Skip to main content Accessibility help
Ethics, Medicine, and Information Technology
  • Cited by 9
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the print book

Book description

Information technology is transforming the practices of medicine, nursing, and biomedical research. Computers can now render diagnoses and prognoses more accurately than humans. The concepts of privacy and confidentiality are evolving as data moves from paper to silicon to clouds. Big data promises financial wealth, as well as riches of information and benefits to science and public health. Online access and mobile apps provide patients with an unprecedented connection to their health and health records. This transformation is as unsettling as it is exhilarating. This unique new book is essential for anyone who uses computers in health care, biomedical research or public health, and cares about the ethical issues that arise in their work. With chapters spanning issues from professionalism and quality to mobile health and bioinformatics, it establishes what will become the 'core curriculum' in ethics and health informatics, a growing field which encourages truly inter- and multidisciplinary inquiry.


'All in all, this is an excellent compact volume that can serve a number of purposes. It is certainly a primer on the main ethical issues that affect biomedical informatics and will be useful not only to informatics professionals but also to practitioners, researchers, and others interested in the topic.'

William Hersh Source: Journal of Biomedical Informatics

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Save to Kindle
  • Save to Dropbox
  • Save to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.



Abaidoo, B., Larweh, B.T. 2014. Consumer health informatics: The application of ICT in improving patient-provider partnership for a better health care. Online Journal of Public Health Informatics 16;6(2):e188. doi: 10.5210/ojphi.v6i2.4903.
Abelson, R., Creswell, J. 2015. Data breach at anthem may lead to others. The New York Times, February 6, available at
AHIMA. 2009. Auditing copy and paste. Journal of AHIMA 80(1):26–9.
Al-Awqati, Q. 2006. How to write a case report: lessons from 1600 B.C. Kidney International 69(12):2113–4.
Allen, A. 1988. Uneasy Access: Privacy for Women in a Free Society. Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Littlefield.
Alpert, S. 1993. Smart cards, smarter policy: medical records, privacy, and health care reform. Hastings Center Report 23(6):1323.
Alpert, S. 1995. Privacy and intelligent highways: finding the right of way. Santa Clara Computer & High Technology Law Journal 11(1):97118.
Alpert, S. 1998. Health care information: access, confidentiality, and good practice. In Goodman, K.W., ed., Ethics, Computing and Medicine: Informatics and the Transformation of Health Care. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 75101.
Amber, K.T., Dhiman, G., Goodman, K.W. 2014. Conflict of interest in online point-of-care clinical support websites. Journal of Medical Ethics 40(8):578–80.
American Medical Association. 1910 [copyright and publication date uncertain]. Nostrums and Quackery: articles on the nostrum evil and quackery reprinted from The Journal of the American Medical Association. Chicago: American Medical Association, available at
American Medical Association. 2014. Improving Care: Priorities to Improve Electronic Health Record Usability. Chicago: American Medical Association, available at
Anderson, M., Anderson, S.L., eds. 2011. Machine Ethics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Anderson, J.G., Aydin, C.E. 1994. Overview: theoretical perspectives and methodologies for the evaluation of health care information systems. In Anderson, J.G., Aydin, C.E., Jay, S.J., eds., Evaluating Health Care Information Systems: Methods and Applications. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 346–54.
Anderson, J.G., Aydin, C.E. 1998. Evaluating medical information systems: social contexts and ethical challenges. In Goodman, K.W., ed., Ethics, Computing, and Medicine: Informatics and the Transformation of Health Care. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 5774.
Anderson, J.G., Goodman, K.W. 2002. Ethics and Informatics: A Case-Study Approach to a Health System in Transition. New York: Springer.
Angst, C.M. 2009. Protect my privacy or support the common-good? Ethical questions about electronic health information exchanges. Journal of Business Ethics 90:169–78.
Asimov, I. 1950. I, Robot. Greenwich, CT.: Fawcett Crest.
Atherton, H., Sawmynaden, P., Sheikh, A., Majeed, A., Car, J. 2012. Email for clinical communication between patients/caregivers and healthcare professionals. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, November 14, 2011:CD007978, available at
Atreya, R.V., Smith, J.C., McCoy, A.B., Malin, B., Miller, R.A. 2013. Reducing patient re-identification risk for laboratory results within research datasets. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 20(1):95101.
Augestad, K.M., Berntsen, G., Lassen, K., Bellika, J.G., Wootton, R., Lindsetmo, R.O., Study Group of Research Quality in Medical Informatics and Decision Support (SQUID). 2012. Standards for reporting randomized controlled trials in medical informatics: a systematic review of CONSORT adherence in RCTs on clinical decision support. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 19(1):1321.
Baily, M.A. 2008. Harming through protection? New England Journal of Medicine 358(8):768–9.
Baker, L., Wagner, T.H., Singer, S., Bundorf, M.K. 2003. Use of the Internet and e-mail for health care information: results from a national survey. Journal of the American Medical Association 289(18):2400–6.
Baldwin, T.T., Magjuka, R.J., Loher, B.T. 1991. The perils of participation: effects of choice of training on trainee motivation and learning. Personnel Psychology 44(1):5165.
Baptista, P.V. 2014. Nanodiagnostics: leaving the research lab to enter the clinics? Diagnosis 1(1):305–9.
Barocas, S., Nissenbaum, H. 2014. Big Data’s end run around anonymity and consent. In Lane, J., Stodden, V., Bender, S., Nissenbaum, H., eds., Privacy, Big Data, and the Public Good. New York: Cambridge University Press, 4475.
Baron, J. 1998. Judgment Misguided: Intuition and Error in Public Decision Making. New York: Oxford University Press.
Bastani, A., Shaqiri, B., Palomba, K., Bananno, D., Anderson, W. 2014. An ED scribe program is able to improve throughput time and patient satisfaction. American Journal of Emergency Medicine 32(5):399402.
Bates, D.W., Bitton, A. 2010. The future of health information technology in the patient-centered medical home. Health Affairs 29(4):614–21.
Bayer, R., Fairchild, A. 2002. The limits of privacy: surveillance and the control of disease. Health Care Analysis 10:1935.
Bayer, R., Santelli, J., Klitzman, R. 2015. New challenges for electronic health records: confidentiality and access to sensitive health information about parents and adolescents. Journal of the American Medical Association 313(1):2930.
Beauchamp, T.L., Childress, J.F. 2012. Principles of Biomedical Ethics. 7th edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Beck, F., Richard, J.-B., Nguyen-Thanh, V., Montagni, I., Parizot, I., Renahy, E. 2014. Use of the Internet as a health information resource among French young adults: results from a nationally representative survey. Journal of Medical Internet Research 16(5):e128.
Bellow, S. 1977. To Jerusalem and Back: A Personal Account. New York: Avon.
Benitez, K., Malin, B. 2010. Evaluating re-identification risks with respect to the HIPAA privacy rule. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 17:169–77.
Beratarrechea, A., Lee, A.G., Willner, J.M., Jahangir, E., Ciapponi, A., Rubinstein, A. 2014. The impact of mobile health interventions on chronic disease outcomes in developing countries: a systematic review. Telemedicine Journal and E-Health 20(1):7582.
Bernat, J.L. 2013. Ethical and quality pitfalls in electronic health records. Neurology 80(11):1057–61.
Berner, E.S. 2002. Ethical and legal issues in the use of clinical decision support systems. Journal of Healthcare Information Management 16(4):34–7.
Berner, E.S., ed. 2007. Clinical Decision Support Systems: Theory and Practice. 2nd edn. New York: Springer.
Berner, E.S. 2014.What can be done to increase the use of diagnostic decision support systems? Diagnosis 1(1):119–23.
Berner, E.S., Maisiak, R.S., Cobbs, C.G., Taunton, O.D. 1999. Effects of a decision support system on physicians’ diagnostic performance. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 6:420–7.
Berner, E.S., Webster, G.D., Shugerman, A.A., Jackson, J.R., Algina, J., Baker, A.L. 1994. Performance of four computer-based diagnostic systems. New England Journal of Medicine 330:1792–6.
Bhatia, H.L., Patel, N.R., Choma, N.N., Grande, J., Giuse, D.A., Lehmann, C.U. 2015. Code status and resuscitation options in the electronic health record. Resuscitation 87:1420
Bhatt, A. 2010. Evolution of Clinical Research: A history before and beyond James Lind. Perspectives in Clinical Research 1(1):610.
Bilimoria, N.M. 2009. HIPAA Privacy/Security Rules: where we’ve been and where we are going. Updates from the HITECH Act to dramatically impact HIPAA privacy/security. Journal of Medical Practice Management 25(3):149–52.
BMJ. 1998. The hippocratic oath (editorial). BMJ 317:1110.
BMJ. 2001. Medical oaths and declarations (editorial). BMJ 323:1440.
BMJ. 2009. Surgical training using simulation (editorial). BMJ 338:b1001.
Boguski, M.S., Mandl, K.D., Sukhatme, V.P. 2009. Repurposing with a difference. Science 324(5933):1394–5.
Bok, S. 1983. Secrets: On the Ethics of Concealment and Revelation. New York: Vintage Books/Random House.
Borenstein, J., Pearson, Y. 2012. Robot caregivers: Ethical issues across the human lifespan. In Abney, K., Bekey, G.A., eds., Robot Ethics: The Ethical and Social Implications of Robots. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 251–65.
Boudreaux, E.D., Waring, M.E., Hayes, R.B., Sadasivam, R.S., Mullen, S., Pagoto, S. 2014. Evaluating and selecting mobile health apps: strategies for healthcare providers and healthcare organizations. Translational Behavioral Medicine 4(4):363–71.
Bower, J.L., Christensen, C.M. 1995. Disruptive technologies: catching the wave. Harvard Business Review 73(1):4353.
Boyd, J.E., Adler, E.P., Otilingam, P.G., Peters, T. 2014. Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale: a multinational review. Comprehensive Psychiatry 55(1):221–31.
Brady, K., Shariff, A. 2013. Virtual medical scribes: making electronic medical records work for you. Journal of Medical Practice Management 29(2):133–6.
Bredillet, C.N. 2003. Genesis and role of standards: theoretical foundations and socio-economical model for the construction and use of standards. International Journal of Project Management 21(6):463–70.
Brennan, P.F., Downs, S., Casper, G. 2010. Project Health Design: rethinking the power and potential of personal health records. Journal of Biomedical Informatics 43(5 Suppl):S3-5.
Brody, B.A. 1989. The ethics of using ICU scoring systems in individual patient management. Problems in Critical Care 3:662–70.
Brooks, F.P. 1995. The Mythical Man-Month: Essays on Software Engineering Anniversary Edition. Boston: Addison-Wesley.
Brown, J., Ryan, C., Harris, A. 2014. How doctors view and use social media: a national survey. Journal of Medical Internet Research 16(12):e267.
Brownstein, J.S., Freifeld, C.C., Madoff, L.C. 2009. Digital disease detection – harnessing the Web for public health surveillance. New England Journal of Medicine 360(21):2153–7.
Bryant, A.D., Fletcher, G.S., Payne, T.H. 2014. Drug interaction alert override rates in the Meaningful Use era: no evidence of progress. Applied Clinical Informatics 5(3):802–13.
Bulaj, Z.J., Phillips, J.D., Ajioka, R.S., Franklin, M.R., Griffen, L.M., Guinee, D.J., Edwards, C.Q., Kushner, J.P. 2000. Hemochromatosis genes and other factors contributing to the pathogenesis of porphyria cutanea tarda. Blood 95:1565–71.
Bundorf, M.K., Wagner, T.H., Singer, S.J., Baker, L.C. 2006. Who searches the internet for health information? Health Services Research 41(3 Pt. 1):819–36.
Carrión Señor, I., Fernández-Alemán, J.L., Toval, A. 2012. Are personal health records safe? A review of free web-accessible personal health record privacy policies. Journal of Medical Internet Research 14(4):e114.
CBC. 2011. Online health advice sought by more Canadians, available at
Chakma, J., Sun, G.H., Steinberg, J.D., Sammut, S.M., Jagsi, R. 2014. Asia’s ascent – global trends in biomedical R&D expenditures. New England Journal of Medicine 370(1):36.
Chalmers, I., Clarke, M. 2004. Commentary: the 1944 patulin trial: the first properly controlled multicentre trial conducted under the aegis of the British Medical Research Council. International Journal of Epidemiology 33(2):253–60.
Cho, I., Park, H., Choi, Y.J., Hwang, M.H., Bates, D.W. 2014. Understanding the nature of medication errors in an ICU with a computerized physician order entry system. PLoS One 9(12):e114243.
Christensen, C.M. 1997 The Innovator’s Dilemma: When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Clark, P.A., Capuzzi, K., Harrison, J. 2010. Telemedicine: Medical, legal and ethical perspectives. Medical Science Monitor 16(12): RA26172.
Clendening, L. 1942. Source Book of Medical History. New York: Dover.
Cleveringa, F.G., Gorter, K.J., van den Donk, M., van Gijsel, J., Rutten, G.E. 2013. Computerized decision support systems in primary care for type 2 diabetes patients only improve patients’ outcomes when combined with feedback on performance and case management: a systematic review. Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics 15(2):180–92.
Cline, R.J.W., Haynes, K.M. 2001. Consumer health information seeking on the Internet: the state of the art. Health Education Research 16(6):671–92.
Cochrane, A.L. 1979. 1931–1971: a critical review, with particular reference to the medical profession. In Medicines for the year 2000. London: Office of Health Economics, 111.
Coeckelbergh, M. 2010. Health care, capabilities, and AI assistive technologies. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 13(2):181–90.
Cohen, D. 2013. Devices and desires: industry fights toughening of medical device regulation in Europe. BMJ 347:f6204.
Cohn, J. 2013. The robot will see you now. The Atlantic, March, available at
Collier, R. 2009. Legumes, lemons and streptomycin: a short history of the clinical trial. Canadian Medical Association Journal 180(1):23–4.
Collins, G.S., Reitsma, J.B., Altman, D.G., Moons, K.G.M. 2015. Transparent Reporting of a multivariable prediction model for Individual Prognosis Or Diagnosis (TRIPOD): The TRIPOD Statement. Annals of Internal Medicine 162(1)5563.
Collins, F.S., Tabak, L.A. 2014. Policy: NIH plans to enhance reproducibility. Nature 505:612–3.
Collste, G., ed. 2000. Ethics in the Age of Information Technology. Studies in Applied Ethics 7. Linköping: Centre for Applied Ethics.
Cook, R.I. 2012. Dissenting statement: Health IT is a Class III medical device. In Institute of Medicine. Health IT and Patient Safety: Building Safer Systems for Better Care. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 193–7.
Cook, D.A., Hatala, R., Brydges, R., Zendejas, B., Szostek, J.H., Wang, A.T., Erwin, P.J., Hamstra, S.J. 2011. Technology-enhanced simulation for health professions education: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the American Medical Association 306(9):978–88.
Coorevits, P., Sundgren, M., Klein, G.O., Bahr, A., Claerhout, B., Daniel, C., Dugas, M., Dupont, D., Schmidt, A., Singleton, P., De Moor, G., Kalra, D. 2013. Electronic health records: new opportunities for clinical research. Journal of Internal Medicine 274(6):547–60.
Cornet, G. 2013. Robot companions and ethics: a pragmatic approach of ethical design. Journal international de bioéthique 24(4):4958, 179–80.
Council of Europe. 1981. Convention for the Protection of Individuals with regard to Automatic Processing of Personal Data. Strasbourg: Council of Europe, available at
Curtis, L.H., Brown, J., Platt, R. 2014. Four health data networks illustrate the potential for a shared national multipurpose big-data network. Health Affairs 33(7):1178–86
Cushman, R., Froomkin, A.M., Cava, A., Abril, P., Goodman, K.W. 2010. Ethical, legal and social issues for personal health records and applications. Journal of Biomedical Informatics 43(5 Suppl):S515.
Datteri, E. 2013. Predicting the long-term effects of human-robot interaction: a reflection on responsibility in medical robotics. Science & Engineering Ethics 19(1):139–60.
Dautenhahn, K. 2007. Socially intelligent robots: dimensions of human-robot interaction. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences 362(1480):679704.
David, P.A., Steinmueller, W.E. 1994. Economics of compatibility standards and competition in telecommunication networks. Information Economics and Policy 6(3–4):217–41.
DeAngelis, C.D. 2014. The electronic health record: boon or bust for good patient care? The Milbank Quarterly 92(3):442–45.
de Dombal, F.T. 1987. Ethical considerations concerning computers in medicine in the 1980s. Journal of Medical Ethics 13:179–84.
de Lusignan, S., Mold, F., Sheikh, A., Majeed, A., Wyatt, J.C., Quinn, T., Cavill, M., Gronlund, T.A., Franco, C., Chauhan, U., Blakey, H., Kataria, N., Barker, F., Ellis, B., Koczan, P., Arvanitis, T.N., McCarthy, M., Jones, S., Rafi, I. 2014. Patients’ online access to their electronic health records and linked online services: a systematic interpretative review. BMJ Open 4(9):e006021.
De Ville, K.A. 1999. Managed care and the ethics of regulation. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 24(5):492517.
Devine, E.B., Lee, C.J., Overby, C.L., Abernethy, N., McCune, J., Smith, J.W., Tarczy-Hornoch, P. 2014. Usability evaluation of pharmacogenomics clinical decision support aids and clinical knowledge resources in a computerized provider order entry system: a mixed methods approach. International Journal of Medical Informatics 83(7):473–83.
Dhiman, G.J., Amber, K.T., Goodman, K.W. 2015. Comparative outcome studies of clinical decision support software: limitations to the practice of evidence-based system acquisition. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, February 8. pii:ocu033.
Diero, L., Rotich, J.K., Bii, J., Mamlin, B.W., Einterz, R.M., Kalamai, I.Z., Tierney, W.M. 2006. A computer-based medical record system and personal digital assistants to assess and follow patients with respiratory tract infections visiting a rural Kenyan health centre. BMC Biomedical Informatics and Decision Making 6:21.
Dolinski, K., Chatr-aryamontri, S., Tyers, M. 2013. Systematic curation of protein and genetic interaction data for computable biology. BMC Biology 11:43.
Donaldson, L. 2003. Expert patients usher in a new era of opportunity for the NHS. BMJ 326(7402):1279–80.
Downar, J. 2009. Even without our biases, the outlook for prognostication is grim. Critical Care 13(4):168.
Duda, R.O., Shortliffe, E.H. 1983. Expert systems research. Science 220:261–8.
Duggan, M., Smith, A. 2013. Social Media Update 2013, available at
Dziuda, D.M. 2010. Data Mining for Genomics and Proteomics: Analyses of Gene and Protein Expression Data. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Eastwood, G.L. 2009. When relatives and friends ask physicians for medical advice: ethical, legal, and practical considerations. Journal of General Internal Medicine 24:1333–5.
Eder, J., Gottweis, H., Zatloukal, K. 2012. IT solutions for privacy protection in biobanking. Public Health Genomics 15(5):254–62.
Edworthy, J. 2013. Medical audible alarms: a review. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 20(3):584–9.
Ellickson, P.L., Hawes-Dawson, J. 1989. An Assessment of Active Versus Passive Consent for Obtaining Parental Consent. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.
Elliott, J.E. 1978. Marx’s “Grundrisse”: vision of capitalism’s creative destruction. Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 1(2):148169.
Ells, C., Thombs, B.D. 2014. The ethics of how to manage incidental findings. Canadian Medical Association Journal 186(9):655–6.
Embi, P.J., Leonard, A.C. 2012. Evaluating alert fatigue over time to EHR-based clinical trial alerts: findings from a randomized controlled study. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 19:e145e148.
Encinosa, W.E., Bae, J. 2015. Meaningful Use IT reduces hospital-caused adverse drug events even at challenged hospitals. Healthcare 3(1):1217.
Engelhardt, H.T. 1985. Typologies of disease: Nosologies revisited. In Schaffner, K.F., ed., Logic of Discovery and Diagnosis in Medicine. Berkeley: University of California Press, 5671.
Epstein, R.A. 1992. The path to “The T. J. Hooper”: The theory and history of custom in the law of tort. The Journal of Legal Studies 21(1):138.
Esposito, K., Goodman, K.W. 2009. Genethics 2.0: Phenotypes, genotypes, and the challenge of databases generated by personal genome testing. The American Journal of Bioethics 9(6):1921.
European Science Foundation. 2011. The European Code of Conduct for Research Integrity. Strasbourg: European Science Foundation, available at
Evetts, J. 2013. Professionalism: Value and ideology. Current Sociology 61(5–6):778–96.
Faden, R.R., Kass, N.E., Goodman, S.N., Pronovost, P., Tunis, S., Beauchamp, T.L. 2013. An ethics framework for a learning health care system: a departure from traditional research ethics and clinical ethics. Hastings Center Report 43(S1):S16S27.
Farmer, A.D., Bruckner Holt, C.E., Cook, M.J., Hearing, S.D. 2009. Social networking sites: a novel portal for communication. Postgraduate Medical Journal 85(1007):455–9.
Farnan, J.M., Snyder Sulmasy, L., Worster, B.K., Chaudhry, H.J., Rhyne, J.A., Arora, V.M., for the American College of Physicians Ethics, Professionalism and Human Rights Committee. 2013. Online Medical Professionalism: Patient and public relationships: Policy statement from the American College of Physicians and the Federation of State Medical Boards. Annals of Internal Medicine 158(8):620–7.
Farr, W. 1837. The Provincial medical and surgical association. British Annals of Medicine, Pharmacy, Vital Statistics and General Science 1:692–5.
Farra, R., Sheppard, N.F., McCabe, L., Neer, R.M., Anderson, J.M., Santini, J.T., Cima, M.J., Langer, R. 2012. First-in-human testing of a wirelessly controlled drug delivery microchip. Science Translational Medicine 4(122):122ra21.
Federal Aviation Administration. 2011. Federal Aviation Administration Task Force on Air Carrier Safety and Pilot Training: Report from the Air Carrier Safety and Pilot Training Aviation Rulemaking Committee. Washington, DC: Federal Aviation Administration.
Feyerabend, P. 1975/1984. Against Method. London: Verso.
Flores, K.E., Quinlan, M.B. 2014. Ethnomedicine of menstruation in rural Dominica, West Indies. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 153(3):624–34.
Floridi, L. 2013. The Ethics of Information. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Fortney, J.C., Burgess, J.F., Bosworth, H.B., Booth, B.M., Kaboli, P.J. 2011. A Re-conceptualization of access for 21st century healthcare. Journal of General Internal Medicine 26(Suppl 2):639–47.
Foster, I. 2011. Building a secure learning health system. In Institute of Medicine, Digital Infrastructure for the Learning Health System: The Foundation for Continuous Improvement in Health and Health Care: Workshop Series Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 161–4.
Fox, S. 2013. What ails America? Dr. Google can tell you. Pew Research Center, December 17, available at
Fox, S., Duggan, M. 2013. Health Online 2013. Pew Research Center, Pew Internet & American Life Project, available at
French, R. 2003. Medicine before Science: The Business of Medicine from the Middle Ages to the Enlightenment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Freshwater, D., Fisher, P., Walsh, E. 2013. Revisiting the Panopticon: professional regulation, surveillance and sousveillance. Nursing Inquiry, available at
Fried, C. 1968. Privacy (a moral analysis). Yale Law Journal 77:475–93.
Friedberg, M.W., Chen, P.G., Van Busum, K.E., Aunon, F., Pham, C., Caloyeras, J., Mattke, S., Pitchforth, E., Quigley, D.D., Brook, R.H., Crosson, F.J., Tutty, M. 2013. Factors Affecting Physician Professional Satisfaction and Their Implications for Patient Care, Health Systems, and Health Policy. Rand Corporation Report RR-439-AMA, Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation., available at
Friedman, C.P. 2009. A “Fundamental Theorem” of biomedical informatics. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 16(2):169–70.
Friend, S.H., Schadt, E.E. 2014. Translational genomics. Clues from the resilient. Science 344(6187):970–2.
Fukuyama, F. 2006. America at the Crossroads: Democracy, Power, and the Neoconservative Legacy. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Funnell, M.M. 2000. Helping patients take charge of their chronic illnesses. Family Practice Management 7(3):4751.
Galbraith, G.L. 2014. Practical and ethical considerations for using social media in community consultation and public disclosure activities. Academic Emergency Medicine 21(10):1151–7.
Garg, A.X., Adhikari, N.J., McDonald, H., Rosas-Arellano, M.P., Devereaux, P.J., Beyene, J., Sam, J., Haynes, R.B. 2005. Effects of computerized clinical decision support systems on practitioner performance and patient outcomes: a systematic review. Journal of the American Medical Association 293(10):1223–38.
Gauchat, G. 2012. Politicization of science in the public sphere: A study of public trust in the United States, 1974 to 2010. American Sociological Review 77(2):167–87.
Gavison, R. 1984. Privacy and the limits of the law. In Schoeman, F.D., ed., Philosophical Dimensions of Privacy: An Anthology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 346402.
Gellert, G.A., Ramirea, R., Webster, S.L. 2014. The rise of the medical scribe industry: implications for the advancement of electronic health records. Journal of the American Medical Association, December 15. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.17128. [Epub ahead of print].
Gert, B., Berger, E.M., Cahill, G.F., Clouser, K.D., Culver, C.M., Moeschler, J.B., Singer, G.H.S. 1996. Morality and the New Genetics. Portola Valley, CA: Jones and Bartlett.
Gillum, R.F. 2013. From papyrus to the electronic tablet: A brief history of the clinical medical record with lessons for the digital age. The American Journal of Medicine 126:853–7.
Gibbs, S. 2014. Elon Musk: artificial intelligence is our biggest existential threat. The Guardian, October 27, available at
Glanzberg, M. 2014. Truth. In Zalta, E.N., ed., The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2014 edn.), available at
Glasser, D.J., Goodman, K.W., Einspruch, N.G. 2007. Chips, tags and scanners: Ethical challenges for radio frequency identification. Ethics and Information Technology 9:101–9.
Goldman, A.H. 1987. Ethical issues in proprietary restrictions on research results. Science, Technology and Human Values 1:2230.
Goldspiel, B.R., Flegel, W.A., DiPatrizio, G., Sissung, T., Adams, S.D., Penzak, S.R., Biesecker, L.G., Fleisher, T.A., Patel, J.J., Herion, D., Figg, W.D., Lertora, J.J., McKeeby, J.W. 2014. Integrating pharmacogenetic information and clinical decision support into the electronic health record. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 21(3):522–8.
Goldstein, M.M. 2010. Health information technology and the idea of informed consent. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 38(1):2735.
Goodman, K.W. 1993. Intellectual property and control. Academic Medicine 68(9):S88S91.
Goodman, K.W. 1996a. Critical care computing: outcomes, confidentiality, and appropriate use. Critical Care Clinics 12:109–22.
Goodman, K.W. 1996b. Codes of ethics in occupational and environmental health. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 38:882–3.
Goodman, K.W. 1996c. Ethics, genomics and information retrieval. Computers in Biology and Medicine 26:223–9.
Goodman, K.W., ed. 1998a. Ethics, Computing and Medicine: Informatics and the Transformation of Health Care, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Goodman, K.W. 1998b. Bioethics and health informatics: an introduction. In Goodman, K.W., ed., Ethics, Computing and Medicine: Informatics and the Transformation of Health Care. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 131.
Goodman, K.W. 1998c. Outcomes, futility, and health policy research. In Goodman, K.W., ed., Ethics, Computing and Medicine: Informatics and the Transformation of Health Care. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 116–38.
Goodman, K.W. 1999. Health informatics and the hospital ethics committee. MD Computing 16(2):1720.
Goodman, K.W. 2003. Ethics and Evidence-Based Medicine: Fallibility and Responsibility in Clinical Science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Goodman, K.W. 2010. Ethics, information technology and public health: New challenges for the clinician-patient relationship. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 38(1):5863.
Goodman, K.W. 2011. Health information technology and globalization. In Chadwick, R., ten Have, H., Meslin, E.M., eds., Health Care Ethics: Core and Emerging Issues. Los Angeles: Sage, 117–25.
Goodman, K.W. 2014. Health analytics and big data. Lahey Health Journal of Medical Ethics Spring:910.
Goodman, K.W., Cava, A. 2008. Bioethics, business ethics, and science: Bioinformatics and the future of healthcare. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 17(4):361–72.
Goodman, K.W., Adams, S., Berner, E.S., Embi, P.J., Hsiung, R., Hurdle, J., Jones, D.A., Lehmann, C.U., Maulden, S., Petersen, C., Terrazas, E., Winkelstein, P. 2013. AMIA’s Code of Professional and Ethical Conduct. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 20:141–3.
Goodman, K.W., Berner, E.S., Dente, M.A., Kaplan, B., Koppel, R., Rucker, D., Sands, D.Z., Winkelstein, P. 2011. Challenges in ethics, safety, best practices, and oversight regarding HIT vendors, their customers, and patients: a report of an AMIA special task force. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 18(1):7781.
Goodman, K.W., Meslin, E.M. 2014. Ethics, information technology and public health: Duties and challenges in computational epidemiology. In Magnuson, J.A., Fu, P.C., eds., Public Health Informatics and Information Systems. 2nd edn. London: Springer, 191209.
Goodman, K.W., Cushman, R., Miller, R.A. 2014. Ethics in biomedical informatics: users, standards, and outcomes. In Shortliffe, E.H., Cimino, J.J., eds., Biomedical Informatics: Computer Applications in Health Care and Biomedicine. 4th edn. New York: Springer, 329–54.
Goodman, K.W., Prineas, R.J. 2009. Ethics curricula in epidemiology. In Coughlin, S.S., Beauchamp, T.L., Weed, D.L., eds., Ethics and Epidemiology. 2nd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 283303.
Gostin, L.O., Hodge, J.G. Jr., Valdiserri, R.O. 2001. Informational privacy and the public’s health: the Model State Public Health Privacy Act. American Journal of Public Health 91(9):1388–92.
Gostin, L.O., Turek-Brezina, J., Powers, M., Kozloff, R., Faden, R., Steinauer, D. 1993. Privacy and security of personal information in a new health care system. Journal of the American Medical Association 270:2487–93.
Gotterbarn, D. 2001. Informatics and professional responsibility. Science and Engineering Ethics 7(2):221–30.
Gotz, D., Wang, F., Perer, A. 2014. A methodology for interactive mining and visual analysis of clinical event patterns using electronic health record data. Journal of Biomedical Informatics 48:148–59.
Graber, M.L., Wachter, R.M., Cassel, C.K. 2012. Bringing diagnosis into the quality and safety equations. Journal of the American Medical Association 308(12):1211–12.
Grajales, F.J., Sheps, S., Ho, K., Novak-Lauscher, H., Eysenbach, G. 2014. Social media: a review and tutorial of applications in medicine and health care. Journal of Medical Internet Research 16(2):e13.
Grande, D., Mitra, N., Shah, A., Wan, F., Asch, D.A. 2013. Public preferences about secondary uses of electronic health information. JAMA Internal Medicine 173(19):1798–806.
Grande, D., Mitra, N., Shah, A., Wan, F., Asch, D.A. 2014. The importance of purpose: moving beyond consent in the societal use of personal health information. Annals of Internal Medicine 161(12):855–62.
Green, M.J., Botkin, J.R. 2003. “Genetic exceptionalism” in medicine: clarifying the differences between genetic and nongenetic tests. Annals of Internal Medicine 138(7):571–5.
Greene, R., Mo, K.S., eds. 2006. The Undead and Philosophy: Chicken Soup for the Soulless. Chicago: Open Court.
Greene, C.S., Tan, J., Ung, M., Moore, J.H., Cheng, C. 2014. Big data bioinformatics. Journal of Cell Physiology 229(12):1896–900.
Greenhalgh, T.Keen, J. 2013. England’s national programme for IT. BMJ 346:f4130.
Greenwald, J.L, Halasyamani, L., Greene, J., LaCivita, C., Stucky, E., Benjamin, B., Reid, W., Griffin, F.A., Vaida, A.J., Williams, M.V. 2010. Making inpatient medication reconciliation patient centered, clinically relevant and implementable: A consensus statement on key principles and necessary first steps. Journal of Hospital Medicine 5(8):477–85.
Greenwood, M. 1948. Medical statistics from Graunt to Farr. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gymrek, M., McGuire, A.L., Golan, D., Halperin, E., Erlich, Y. 2013. Identifying personal genomes by surname inference. Science 339(6117):321–4.
Hardwig, J. 1991. The role of trust in knowledge. The Journal of Philosophy 84(12):693707.
Harris, B.L. 1990. Becoming deprofessionalized: One aspect of the staff nurse’s perspective on computer-mediated nursing care plans. Advances in Nursing Science 13(2):6374.
Hartmann, F. 1988. Paracelsus: Life and Prophecies. Blauvelt, NY: Steinerbooks, Garber Communications.
Hartzband, P., Groopman, J. 2008. Off the record – avoiding the pitfalls of going electronic. New England Journal of Medicine 358:1656–8.
Hayek, F.A. 2007. The Road to Serfdom: Text and Documents, The Definitive Edition. Caldwell, B., ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Häyry, M., Chadwick, R., Árnason, V., Árnason, G. 2007. The Ethics and Governance of Human Genetic Databases. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hébert, P.C., Levin, A.V., Robertson, G. 2001. Bioethics for clinicians: 23. Disclosure of medical error. Canadian Medical Association Journal 164(4):509–13.
Hettrick, S. 2014. It’s impossible to conduct research without software, say 7 out of 10 UK researchers. Software Sustainability Institute, available at
Hew, F.C. 2014. Artificial moral agents are infeasible with foresee technologies. Ethics and Information Technology 1:197206.
Heyman, J. 2010. Health IT and solo practice: A love-hate relationship. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 38(1):1416.
Hilkevitch, J. 2012. Technology may be eroding pilot skills. Chicago Tribune, March 19, 2012, available at
Hill, R.G., Sears, L.M., Melanson, S.W. 2013. 4000 clicks: a productivity analysis of electronic medical records in a community hospital ED. American Journal of Emergency Medicine 31(11):1591–4.
Hill, E.M., Turner, E.L., Martin, R.M., Donovan, J.L. 2013. “Let’s get the best quality research we can”: public awareness and acceptance of consent to use existing data in health research: a systematic review and qualitative study. BMC Medical Research Methodology 13:72, available at–2288/13/72.
Hiller, K.M., Stoneking, L., Min, A., Rhodes, S.M. 2013. Syndromic surveillance for influenza in the emergency department – a systematic review. PLoS One 8(9):e73832.
Hippocrates, . 1983. Hippocratic Writings. Lloyd, G.E.R., ed., Chadwisk, J., Mann, W.N., trans. London: Penguin.
Hirsch, M.D. 2015. Docs to ONC: Change the EHR certification process. FierceEMR, January 22, available at
Hirschtick, R.E. 2006. A piece of my mind. Copy-and-paste. Journal of the American Medical Association 24;295(20):2335–6.
Hochachka, W.M., Fink, D., Hutchinson, R.A., Sheldon, D., Wong, W.K., Kelling, S. 2012. Data-intensive science applied to broad-scale citizen science. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 27(2):130–7.
Hodge, J.G., Gostin, L.O. 2004. Public Health Practice vs. Research –A Report for Public Health Practitioners Including Cases and Guidance for Making Distinctions. Atlanta, GA: Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists.
Hoffman, S., Podgurski, A. 2012. Drug-drug interaction alerts: emphasizing the evidence. St. Louis University Journal of Health Law & Policy 5:298309.
Holzemer, W.L., Uys, L.R., Chirwa, M.L., Greeff, M., Makoae, L.N., Kohi, T.W., Dlamini, P.S., Stewart, A.L., Mullan, J., Phetlhu, R.D., Wantland, D., Durrheim, K. 2007. Validation of the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument – PLWA (HASI-P). AIDS Care 19(8):1002–12.
Hood, L., Lovejoy, J.C., Price, N.D. 2015. Integrating big data and actionable health coaching to optimize wellness. BMC Medicine 13(1):4.
Horsky, J., Schiff, G.D., Johnston, D., Mercincavage, L., Bell, D., Middleton, B. 2012. Interface design principles for usable decision support: a targeted review of best practices for clinical prescribing interventions. Journal of Biomedical Informatics 45(6):1202–16.
Hosking, G. 2014. Trust: A History. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Househ, M., Borycki, E., Kushniruk, A. 2014. Empowering patients through social media: the benefits and challenges. Health Informatics Journal 20(1):50–8.
Howard, A.W. 2002. Automobile restraints for children: a review for clinicians. Canadian Medical Association Journal 167(7):769–73.
Howe, D., Costanzo, M., Fey, P., Gojobori, T., Hannick, L., Hide, W., Hill, D.P., Kania, R., Schaeffer, M., St Pierre, S., Twigger, S., White, O., Rhee, S.Y. 2008. Big data: The future of biocuration. Nature 455:4750.
Hripcsak, G., Bloomrosen, M., FlatelyBrennan, P., Chute, C.G., Cimino, J., Detmer, D.E., Edmunds, M., Embi, P.J., Goldstein, M.M., Hammond, W.E., Keenan, G.M., Labkoff, S., Murphy, S., Safran, C., Speedie, S., Strasberg, H., Temple, F., Wilcox, A.B. 2014. Health data use, stewardship, and governance: ongoing gaps and challenges: a report from AMIA’s 2012 Health Policy Meeting. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 21:204–11.
Hustinx, P. 2010. Privacy by design: delivering the promises. Identity in the Information Society 3(2):253–55.
Illman, J. 2000. WHO’s plan to police health websites rejected. BMJ 321:1308.
Institute of Medicine. 2001. Preserving Public Trust: Accreditation and Human Research Participant Protection Programs. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Institute of Medicine. 2011. Digital Infrastructure for the Learning Health System: The Foundation for Continuous Improvement in Health and Health Care: Workshop Series Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
Institute of Medicine. 2012. Health IT and Patient Safety: Building Safer Systems for Better Care. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
Ioannidis, J.P. 2005. Why most published research findings are false. PLoS Medicine 2(8):e124.
Ioannidis, J.P. 2014. How to make more published research true. PLoS Medicine 11(10):e1001747.
Isidore of Seville. 2013. Isidore of Seville’s Etymologies: the complete translation of Isidori Hispalensis Episcopi Etymologiarum sive Originum Libri. Throop, P., trans. Charlotte, VT: MedievalMS.
Jackson, G.L., Powers, B.J., Chatterjee, R., Bettger, J.P., Kemper, A.R., Hasselblad, V., Dolor, R.J., Irvine, R.J., Heidenfelder, B.L., Kendrick, A.S., Gray, R., Williams, J.W. 2013. Improving patient care. The patient centered medical home. A Systematic Review. Annals of Internal Medicine 158(3):169–78.
Jain, S.H. 2009. Practicing medicine in the age of Facebook. New England Journal of Medicine 361(7):649–51.
JASON. 2014. A Robust Health Data Infrastructure. Prepared for the US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, AHRQ Publication No. 14-0041-EF. McLean, VA: MITRE Corporation, available at
Jecker, N.S., Schneiderman, L.J. 1993. Medical futility: the duty not to treat. Cambridge Quarterly of Health Care Ethics 2:151–9.
Jennings, B. 2006. The politics of end-of-life decision-making: computerised decision-support tools, physicians’ jurisdiction and morality. Sociology of Health & Illness 28(3):350–75.
Jha, A.K., Classen, D.C. 2011.Getting moving on patient safety – harnessing electronic data for safer care. New England Journal of Medicine 365(19):1756–8.
Joe, J., Demiris, G. 2013. Older adults and mobile phones for health: a review. Journal of Biomedical Informatics 46(5):947–54.
Johnson, D.G. 2006. Computer systems: moral entities but not moral agents. Ethics and Information Technology 8:195204.
Johnson, D.G. 2009. Computer Ethics. 4th edn. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
Johnson, E.J., Goldstein, D. 2003. Do defaults save lives? Science 302(5649):1338–9.
Johnson, K.B. 2010. Project Health Design: advancing the vision of consumer-clinician-computer collaborations. Journal of Biomedical Informatics 43(5 Suppl):S12.
Jonas, H. 1984. The Imperative of Responsibility. In search of an Ethics for the Technological Age. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Jonsen, A.R. 1998. The Birth of Bioethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kaplan, B., Shaw, N.T. 2004. Future directions in evaluation research: people, organizational, and social issues. Methods of Information in Medicine 43(3):215–31.
Kass, N.E., Faden, R. R., Goodman, S. N., Pronovost, P., Tunis, S., Beauchamp, T. L. 2013. The research-treatment distinction: A problematic approach for determining which activities should have ethical oversight. Hastings Center Report 43(S1):S4S15.
Katz, R.V., Green, B.L., Kressin, N.R., Kegeles, S.S., Wang, M.Q., James, S.A., Russell, S.L., Claudio, C., McCallum, J.M. 2008. The legacy of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study: assessing its impact on willingness to participate in biomedical studies. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved (4):1168–80.
Kawamoto, K., Houlihan, C.A., Balas, E.A., Lobach, D.F. 2005. Improving clinical practice using clinical decision support systems: a systematic review of trials to identify features critical to success. BMJ 330(7494):765.
Kaye, J. 2012. The tension between data sharing and the protection of privacy in genomics research. Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics 13:415–31.
Kho, A.N., Rasmussen, L.V., Connolly, J.J., Peissig, P.L., Starren, J., Hakonarson, H., Hayes, M.G. 2013. Practical challenges in integrating genomic data into the electronic health record. Genetics in Medicine 15(10):772–8.
Khum, H.D., Ahalt, S. 2013. Privacy-by-design: Understanding data access models for secondary data. AMIA Joint Summits on Translational Science Proceedings, March 18:126–30, available at
Kim, S., Kim, W., Park, R.W. 2011. A comparison of intensive care unit mortality prediction models through the use of data mining techniques. Healthcare Informatics Research 17(4):232–43.
King, A.C., Bickmore, T.W., Campero, M.I., Pruitt, L.A., Yin, J.L. 2013. Employing virtual advisors in preventive care for underserved communities: results from the COMPASS study. Journal of Health Communication 18(12):1449–64.
Kluge, E.-H. 2001. The Ethics of Electronic Patient Records. New York: Peter Lang.
Knaus, W.A. 1993. Ethical implications of risk stratification in the acute care setting. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 2:193–6.
Knaus, W.A. 2002. APACHE 1978–2001: the development of a quality assurance system based on prognosis: milestones and personal reflections. Archives of Surgery 137(1):37–41.
Knaus, W.A., Draper, E.A., Wagner, D.P., Zimmerman, J.E. 1985. APACHE II: a severity of disease classification system. Critical Care Medicine 13:818–29.
Knaus, W.A., Draper, E.A., Wagner, D.P., Zimmerman, J.E. 1986. An evaluation of outcome from intensive care in major medical centers. Annals of Internal Medicine 104:410–18.
Knaus, W.A., Wagner, D.P., Lynn, J. 1991. Short-term mortality predictions for critically ill hospitalized adults: science and ethics. Science 254:389–94.
Knaus, W.A., Zimmerman, J.E., Wagner, D.P., Draper, E.A., Lawrence, D.E. 1981. APACHE – acute physiology and chronic health evaluation: a physiologically based classification system. Critical Care Medicine (9):591–7.
Kobeissy, F.H., Gulbakan, B., Alawieh, A., Karam, P., Zhang, Z., Guingab-Cagmat, J.D., Mondello, S., Tan, W., Anagli, J., Wang, K. 2014. Post-genomics nanotechnology is gaining momentum: nanoproteomics and applications in life sciences. OMICS 18(2):111–31.
Kohane, I.S. 2013. Secondary use of health information: are we asking the right question? JAMA Internal Medicine 173(19):1806–7.
Kohn, L.T., Corrigan, J.M., Donaldson, M.S., eds. 1999. To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Koppel, R., Kreda, D. 2009. Health care information technology vendors’ “hold harmless” clause: implications for patients and clinicians. Journal of the American Medical Association 301(12):1276–78.
Koppel, R., Metlay, J.P., Cohen, A., Abaluck, B., Localio, A.R., Kimmel, S.E., Strom, B.L. 2005. Role of computerized physician order entry systems in facilitating medication errors. Journal of the American Medical Association 293(10):1197–203.
Kraemer Diaz, A.E., Spears Johnson, C.R., Arcury, T.A. 2015. Perceptions that influence the maintenance of scientific integrity in community-based participatory research. Health, Education & Behavior, January 14. pii: 1090198114560016.
Kramer, A.A., Higgins, T.L., Zimmerman, J.E. 2013. The association between ICU readmission rate and patient outcomes. Critical Care Medicine 41(1):2433.
Kramer, A.D.I., Guillory, J.E., Hancock, J.T. 2014. Experimental evidence of massive-scale emotional contagion through social networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111:8788–90.
Kuhn, T., Basch, P., Barr, M., Yackel, T., for the Medical Informatics Committee of the American College of Physicians. 2015. Clinical documentation in the 21st century: Executive summary of a policy position paper from the American College of Physicians. Annals of Internal Medicine 162(2):301–3.
Kullo, I.J., Haddad, R., Prows, C.A., Holm, I., Sanderson, S.C., Garrison, N.A., Sharp, R.R., Smith, M.E., Kuivaniemi, H., Bottinger, E.P., Connolly, J.J., Keating, B.J., McCarty, C.A., Williams, M.S., Jarvik, G.P. 2014. Return of results in the genomic medicine projects of the eMERGE network. Frontiers in Genetics 5:50.
Kumar, A., Asaf, B.B. 2015. Robotic thoracic surgery: The state of the art. Journal of Minimal Access Surgery 11(1):60–7.
Kush, R., Goldman, M. 2014. Fostering responsible data sharing through standards. New England Journal of Medicine 370:2163–5.
Laennec, R.T.H. 1821. A Treatise on the Diseases of the Chest, in Which They Are Described According to Their Anatomical Characters, and Their Diagnosis Established on a New Principle by Means of Acoustick Instruments. Forbes, J., trans. London: T. and G. Underwood. [Full text available via The Gerstein Science Information Centre at the University of Toronto at]
Lainer, M., Mann, E., Sönnichsen, A. 2013. Information technology interventions to improve medication safety in primary care: a systematic review. International Journal for Quality in Heath Care 25(5):590–8.
Lane, W.A. 1936. What the mouth reveals. New Health 11:34–5.
Lane, J., Schur, C. 2010. Balancing access to health data and privacy: a review of the issues and approaches for the future. Health Services Research 45(5 Pt 2):1456–67.
Laranjo, L., Arguel, A., Neves, A.L., Gallagher, A.M., Kaplan, R., Mortimer, N., Mendes, G.A., Lau, A.Y. 2014. The influence of social networking sites on health behavior change: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, July 8. pii: amiajnl-2014-002841.
Lau, A. 2009. What are repeatability and reproducibility? Part 1: A DO2 viewpoint for laboratories. ASTM Standardization News March/April, available at
Lau, K.H. 2014. Computer-based teaching module design: principles derived from learning theories. Medical Education 48(3):247-54.
Law Commission. 1996. Privity of contract: Contracts for the benefit of third parties LC242, available at
Law, L.M., Wason, J.M. 2014. Design of telehealth trials – Introducing adaptive approaches. International Journal of Medical Informatics 83(12):870–80.
Lee, L.M. 2014. Health information in the background: justifying public health surveillance without patient consent. In Pimple, K.D., ed., Emerging Pervasive Information and Communication Technologies (PICT): Ethical Challenges, Opportunities and Safeguards. Dordrecht: Springer, 3953.
Lee, L.M., Gostin, L.O. 2009. Ethical collection, storage, and use of public health data: A proposal for a national privacy protection. Journal of the American Medical Association 302(1):82–4.
Lee, L.M., Hellig, C.M., White, A. 2012. Ethical justification for conducting public health surveillance without patient consent. American Journal of Public Health 102(1):3844.
Leviss, J., ed. 2013. HIT or Miss: Lessons Learned from Health Information Technology Implementations. 2nd edn. Chicago: AHIMA.
Lewandowsky, S., Gignac, G.E., Oberauer, K. 2013. The role of conspiracist ideation and worldviews in predicting rejection of science. PLoS One 8(10):e75637.
Lim, J.L., Yih, Y., Gichunge, C., Tierney, W.M., Le, T.H., Zhang, J., Lawley, M.A, Petersen, T.J., Mamlin, J.J. 2009. The AMPATH Nutritional Information System: designing a food distribution electronic record system in rural Kenya. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 16(6):882–8.
Lin, P., Abney, K., Bekey, G.A., eds. 2012. Robot Ethics: The Ethical and Social Implications of Robots. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Lorsch, J.R., Collins, F.S., Lippincott-Schwartz, J. 2014. Fixing problems with cell lines. Science 346(6216):1452–3
Louis, P.C.A. 1834. Essay on Clinical Instruction. Martin, P., trans. London: S. Highley. (Cited in Huth, E.J. and Murray, T.J., eds., Medicine in Quotations: Views of Health and Disease Through the Ages. Philadelphia: American College of Physicians.)
Louis, P.C.A. 1835/1960. Research on the effect of blood-letting in several inflammatory maladies. Translation of an article by Pierre-Charles-Alexander Louis (Arch. gen. Méd. 321–336, 1835), with introduction. Gaines, W.J., Langford, H.G., trans. Archives of Internal Medicine 106(4):571–9. doi:10.1001/archinte.1960.03820040109009.
Louis, P.C.A. 1836. Researches on the Effects of Bloodletting in Some Inflammatory Diseases, and on the Influence of Tartarized Antimony and Vesication in Pneumonitis. Putnam, C.G., trans. Boston: Hilliard, Gray & Co. Full text available via The Gerstein Science Information Centre at the University of Toronto at
Lown, B.A., Rodriguez, D. 2012. Lost in translation? How electronic health records structure communication, relationships, and meaning. Academic Medicine 87(4):392–4.
Lowy, J. 2011. Automation in the air dulls pilot skill. The Associated Press, available at
Lowry, S.Z., Ramaiah, M., Patterson, E.S., Latkany, P., Brick, D., Gibbons, M.C. 2015. Integrating Electronic Health Records into Clinical Workflow: An Application of Human Factors Modeling Methods to Obstetrics and Gynecology and Ophthalmology. Washington, DC: National Institute of Standards and Technology (NISTIR 8042), available at
Luce, J.M., Wachter, R.M. 1994. The ethical appropriateness of using prognostic scoring systems in clinical management. Critical Care Clinics 10:229–41.
Mack, E.H., Wheeler, D.S., Embi, P.J. 2009. Clinical decision support systems in the pediatric intensive care unit. Pediatric Critical Care Medicine 10(1):23–8.
Mackey, T.K., Liang, B.A., Attaran, A., Kohler, J.C. 2013. Ensuring the future of health information online. Lancet 382(9902):1404.
Mackey, T.K., Liang, B.A., Kohler, J.C., Attaran, A. 2014. Health domains for sale: the need for global health Internet governance. Journal of Medical Internet Research 16(3):e62.
Magnello, E. 2011. Vital Statistics: The measurement of public health. In Flood, R., Rice, A., Wilson, R., eds., Mathematics in Victorian Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 261–82.
Magrabi, F., Baker, M., Sinha, I., Ong, M.S., Harrison, S., Kidd, M.R., Runciman, W.B., Coiera, E. 2015. Clinical safety of England’s national programme for IT: A retrospective analysis of all reported safety events 2005 to 2011. International Journal of Medical Informatics 84(3):198206.
Malin, B. 2011. HIPAA and a learning healthcare system. In Institute of Medicine, Digital Infrastructure for the Learning Health System: The Foundation for Continuous Improvement in Health and Health Care: Workshop Series Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 157–61.
Malin, B., Loukides, G., Benitez, K., Clayton, E.W. 2011. Identifiability in biobanks: models, measures, and mitigation strategies. Human Genetics 130:383–92.
Malin, B., Sweeney, L. 2004. How (not) to protect genomic data privacy in a distributed network: using trail re-identification to evaluate and design anonymity protection systems Journal of Biomedical Informatics 37:179–92.
Maloni, J.M, Brown, M.E. 2006. Corporate social responsibility in the supply chain: An application in the food industry. Journal of Business Ethics, 68:3552.
Mamykina, L., Vawdrey, D.K., Stetson, P.D., Zheng, K., Hripcsak, G. 2012. Clinical documentation: composition or synthesis? Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 19:1025–31.
Mandl, K.D., Kohane, I.S. 2008. Tectonic shifts in the health information economy. New England Journal of Medicine 358:1732–7.
Manhal-Baugus, M. 2001. E-therapy: practical, ethical, and legal issues. CyberPsychology & Behavior 4(5):551–63.
Markle Foundation. 2006. Connecting Americans to Their Health Care: A Common Framework for Networked Personal Health Information. New York: Markle Foundation, available at
Markle Foundation. 2008. Americans Overwhelmingly Believe Electronic Personal Health Records Could Improve Their Health (based on a survey by Prof. A.F. Westin). New York: Markle Foundation, available at
Marquard, J.L., Brennan, P.F. 2009. Crying wolf: Consumers may be more willing to share medication information than policymakers think. Journal of Health Information Management 23(2):2632.
McCorduck, P. 2004. Machines Who Think: A Personal Inquiry into the History and Prospects of Artificial Intelligence. 2nd edn. London: CRC Press.
McCoy, A.B., Melton, G.B., Wright, A., Sittig, D.F. 2013. Clinical decision support for colon and rectal surgery: an overview. Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery 26(1):2330.
McCoy, A.B., Waitman, L.R., Lewis, J.B., Wright, J.A., Choma, D.P., Miller, R.A., Peterson, J.F. 2012. A framework for evaluating the appropriateness of clinical decision support alerts and responses. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 19(3):346–52.
McDaid, D., Park, A-L. 2011. Online Health: Untangling the Web. BUPA Health Pulse 2010. London School of Economics and British United Provident Association (BUPA), available at
McDonald, C.J. 1976. Protocol-based computer reminders, the quality of care and the non-perfectability of man. New England Journal of Medicine 295(24):1351–5.
McEwen, J.E., Boyer, J.T., Sun, K.Y., Rothenberg, K.H., Lockhart, N.C., Guyer, M.S. 2014. The ethical, legal, and social implications program of the national human genome research institute: reflections on an ongoing experiment. Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics 15:481505.
McGraw, D. 2011. Policies and practices to build public trust. In Institute of Medicine, Digital Infrastructure for the Learning Health System: The Foundation for Continuous Improvement in Health and Health Care: Workshop Series Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 155–7.
Meeks, D.W., Smith, M.W., Taylor, L., Sittig, D.F., Scott, J.M., Singh, H. 2014. An analysis of electronic health record-related patient safety concerns. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 21(6):1053–59.
Menon, S., Smith, M.W., Sittig, D.F., Petersen, N.J., Hysong, S.J., Espadas, D., Modi, V., Singh, H. 2014. How context affects electronic health record-based test result follow-up: a mixed-methods evaluation. BMJ Open 4(11):e005985.
Meslin, E.M., Alpert, S.A., Carroll, A.E., Odell, J.D., Tierney, W.M., Schwartz, P.H. 2013. Giving patients granular control of personal health information: using an ethics ‘Points to Consider’ to inform informatics system designers. International Journal of Medical Informatics 82(12):1136–43.
Meslin, E.M., Goodman, K.W. 2010. Bank on it: An ethics and policy agenda for biobanks and electronic health records. Science Progress, Center for American Progress,
Meslin, E.M., Schwartz, P.H. 2014. How bioethics principles can aid design of electronic health records to accommodate patient granular control. Journal of General Internal Medicine 30(Suppl 1):S36.
Meyers, D., Quinn, M., Clancy, C.M. 2010. Health Information Technology: Turning the Patient-Centered Medical Home from Concept to Reality. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, available at
Middleton, B., Bloomrosen, M., Dente, M.A., Hashmat, B., Koppel, R., Overhage, J.M., Payne, T.H., Rosenbloom, S.T., Weaver, C., Zhang, J. 2013. Enhancing patient safety and quality of care by improving the usability of electronic health record systems: recommendations from AMIA. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 20:e2e8.
Mill, J.S. 1956 (1859). On Liberty. Indianapolis: The Bobbs-Merrill Company.
Miller, R.A. 1990. Why the standard view is standard: people, not machines, understand patients’ problems. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 15:581–91.
Miller, R.A., Gardner, R.M. 1997a. Summary recommendations for the responsible monitoring and regulation of clinical software systems. Annals of Internal Medicine 127(9):842–5.
Miller, R.A., Gardner, R.M. 1997b. Recommendations for responsible monitoring and regulation of clinical software systems. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 4:442–57.
Miller, R.A., Schaffner, K.F., Meisel, A. 1985. Ethical and legal issues related to the use of computer programs in clinical medicine. Annals of Internal Medicine 102:529–36.
Moor, J.H. 1979. Are there decisions computers should never make? Nature and System 1:217–29.
Moore, D.A., Tetlock, P.E., Tanlu, L., Bazerman, M.H. 2006. Conflict of interest and the case of auditor independence: Moral seduction and strategic issue cycling. Academy of Management Review 31(1):1029.
Moreno, R., Afonso, S. 2006. Ethical, legal and organizational issues in the ICU: prediction of outcome. Current Opinions in Critical Care 12(6):619–23.
Morens, D.M. 1999. Death of a president. New England Journal of Medicine 341:1845–50.
Morris, G., Farnum, G., Afzal, S., Robinson, C., Greene, J., Coughlin, C. 2014. Patient Identification and Matching Final Report. Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, contract HHSP233201300029C, available at
Mushiaki, S. 2013. Ethica ex machina: issues in roboethics. Journal international de bioéthique 24(4):1726, 176–7.
Nanji, K.C., Slight, S.P., Seger, D.L., Cho, I., Fiskio, J.M., Redden, L.M., Volk, L.A., Bates, D.W. 2014. Overrides of medication-related clinical decision support alerts in outpatients. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 21(3):487–91.
National Bioethics Advisory Commission. 2001. Ethical and Policy Issues in International Research: Clinical Trials in Developing Countries. Vol. 1. Bethesda, MD: National Bioethics Advisory Commission.
National Research Council. 1997. For the Record: Protecting Electronic Health Information. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Nazi, K.M., Hogan, T.P., Wagner, T.H., McInnes, D.K., Smith, B.M., Haggstrom, D., Chumbler, N.R., Gifford, A.L., Charters, K.G., Saleem, J.J., Weingardt, K.R., Fischetti, L.F., Weaver, F.M. 2010. Embracing a health services research perspective on personal health records: Lessons learned from the VA My HealtheVet system. Journal of General Internal Medicine 25(Suppl 1):62–7.
Newman-Toker, D.E., Pronovost, P.J. 2009. Diagnostic errors–the next frontier for patient safety. Journal of the American Medical Association 301:1060–2.
Nissenbaum, H. 1994. Computing and accountability. Communications of the Association for Computing Machinery 37(1):7280.
Nissenbaum, H. 2000. Values in computer system design: Bias and autonomy. In Collste, G., ed., Ethics in the Age of Information Technology. Studies in Applied Ethics 7. Linköping: Centre for Applied Ethics, 5969.
Noorman, M. 2014. Computing and moral responsibility. In Zalta, E.N., ed., The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2014 edn.), available at
Nuffield Council on Bioethics. 2015. The Collection, Linking and Use of Data in Biomedical Research and Health Care: Ethical Issues. London: Nuffield Council on Bioethics, available at
Nutton, V. 1996. The rise of medicine. In Porter, R., ed., The Cambridge Illustrated History of Medicine. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 5281.
Office for National Statistics. 2013. Internet Access – Households and Individuals, 2013, available at
Office of Technology Assessment (OTA). 1993a. Report Brief: Protecting Privacy in Computerized Medical Information. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.
Office of Technology Assessment (OTA). 1993b. Protecting Privacy in Computerized Medical Information. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office (OTA-TCT-576).
Or, C.K., Tao, D. 2014. Does the use of consumer health information technology improve outcomes in the patient self-management of diabetes? A meta-analysis and narrative review of randomized controlled trials. International Journal of Medical Informatics 83(5):320–9.
Orr, R.D., Pang, N., Pellegrino, E.D., Siegler, M. 1997. Use of the Hippocratic Oath: a review of twentieth century practice and a content analysis of oaths administered in medical schools in the US and Canada in 1993. Journal of Clinical Ethics 8(4):377–88.
Overby, C.L., Tarczy-Hornoch, P., Kalet, I.J., Thummel, K.E., Smith, J.W., Del Fiol, G., Fenstermacher, D., Devine, E.B. 2012. Developing a Prototype system for integrating pharmacogenomics findings into clinical practice. Journal of Personalized Medicine 2, 241–56.
Ozoliņa, Z., Mitcham, C., Stilgoe, J., Andanda, P., Kaiser, M., Nielsen, L., Stehr, N., Qiu, R.-Z. 2009. Global Governance of Science: Report of the Expert Group on Global Governance of Science to the Science, Economy and Society Directorate, Directorate-General for Research, European Commission, EUR23616 EN, available at
Palmer, B. 2014. Jonas Salk: Good at virology, bad at economics. Slate, April 13, 2014, available at
Palmer, V. 1983. Why privity entered tort – an historical reexamination of Winterbottom v. Wright. The American Journal of Legal History 27(1):8598.
Palmer, V. 1992. The Paths to Privity: A History of Third Party Beneficiary Contracts at English Law. San Francisco: Austin & Winfield.
Patel, M.S., Asch, D.A., Volpp, K.G. 2015. Wearable devices as facilitators, not drivers, of health behavior change. Journal of the American Medical Association 323(5):459–60.
Patel, V., Barker, W., Siminerio, E. 2014. Individuals’ Access and Use of their Online Medical Record Nationwide. ONC Data Brief No. 2. Washington, DC: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, available at
Pauker, S.G., Kassirer, J.P. 1981. Clinical decision analysis by personal computer. Archives of Internal Medicine 141(13):1831–7.
Pearson, S.-A., Moxey, A., Robertson, J., Hains, I., Williamson, M., Reeve, J., Newby, D. 2009. Do computerised clinical decision support systems for prescribing change practice? A systematic review of the literature (1990–2007). BMC Health Services Research 9:154.
Penson, R.T., Kyriakou, H., Zuckerman, D., Chabner, B.A., Lynch, T.J. 2006. Teams: communication in multidisciplinary care. Oncologist 11(5):520526.
Perry, J.E., Cox, D., Cox, A.D. 2014. Trust and transparency: patient perceptions of physicians’ financial relationships with pharmaceutical companies. Journal of Law, Medicine, and Ethics 42(4):475–91.
Petersen, C., DeMuro, P. 2015. Legal and regulatory considerations associated with use of patient-generated health data from social media and mobile health (mHealth) devices. Applied Clinical Informatics 6(1):1626.
Petersen, C., DeMuro, P., Goodman, K.W., Kaplan, B. 2013. Sorrell v. IMS Health: issues and opportunities for informaticians. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 20(1):35–7.
Phansalkar, S., Zachariah, M., Seidling, H.M., Mendes, C., Volk, L., Bates, D.W. 2014. Evaluation of medication alerts in electronic health records for compliance with human factors principles. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 21(e2):e33240.
Phelps, R.G., Taylor, J., Simpson, K., Samuel, J., Turner, A.N. 2014. Patients’ continuing use of an online health record: a quantitative evaluation of 14,000 patient years of access data. Journal of Medical Internet Research 16(10):e241.
Picciano, K.S., Goodman, K.W. 2014. Clinical Decision Support Systems: A Survey of Some Legal and Ethical Implications. Working Papers in Bioethics. Miami: University of Miami Bioethics Program.
Pimple, K.D. 2014. Introduction: The Impact, Benefits, and Hazards of PICT. In Pimple, K.D., ed., Emerging Pervasive Information and Communication Technologies (PICT): Ethical Challenges, Opportunities and Safeguards. Dordrecht: Springer, 112.
Pinker, S. 2008. The Stupidity of Dignity: Conservative bioethics’ latest, most dangerous ploy. The New Republic, May 28, available at
Platt, J., Kardia, S. 2015. Public trust in health information sharing: implications for biobanking and electronic health record systems. Journal of Personalized Medicine 5(1):321.
Popper, K.R. 1959/1980. The Logic of Scientific Discovery. London: Hutchinson.
Porter, R. 1992. The rise of medical journalism in Britain to 1800. In Bynum, W.F., Lock, S., and Porter, R., eds., Medical Journals and Medical Knowledge: Historical Essays. London and New York: Routledge, 628.
Postel, J. 1994. Domain Name System Structure and Delegation. University of Southern California Information Sciences Institute, available at
Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues. 2011. Moral Science: Protecting Participants in Human Subjects Research. Washington, DC: Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues.
Prinzel, L.J., Pope, A.T., Freeman, F.G., 2002. Physiological self-regulation and adaptive automation. International Journal of Aviation Psychology 12(2):179–96.
Rachels, J. 1975. Why is privacy important? Philosophy & Public Affairs 4(4):323–33.
Radley, D.C., Wasserman, M.R., Olsho, L.E., Shoemaker, S.J., Spranca, M.D., Bradshaw, B. 2013. Reduction in medication errors in hospitals due to adoption of computerized provider order entry systems. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 20(3):470–6.
Reiser, S.J. 1991.The clinical record in medicine. Part 1: Learning from cases. Annals of Internal Medicine 114:902–7.
Reynolds, T., Kong, M.-L. 2011. Learning without patients: How far can medical simulation replace clinical experience? BMJ 342:83–4.
Rosenthal, T.C. 2008. The medical home: Growing evidence to support a new approach to primary care. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine 21(5):427–40.
Rotich, J.K., Hannan, T.J., Smith, F.E., Bii, J., Odero, W.W., Vu, N., Mamlin, B.W., Mamlin, J.J., Einterz, R.M., Tierney, W.M. 2003. Installing and implementing a computer-based patient record system in sub-Saharan Africa: the Mosoriot Medical Record System. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 10(4):295303.
Ridgely, M.S., Greenberg, M.D. 2012. Too many alerts, too much liability: sorting through the malpratice implications of drug-drug interaction clinical decision support. St. Louis University Journal of Health Law & Policy 5:257–96.
Rogers, J.A. 2015. Electronics for the human body. Journal of the American Medical Association 313(6):561–2.
Ross, M.K., Wei, W., Ohno-Machado, L. 2014. “Big data” and the electronic health record. Yearbook of Medical Informatics 9(1):97104.
Rothstein, M.S. 2010. The Hippocratic bargain and health information technology. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 38(1):713.
Rubel, A. 2012. Justifying public health surveillance: basic interests, unreasonable exercise, and privacy. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 22(1):133.
Rubin, D.L., Lewis, S.E., Mungall, C.J., Misra, S., Westerfield, M., Ashburner, M., Sim, I., Chute, C.G., Solbrig, H., Storey, M.A., Smith, B., Day-Richter, J., Noy, N.F., Musen, M.A. 2006. National Center for Biomedical Ontology: advancing biomedicine through structured organization of scientific knowledge. OMICS 10(2):185–98.
Russell, A.L. 2014. Open Standards and the Digital Age: History, Ideology, and Networks. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Ryan, T., Chester, A., Reece, J., Xenos, S. 2014. The uses and abuses of Facebook: A review of Facebook addiction. Journal of Behavioral Addictions 3(3):133–48.
Sackett, D.L., Straus, S.E., Richardson, W.S., Rosenberg, W., Haynes, R.B. 2000. Evidence-Based Medicine: How to Practice and Teach EBM. 2nd edn. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.
Sadegh-Zadeh, K. 2012. Handbook of Analytic Philosophy of Medicine. Dordrecht: Springer.
Sadler, N.L., Sadler, A.M. 2012. Can Social Media Increase Transplant Donation and Save Lives? Science and Society, Hastings Center Bioethics Forum, available at
Safran, C., Bloomrosen, M., Hammond, W.E., Labkoff, S., Markel-Fox, S., Tang, P.C., Detmer, D.E. 2007. Toward a national framework for the secondary use of health data: an American Medical Informatics Association White Paper. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 14(1):19.
Salathé, M., Freifeld, C.C., Mekaru, S.R., Tomasulo, A.F., Brownstein, J.S. 2013. Influenza A (H7N9) and the importance of digital epidemiology. New England Journal of Medicine 369:401–4.
Schneiderman, L.J., Jecker, N.S. 1995. Wrong Medicine: Doctors, Patients, and Futile Treatment. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Scullard, P., Peacock, C., Davies, P. 2010. Googling children’s health: reliability of medical advice on the internet. Archives of Disease in Childhood 95(8):580–2.
Seck, M.D., Evans, D.D. 2004. Major U.S. Cities Using National Standard Fire Hydrants, One Century After the Great Baltimore Fire. Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology (NISTIR 7158), available at
Shannon, G.W., Buker, C.M. 2010. Determining accessibility to dermatologists and teledermatology locations in Kentucky: demonstration of an innovative geographic information systems approach. Telemedicine Journal and e-Health 16(6):670–7.
Sharkey, N., Sharkey, A. 2012. The rights and wrongs of Robot Care. In Lin, P., Abney, K., Bekey, G.A., eds., Robot Ethics: The Ethical and Social Implications of Robots. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 267–82.
Shaw, G. 1909. The Doctor’s Dilemma: With Preface on Doctors. New York: Brentano’s.
Shaw, J. 2006. Intention in ethics. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 36(2):187223.
Shortliffe, E.H. 1993. Doctors, patients, and computers: Will information technology dehumanize health-care delivery? Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 137(3):390–8.
Shortliffe, E.H. 1994. Dehumanization of patient care: Are computers the problem or the solution? Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 1:7678.
Shortliffe, E.H. 2011. Demonstrating value to secure trust. In Institute of Medicine, Digital Infrastructure for the Learning Health System: The Foundation for Continuous Improvement in Health and Health Care: Workshop Series Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 151–5.
Shortliffe, E.H., Blois, M.S. 2014. Biomedical informatics: the science and the pragmatics. In Shortliffe, E.H., Cimino, J.J., eds., Biomedical Informatics: Computer Applications in Health Care and Biomedicine. 4th edn. New York: Springer, 337.
Shortliffe, E.H., Cimino, J.J., eds. 2014. Biomedical Informatics: Computer Applications in Health Care and Biomedicine. 4th edn. New York: Springer.
Siegler, E.L. 2010. The evolving medical record. Annals of Internal Medicine 153:671–7.
Siegler, E.L., Adelman, R. 2009. Copy and paste: A remediable hazard of electronic health records. American Journal of Medicine 122:495–6.
Simon, H.A. 1971. Designing organizations for an information-rich world. In Greenberger, M., ed., Computers, Communication, and the Public Interest. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins Press, 3752.
Simon, H.A. 1985. Artificial-intelligence approaches to problem solving and clinical diagnosis. In Schaffner, K.F., ed., Logic of Discovery and Diagnosis in Medicine. Berkeley: University of California Press, 7293.
Sims, R. R., Brinkmann, J. 2003. Enron ethics (or culture matters more than codes). Journal of Business Ethics 45(3),243–56.
Singer, P. 1972. Famine, affluence, and morality. Philosophy and Public Affairs 1(1):229–43.
Slack, W.V. 1989. The computer and the doctor-patient relationship. M.D. Computing 6(6):320–1.
Smith, L. 2011. The Kahun Gynaecological Papyrus: ancient Egyptian medicine. Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care 37:54–5.
Smith, L. 2013. The history of contraception. In Briggs, P., Kovacs, G., Guillebaud, J., eds., Contraception: A Casebook from Menarche to Menopause. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 18–25.
Snapper, J.W. 1998. Responsibility for computer-based decisions in health care. In Goodman, K.W., ed., Ethics, Computing, and Medicine: Informatics and the Transformation of Health Care. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 4356.
Snell, K., Starkbaum, J., Lauß, G., Vermeer, A., Helén, I. 2012. From protection of privacy to control of data streams: a focus group study on biobanks in the information society. Public Health Genomics 15(5):293302.
Snyder, L., American College of Physicians Ethics, Professionalism, and Human Rights Committee. 2012. American college of physicians ethics manual: sixth edition. Annals of Internal Medicine 156(1 Pt. 2):73104.
Sommers, B.D., Baicker, K., Epstein, A.M. 2012. Mortality and access to care among adults after state Medicaid expansions. New England Journal of Medicine 367:1025–34.
Sorenson, C., Drummond, M. 2014. Improving medical device regulation: the United States and Europe in perspective. Milbank Quarterly 92(1):114–50.
Spruill, J.A. 1941. Privity of contract as a requisite for recovery on warranty. North Carolina Law Review 19:551–67.
Stangl, A.L., Lloyd, J.K., Brady, L.M., Holland, C.E., Baral, S. 2013. A systematic review of interventions to reduce HIV-related stigma and discrimination from 2002 to 2013: how far have we come? Journal of the International AIDS Society 16(3 Suppl. 2):18734.
Stanley, F.J., Meslin, E.M. 2007. Australia needs a better system for health care evaluation. Medical Journal of Australia 186:220–1.
Stell, L.K. 2014. Volume-outcome disparities and informed consent: What should surgeons disclose? Journal of Surgical Oncology, July 8. doi:10.1002/jso.23718. [Epub ahead of print].
Stevens, J.M. 1975. Gynaecology from ancient Egypt: The papyrus Kahun: A translation of the oldest treatise on gynaecology that has survived from the ancient world. Medical Journal of Australia 2(25–26):949–52.
Stroup, D.F., Berkelman, R.L. 1988. History of statistical methods in public health. In Stroup, D.F., Teutsch, S.M., eds., Statistics in Public Health: Quantitative Approaches to Public Health Problems. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 118.
Sulmasy, D.P., Marx, E.S. 1997. A computerized system for entering orders to limit treatment: implementation and evaluation. Journal of Clinical Ethics 8(3):258–63.
Swan, M. 2009. Emerging patient-driven health care models: an examination of health social networks, consumer personalized medicine and quantified self-tracking. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 6(2):492525.
Swan, M. 2012a. Health 2050: The realization of personalized medicine through crowdsourcing, the quantified self, and the participatory biocitizen. Journal of Personalized Medicine 2(3):93118.
Swan, M. 2012b. Crowdsourced health research studies: an important emerging complement to clinical trials in the public health research ecosystem. Journal of Medical Internet Research 14(2):e46.
Sweeney, L. 1997. Weaving technology and policy together to maintain confidentiality. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 25:98110.
Szczepaniak, M.C., Goodman, K.W., Wagner, M.W., Hutman, J., Daswani, S. 2006. Advancing organizational integration: negotiation, data use agreements, law, and ethics. In Wagner, M.W., Moore, A.W., Aryel, R.M., eds. Handbook of Biosurveillance. Boston: Academic Press, 465–80.
Szolovits, P., Pauker, S.G. 1979. Computers and clinical decision making: whether, how much, and for whom? Proceedings of the IEEE 67:1224–6.
Tamersoy, A., Loukides, G., Nergiz, M.E., Saygin, Y., Malin, B. 2012. Anonymization of longitudinal electronic medical records. IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine 16:413–23.
Tait, I. 1981. History of our records. British Medical Journal 282:702–4.
Tang, P.C., Ashe, J.S., Bates, D.W., Overhage, J.M., Sands, D.Z. 2006. Personal health records: definitions, benefits, and strategies for overcoming barriers to adoption. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 13(2):121–6.
Tassey, G. 2000. Standardization in technology-based markets. Research Policy 29(4–5):587602.
Tenke, P., Köves, B., Johansen, T.E. 2014. An update on prevention and treatment of catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 27(1):102–7.
Thielke, S., Hammond, K., Helbig, S. 2007. Copying and pasting of examinations within the electronic medical record. International Journal of Medical Informatics 76S:122–8.
Treloar, D., Hawayek, J., Montgomery, J.R., Russell, W., Medical Readiness Trainer Team. 2001. On-site and distance education of emergency medicine personnel with a human patient simulator. Military Medicine 166(11):1003–6.
Turkle, S. 2010. In good company? On the threshold of robotic companions. In Wilks, Y., ed., Close Engagements with Artificial Companions: Key Social, Psychological, Ethical and Design Issues. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 310.
Turvey, C., Klein, D., Fix, G., Hogan, T.P., Woods, S., Simon, S.R., Charlton, M., Vaughan-Sarrazin, M., Zulman, D.M., Dindo, L., Wakefield, B., Graham, G., Nazi, K. 2014. Blue Button use by patients to access and share health record information using the Department of Veterans Affairs’ online patient portal. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 21(4):657–63.
University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics. 2005. Stand On Guard for Thee: Ethical Considerations in Preparedness Planning for Pandemic Influenza. Pandemic Influenza Working Group, Toronto: University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics, available at
Upadhyay, D.K., Sittig, D.F., Singh, H. 2014. Ebola US Patient Zero: lessons on misdiagnosis and effective use of electronic health records. Diagnosis, October. Epub ahead of print, DOI:10.1515/dx-2014-0064.
Urban, S. 2010. The electronic health record and the death of diagnosis. Texas Internist, Summer 2010, available at
Urbanski, B.L., Lazenby, M. 2012. Distress among hospitalized pediatric cancer patients modified by pet-therapy intervention to improve quality of life. Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing 29(5):272–82.
US Department of Health, Education and Welfare. 1973. Records, Computers and the Rights of Citizens. (Report of the Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Automated Personal Data Systems [OS]73–94.) Washington, DC: US Department of Health, Education and Welfare, available at and
van den Berge, K., Mamede, S. 2013. Cognitive diagnostic error in internal medicine. European Journal of Internal Medicine 24(6):525–9
Vandenbroucke, J.P. 1998. Medical journals and the shaping of medical knowledge. The Lancet 352:2001–6.
van der Sijs, H., Aarts, J., Vulto, A., Berg, M. 2006. Overriding of drug safety alerts in computerized physician order entry. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 13(2):138–47.
Ventres, W.B., Frankel, R.M. 2010. Patient-centered care and electronic health records: it’s still about the relationship. Family Medicine 42(5):364–6.
Verma, I.M. 2014. Editorial expression of concern: Experimental evidence of massive-scale emotional contagion through social networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111(29):10779.
von Muhlen, M., Ohno-Machado, L. 2012. Reviewing social media use by clinicians. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 19(5):777–81.
Wachter, R. 2010. Why diagnostic errors don′t get any respect – And what can be done about them. Health Affairs 29:1605–10.
Walker, J., Leveille, S.G., Ngo, L., Vodicka, E., Darer, J.D., Dhanireddy, S., Elmore, J.G., Feldman, H.J., Lichtenfeld, M.J., Oster, N., Ralston, J.D., Ross, S.E., Delbanco, T. 2011. Inviting patients to read their doctors’ notes: patients and doctors look ahead: patient and physician surveys. Annals of Internal Medicine 155(12):811–9.
Walsh, C., Siegler, E.L., Cheston, E., O’Donnell, H., Collins, S., Stein, D., Vawdrey, D.K., Stetson, P.D., Informatics Intervention Research Collaboration (I2RC). 2013. Provider-to-provider electronic communication in the era of meaningful use: a review of the evidence. Journal of Hospital Medicine 8(10):589–97.
Wang, W,. Baggerly, K.A., Knudsen, S., Askaa, J., Mazin, W., Coombes, K.R. 2013. Independent validation of a model using cell line chemosensitivity to predict response to therapy. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 105(17):1284–91.
Ward, J.J., Wattier, B.A. 2011. Technology for enhancing chest auscultation in clinical simulation. Respiratory Care 56(6):834–45.
Warren, S.D., Brandeis, L.D. 1890. The right to privacy. Harvard Law Review 4(5):193221.
Wears, R.L. 2008. The chart is dead—long live the chart. Annals of Emergency Medicine 52(4):390–1.
Wears, R.L. 2015. Health information technology and victory. Annals of Emergency Medicine 65(2):143–5.
Weinberg, F. 1993. The history of the stethoscope. Canadian Family Physician 39:2223–4.
Weis, J.M., Levy, P.C. 2014. Copy, paste, and cloned notes in electronic health records: prevalence, benefits, risks, and best practice recommendations. Chest 145(3):632–8.
Were, M.C., Nyandiko, W.M., Huang, K.T., Slaven, J.E., Shen, C., Tierney, W.M., Vreeman, R.C. 2013. Computer-generated reminders and quality of pediatric HIV care in a resource-limited setting. Pediatrics 131(3):e78996.
Were, M.C., Shen, C., Tierney, W.M., Mamlin, J.J., Biondich, P.G., Li, X., Kimaiyo, S., Mamlin, B.W. 2011. Evaluation of computer-generated reminders to improve CD4 laboratory monitoring in sub-Saharan Africa: a prospective comparative study. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 18(2):150–5.
Whiting-O’Keefe, Q.E., Simborg, D.W., Epstein, W.V., Warger, A. 1985. A computerized summary medical record system can provide more information than the standard medical record. Journal of the American Medical Association 254(9):1185–92.
Wilbanks, J. 2014. Portable approaches to informed consent and open data. In Lane, J., Stodden, V., Bender, S., Nissenbaum, H., eds., Privacy, Big Data, and the Public Good. New York: Cambridge University Press, 235–52.
Wilks, Y. 2007. Is There Progress on Talking Sensibly to Machines? Science 318:927–8.
Wilks, Y., Fass, D., Guo, C.M., McDonald, J., Plate, T., Slator, B. 1990. A tractable machine dictionary as a basis for computational semantics. Machine Translation 5:99154.
Williams, H., Spencer, K., Sanders, C., Lund, D., Whitley, E.A., Kaye, J., Dixon, W.G. 2015. Dynamic consent: a possible solution to improve patient confidence and trust in how electronic patient records are used in medical research. JMIR Medical Informatics 3(1):e3.
Williams, R., Bunduchi, R., Gerst, M., Graham, I., Pollock, N., Procter, R.N., Voss, A. 2004. Understanding the evolution of standards : alignment and reconfiguration in standards development and implementation arenas. In Proceedings Society for Social Studies of Science (4S) & European Association for the Study of Science and Technology (EASST) conference, Paris, August 24–28, 2004, 116.
Wilson, G., Aruliah, D.A., Brown, C.T., Chue Hong, N.P., Davis, M., Guy, R.T., Haddock, S.H.D., Huff, K.D., Mitchell, I.M., Plumbley, M.D., Waugh, B., White, E.P., Wilson, P. 2014. Best practices for scientific computing. PLoS Biology 12(1):e1001745.
Winkelstein, P. 2013. Medicine 2.0. ethical challenges of social media for the health profession. In George, C., Whitehouse, D., Duquenoy, P., eds. eHealth: Legal, Ethical and Governance Challenges. Heidelberg: Springer, 227–43.
Winner, L. 1980. Do artifacts have politics? Daedalus 109(1):121–36.
Wolf, S.M. 2013. Return of individual research results and incidental findings: facing the challenges of translational science. Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics 14:557–77.
World Health Organization. 2010. International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. 10th Revision, Vol. 2, Instruction Manual. Geneva: World Health Organization, available at
World Health Organization. 2011. Safety and security on the Internet: Challenges and advances in Member States. Global Observatory for eHealth series – Volume 4, available at
World Health Organization. 2014. Governing principles for a .health top-level domain, May 15, 2014, available at
Yakupcin, J.P. 2005. Child passenger safety in the school-age population. Pediatric Emergency Care 21(4):286–90.
Yarborough, M. 2014. Taking steps to increase the trustworthiness of scientific research. The FASEB Journal 28:3841–6.
Yarborough, M., Hunter, L. 2013. Teaching research ethics better: focus on excellent science, not bad scientists. Clinical and Translational Science 6(3):201–3.
You, J. 2015. DARPA sets out to automate research. Science 347(6221):465.
Youngner, S.J. 1988. Who defines futility? Journal of the American. Medical Association 260:2094–95.
Yu, A.C. 2006. Methods in biomedical ontology. Journal of Biomedical Informatics 39(3):252–66.
Zittrain, J. 2014. No, Barack Obama isn’t handing control of the Internet over to China: The misguided freakout over ICANN. The New Republic, March 24, 2014, available at