 215–30.
Flanagan, J. T.Hemingway’s Debt to Sherwood Anderson.” Journal of English and Germanic Philology 54 (October 1955), 507–20.
Land, Myrick.The Fine Art of Literary Mayhem: A Lively Account of Famous Writers and Their Feuds. 2nd rev. edn. San Francisco: Lexikos, 1983.
“Literary Slug-Fests.” New York Times (August 17, 1937), 18.
Larsen, Lyle.Stein and Hemingway: The Story of a Turbulent Relationship. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2011.
Lewis, Wyndham. “The Dumb Ox: A Study of Ernest Hemingway,” in Jeffrey Meyers, ed. Ernest Hemingway: The Critical Heritage. London: Routledge, 1982. 144–58.
Rovit, Earl, and Arthur Waldhorn. Hemingway and Faulkner in Their Time. New York: Continuum, 2006.
North, Michael. “All Nice Wives Are Like That,” in Reading 1922: A Return to the Scene of the Modern. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. 173–204.
Saroyan, William. “Seventy Thousand Assyrians,” in The Daring Young Man on the Flying Trapeze and Other Stories. New York: New Directions, 1997. 27–42.
Smith, Paul. “From the Waste Land to the Garden with the Elliots,” in Susan F. Beegel, ed. Hemingway’s Neglected Short Fiction: New Perspectives. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1992. 123–30.
Stein, Gertrude.The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1933.

Literary Movements

Becker, George J., ed. Documents of Modern Literary Realism. Princeton University Press, 1963.
Bell, Michael Davitt.The Problem of American Realism: Studies in the Cultural History of a Literary Idea. University of Chicago Press, 1996.
Bercovitch, Sacvan, ed. The Cambridge History of American Literature. Vol. 3: Prose Writing, 1860–1920. Cambridge University Press, 2005.
Bradbury, Malcolm, and James McFarlane eds. Modernism 1890–1930. New York: Penguin Books, 1976.
Eysteinsson, Astradur.The Concept of Modernism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1990.
Frank, Joseph.The Idea of Spatial Form. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1991.
Howard, June.Form and History in American Literary Naturalism. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1985.
Kazin, Alfred.On Native Grounds: An Interpretation of American Prose Literature. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1942.
Kenner, Hugh.The Pound Era. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1971.
Kolocotroni, Vassiliki, Jane Goldman, and Olga Taxidou, eds. Modernism: An Anthology of Sources and Documents. University of Chicago Press, 1998.
Lamb, Robert Paul.Art Matters: Hemingway, Craft, and the Creation of the Modern Short Story. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2010.
Lehan, Richard.Realism and Naturalism: The Novel in an Age of Transition. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2005.
Levenson, Michael H.A Genealogy of Modernism: A Study in English Literary Doctrine, 1908–1922. Cambridge University Press, 1984.
Nicholls, Peter.Modernisms: A Literary Guide. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995.
Wilson, Edmund.Axel’s Castle: A Study in the Imaginative Literature of 1870–1930. New York: Scribners, 1931.

Visual Arts

Berger, John. “The Moment of Cubism,” in Geoff Dyer, ed. Selected Essays: John Berger. New York: Vintage, 2001. 71–92.
Brogan, Jacqueline Vaught. “Hemingway’s In Our Time: A Cubist Anatomy.” The Hemingway Review 17.2 (1998), 31–46.
Gaillard Jr., T. L.Hemingway’s Debt to Cezanne: New Perspectives.” Twentieth-Century Literature 45.1 (1999), 65–78.
Hemingway, Colette C.In His Time: Ernest Hemingway’s Collection of Paintings and the Artists He Knew. N.p.: Kilimanjaro Books, 1981.
Hotchner, A. E.Hemingway and His World. New York: Vendome, 1989.
Nagel, James.Literary Impressionism and In Our Time.” The Hemingway Review 6.2 (1987), 17–26.
Nakjavani, Erik.The Aesthetic of the Visible and the Invisible: Hemingway and Cezanne.” The Hemingway Review 5.2 (1986), 2–11.
Narbeshuber, Lisa.Hemingway’s In Our Time: Cubism, Conservation, and the Suspension of Identification.” The Hemingway Review 25.2 (2006), 9–28.
Plath, James. “‘Le Torero’ and ‘The Undefeated’: Hemingway’s Foray into Analytical Cubism.” Studies in Short Fiction 30.1 (1993), 35–43.
Schapiro, Meyer.Paul Cézanne. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1988.
Vaughn, Elizabeth Dewberry. “In Our Time and Picasso,” in Kenneth Rosen, ed. Hemingway Repossessed. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1994. 3–8.
Watts, Emily S.Ernest Hemingway and the Visual Arts. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1971.

Music

Representative Selections of Music

Childhood and Early Adolescence

Berlin, Irving. “Alexander’s Ragtime Band.” 1911.
Berlin, Irving (Complete works.)
Cohan, George M. “Give My Regards to Broadway.” 1904.
Cohan, George M. “You’re a Grand Old Flag.” 1906.
Cohan, George M. (Complete works.)
Elgar, Edward. Enigma Variations. ca. 1898.
Elgar, Edward “Pomp and Circumstance.” ca. 1901.
Elgar, Edward “Coronation Ode.” 1902.
Emerson, Howard, and Sterling. “Hello, Ma Baby (Hello, Ma Ragtime Gal).” 1899.
Foster, Stephen. (Complete works.)
Gilbert and Sullivan. (Complete works.)
Shields and Evans. “In the Good Old Summertime.” 1902.
Sibelius, Jean. Symphony No. 1. 1899.
Sousa, John Philip. (Complete marches.)
von Tilzer, Albert. “Take Me Out to the Ballgame.” 1908.

World War I Popular Song (United Kingdom & Italy)

Titles

“It’s a Long Way to Tipperary.” (British popular song.) 1912.

“Land of Hope and Glory.” (British popular song; variation on Elgar, “Pomp and Circumstance.”)

“Pack Up Your Troubles In Your Old Kit Bag.” (British popular song.) 1916.
“Roses of Picardy.” (British popular song.) 1917.
“Sister Susie’s Sewing Shirts.” (British popular song.) 1914.
“Somewhere in France is a Lily.” (British popular song.) 1917.

Performers

Caruso, Enrico, perf. “Over There.” George M. Cohan. Recorded 1918.
Martinelli, Giovanni, perf. “La Leggenda del Piave.” (Italian popular song.) 1918.

World War I Popular Song (United States)

Titles

Berlin, Irving. “God Bless America.” 1918.
Cohan, George M. “Over There.” 1917.
Gershwin, George and Ira. “Swanee.” 1919.
O’Hara, Geoffrey. “K-K-K-Katy.” 1918.
Whitson, Leo and Beth Slater Friedman. “Let Me Call You Sweetheart.” 1920.

Performer

Murray, Billy. (Popular American vocalist, World War I-era.) (Complete World War I works.)

Early Twentieth-Century Music in the Classical Tradition

Antheil, George.Ballet Méchanique. 1924.
Bartók, Béla. (Complete works.)
Cage, John. “4’33”.” 1952.
Copland, Aaron. “Fanfare for the Common Man.” 1940.
Copland, Aaron “Rodeo.” 1942.
Copland, Aaron “Appalachian Spring.” 1944.
Copland, Aaron (Complete works.)
Gershwin, George. Rhapsody in Blue. ca. 1924.
Gershwin, GeorgeAn American in Paris. 1928.
Gershwin, GeorgePorgy and Bess. 1938.
Gershwin, George “Summertime.” (American popular song.) 1938.
Ives, Charles. “Three Pieces in New England.” 1903–10.
Ravel, Maurice. Daphnis et Chloe. 1913.
Respighi, Ottorino. “Ancient Airs and Dances” (Suites I-III). 1917–32.
Respighi, OttorinoGli Pini di Roma. 1924.
Schoenberg, Arnold. Opus 23. 1923.
Stein, Gertrude. See Virgil Thomson.
Stravinsky, Igor. Le Sacre du Printemps (The Rite[s] of Spring). 1913.
Thomson, Virgil. Four Saints in Three Acts. 1934.
Vaughan Williams, Ralph. “In the Fen Country.” 1904.
Vaughan Williams, Ralph “Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis.” 1910.
Vaughan Williams, Ralph “Fantasia on Greensleeves.” 1934.

Popular Song (United States and Paris, 1920s and 1930s)

Titles

“Ain’t We Got Fun.” (American popular song.) 1921.
“Yes, We Have No Bananas.” (American popular song.) 1922.
Baker, Josephine, perf. “(Jeepers Creepers) Where’d You Get Those Eyes.” (All works ca. 1920s/1930s.)
Baker, Josephine, perf. “Bye, Bye Blackbird.”
Baker, Josephine, perf. “I’ve Got You Under My Skin.”
Baker, Josephine, perf. (Complete works.)

Performers

Astaire, Fred and Ginger Rogers. (Complete works.)
Baker, Josephine. (Complete works.)
Berlin, Irving. (Complete works.)
Gershwin, George and Ira. (Complete works.)
Piaf, Edith. (Complete works.)

Popular Music (World War II and 1940s)

The Andrews Sisters. “Boogie Woogie Bugle Boy.” 1941.
The Andrews Sisters (Complete works.)
Coltrane, John. (Complete works.)
Crosby, Bing. U.S.O. performances. (Complete works.)
The Dorsey Brothers, composers/bandleaders. “Lullaby of Broadway.” 1935.
The Dorsey Brothers, composers/bandleaders (Complete works.)
Ellington, Duke. composer/bandleader/performer. “Take the ‘A’ Train.” 1941.
Miller, Glenn. composer/bandleader. “In the Mood.” ca. 1939.
Miller, Glenn (Complete works.)
Sinatra, Frank. (American popular performer. Havana years. 1940s–1950s.)

From the Audio Collection at the Finca Vigía

Bach, Johann Sebastian. Two- and Three-Part Inventions. BWV 772–801.
Bach, Johann SebastianThe Well-Tempered Klavier (Books I and II). BWV 846–893.

“Concerto for Two Violins in d-minor.” BWV 1043.

DeFalla, Manuel. Nights in the Gardens of Spain. ca. 1909–16.
DeFalla, Manuel The Three-Cornered Hat. 1919.

Scholarship and Collections

Camastra, Nicole. “Hemingway’s Modern Hymn: Music and the Church as Background Sources for ‘God Rest You Merry, Gentlemen.’The Hemingway Review 28.1 (2008), 51–67.
Cope, D. H.New Directions in Music. 4th edn. Dubuque, IA: William C. Brown. 1984.
First World War.com – A Multimedia Archive of World War One. www.firstworldwar.com.
Justice, Hilary K. “Alias Grace: Music and the Feminine Aesthetic in Hemingway’s Early Style,” in Lawrence Broer and Gloria Holland, eds. Hemingway and Women: Female Critics and the Female Voice. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2002. 221–38.
Justice, Hilary K.Hemingway’s Music: An Assessment and Partial Catalog of the Audio Archive at the Finca Vigía.” The Hemingway Review 25.1 (2005), 96–108.
McParland, Robert P., ed. Music and Literary Modernism: Critical Essays and Comparative Studies. Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2009.
Mellers, Werner.Music in a New Found Land: Themes and Developments in the History of American Music. Oxford University Press, 1987.
Oxford Music Online. http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.
Parlor Songs [Tin Pan Alley]. http://www.parlorsongs.com.
Tyler, Lisa. “Opera, Maternal Influence, and Gender,” in Robert P. McParland, ed. Music and Literary Modernism: Critical Essays and Comparative Studies. Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2009. 136–43.

Ailments, Accidents, and Suicide

Beegel, Susan F. “Hemingway and Hemochromatosis.” The Hemingway Review 10.1 (1990), 57–66.
Clark, Miriam Marty.Hemingway’s Early Illness Narratives and the Lyric Dimensions of ‘Now I Lay Me.’” Narrative 12.2 (2004), 167–77.
Fieve, Ronald.Moodswing. New York: William Morrow, 1975.
Hays, Peter L.Who Removed Hemingway’s Ruptured Spleen?The Hemingway Review 11.1 (1991), 31–3.
Hays, Peter L.Hemingway’s Clinical Depression: A Speculation.” The Hemingway Review 14.2 (1995), 50–63.
Jamison, Kay Redfield.Touched With Fire: Manic Depressive Illness and the Artistic Temperament. New York: Free Press Paperback, 1993.
Lewis, Robert W.Hemingway in Italy: Making It Up.” Journal of Modern Literature 9.2 (1982), 209–36.
Nuffer, David.The Best Friend I Ever Had. N.p.: Xlibris, 2008.
Young, Philip.Ernest Hemingway. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Pamphlets on American Writers, Number 1, 1959.
Young, Philip.Ernest Hemingway: A Reconsideration. New York: Harbinger, Brace & World, 1966.

Animals

Animal Studies Group. Killing Animals. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2006.
Beegel, Susan F. “A Guide to the Marine Life in Ernest Hemingway’s The Old Man and the Sea.” Resources for American Literary Study 30 (2006), 236–315.
Bekoff, Marc, and Jessica Pierce. Wild Justice: The Moral Lives of Animals. University of Chicago Press, 2010.
Brennen, Carlene.Hemingway’s Cats: An Illustrated Biography. Sarasota, FL: Pineapple Press, 2006.
Cavell, Stanley et al. Philosophy and Animal Life. New York: Columbia University Press, 2008.
Derrida, Jacques.The Animal That Therefore I Am. Ed. Marie-Louise Mallet. Trans. David Wills. New York: Fordham University Press, 2008.
De Waal, Frans.Primates and Philosophers: How Morality Evolved. Princeton University Press, 2006.
Fudge, Erica.Animal. London: Reaktion Books, 2002.
Haraway, Donna.When Species Meet. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2008.
Hemingway, Colette.907 Whitehead Street.” The Hemingway Review 23.1 (2003), 8–23.
Kalof, Linda.Looking at Animals in Human History. London: Reaktion Books, 2007.
Love, Glen A.Hemingway’s Indian Virtues: An Ecological Reconsideration.” Western American Literature 22.3 (1987), 201–13.
Marx, Leo.The Machine in the Garden: Technology and the Pastoral Ideal in America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1964.
McHugh, Susan.Animal Stories: Narrating Across Species Lines. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2011.
McHugh, Susan.Dog. London: Reaktion Books, 2004.
Moss, Cynthia.Elephant Memories: Thirteen Years in the Life of an Elephant Family. University of Chicago Press, 2000.
Murphy, Charlene M. “Hemingway’s Gentle Hunters: Contradiction or Duality?,” in Robert E. Fleming, ed. Hemingway and the Natural World. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho Press, 1999. 165–74.
Nash, Roderick F.The Rights of Nature: A History of Environmental Ethics. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1989.
Ritvo, Harriet.The Animal Estate: The English and Other Creatures in the Victorian Age. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1989.
Shukin, Nicole.Animal Capital: Rendering Life in Biopolitical Times. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2009.
Voeller, Carey. “‘He Only Looked Sad the Same Way I Felt’: The Textual Confessions of Hemingway’s Hunters.” The Hemingway Review 25.1 (2005), 63–76.
Wolfe, Cary.Fathers, Lovers, and Friend Killers: Rearticulating Gender and Race via Species in Hemingway.” Boundary 2: An International Journal of Literature and Culture 29.1 (2002), 223–57.

Bullfighting

Conrad, Barnaby.Encyclopedia of Bullfighting. Cambridge, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1961.
Cossío y Martínez de Fortún , José María de. Los Toros: Tratado técnico e histórico. 12 vols. Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, 1943–97.
Gutiérrez Alarcón, Demetrio.Los toros de la guerra y del franquismo. Barcelona: Luis de Caralt Editor, S.A., 1978.
Johnson, Walter.Brave Employment: The Myth and Reality of the Spanish Corrida. London: Club Taurino of London, 1997.
Josephs, F. Allen.Beyond Death in the Afternoon: A Meditation on Tragedy in the Corrida.” North Dakota Quarterly 65.3 (1998), 105–19.
Josephs, F. Allen.La Plaza de Toros: Where Culture and Nature Meet.” North Dakota Quarterly 64.3 (1997), 60–8.
Josephs, F. Allen.Ritual and Sacrifice in the Corrida: The Saga of César Rincón. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 2002.
Lewis, Robert W. “The Making of Death in the Afternoon, in James Nagel, ed. Ernest Hemingway: The Writer in Context. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984. 31–52.
Lozano Sevilla, Manuel.All about Bullfighting. Trans. Betty Morris. Barcelona: Editorial Planeta, 1965.
Mandel, Miriam B.The Birth of Hemingway’s Afición: Madrid and ‘The First Bullfight I Ever Saw.’” Journal of Modern Literature 23.1 (1999), 127–43.
Mandel, Miriam B.Hemingway’s The Dangerous Summer: The Complete Annotations. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 2008.
Mandel, Miriam B.Hemingway’s Death in the Afternoon: The Complete Annotations. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1995.
Mandel, Miriam B.A Reader’s Guide to Pilar’s Bullfighters: Untold Histories in For Whom the Bell Tolls.” The Hemingway Review 15.1 (1995), 94–104.
Mandel, Miriam B. “Reading the Names Right,” in Kenneth Rosen, ed. Hemingway Repossessed. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1994. 131–41.
Mandel, Miriam B. “Subject and Author: The Literary Backgrounds of Death in the Afternoon,” in Miriam B. Mandel, ed. A Companion to Hemingway’s Death in the Afternoon. Rochester, NY: Camden House/Boydell & Brewer, Inc., 2004. 79–119.
Mandel, Miriam B. ed. A Companion to Hemingway’s Death in the Afternoon. Rochester, NY: Camden House/Boydell & Brewer, Inc., 2004.
Montes, Francisco (Paquiro). Tauromaquia completa. 1836. Madrid: Egartorre, 1994.
Orts Ramos, Tomás (Uno al Sesgo), and Ventura Bagüés, eds. Toros y toreros en … Barcelona and Madrid, 1924–1934.
Padilla, Guillermo E. “El boicot a los toreros mexicanos en España” and “Se soluciona el conflicto taurino hispano-mexicano,” in Historia de la plaza El Toreo, Época de oro (1929–1946). Mexico: Espectáculos Futuro, S.A. de C.V., 1989. 151–3 and 368–70.
Puente Carbajo, Gregorio, ed. El taurino gráfico, 1976. Madrid and Bilbao: La Prensa, S.L., 1976.
Shubert, Adrian.Death and Money in the Afternoon: A History of the Spanish Bullfight. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Stanton, Edward F.Hemingway and Spain: A Pursuit. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1989.
Tapia, Daniel.Breve historia del toreo. Mexico, 1947.
Tynan, Kenneth.Bull Fever: New Edition with Some Afterthoughts. New York: Atheneum, 1966.
Tynan, Kenneth.The Testing of a Bullfighter.” The Atlantic 231 (May 1973), 50–5.
Uriarte, Luis (don Luis).Toros y toreros 1936–1940. Madrid, ca. 1941.

The Environment

Beegel, Susan F. “Eye and Heart: Hemingway’s Education as a Naturalist,” in Linda Wagner-Martin, ed. A Historical Guide to Ernest Hemingway. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. 53–92.
Beegel, Susan F.A Guide to the Marine Life in The Old Man and the Sea.” Resources for American Literary Study 30 (2005), 236–315.
Beegel, Susan F. “Second Growth: The Ecology of Loss in ‘Fathers and Sons,’” in Paul Smith, ed. New Essays on Hemingway’s Short Fiction. Cambridge University Press, 1998. 74–110.
Beegel, Susan F. “Thor Heyerdahl’s Kon-Tiki and Hemingway’s Return to Primitivism in The Old Man and the Sea,” in Linda Wagner-Martin, ed. Hemingway: Eight Decades of Criticism. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 2009. 515–51.
Clark, Suzanne.Cold Warriors: Manliness on Trial in the Rhetoric of the West. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 2000.
Cronon, William.Nature’s Metropolis: Chicago and the Great West. New York: Norton, 1991.
del Gizzo, Suzanne. “‘Glow-in-the-Dark Authors’: Hemingway’s Celebrity Legacy in Under Kilimanjaro.” The Hemingway Review 29.2 (2010), 7–27.
del Gizzo, Suzanne.Going Home: Hemingway, Primitivism, and Identity.” Modern Fiction Studies 49.3 (2003), 496–523.
Federspiel, Michael R.Picturing Hemingway’s Michigan. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 2010.
Fleming, Robert F., ed. and introd. Hemingway and the Natural World. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho Press, 1999.
Fox, Stephen.The American Conservation Movement: John Muir and His Legacy. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1981.
Glotfelty, Cheryll, and Harold Fromm, eds. The Ecocriticism Reader: Landmarks in Literary Ecology. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1996.
Hediger, Ryan.Hunting, Fishing, and the Cramp of Ethics in Hemingway’s The Old Man and the Sea, Green Hills of Africa, and Under Kilimanjaro.” The Hemingway Review 27.2 (2008), 35–59.
Helstern, Linda Lizut.Indians, Woodcraft, and the Construction of White Masculinity: The Boyhood of Nick Adams.” The Hemingway Review 20.1 (2000), 61–78.
Love, Glen A.Hemingway’s Indian Virtues: An Ecological Consideration.” Western American Literature 22.3 (1987), 201–13.
Lutts, Ralph H.The Nature Fakers: Wildlife, Science, and Sentiment. Golden, CO: Fulcrum Publishing, 1990.
Martin, Lawrence H.Ernest Hemingway, Gulf Stream Marine Scientist: The 1934–35 Academy of Natural Sciences Correspondence.” The Hemingway Review 20.2 (2000), 5–15.
Miller, Linda Patterson.The Matrix of Hemingway’s Pilar Log, 1934–35.” North Dakota Quarterly 64 (1997): 105–23.
Ott, Mark P.A Sea of Change: Ernest Hemingway and the Gulf Stream, A Contextual Biography. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 2010.
Reiger, John F.American Sportsmen and the Origins of Conservation. Rev. ed. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1986.
Stewart, Frank.A Natural History of Nature Writing. Washington, DC: Island Press, 1995.
Svoboda, Frederic J., and Joseph Waldmeir, eds. Hemingway: Up in Michigan Perspectives. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 1995.
Valenti, Patricia Dunlavy.Understanding The Old Man and the Sea: A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical Documents. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002.
Williams, Michael.Americans and Their Forests: A Historical Geography. Cambridge University Press, 1989.
Wolfe, Cary.Fathers, Lovers, and Friend Killers: Rearticulating Gender and Race via Species in Hemingway.” Boundary 2: An International Journal of Literature and Culture 29.1 (2002), 223–57.
Worster, Donald.Nature’s Economy: A History of Ecological Ideas. 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Fishing

Beegel, Susan F. “Eye and Heart: Hemingway’s Education as a Naturalist,” in Linda Wagner-Martin, ed. A Historical Guide to Ernest Hemingway. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. 53–92.
Connett, E. V., ed. American Big Game Fishing. Lyon, MS: Derrydale, 1993. Facsimile reprint of the 1935 ed.
Farrington, S. Kip.Atlantic Big Game Fishing. New York: Kennedy Bros. Inc., 1937.
Fowler, H. W.Description of a New Scorpaenoid Fish (Neomerinthe Hemingwayi) from Off New Jersey.” Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 87 (1935), 41–3.
Hendrickson, Paul.Hemingway’s Boat: Everything He Loved in Life, and Lost, 1934–1961. New York: Knopf, 2011.
Hendrickson, Paul.A History of the IGFA. Ft. Lauderdale, FL: International Game Fishing Association, 1991.
Martin, Lawrence H.Ernest Hemingway, Gulf Stream Marine Scientist: The 1934–35 Academy of Natural Sciences Correspondence.” The Hemingway Review 20.2 (2001), 5–15.
Miller, Linda Patterson.The Matrix of Hemingway’s Pilar Log.” North Dakota Quarterly 64.3 (1997), 105–23.
Mort, Terry.The Hemingway Patrols: Ernest Hemingway and His Hunt for U-Boats. New York: Scribners, 2010.
Ott, Mark P.ASea of Change: Ernest Hemingway and the Gulf Stream, A Contextual Biography. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 2008.
Reiger, George.Profiles in Saltwater Angling: A History of the Sport – Its People and Places, Tackle and Techniques. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1973.
Samuelson, Arnold.With Hemingway: A Year in Key West and Cuba. New York: Random House, 1984.
Svoboda, Frederic J.Hemingway in Michigan, Michigan in Hemingway. Mount Pleasant, MI: Clarke Historical Library, 2003.
Trullinger, Ray.New Big Fish Club Is Organized, But It’s Awfully Hard to Crash.” New York City World Telegram, November 23, 1936.
Vesey-Fitzgerald, Brian, and Francesca LaMonte, eds. Game Fish of the World. London: Nicholson & Watson, 1949.
Watson, W. B.Hemingway in Bimini.” North Dakota Quarterly 63.3 (1996), 130–44.

Food and Drink

Beegel, Susan F.Hemingway Gastronomique: A Guide to Food and Drink in A Moveable Feast (with Glossary).” The Hemingway Review 4.1 (1984), 14–26.
Boreth, Craig.The Hemingway Cookbook. Chicago Review Press, 1998.
Raeburn, John.Fame Became of Him: Hemingway as Public Writer. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1984.
Rogal, Samuel J.For Whom the Dinner Bell Tolls: The Role and Function of Food and Drink in the Prose of Ernest Hemingway. Bethesda, MD: International Scholars Publications, 1997.
Stoneback, H. R. “‘Mais Je Reste Catholique’: Communion, Betrayal and Aridity in ‘Wine of Wyoming,’” in Susan F. Beegel, ed. Hemingway’s Neglected Short Fiction: New Perspectives. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1989. 209–23.
Stoneback, H. R.Memorable Eggs ‘in Danger of Getting Cold’ and Mackerel ‘Perilous with Edge-level Juice’: Eating in Hemingway’s Garden.” The Hemingway Review 8.2 (1989), 22–9.

Hunting

Beegel, Susan F. “Eye and Heart: Hemingway’s Education as a Naturalist,” in Linda Wagner-Martin, ed. A Historical Guide to Ernest Hemingway. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. 53–92.
Burwell, Rose Marie.Hemingway: The Postwar Years and the Posthumous Novels. Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Crevecoeur, J. H.Letters from an American Farmer. 1782; New York: Fox, Duffield, 1904.
Hemingway, Seán, ed. Hemingway on Hunting. New York: Scribner, 2001.
Jacoby, Karl.Crimes Against Nature: Squatters, Poachers, Thieves, and the Hidden History of American Conservation. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001.
Love, Glen A.Hemingway’s Indian Virtues: An Ecological Reconsideration.” Western American Literature 22 (1987), 201–14.
Maier, Kevin.Hemingway’s Ecotourism: Under Kilimanjaro and the Ethics of Travel.” Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment 18.4 (2011), 717–36.
Maier, Kevin.Hemingway’s Hunting: An Ecological Reconsideration.” The Hemingway Review 25.2 (2006), 119–22.
Martin, Lawrence H. “Hemingway’s Constructed Africa: Green Hills of Africa and the Conventions of Sporting Books,” in Robert E. Fleming, ed. Hemingway and the Natural World. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho Press, 1999. 87–97.
Ondaatje, Christopher.Hemingway in Africa: The Last Safari. Woodstock, NY: Overlook Press, 2004.
Roosevelt, Theodore.Hunting Trips of a Ranchman: Sketches of Sport on the Northern Cattle Plains. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1885.
Roosevelt, Theodore.Ranch Life and the Hunting Trail. New York: Century, 1888.
Roosevelt, Theodore.The Wilderness Hunter. New York: G. P. Putnams Sons, 1893.
Voeller, Carey. “‘He Only Looked Sad the Same Way I Felt’: The Textual Confessions of Hemingway’s Hunters.” The Hemingway Review 25.1 (2005), 63–76.
Warren, Louis S.The Hunter’s Game: Poachers and Conservationists in Twentieth-Century America. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997.
Westling, Louise H.The Green Breast of the New World: Landscape, Gender, and American Fiction. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1996.
Will, Barbara.The Nervous Origins of the American Western.” American Literature 70.2 (1998), 293–316.

Masculinity

Ardis, Ann L.New Women, New Novels: Feminism and Early Modernism. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1990.
Benstock, Shari.Women of the Left Bank, 1900–1940. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1986.
Boone, Joseph A. Libidinal Currents: Sexuality and the Shaping of Modernism. University of Chicago Press, 1998.
Brenner, Gerry.Concealments in Hemingway’s Work. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1983.
Broer, Lawrence R., and Gloria Holland, eds. Hemingway and Women: Female Critics and the Female Voice. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2002.
Butler, Judith.Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York: Routledge, 1990.
Clifford, Stephen P.Beyond the Heroic “I”: Reading Lawrence, Hemingway, and “Masculinity.”Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press, 1998.
Comley, Nancy R., and Robert Scholes. Hemingway’s Genders: Rereading the Hemingway Text. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994.
DeFalco, Joseph.The Hero in Hemingway’s Short Stories. University of Pittsburgh Press, 1963.
DeKoven, Marianne.Rich and Strange: Gender, History, Modernism. Princeton University Press, 1991.
Eby, Carl.Hemingway’s Fetishism: Psychoanalysis and the Mirror of Manhood. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1999.
Fantina, Richard.Ernest Hemingway: Machismo and Masochism. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.
Fetterley, Judith.The Resisting Reader: A Feminist Approach to American Fiction. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1978.
Fox, Richard Wightman, and T. J. Jackson Lears, eds. The Culture of Consumption: Critical Essays in American History 1880–1980. New York: Pantheon, 1983.
Gardiner, Judith Kegan, ed. Masculinity Studies and Feminist Theory: New Directions. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002.
Gilbert, Sandra, and Susan Gubar. No Man’s Land: The Place of the Woman Writer in the Twentieth Century. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989.
Gilmore, David.Manhood in the Making: Cultural Concepts of Masculinity. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990.
Harrison, Elizabeth Jane, and Shirley Peterson, eds. Unmanning Modernism: Gendered Re-Readings. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1997.
Kennedy, J. Gerald.Hemingway’s Gender Trouble.” American Literature 63.2 (1991), 187–207.
Kimmel, Michael S.Manhood in America: A Cultural History. New York: Free Press, 1996.
Knights, Ben.Writing Masculinities: Male Narratives in Twentieth-Century Fiction. London: Macmillan, 1999.
Lears, T. J. Jackson.No Place of Grace: Antimodernism and the Transformations of American Culture, 1880–1920. New York: Pantheon, 1981.
MacPherson, C. B.The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism: Hobbes to Locke. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1962.
Moddelmog, Debra A.Reading Desire: In Pursuit of Ernest Hemingway. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1999.
Morrison, Toni.Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and the Literary Imagination. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992.
Rado, Lisa, ed. Modernism, Gender, and Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach. New York: Garland, 1997.
Rotundo, E. Anthony.American Manhood: Transformations in Masculinity from the Revolution to the Modern Era. New York: Basic Books, 1993.
Sedgwick, Eve Kosofsky.Between Men: English Literature and Male Homosocial Desire. Columbia University Press, 1985.
Spilka, Mark.Hemingway’s Quarrel with Androgyny. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990.
Strong, Amy L.Race and Identity in Hemingway’s Fiction. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.
Strychacz, Thomas.Hemingway’s Theaters of Masculinity. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2003.
Young, Philip.Ernest Hemingway: A Reconsideration. New York and Toronto: Rinehart, 1966.

Politics

Frederking, Lauretta Conklin, ed. Hemingway on Politics and Rebellion. New York: Routledge, 2010.
Kinnamon, Keneth. “Hemingway and Politics,” in Scott Donaldson, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Hemingway. Cambridge University Press, 1996. 149–69.
Moreira, Peter.Hemingway on the China Front. Washington, DC: Potomac, 2006.
Watson, William Braasch.Hemingway’s Attacks on the Soviets and the Communists in For Whom the Bell Tolls.” North Dakota Quarterly 60.2 (1992), 103–18.
Watson, William Braasch.Hemingway’s Spanish Civil War Dispatches.” The Hemingway Review 7.2 (1988), 4–92.
Watson, William Braasch.Joris Ivens and the Communists: Bringing Hemingway into the Spanish Civil War.” The Hemingway Review 10.1 (1990), 2–18.

Publishing Industry and Scribner’s

Bruccoli, Matthew J., ed., with Robert W. Trogdon. The Only Thing That Counts: The Ernest Hemingway / Maxwell Perkins Correspondence 1925–1947. New York: Scribner, 1996.
Donaldson, Scott.Censorship and A Farewell to Arms.” Studies in American Fiction 19.1 (1991), 85–93.
Gilmer, Walker.Horace Liveright: Publisher of the Twenties. New York: D. Lewis, 1970.
Silverman, Al. “Prologue: Ernest Hemingway: A Book-of-the-Month Club Connection,” in Al Silverman, ed. The Book of the Month: Sixty Years of Books in American Life. Boston: Little, Brown, 1986.
Tebbel, John.A History of Book Publishing in the United States: The Golden Age between Two Wars, 1920–1940. Vol. 3. New York: Bowker, 1978.
Trogdon, Robert W.The Lousy Racket: Hemingway, Scribners, and the Business of Literature. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 2007.
Turner, Catherine.Marketing Modernism Between the Two World Wars. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2003.

Race and Ethnicity: African Americans

Douglas, Ann. Terrible Honesty: Mongrel Manhattan in the 1920s. New York: Noonday, 1994.
Dudley, Marc Kevin.Hemingway, Race, and Art: Bloodlines and the Color Line. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 2011.
Ellison, Ralph. “Twentieth-Century Fiction and the Black Mask of Humanity.” 1946. In John F. Callahan, ed. The Collected Essays of Ralph Ellison. New York: Modern Library, 1995. 81–99.
Ellison, Ralph. “The World and the Jug.” Shadow and Act. New York: Random House, 1964. 107–43.
Ellison, Ralph, and Albert Murray. Trading Twelves: The Selected Letters of Ralph Ellison and Albert Murray. Ed. John Callahan. New York: Modern Library, 2000.
Entin, Joseph B.Sensational Modernism: Experimental Fiction and Photography in Thirties America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2007.
Fabre, Michel.From Harlem to Paris: Black American Writers in France, 1840–1980. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1991.
Fantina, Richard.Ernest Hemingway: Machismo and Masochism. New York: Palgrave, 2005.
Graham, Maryemma, and Amritjit Singh, eds. Conversations with Ralph Ellison. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1995.
Himes, Chester. “Conversation with Chester Himes.” 1955. Interview, with Annie Brièrre. Conversations with Chester Himes. Ed. Michel Fabre and Robert E. Skinner. Oxford: University of Mississippi Press, 1995. 1–4.
Himes, Chester. “My Man Himes: An Interview with Chester Himes.” 1970. With John A. Williams. In Michel Fabre and Robert E. Skinner, eds. Conversations with Chester Himes. Oxford: University of Mississippi Press, 1995. 29–67.
Hochman, Brian.Ellison’s Hemingways.” African American Review 42.3–4 (2008), 513–32.
Holcomb, Gary Edward.Claude McKay, Code Name Sasha: Queer Black Marxism and the Harlem Renaissance. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2007.
Holcomb, Gary Edward.The Sun Also Rises in Queer Black Harlem: Hemingway and McKay’s Modernist Intertext.” Journal of Modern Literature 30.4 (2007), 61–81.
Holcomb, Gary Edward, and Charles Scruggs, eds. Hemingway and the Black Renaissance. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 2012.
Holcomb, Gary Edward.Hemingway and the Black Renaissance.” Arizona Quarterly 67.4 (2011), 111–33.
Hutchinson, George.The Harlem Renaissance in Black and White. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995.
Jacques, Geoffrey.A Change in the Weather: Modernist Imagination, African American Imaginary. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2009.
Keresztesi, Rita.Strangers at Home: American Ethnic Modernism between the World Wars. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2009.
Lemke, Sieglinde.Primitivist Modernism: Black Culture and the Origins of Transatlantic Modernism. Oxford University Press, 1998.
Marx, Lesley, Loes Nas, and Chandre Carstens, eds. Juxtapositions: The Harlem Renaissance and the Lost Generation. Cape Town, South Africa: University of Cape Town Press, 2000.
Morrison, Toni.Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and the Literary Imagination. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992.
North, Michael.The Dialect of Modernism: Race, Language, and Twentieth-Century Literature. Oxford University Press, 1998.
O’Meally, Robert. “The Rules of Magic: Hemingway as Ellison’s ‘Ancestor.’” Speaking for You: The Vision of Ralph Ellison. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1987. 245–71.
Patterson, Anita.Race, American Literature and Transnational Modernisms. Cambridge University Press, 2011.
Rampersad, Arnold.The Life of Langston Hughes: Volume 1, 1902–1941. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.
Rampersad, Arnold.The Life of Langston Hughes: Volume 2, 1941–1967. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.
Rampersad, Arnold.Ralph Ellison: A Biography. New York: Knopf, 2007.
Rogers, Lawrence R.Canaan Bound: The African-American Great Migration Novel. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1997.
Rosemont, Franklin, and Robin D. G. Kelley, eds. Black, Brown, and Beige: Surrealist Writings from Africa and the Diaspora. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2010.
Schwarz, A. B. Christa.Gay Voices of the Harlem Renaissance. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2003.
Scruggs, Charles.‘My Chosen World’: Jean Toomer’s Articles in The New York Call.” Arizona Quarterly 51.2 (1995), 104–26.
Smith, Valerie. “The Meaning of Narration in Invisible Man,” in Robert O’Meally, ed. New Essays on Invisible Man. Cambridge University Press, 1988. 25–53.
Sollers, Werner.Ethnic Modernism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008.
Strong, Amy L.Race and Identity in Hemingway’s Fiction. New York: Palgrave, 2008.
Svoboda, Frederic J.Who Was That Black Man?: A Note on Eugene Bullard and The Sun Also Rises.” The Hemingway Review 17.2 (1998), 105–10.
Thaggert, Miriam.Images of Black Modernism: Verbal and Visual Strategies of the Harlem Renaissance. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2010.
Wagner-Martin, Linda. “Toomer’s Cane as Narrative Sequence.” Modern American Short Story Sequences: Composite Fictions and Fictive Communities. Ed. J. Gerald Kennedy. Cambridge University Press, 1995. 19–34.
Walcott, Derek. “Conversation with Derek Walcott.” Interview, with Robert D. Hamner. 1973. Conversations with Derek Walcott. Ed. William Baer. Oxford: University Press of Mississippi, 1996. 21–33.
Walcott, Derek. “Hemingway and the Caribbean.” The Robert B. Silvers Lecture, Celeste Bartos Forum. Stephen A. Schwarzman Building, New York Public Library, Dec. 3. 2010.
Walcott, Derek. “On Hemingway.” 1990. What the Twilight Says: Essays. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1999. 107–14.
Walcott, Derek. “What the Twilight Says: An Overture.” Dream on Monkey Mountain. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1970. 3–40.
Wright, Richard.Blueprint for Negro Writing.” New Challenge: A Literary Quarterly 2.1 (1937), 53–65.
Wright, Richard.Pagan Spain. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1957.

Race and Ethnicity: Africans

Adu Boahen, A.African Perspectives on Colonialism. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1987.
Bennett, John W. “The Political Ecology and Economic Development of Migratory Pastoralist Societies in Eastern Africa,” in John Galaty, Donald Attwood, and Thomas Bruneau, eds. Power and Poverty: Development and Development Projects in the Third World. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1988. 31–60.
Brett, E. A.Colonization and Underdevelopment in East Africa: The Politics of Economic Change, 1919–1939. New York: NOK Publishers, 1973.
Brogan, Jacqueline.True at First Light: A New Look at Hemingway and Race.” North Dakota Quarterly 68.2–3 (2001), 199–224.
Burwell, Rose Marie.Hemingway: The Postwar Years and the Posthumous Novels. Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Cooper, Frederick.Africa since 1940: The Past of the Present. Cambridge University Press, 2002.
Cronk, Lee.From True Dorobo to Mukogodo Maasai: Contested Ethnicity in Kenya.” Ethnology 41.1 (2002), 27–49.
del Gizzo, Suzanne.Going Home: Hemingway, Primitivism, and Identity.” Modern Fiction Studies 49.3 (2003), 496–523.
Du Bois, W.E.B.Africa in Battle against Colonialism, Racialism, Imperialism. New York: Afro-American Heritage Association, 1960.
Du Bois, W.E.B.The World and Africa. 1946; New York: International Publishers, 1979.
Eby, Carl.Hemingway’s Fetishism: Psychoanalysis and the Mirror of Manhood. Albany: SUNY Press, 1998.
Fanon, Frantz.Wretched of the Earth. 1961; New York: Grove Press, 1965.
Fredericksen, Bodil Folke. “Print, Newspapers, and Audiences in Colonial Kenya: African and Indian Improvements, Protest and Connections.” Africa: The Journal of the International African Institute 81.1 (2011), 155–72.
Gordimer, Nadine.Hemingway’s Expatriates: A Way of Looking at the World.” Transition 80 (1999), 86–99.
Howell, John M., comp. Hemingway’s African Stories: The Stories, Their Sources, Their Critics. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1969.
Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. www.knbs.or.ke/index.php.
Kenyatta, Jomo.Facing Mt. Kenya. London: Secker and Warburg, 1953.
Lewis, Nghana.Truth, Lies, and Racial Consequences in Ernest Hemingway’s True at First Light: A Fictional Memoir.” Comparative American Studies 4.4 (2006), 459–70.
Moddelmog, Debra A.Reading Desire: In Pursuit of Ernest Hemingway. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1999.
Mosley, Paul.The Settler Economies: Studies in the Economic History of Kenya and Southern Rhodesia, 1900–1930. Cambridge University Press, 1983.
Ondaatje, Christopher.Hemingway in Africa. New York: Overlook Press, 2004.
Panda, Ken.Under Kilimanjaro: The Multicultural Hemingway.” The Hemingway Review 25.2 (2006), 128–31.
Presley, Cora.The Mau Mau Rebellion, Kikuyu Women, and Social Change.” Source: Canadian Journal of African Studies 22.3 (1988), 502–27.
Steinhart, E.I.Hunters, Poachers, and Gamekeepers: Towards a Social History of Hunting in Colonial Kenya.” Journal of African History 30 (1989), 247–64.
Thiong’o, Ngũgı ĩ W.Decolonising the Mind: The Politics of Language in African Literature. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1986.
Waller, Richard.‘Clean’ and ‘Dirty’: Cattle Disease and Control Policy in Colonial Kenya, 1900–1940.” Journal of African History 45.1 (2004), 45–80.
White, Aaronette.All the Men Are Fighting for Freedom, All the Women Are Mourning Their Men, but Some of Us Carried Guns: A Raced-Gendered Analysis of Fanon’s Psychological Perspectives on War.” SIGNS 32.4 (2007), 857–84.
Wright, Richard.Black Power. 1954; New York: Harper, 2008.

Race and Ethnicity: American Indians

Beegel, Susan F. “Eye and Heart: Hemingway’s Education as a Naturalist,” in Linda Wagner-Martin, ed. A Historical Guide to Ernest Hemingway. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. 53–92.
Dippie, Brian.The Vanishing American: White Attitudes and U.S. Indian Policy. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1982.
Hoxie, Frederick E.A Final Promise: The Campaign to Assimilate the Indians, 1880–1920. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984.
Melling, Philip. “‘There Were Many Indians in the Story’: Hidden History in Hemingway’s ‘Big Two-Hearted River.’” The Hemingway Review 28.2 (2009), 45–65.
Montgomery, Constance Cappel.Hemingway in Michigan. New York: Fleet Publishing Corporation, 1966.
Schedler, Christopher.The ‘Tribal’ Legacy of Hemingway’s Nick Adams.” The Hemingway Review 19.1 (1999), 64–78.
Smith, Sherry L.Reimagining Indians: Native Americans through Anglo Eyes, 1880–1940. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Strong, Amy L.Race and Identity in Hemingway’s Fiction. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.

Race and Ethnicity: Cubans

Berg, A. Scott.The Hunt for Hemingway.” Vanity Fair 614 (October 2011), 282–95.
Burwell, Rose Marie.Hemingway: The Posthumous Years and the Posthumous Novels. Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Cruz, Mary.Cuba y Hemingway en el Gran Rio Azul. Havana: Ediciones Union, 1981.
Cruz, Mary. “HEMINGWAY and NEGATION AND NEGATION,” in Norberto Fuentes, Hemingway in Cuba. Secaucus, NJ: Lyle Stuart Inc., 1984. 132–3.
De Cortanze, Gérard.Hemingway in Cuba. Paris: Éditions du Chêne, 1997.
Fuentes, Norberto.Hemingway in Cuba. Secaucus, NJ: Lyle Stuart Inc., 1984.
Fuentes, Norberto.Ernest Hemingway: Rediscovered. New York: Barrons, 2000.
García Márquez, Gabriel. “Hemingway—Our Own,” in Norberto Fuentes, Hemingway in Cuba. Secaucus, NJ: Lyle Stuart Inc., 1984. 7–16.
González-Wippler, Migene.Santeria: The Religion: Faith, Rites, Magic. St. Paul, MN: Llewellyn Publications, 1996.
Grimes, Larry. “Hemingway’s Religious Odyssey: The Afro-Cuban Connection in Two Stories and The Old Man and the Sea,” in Larry Grimes and Sylvester Bickford, eds. Hemingway and Cuba. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, forthcoming.
Hemingway, Hilary.Hemingway in Cuba. New York: Rugged Land, 2003.
Villarreal, René, and Raúl Villarreal. Hemingway’s Cuban Son: Reflections on the Writer by His Longtime Majordomo. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 2009.

Race and Ethnicity: Jews

Berman, Ron.Protestant, Catholic, Jew: The Sun Also Rises.” The Hemingway Review 18.1 (1998), 33–48.
Brodkin, Karen.How Jews Became White Folks and What That Says About Race in America. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1998.
Cannell, Kathleen. “Scenes with a Hero,” in Bertram D. Sarason, ed. Hemingway and The Sun Set. Washington, DC: NCR Microcard Editions, 1972. 145–50.
Gilman, Sander.The Jew’s Body. New York: Routledge, 1991.
Gross, Barry. “Dealing with Robert Cohn,” in Robert W. Lewis, ed. Hemingway in Italy and Other Essays. New York: Praeger, 1990. 123–30.
Kaye, Jeremy.The ‘Whine’ of Jewish Manhood: Rereading Hemingway’s Anti-Semitism, Reimagining Robert Cohn.” The Hemingway Review 25.2 (2006), 44–60.
Knopf, Josephine Z. “Meyer Wolfsheim and Robert Cohn: A Study of a Jewish Type and Stereotype,” in Harold Bloom, ed. Ernest Hemingway’s The Sun Also Rises. New York: Chelsea House, 1987. 61–70.
Lamb, Robert Paul.Hemingway’s Critique of Anti-Semitism: Semiotic Confusion in ‘God Rest You Merry, Gentlemen.’” Studies in Short Fiction 33.1 (1996), 25–34.
Lee, Albert.Henry Ford and the Jews. New York: Stein and Day, 1980.
Loeb, Harold. “Hemingway’s Bitterness,” in Bertram D. Sarason, ed. Hemingway and The Sun Set. Washington, DC: NCR Microcard Editions, 1972. 111–35.
Meyerson, Robert E. “Why Robert Cohn? An Analysis of Hemingway’s The Sun Also Rises,” in James Nagel, ed. Critical Essays on Ernest Hemingway’s The Sun Also Rises. New York: G.K. Hall, 1995. 95–105.
Rogin, Michael.Blackface, White Noise: Jewish Immigrants in the Hollywood Melting Pot. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.
Rudat, Wolfgang E.H. “Anti-Semitism in The Sun Also Rises: Traumas, Jealousies, and the Genesis of Cohn,” in Frederic J. Svoboda and Joseph J. Waldmeir, eds. Hemingway: Up in Michigan Perspectives. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 1995. 137–47.
Scott, Arthur L.In Defense of Robert Cohn.” College English 18.6 (1957), 309–14.
Selzer, Michael, ed. “Kike!” A Documentary History of Anti-Semitism in America. New York: World Publishing, 1972.
Traber, Daniel S.Whiteness and the Rejected Other in The Sun Also Rises.” Studies in American Fiction 28.2 (2000), 235–53.

Religion

Baring-Gould, Sabine.The Lives of the Saints. Edinburgh: J. Grant, 1914.
Buske, Morris.Hemingway Faces God.” The Hemingway Review 22.1 (2002), 72–87.
Cremean, David N. “Man Cannot Live by Dry Flies Alone: Fly Rods, Grasshoppers, and an Adaptive Catholicity in Hemingway’s ‘Big Two-Hearted River,’” in Robert E. Fleming, ed. Hemingway and the Natural World. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho Press, 1999. 31–44.
Crozier, Robert D.The Mask of Death, The Face of Life: Hemingway’s Feminique.” The Hemingway Review 3.2 (1984), 2–12.
Crozier, Robert D.‘The Paris Church of Passy’: A Note on Hemingway’s Second Marriage.”Papers on Language and Literature 15.1 (1979), 84–6.
Gajdusek, Robert E.Hemingway in His Own Country. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2002.
Giezma, Bryan.The French Connection: Some Visual and Literary Sources for the French Connection in Hemingway’s ‘Light of the World.’” The Hemingway Review 30.1 (2010), 83–102.
Ibáñez, Beatriz Penas.Masters Writing on Language, Reading, and Representation: T. E. Hulme’s Subtext in Death in the Afternoon.” North Dakota Quarterly 73.12 (2006), 120–34.
Josephs, Allen.Confessions of an Animal Lover: Clearing Up a Few Things about Hemingway, Spain, and the Bulls.” North Dakota Quarterly 76.1–2 (2009), 77–89.
Josephs, Allen.For Whom the Bell Tolls: Ernest Hemingway’s Undiscovered Country. New York: Twayne, 1994.
Josephs, Allen.Hemingway’s Out of Body Experience.” The Hemingway Review 2.2 (1983), 11–17.
Josephs, Allen.Toreo: The Moral Axis of The Sun Also Rises.” The Hemingway Review 6.1 (1986), 88–99.
Kroupi, Agori.The Religious Implications of Fishing and Bullfighting in Hemingway’s Work.” The Hemingway Review 28.1 (2008), 107–21.
Lewis, Robert W.Hemingway on Love. New York: Haskell House Publishers, 1973.
Loughlin, James. “Congregationalism.” The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 4. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908. Web. newadvent.org/cathen/04239a.htm.
Prud’homme, Joseph. “Hemingway, Religion, and Masculine Virtue,” in Lauretta Conklin Frederking, ed. Hemingway on Politics and Rebellion. New York: Routledge, 2010. 104–29.
Stoneback, H. R.From the Rue Saint-Jacques to the Pass of Roland to the ‘Unfinished Church on the Edge of the Cliff.’The Hemingway Review 6.1 (1986), 2–29.
Stoneback, H. R.Hemingway’s African Pilgrimage: Or, No Remorse Over True at First Light.” Shawangunk Review 11 (2000), 93–102.
Stoneback, H. R.Hemingway and the Camargue: Van Gogh’s Bedroom, the ‘Gypsy’ Pilgrimage, Saint-Louis, the Holy Marys, Mirèio, Mistral, Mithra, and Montherlant.” North Dakota Quarterly: Hemingway Centennial Issue 66.2 (1999), 164–95.
Stoneback, H. R.Hemingway’s Happiest Summer—‘The Wildest, Most Beautiful, Wonderful Time Ever Ever’; or, The Liberation of France and Hemingway.” North Dakota Quarterly 64.3 (1997), 184–220.
Stoneback, H. R.Hemingway’s Other Florida: Symbolic Landscape, Dépaysement, and Iceberg Variations in ‘The Strange Country.’North Dakota Quarterly 73.1–2 (2006), 103–19.
Stoneback, H. R. “Hemingway’s Stresa—Getting it Right: Actual and Symbolic Landscape, Deep Structure, and the Borromean Subtext,” in Rena Sanderson, ed. Hemingway’s Italy: New Perspectives. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 2006. 131–9.
Stoneback, H. R.Holy Cross 33—Yale 6: Sport, Ritual, and Religion in Hemingway.” Aethlon 6.2 (1989), 11–19.
Stoneback, H. R. “‘Lovers’ Sonnets Turn’d to Holy Psalms’: The Soul’s Song of Providence, the Scandal of Suffering, and Love in A Farewell to Arms.” The Hemingway Review 9.1 (1989), 33–76.
Stoneback, H. R. “‘Mais je Reste Catholique’: Communion, Betrayal, and Aridity in ‘Wine of Wyoming,’” in Susan F. Beegel, ed. Hemingway’s Neglected Short Fiction: New Perspectives. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Research Press, 1989. 209–24.
Stoneback, H. R.Memorable Eggs ‘in Danger of Getting Cold’ and Mackerel ‘Perilous with Edge-level Juice’: Eating in Hemingway’s Garden.” The Hemingway Review 8.2 (1989), 22–9.
Stoneback, H. R. “‘The Priest Did Not Answer’: Hemingway, the Church, the Party, and For Whom the Bell Tolls,” in Rena Sanderson, ed. Blowing the Bridge: Essays on Hemingway and For Whom the Bell Tolls. New York: Greenwood, 1992. 99–112.
Underhill, Evelyn.Mysticism. New York: The World Publishing Company, 1955.

Sex, Sexuality, and Marriage

Bailey, Beth.From Front Porch to Back Seat: Courtship in Twentieth Century America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989.
Bederman, Gail.Manliness and Civilization: A Cultural History of Gender and Race in the United States, 1880–1917. University of Chicago Press, 1995.
Bland, Lucy, and Laura Doan, eds. Sexology Uncensored: The Documents of Sexual Science. University of Chicago Press, 1998.
Bristow, Nancy.Making Men Moral: Social Engineering During the Great War. New York University Press, 1997.
Carter, Julian B.The Heart of Whiteness: Normal Sexuality and Race in America, 1880–1940. Durham: Duke University Press, 2007.
Comley, Nancy R., and Robert Scholes. Hemingway’s Genders: Rereading the Hemingway Text. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996.
Coontz, Stephanie.Marriage, a History: How Love Conquered Marriage. 2005; New York: Penguin, 2006.
Davis, Rebecca L.‘Not Marriage at All, but Simple Harlotry’: The Companionate Marriage Controversy.” The Journal of American History 94.4 (2008), 1137–63.
Eby, Carl.Hemingway’s Fetishism: Psychoanalysis and the Mirror of Manhood. Albany: SUNY Press, 1999.
Ellis, Havelock.Studies in the Psychology of Sex. New York: Random House, 1936. Orig. 7 volumes, 1896–1928.
Fantina, Richard.Ernest Hemingway: Machismo and Masochism. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.
Kennedy, J. Gerald.Hemingway’s Gender Trouble.” American Literature 63.2 (1991), 187–207.
Lindsey, Ben B., and Wainwright Evans. Companionate Marriage (1927). Rev. ed. Garden City, NY: Garden City Publishing, 1929.
Moddelmog, Debra A.Reading Desire: In Pursuit of Ernest Hemingway. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1999.
Simmons, Christina. Making Marriage Modern: Women’s Sexuality From the Progressive Era to World War II. Oxford University Press, 2009.
Stopes, Marie.Married Love. 1918; Oxford University Press, 2004.
Terry, Jennifer. An American Obsession: Science, Medicine, and Homosexuality in Modern Society. Chicago University Press, 1999.

Styles

Cohen, Milton A.Hemingway’s Laboratory: The Paris in our time. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2005.
Lamb, Robert Paul.Art Matters: Hemingway, Craft, and the Creation of the Modern Short Story. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2010.
Levin, Harry. “Observations on the Style of Ernest Hemingway.” Rpt. in Carlos Baker, ed. Hemingway and His Critics: An International Anthology. New York: Hill & Wang, 1961. 93–115.
Reynolds, Michael S.Critical Essays on Ernest Hemingway’s In Our Time. Boston: G.K. Hall and Co., 1983.
St. Pierre, Scott.Bent Hemingway: Straightness, Sexuality, Style.” GLQ 16.3 (2010): 363–87.

Travel

Abram, Simone, Jacqueline D. Waldren, and Donald V. V. Macleod, ed. Tourists and Tourism. Berg Ethnicity and Identity Series. Oxford: Berg, 1997.
Arnesen, Eric.Black Protest and the Great Migration: A Brief History with Documents. Boston: Bedford/St. Martins, 2003.
Bendixen, Alfred, and Judith Hamera, eds. The Cambridge Companion to American Travel Writing. Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Bilstein, Roger.Flight in America: From the Wrights to the Astronauts. 4th edn. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001.
Carr, Helen. “Modernism and Travel (1880–1940),” in Peter Hulme and Tim Youngs, eds. The Cambridge Companion to Travel Writing. Cambridge University Press, 2002. 70–86.
Dawson, Philip.The Liner: Retrospective and Renaissance. New York: Norton, 2005.
Depastino, Todd.Citizen Hobo: How a Century of Homelessness Shaped America. University of Chicago Press, 2003.
Depastino, Todd.Facts and Figures of the Automobile Industry: 1920. New York: National Automobile Chamber of Commerce, 1920.
Farley, David.Modernist Travel Writing: Intellectuals Abroad. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 2010.
Fussell, Paul.Abroad: British Literary Traveling Between the Wars. Oxford University Press, 1980.
Gregory, James N.American Exodus: The Dust Bowl Migration and Okie Culture in California. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.
Hulme, Peter, and Tim Youngs, eds. The Cambridge Companion to Travel Writing. Cambridge University Press, 2002.
Leed, Eric.The Mind of the Traveler: From Gilgamesh to Global Tourism. New York: BasicBooks, 1991.
Mandel, Miriam B.Configuring There as Here: Hemingway’s Travels and the ‘See America First’ Movement.” The Hemingway Review 19.1 (1999), 93–105.
Moreira, Peter.Hemingway on the China Front. Dulles: Potomac, 2006.
Riley, C. J.The Golden Age of the Passenger Train. New York: Friedman/Fairfax, 1997.
Rumerman, Judy. “The Era of the Dirigible.” Centennial of Flight: 1903–2003. Washington, DC: U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission. www.centennialofflight.gov/essay/-Lighter_than_air/dirigibles/LTA9.htm.
Shaffer, Marguerite.See America First: Tourism and National Identity, 1880–1940. Washington, DC: Smithsonian, 2001.
Shiflet, E. Stone, and Kirk Curnutt. “Letters and Literary Tourism: Hemingway as Your Key West Correspondent in ‘The Sights of Whitehead Street,’” in Kirk Curnutt and Gail D. Sinclair, eds. Key West Hemingway: A Reassessment. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2009. 220–40.
Wittman, Emily O.A Circuit of Ordeals: Nostalgia and the Romance of Hardship in Graham Greene’s Journey Without Maps and Ernest Hemingway’s Green Hills of Africa.” Prose Studies 33.1 (2011), 44–61.
Youngs, Tim. “Traveling Modernists,” in Peter Brooker, et. al., eds. The Oxford Handbook of Modernisms. Oxford University Press, 2010. 267–80.
“The Zeppelin.”Centennial of Flight: 1903–2003. Washington, DC: U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission. centennialofflight.gov/essay/Lighter_than_air/zeppelin/-LTA8.htm.

Travel Writing

Brogan, Jacqueline Vaught.True at First Light: A New Look at Hemingway and Race.” North Dakota Quarterly 68.2–3 (2001), 199–224.
del Gizzo, Suzanne.Going Home: Hemingway, Primitivism, and Identity.” Modern Fiction Studies 49.3 (2003), 496–523.
Fussell, Paul.Abroad: British Literary Traveling Between the Wars. Oxford University Press, 1982.
Kitunda, Jeremiah.Ernest Hemingway’s African Book: An Appraisal.” The Hemingway Review 25.2 (2006), 107–13.
Lewis, Nghana.Truth, Lies, and Racial Consequences in Ernest Hemingway’s True at First Light: A Fictional Memoir.” Comparative American Studies 4.4 (2006), 459–70.
Mandel, Miriam B., ed. A Companion to Hemingway’s Death in the Afternoon. Suffolk, UK: Camden House, 2004.
Mandel, Miriam B.Hemingway and Africa. Suffolk, UK: Camden House, 2011.
Moddelmog, Debra A.Reading Desire: In Pursuit of Ernest Hemingway. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1999.
Messent, Peter. “Ernest Hemingway,” in David Seed, ed. A Companion to Twentieth-Century United States Fiction. New York: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009. 240–50.
Ondaatje, Christopher.Hemingway in Africa: The Last Safari. New York: Overlook Press, 2004.
Strychacz, Thomas.Hemingway’s Theaters of Masculinity. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2003.

War: World War I

Cooperman, Stanley.World War I and the American Novel. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1967.
Eksteins, Modris.Rites of Spring: The Great War and the Birth of the Modern Age. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1989.
Fussell, Paul.The Great War and Modern Memory. London: Oxford University Press, 1975.
Haytock, Jennifer. At Home, At War: Domesticity and World War I in American Literature. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 2003.
Linker, Beth.War’s Waste: Rehabilitation in World War I America. University of Chicago Press, 2011.
Meredith, James H.Understanding the Literature of World War I: A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical Documents. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2004.
Reynolds, Michael S.Hemingway’s First War: The Making of A Farewell to Arms. Princeton University Press, 1976.
Sherry, Vincent, ed. The Cambridge Companion to the Literature of the First World War. Cambridge University Press, 2005.
Thompson, Mark.The White War: Life and Death on the Italian Front, 1915–1919. New York: Basic Books, 2009.
Tuchman, Barbara.The Guns of August. San Francisco: Presidio Press, 2004.
Vernon, Alex.Soldiers Once and Still: Ernest Hemingway, James Salter, and Tim O’Brien. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2004.

War: Spanish Civil War

Borkenau, Franz.The Spanish Cockpit: An Eyewitness Account of The Spanish Civil War. Great Britain: Faber & Faber, 1937.
Douhet, Giulio.Command of the Air. Trans. Dino Ferrari. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1942.
Ivens, Joris.The Camera and I. New York: International, 1969.
Hemingway, Ernest.“Dying, Well or Badly.” KenMagazine, April 21, 1938.
Hemingway, Ernest. “On the American Dead in Spain.” New Masses (February 14, 1939), 3.
Mandel, Miriam B. narr. The Spanish Earth. Dir. Joris Ivens. Photo. John Ferno. Music arrang. Marc Blitzstein and Virgil Thomson. Contemporary Historians, 1937.
Hughes, Langston. “Air Raid-Barcelona,” in Cary Nelson, ed. The Wound and the Dream: Sixty Years of American Poems About the Spanish Civil War. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2002. 121.
Ibárruri, Dolores.They Shall Not Pass: The Autobiography of La Pasionaria. Trans. from El Unico Camino by Dolores Ibárurri. N.p.: International, 1969.
Meloff, Harry. “In a little Spanish Town” (May 16, 1937), in Cary Nelson and Jefferson Henricks, eds. Madrid 1937: Letters of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade From the Spanish Civil War. New York: Routledge, 1996. 147–8.
Millet, Martha. “Women of Spain,” in Cary Nelson, ed. The Wound and the Dream: Sixty Years of American Poems About the Spanish Civil War. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2002. 63.
Orwell, George.Homage to Catalonia. New York: Harcourt, 1952.
Roosevelt, Franklin D. “The Quarantine Speech,” Chicago. October 5, 1937.
Steer, George. “Historic Basque Town Wiped Out: Rebel Fliers Machine-Gun Civilians.” Special Cable to The New York Times. April 28, 1937. ProQuest Historical Newspapers.
Thomas, Hugh.The Spanish Civil War. New York: Harper, 1961.
Vernon, Alex.Hemingway’s Second War: Bearing Witness to the Spanish Civil War. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2010.

War: World War II

Burwell, Rose Marie.Hemingway: The Postwar Years and the Posthumous Novels. Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Keegan, John.The Second World War. London, Penguin, 2005.
Meredith, James H.Understanding the Literature of World War II: A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical Documents. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1999.
Vernon, Alex.Hemingway’s Second War: Bearing Witness to the Spanish Civil War. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2011.

Women

Barlowe, Jamie. “Hemingway’s Gender Training,” in Linda Wagner-Martin, ed. A Historical Guide to Ernest Hemingway. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. 117–53.
Broer, Lawrence, and Gloria Holland, eds. Hemingway and Women: Female Critics and the Female Voice. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2002.
Comley, Nancy R., and Robert Scholes. Hemingway’s Genders: Rereading the Hemingway Text. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994.
Diliberto, Gioia.Hadley. New York: Ticknor and Fields, 1992.
Hemingway, Mary Welsh.How It Was. New York:Alfred A. Knopf, 1976.
Kert, Bernice.The Hemingway Women. New York: W. W. Norton, 1983.
Miller, Madelaine Hemingway.Ernie: Hemingway’s Sister “Sunny” Remembers. New York: Crown Publishers, 1975.
Moorhead, Caroline.Gellhorn: A Twentieth-Century Life. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 2003.
Sanford, Marcelline Hemingway. At the Hemingways. Moscow, ID: University of Idaho Press, 1999.
Whitlow, Roger.Cassandra’s Daughters: The Women in Hemingway. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1984.