Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home
The Ethics of Insurgency
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 9
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Pashakhanlou, Arash Heydarian 2018. Air power in humanitarian intervention: Kosovo and Libya in comparative perspective. Defence Studies, Vol. 18, Issue. 1, p. 39.

    Gross, Michael L. 2017. Saving Life, Limb, and Eyesight: Assessing the Medical Rules of Eligibility During Armed Conflict. The American Journal of Bioethics, Vol. 17, Issue. 10, p. 40.

    Perugini, Nicola and Gordon, Neve 2017. Distinction and the Ethics of Violence: On the Legal Construction of Liminal Subjects and Spaces. Antipode, Vol. 49, Issue. 5, p. 1385.

    April, Michael D. April, Carolyn W. and Kharod, Chetan U. 2017. Physician-Soldier: Navigating the Tension Between Military and Medical Necessity. The American Journal of Bioethics, Vol. 17, Issue. 10, p. 59.

    Gross, Michael L. Canetti, Daphna and Vashdi, Dana R. 2016. The psychological effects of cyber terrorism. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Vol. 72, Issue. 5, p. 284.

    Whetham, David 2015. Response to Michael Gross: Human Shields, Participatory Liability, and Different Sets of Rules. Journal of Military Ethics, Vol. 14, Issue. 3-4, p. 255.

    Morkevicius, Valerie 2015. Response to Michael Gross: Between Reality and Restraint. Journal of Military Ethics, Vol. 14, Issue. 3-4, p. 260.

    Wells, Jeremy 2015. Encyclopedia of Public Administration and Public Policy, Third Edition. p. 1.

    Lucas, George R. 2015. Response to Michael Gross: Military Ethics, Insurgency, and the Rise of ‘Soft War’. Journal of Military Ethics, Vol. 14, Issue. 3-4, p. 251.

    ×

Book description

As insurgencies rage, a burning question remains: how should insurgents fight technologically superior state armies? Commentators rarely ask this question because the catchphrase 'we fight by the rules, but they don't' is nearly axiomatic. But truly, are all forms of guerrilla warfare equally reprehensible? Can we think cogently about just guerrilla warfare? May guerrilla tactics such as laying improvised explosive devices (IEDs), assassinating informers, using human shields, seizing prisoners of war, conducting cyber strikes against civilians, manipulating the media, looting resources, or using nonviolence to provoke violence prove acceptable under the changing norms of contemporary warfare? The short answer is 'yes', but modern guerrilla warfare requires a great deal of qualification, explanation, and argumentation before it joins the repertoire of acceptable military behavior. Not all insurgents fight justly, but guerrilla tactics and strategies are also not always the heinous practices that state powers often portray them to be.

Reviews

'The Ethics of Insurgency brings conceptual clarity to a vexed area of military ethics: the ethical permissibility of tactic used by weaker military forces against much stronger, usually state, militaries. It is a provocative and comprehensive exploration of a very complex issue. A valuable contribution to just war scholarship.'

Martin L. Cook - Stockdale Chair of Professional Military Ethics, United States Naval War College, Newport, Rhode Island

'Although in recent years several books concerned with international law, ethics, and contemporary conflicts marginally addressed the issue of ‘just’ guerrilla warfare, this is without any doubt the first exhaustive academic discussion of the topic. … It will definitely be of great interest not only to academics and international organizations’ officers but particularly to all those, military and civilian, who in their professional capacity are called to take decisions on the battlefield influenced by the perception of the ‘justness’ of a certain way of conducting guerrilla warfare.'

Source: H-Net Reviews

'Michael L. Gross asks in this stimulating book how a relatively small fighting force, struggling toward the goal of political self-determination, might wage war ethically against a stronger, oppressive state. … a provocative text that is well worth reading and marks a serious contribution to discussions about contemporary warfare, especially insurgencies. I recommend it for scholars craving clear and insightful analysis of the highly complex questions raised by contemporary warfare, and for use with graduate students.'

Anna Floerke Scheid Source: Studies in Christian Ethics

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send
    ×

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
×
References
Abdel-Jawad, S. (2001). The classification and recruitment of collaborators. In The phenomenon of collaborators in Palestine, proceedings of a Passia workshop (pp. 17–28). Jerusalem: Palestinian Academic Society for the Study of International Affairs.
Abi-Saab, G. (1979). “The legal status of wars of national liberation.” Wars of national liberation in the Geneva conventions and protocols. Collected Courses of the Hague Academy of International Law, 165, 353–448. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
Abrahms, M. (2011). Does terrorism really work? Evolution in the conventional wisdom since 9/11. Defence and Peace Economics, 22(6), 583–594.
Abresch, W. (2005). A human rights law of internal armed conflict: The European Court of Human Rights in Chechnya. European Journal of International Law, 16(4), 741–767.
Additional Protocol I (API). (1977). Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of August 12, 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), June 8, 1977.
Additional Protocol I (API) Commentary. (1977). Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of August 12, 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), June 8, 1977. Commentary.
Additional Protocol II (APII). (1977). Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of August 12, 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts (Protocol II), June 8, 1977.
Aguswandi, W. Z. (2008). From politics to arms to politics again: The transition of the Gerakan Aceh Merdeka (Free Aceh Movement – GAM). Berlin: Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management.
Aharonovitz, E. (2010). Hezi Shai, who fell prisoner in the battle of Sultan Yaakov, returns to those dark days. Haaretz, March 19. .
Ahmed, A. and Sahak, S. (2013). Drone and Taliban attacks hit civilians, Afghans say. New York Times, August 8. .
Akande, D. (2010). Clearing the fog of war? The ICRC’s interpretive guidance on direct participation in hostilities. International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 59(01), 180–192.
al-Libi, Abu-Yahya. (2008). Website posts Abu-Yahya al-Libi’s research on human shields in jihad.” World News Connection, National Technical Information Service, April 10. .
Amble, J. C. (2012). Combating terrorism in the new media environment. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 35(5), 339–353.
Amnesty International. (2011a). Israel-Hamas prisoner swap casts harsh light on detention practices of all sides. .
Amnesty International. (2011b). Questions around operation against Osama bin Laden. .
Amnesty International. (2011c). Support campaign to end the suffering of Gilad Shalit and his family. .
Annas, G. J., Crosby, S. S., and Glantz, L. H. (2013). Guantanamo Bay: A medical ethics–free zone?New England Journal of Medicine, 369, 101–103.
Arens, O. and Kaufman, E. (2012). The potential Impact of Palestinian Nonviolent Struggle on Israel: Preliminary Lessons and projections for the Future. The Middle East Journal, 66(2), 231–252.
Ariely, G. (2008). Knowledge management, terrorism, and cyber terrorism. In Janczewski, L. and Colarik, A. (Eds.), Cyber warfare and cyber terrorism (pp. 7–16). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.
Arkin, W. (2007). Divining victory: Airpower in the Israel-Hezbollah war. Maxwell Airforce Base: Air University Press.
Army Recognition. (nd). Fadjr-5 333mm multiple rocket launcher system. .
Arquilla, J. and Karasik, T. (1999). Chechnya: A glimpse of future conflict?Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 22(3), 207–229.
Aspinall, E. (2009). Islam and nation: Separatist rebellion in Aceh, Indonesia. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Aspinall, E. and Crouch, H. A. (2003). The Aceh peace process: Why it failed. Washington, DC: East-West Center.
Asprey, R. B. (1994). War in the shadows: The guerrilla in history. New York: William Morrow and Company.
Asser, M. (2006). Qana makes grim history again. July 31. .
Austin, W. C. and Kolenc, A. B. (2006). Who’s afraid of the big bad wolf? The International Criminal Court as a weapon of asymmetric warfare. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, 39, 291–346.
Awwad, H. (2012). Six years of BDS: Success. In Lim, A. (Ed.), The case for sanctions against Israel (pp. 77–84). London: Verso.
Bakker, P. (2001). New nationalism: The internet crusade (paper prepared for International Studies Association Annual Convention, Chicago, Illinois, February 20–24). .
Ballentine, K. and Nitzschke, H. (2005). The political economy of civil war and conflict transformation. Berlin: Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management. . 2005.
Bangerter, O. (2011a). A collection of codes of conduct issued by armed groups. International Review of the Red Cross, 93(882), 483–501.
Bangerter, O. (2011b). Reasons why armed groups choose to respect international humanitarian law or not. International Review of the Red Cross, 93(882), 353–384.
Banville, A. (2010). Embedded war reporting cannot escape its own bias. The Guardian, April 18. .
Bar Joseph, U. (2007). Israel’s military intelligence performance in the Second Lebanon War. International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence, 20, 583–601.
Barilan, Y. M. (2012). Human dignity, human rights, and responsibility: The new language of global ethics and biolaw. Cambridge: The MIT Press.
Barilan, Y. M. and Zuckerman, S. (2013). Revisiting medical neutrality as a moral value and as a doctrine of international law. In Gross, M. L. and Carrick, D. (Eds.), Military medical ethics for the 21st century (pp. 97–110). Farnham, UK: Ashgate.
Barnard, A. and Rudoren, J. (2014). Israel says that Hamas uses civilian shields, reviving debate. New York Times, July 23. .
Barzashka, I. (2013). Are cyber-weapons effective?The RUSI Journal, 158(2), 48–56.
BDS Movement. (2005). Palestinian civil society call for BDS. July 9. .
BDS National Committee. (2009). Palestinian trade unions unanimously support boycott movement. BDS National Committee, Press Release, November 26. .
Be’er, Y. and Abdel-Jawad, S. (1994). Collaborators in the Occupied Territories: Human rights abuses and violations. Jerusalem: B’Tselem.
Beaton, A., Cook, M., Kavanagh, M., and Herrington, C. (2000). The psychological impact of burglary. Psychology, Crime and Law, 6(1), 33–43.
Becker, J. (2011). Beirut bank seen as a hub of Hezbollah’s financing. New York Times, December 12. .
Bedau, H. (1968). The right to life. The Monist, 52(4), 550–572.
Bedau, H. (1971). Military service and moral obligation. Inquiry, 14(1–4), 244–266.
Beggs, C. (2008). Cyber-terrorism in Australia. IGI Global, 108–113.
Beitz, C. R. (1989). Covert intervention as a moral problem. Ethics & International Affairs, 3(1), 45–60.
Bekaj, A. R. (2010). The KLA and the Kosovo war: From intra-state conflict to independent country. Berlin: Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management.
Bekkers, R. and Wiepking, P. (2007). Generosity and philanthropy: A literature review. Available at SSRN. .
Bellamy, A. J. (2012). Massacres and morality: Mass atrocities in an age of civilian immunity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Benbaji, Y. (2013). Justice in asymmetric wars: A contractarian analysis. The Law & Ethics of Human Rights, 6(2), 172–200.
Bennet, H. (2010). Detention and interrogation in Northern Ireland, 1969–75. In Scheipers, S. (Ed.), Prisoners in war (pp. 187–204). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Beres, L. R. (2002–2003). Assassinating Saddam Hussein: The view from international law. Indiana International & Comparative Law Review, 13, 847–870.
Betz, D. J. (2006). The more you know, the less you understand: The problem with information warfare. The Journal of Strategic Studies, 29(3), 505–533.
Black, J. (2001). Semantics and ethics of propaganda. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 16(2–3), 121–137.
Blake, N. and Pole, K. (Eds.). (1984). Objections to nuclear defence: Philosophers on deterrence. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Blau, P. M. (1963). Critical remarks on Weber’s theory of authority. The American Political Science Review, 57(2), 305–316.
Bleich, A., Gelkopf, M., Melamed, Y., and Solomon, Z. (2006). Mental health and resiliency following 44 months of terrorism: a survey of an Israeli national representative sample. BMC Medicine, 4(1), 21. .
Bleich, A., Gelkopf, M., and Solomon, Z. (2003). Exposure to terrorism, stress-related mental health symptoms, and coping behaviors among a nationally representative sample in Israel. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 290, 612–620.
Bok, S. (1999). Lying: Moral choice in public and private life. New York: Vintage.
Bozarslan, H. (2001). Human rights and the Kurdish issue in Turkey: 1984–1999. Human Rights Review, 3(1), 45–54.
Bracken, P. (2007). Financial warfare. Orbis, 51(4), 685–696.
Branche, R. (2010). The French in Algeria: Can there be prisoners of war in a ‘domestic’ operation? In Scheipers, S. (Ed.), Prisoners in war (pp. 173–186). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bray, J., Lunde, L., and Murshed, S. M. (2003). Nepal: Economic drivers of the Maoist insurgency. In Ballentine, K. and Sherman, J. (Eds.), The political economy of armed conflict: Beyond greed and grievance (pp. 107–132). London: Rienner.
Brown, B. B. and Harris, P. B. (1989). Residential burglary victimization: Reactions to the invasion of a primary territory. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 9(2), 119–132.
Brown, C. (2003). Selective humanitarianism: In defense of inconsistency. In Chatterjee, D. K. and Scheid, D. (Eds.), Ethics and foreign intervention (pp. 31–52). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Brown, J. (2008). Public diplomacy and propaganda: Their difference. American Diplomacy, September 16. .
B’Tselem. (The Israeli Information Center for Human Rights in the Occupied Territories). (2009). B’Tselem’s investigation of fatalities in Operation Cast Lead. September 9. .
B’Tselem. (2012a). Statistics on Palestinians in the custody of the Israeli security forces. .
B’Tselem. (2012b). Five years without visits – Will family visits be renewed for prisoners from Gaza? .
B’Tselem. (2013). Fatalities before, during and since Operation Cast Lead and in the First Intifada. .
B’Tselem. (nd.). Fatalities in the first Intifada. Accessed November 20, 2013. .
Buchanan, A. (1997). Theories of secession. Philosophy & Public Affairs, 26(1), 31–61.
Buchanan, J. M. (1984). The ethical limits of taxation. The Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 86(2), 102–114.
Buchholz, M. B. (2013). The human shield in Islamic ,jurisprudence. Military Review, May-June, 48–52.
Bush, G. W. (2010). Decision points. New York: Random House.
Byrd, W. and Mansfield, D. (2012) Drugs in Afghanistan – A forgotten issue? Implications and risks for transition. United States Institute of Peace PEACEBRIEF, 126, May 18, p. 4. .
Byrd, W. and Ward, C. (2004). Drugs and development in Afghanistan. World Bank, Social Development Papers, Conflict Prevention and Reconstruction, Paper No. 18, December. .
Caddell, J. W. (2004). Deception 101: Primer on deception. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College.
Canetti, D., Gross, M. L., and Waismel-Manor, I. (in press). Immune from cyber fire? The psychological & physiological effects of cyber war. In Allhoff, F., Henschke, A., and Strawser, B. J. (Eds.). Binary Bullets: The Ethics of Cyberwarfare. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Canetti-Nisim, D., Halperin, E., Sharvit, K., and Hobfoll, S. E. (2009). A new stress-based model of political extremism personal exposure to terrorism, psychological distress, and exclusionist political attitudes. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 53(3), 363–389.
Caney, S. (1998). National self-determination and national secession: Individualist and communitarian approaches. In Lehning, P. B. (Ed.), Theories of secession (pp. 151–181). New York: Routledge.
Carley, S. D. and Mackway-Jones, K. (1997). The casualty profile from the Manchester bombing 1996: a proposal for the construction and dissemination of casualty profiles from major incidents. Journal of Accident & Emergency Medicine, 14(2), 76–80.
Carter, A. (1998). Liberalism and the obligation to military service. Political Studies, 46(1), 68–81.
Casalin, D. (2011). Taking prisoners: Reviewing the international humanitarian law grounds for deprivation of liberty by armed opposition groups. International Review of the Red Cross, 93(883), 743–757.
Cass, D. Z. (1992). Re-thinking self-determination: A critical analysis of current international law theories. Syracuse Journal of International Law and Commerce, 18, 21–40.
Cassese, A. (1995). Self-determination of peoples: A legal reappraisal. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cavelty, M. D. (2012). Cyber-threats. In Cavelty, M. D. and Mauer, V. (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of security studies (pp. 180–189). London: Routledge.
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). (2007, 2012). The world factbook. .
Chadwick, A. (2012). Lebanon: The 2006 Lebanon War: A Short History Part II. Small Wars Journal, September 12. .
Chaumont, C. (1977). Additional Protocol I, Commentary, Article 44, page 519, note 40.
Checchia, M. (2012a). Improvised explosive devices: A Global Review. Civil-military fusion centre counter-Improvised explosive devices. January & February. .
Checchia, M. (2012b). Improvised explosive devices: A Global Review. Civil-military fusion centre counter-Improvised explosive devices.March, April & May. .
Chenoweth, E. and Cunningham, K. G. (2013). Understanding nonviolent resistance: An introduction. Journal of Peace Research, 50(3), 271–276.
Chenoweth, E. and Stephan, M. J. (2011). Why civil resistance works: The strategic logic of nonviolent conflict. New York: Columbia University Press.
Chesser, S. G. (2012). Afghanistan casualties: Military forces and civilians. Congressional Research Service. Washington, DC: Library of Congress. .
Christians, C. and Nordenstreng, K. (2004). Social responsibility worldwide. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 19(1), 3–28.
Christiansen, D. and Powers, G. F. (1995). Economic sanctions and the just-war doctrine. In Cortright, D. and Lopez, G. A. (Eds.), Economic sanctions: Panacea or peacebuilding in a post-Cold War world? (pp. 97–117). Boulder, CO: Westview.
Cirino, J. A., Elizondo, S. L., and Wawro, G. (2004). Latin America’s lawless areas and failed states. In P. D. Taylor (Ed.), Latin American security challenges: A collaborative inquiry from North and South, Newport Papers, 21 (pp. 7–48). Newport, RI: Naval War College. .
Clark, H. (2000). Civil resistance in Kosovo. London: Pluto Press.
Cliffe, L. (1989). Forging a nation: The Eritrean experience.Third World Quarterly, 11(4), 131–147.
Coady, C. A. J. (1988). Deterrent intentions revisited. Ethics, 99(1), 98–108.
Coady, C. A. J. (1989). Escaping from the bomb: Immoral deterrence and the problem of extrication. In Shue, H. (Ed.), Nuclear deterrence and moral restraint: Critical choices for American strategy (pp. 163–225). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Coady, C. A. J. (2004). Terrorism, morality, and supreme emergency. Ethics, 114(4), 772–789.
Cohen, A. (2009). Economic sanctions in IHL: Suggested principles. Israel Law Review, 42, 117–149.
Connell, D. (2001). Inside the EPLF: The origins of the ‘people’s party’ & its role in the liberation of Eritrea. Review of African Political Economy, 28(89), 345–364.
Coogan, T. P. (2002). The IRA. London: HarperCollins UK.
Coovadia, H. M. (1999). Sanctions and the struggle for health in South Africa. American Journal of Public Health, 89(10), 1505–1508.
Cordesman, A. H. (2003). The military balance in North Africa. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies. .
Cordesman, A. H. (2007). Lessons of the 2006 Israeli-Hezbollah war. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies. .
Cordone, C. and Gidron, A. (2000). Was the Serbian TV station really a legitimate target. Le Monde Diplomatique. .
Corlett, J. A. (2003). Terrorism: A philosophical analysis (vol. 101). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Council on Foreign Relations (CFR). (2011). Hamas. .
Cunningham, K. G. (2013). Understanding strategic choice: The determinants of civil war and nonviolent campaign in self-determination disputes. Journal of Peace Research, 50(3), 291–304.
Cunningham, S. B. (1992). Sorting out the ethics of propaganda. Communication Studies, 43(4), 233–245.
Daadaoui, M. (2008). The Western Sahara conflict: Towards a constructivist approach to self-determination. The Journal of North African Studies, 13(2), 143–156.
Daboné, Z. (2012). International law: Armed groups in a state-centric system. International Review of the Red Cross, 93(882), 395.
Dadpay, A. (2010). A review of Iranian aviation industry: Victim of sanctions or creation of mismanagement? (paper presented at the Third Conference on Iran’s Economy, University of Chicago, Chicago, October). .
Dajani, S. R. (1995). Eyes without country: Searching for a Palestinian strategy of liberation. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
Dajani, S. R. (1999). Nonviolent resistance in the Occupied Territories: A critical reevaluation. In Zunes, S., Asher, S. B., and Kurtz, L. (Eds.), Nonviolent social movements: A geographical perspective (pp. 52–74). Oxford: Blackwell.
Darwish, R., Farajalla, N., and Masri, R. (2009). The 2006 war and its inter-temporal economic impact on agriculture in Lebanon. Disasters, 33(4), 629–644.
Davison, N. (2009). Nonlethal weapons. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
Demmers, J. (2002). Diaspora and conflict: Locality, long-distance nationalism, and delocalisation of conflict dynamics. The Public-Javnost, 9(1), 85–96.
Denselow, J. (2010). The Iran sanctions dilemma. The Guardian, January 2. .
Department of the Army. (2006). Field manual FM 3–24, MCWP 3–33.5, Counterinsurgency. Washington, DC: Department of the Army.
Department of the Navy. (2007). Naval Warfare Publication, The Commander’s Handbook on The Law of Naval Operations, NWP 1-14M 2007. .
Diamant, A. (2009). Day after night: A novel. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Diamond, G. M., Lipsitz, J. D., Fajerman, Z.and Rozenblat, O. (2010). Ongoing traumatic stress response (OTSR) in Sderot, Israel. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 41, 19–25.
Dietz, A. S. (2011). Countering the effects of IED systems in Afghanistan: An integral approach. Small Wars & Insurgencies, 22(02), 385–401.
Dinniss, H. H. (2012). Cyber warfare and the laws of war. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dinstein, Y. (2005) War, aggression and self-defense (4th ed). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dinstein, Y. (2009). The international law of belligerent occupation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dinstein, Y. (2010). The conduct of hostilities under the law of international armed conflict (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dishman, C. (2001). Terrorism, crime, and transformation. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 24(1), 43–58.
Dörmann, K. (2004). Applicability of the Additional Protocols to computer network attacks. War Studies, 76. .
Dudouet, V. (2008). Nonviolent resistance and conflict transformation in power asymmetries. Berlin: Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management
Dudouet, V. (2013). Dynamics and factors of transition from armed struggle to nonviolent resistance. Journal of Peace Research, 50(3), 401–413.
DunlapJr., C. J. (2009). Lawfare: A decisive element of 21st-century conflicts?Joint Force Quarterly, 54, 34–39.
Dunn, J. (2001). Against Humanity in East Timor, January to October 1999: Their nature and causes. East Timor Action Network. .
Eck, K. (2009). From armed conflict to war: Ethnic mobilization and conflict intensification. International Studies Quarterly, 53(2), 369–388.
Eck, K. (2010). Recruiting rebels: Indoctrination and political education in Nepal. In Lawoti, M. and Pahari, A. (Eds.), The Maoist insurgency in Nepal: Dynamics and growth in the 21st century (pp. 33–51). London: Routledge.
Ellul, J. (1981). The ethics of propaganda: Propaganda, innocence, and amorality. Communication, 6, 159–175.
Elster, J. (1989). The cement of society: A survey of social order. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
English, R. (2003). Armed struggle: The history of the IRA. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Erakat, N. (2012). BDS in the USA: 2001–2010. In Lim, A. (Ed.), The case for sanctions against Israel (pp. 85–100). London: Verso.
Erdbrink, T. (2012). For Iran’s sick, sanctions turn lethal as drugs vanish. International Herald Tribune, November 3–4, p. 1.
Erlich, R. (2006). Hezbollah’s use of Lebanese civilians as human shields. Ramat Hasharon: Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center at the Center for Special Studies (C.S.S). .
Estes, A. C. (2013). Anonymous hits Israel with a massive cyber attack, Israel attacks back. Yahoo News. .
Estrin, D. (2012). Gilad Shalit, Freed Israeli soldier, speaks of Hamas captivity. Huffington Post. .
Ethics. (1985). Symposium on ethics and nuclear deterrence. Ethics, 95 (3), 409–739.
Etzioni, A. (2010). The case for drones. Email posting from Communitarian International Relations, 3.31.2010.
Even, S. (2010). Israel’s defense expenditure. Strategic Assessment (Tel Aviv), 12(4), 37–55.
Fabre, C. (2012). Cosmopolitan war. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Fattouh, B. and Kolb, J. (2006). The outlook for economic reconstruction in Lebanon after the 2006 war. The MIT Electronic Journal of Middle East Studies, 6, 97–111.
Federation of American Scientists (FAS). (2000). Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA); Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM). .
Fidler, D. P. (1999). International legal implications of nonlethal weapons. The Michigan Journal of International Law, 21, 51–100.
Fidler, D. P. (2005). The meaning of Moscow: “Nonlethal” weapons and international law in the early 21st century. International Review of the Red Cross, 87. 525–552.
Finlay, C. J. (2010). Legitimacy and non-state political violence. Journal of Political Philosophy, 18(3), 287–312.
Finlay, C. J. (2012). Fairness and liability in the just war: Combatants, non-combatants and lawful irregulars. Political Studies, 61(1), 142–160.
Fletcher, G. P. (2003). Ambivalence about treason. North Carolina Law Review, 82, 1611–1628.
Freedman, L. (2006). Strategic communications. The Adelphi Papers, 45(379), 73–93. .
Friedman, R. B. (1990). On the concept of authority in political philosophy. In Raz, J. (Ed.), Authority (pp. 56–91). New York: NYU Press.
Friedman, T. (2013). Without water, revolution. New York Times, May 19. .
Fukuda, C. M. (2000). Peace through nonviolent action: The East Timorese resistance movement’s strategy for engagement. Pacifica Review: Peace, Security & Global Change, 12(1), 17–31.
The Fund for Peace (2010). The Failed State Index: Indicators. .
Galeotti, M. (2002). ‘Brotherhoods’ and ‘associates’: Chechen networks of crime and resistance. Low Intensity Conflict & Law Enforcement, 11(2–3), 340–352.
Galtung, J. (2007). Peace journalism as ethical challenge. *asteriskos, 3/4, 7–16.
Ganor, B. (2005). Terrorism as a strategy of psychological warfare. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 9(1–2), 33–43.
Garfield, R. (1999). The impact of economic sanctions on health and well-being. Relief and Rehabilitation Network, London. .
Garfield, R., Devin, J., and Fausey, J. (1995). The health impact of economic sanctions. Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 72(2), 454–469.
Gebauer, M. (2006). Hezbollah’s Al-Manar: Broadcasting from the bunker. Spiegel Online, August 10. .
Gelkopf, M., Berger, R., Bleich, A., and Silver, R. C. (2012). Protective factors and predictors of vulnerability to chronic stress: A comparative study of 4 communities after 7 years of continuous rocket fire. Social Science & Medicine,74(5), 757–766.
Geneva Convention (IV). (1949). Convention relative to the protection of civilian persons in time of war. Geneva, August 12, 1949.
Geneva Convention (IV). (1949). Commentary, convention relative to the protection of civilian persons in time of war. Geneva, August 12, 1949.
Gewirth, A. (1982). Individual rights and political-military objectives. In Gewirth, A. (Ed.), Human rights: Essays on justification and applications (pp. 234–255). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Gilbert, P. (1998). Good and bad cases for national secession. In Lehning, P. B. (Ed.), Theories of secession (pp. 208–226). New York: Routledge.
Gilboa, D. (2008). To be an Israeli prisoner of war. Association of Israeli POWs, November 20. (Hebrew). .
Giustozzi, A. (2014). The Taliban’s ‘military courts.’Small Wars & Insurgencies, 25(2), 284–296.
Global Security. (2003). Improvised explosive devices – Iraq. .
Global Security. (nd.a). Hamas funding. .
Global Security. (nd. b) Iranian artillery rockets, Fadjr-5 333mm multiple rocket launcher system. .
Goodhand, J. (2004). From war economy to peace economy? Reconstruction and state building in Afghanistan. Journal of International Affairs, 58(1), 155–174.
Gordon, J. (1999a). Economic sanctions, just war doctrine, and the fearful spectacle of the civilian dead. Cross Currents, 49(3), 387–400.
Gordon, J. (1999b). A peaceful, silent, deadly remedy: The ethics of economic sanctions. Ethics & International Affairs, 13(1), 123–142.
Gordon, J. (2011). Smart sanctions revisited. Ethics & International Affairs, 25, 315–335.
Gottstein, U. (1999). Peace through sanctions? Lessons from Cuba, former Yugoslavia and Iraq. Medicine, Conflict and Survival, 15(3), 271–285.
Gould, J. A. and Moe, E. (2012). Beyond rational choice: Ideational assault and the use of delegitimation frames in nonviolent revolutionary movements. Research in Social Movements, Conflict, and Change, 34, 123–151.
Graham, G. (2007). People’s war? Self-interest, coercion and ideology in Nepal’s Maoist insurgency. Small Wars & Insurgencies, 18(2), 231–248.
Greenberg, H. and Vaked, E. (2004). Six soldiers killed by IED explosion in Gaza. Ynet (Hebrew).
Gross, M. L. (1997). Ethics and activism: The theory and practice of political morality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gross, M. L. (2006). Bioethics and armed conflict: Moral dilemmas of medicine and war. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Gross, M. L. (2008). The Second Lebanon War: The question of proportionality and the prospect of nonlethal warfare. Journal of Military Ethics, 7(1), 1–22.
Gross, M. L. (2010a). Moral dilemmas of modern war: Torture, assassination, and blackmail in an age of asymmetric conflict. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gross, M. L. (2010b). Medicalized weapons & modern war. Hastings Center Report, 40(1), 34–43.
Gross, M. L. (2012). Civilian vulnerability in asymmetric conflict: Lessons from the second Lebanon and Gaza Wars. In Rothbart, D. (Ed.), Civilians and modern war (pp. 146–164). London: Routledge.
Gross, M. L. (2013). Force-feeding, autonomy, and the public interest. New England Journal of Medicine, 369,103–105.
Gruf, Y. (2003). I was a prisoner. Association of Israeli POWs, October 3. (Hebrew). .
Grynkewich, A. G. (2008). Welfare as warfare: How violent non-state groups use social services to attack the state. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 31(4), 350–370.
Gunaratna, R. (2003). Sri Lanka: Feeding the Tamil Tigers. In Ballentine, K. and Sherman, J. (Eds.), The political economy of armed conflict: Beyond greed and grievance (pp. 197–224). London: Rienner.
Gunning, J. (2009). Hamas in politics: Democracy, religion, violence. Oxford: Columbia University Press.
Gurr, T. R. (2000). Nonviolence in ethnopolitics: Strategies for the attainment of group rights and autonomy. PS: Political Science and Politics, 33(2), 155–160.
Guth, D. W. (2009). Black, white, and shades of gray: The sixty-year debate over propaganda versus public diplomacy. Journal of Promotion Management, 14(3–4), 309–325.
Haensel, P. (1941). War taxation. Taxes, 19(2), 67–69; 122–125.
Hardin, R. (1982). Collective action. Baltimore: Hopkins University Press.
Harel, A. and Issacharoff, A. (2004). The seventh war (Hebrew). Tel Aviv: Yedioth Ahronoth.
Harel, A. and Issacharoff, A. (2008). Analysis: A hard look at Hamas’ capabilities. Haaretz, December 26. .
Harff, B. (2003). No lessons learned from the Holocaust? Assessing risks of genocide and political mass murder since 1955. American Political Science Review, 97(1), 57–73.
Haslam, E. (2000). Information warfare: Technological changes and international law. Journal of Conflict & Security Law, 5, 157–175.
Heller, J. (1995). Catch 22. New York: Everyman’s Library Random House.
Henriksen, R. and Vinci, A. (2007). Combat motivation in non-state armed groups. Terrorism and Political Violence, 20(1), 87–109.
Hercheui, M. D. (2011). A literature review of virtual communities: The relevance of understanding the influence of institutions on online collectives. Information, Communication & Society, 14(1), 1–23.
Hess, D. and Martin, B. (2006). Repression, backfire, and the theory of transformative events. Mobilization: An International Quarterly, 11(2). .
Hicks, M. H. R., Lee, U. R., Sundberg, R., and Spagat, M. (2011). Global comparison of warring groups in 2002–2007: Fatalities from targeting civilians vs. fighting battles. PloS one, 6(9).
Hiebert, R. E. (2003). Public relations and propaganda in framing the Iraq war: A preliminary review. Public Relations Review, 29(3), 243–255.
Hill, D. T. (2002). East Timor and the Internet: Global political leverage in/on Indonesia. Indonesia, 73, 25–51.
Hoff, D. L. and Mitchell, S. N. (2009). Cyberbullying: Causes, effects, and remedies. Journal of Educational Administration, 47(5), 652–665.
Holder, E. (2012). Attorney General Eric Holder Speaks at Northwestern University School of Law. Chicago, Monday, March 5, 2012. .
Hollis, R. (1997). Europe and the Middle East: Power by stealth?International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs), 73(1), 15–29.
Horgan, J. and Taylor, M. (1999). Playing the ‘Green Card’–Financing the provisional IRA: Part 1. Terrorism and Political Violence, 11(2), 1–38.
Horgan, J. and Taylor, M. (2003). Playing the ‘green card’–Financing the provisional IRA: part 2. Terrorism and Political Violence, 15(2), 1–60.
Howe, E. G., Kosaraju, A., Laraby, P. R., and Casscells, S. W. (2009). Guantanamo: Ethics, interrogation, and forced feeding. Military Medicine, 174(1), iv-xiii.
Howie, L. (2007). The terrorism threat and managing workplaces. Disaster Prevention and Management, 16, 70–78.
Hughes, J. (2007). Chechnya: From nationalism to jihad. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Hultman, L. (2007). Battle losses and rebel violence: Raising the costs for fighting. Terrorism and Political Violence, 19(2), 205–222.
Human Rights Watch (HRW). (1991). Evil days: Thirty years of war and famine in Ethiopia. .
Human Rights Watch (HRW). (1995). Russia three months of war in Chechnya. Vol. 7, No. 6. .
Human Rights Watch (HRW). (1997). East Timor – Guerrilla attacks. June 4. .
Human Rights Watch (HRW). (2001). Under orders: War crimes in Kosovo. .
Human Rights Watch (HRW). (2003). International humanitarian law issues in a potential war in Iraq (Human Rights Watch Briefing Paper, February 20).
Human Rights Watch (HRW). (2006). Israel/Lebanon: Israel responsible for Qana attack. July 30. .
Human Rights Watch (HRW). (2007a). Civilians under assault: Hezbollah’s rocket attacks on Israel in the 2006 war. .
Human Rights Watch (HRW). (2007b). Why they died: Civilian casualties in Lebanon during the 2006 War. .
Human Rights Watch (HRW). (2008–2011). World report, Russia 2008–11. ; ; ; .
Human Rights Watch (HRW). (2010). Gaza: Do not resume executions. .
Human Rights Watch (HRW). (2011–2013). World report, Sri Lanka 2011–2013. ; ; ; .
Human Rights Watch (HRW). (2012). Abusive system: Criminal justice in Gaza. .
Human Security Report Project. (2013). Human security report 2013, The decline in global violence: Evidence, explanation, and contestation. Vancouver: Human Security Press.
Humphreys, M. and Weinstein, J. M. (2008). Who fights? The determinants of participation in civil war. American Journal of Political Science, 52(2), 436–455.
iCasualties.org. (2014). Coalition military fatalities by year. .
Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center (ITIC). (2008). Preventing the harming of uninvolved persons. December 27. . Archived with author.
Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center (ITIC). (2009). Hamas modus operandi – Terrorist shooting from a roof of a house and using children as a human shield. 6 January. . Archived with author.
International Criminal Court (ICC). (2011). Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court.
International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICCT). (nd.). Case Information Sheet, IT-03-66, LIMAJ et al., The Prosecutor v. Fatmir Limaj, Isak Musliu & Haradin Bala. .
International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). (1994). Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 and Additional Protocols of 8 June 1977: Ratifications, accessions and successions as at 31 December 1994. .
International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). (2006). A guide to the legal review of new weapons, means and methods of warfare: Measures to implement Article 36 of Additional Protocol I of 1977. International Review of the Red Cross, 88(864), 931–956.
International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). (2010). Gaza closure: Not another year! News Release, 10/103, 06-14-2010. .
International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). (2011). Annex: The Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. The Layha [Code of conduct For Mujahids]. International Review of the Red Cross, 93(881), 103–120.
International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). (2013). Hunger strikes in prisons: The ICRC’s position. .
International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). (nd. a). Customary international humanitarian law, Rule 8, definition of military objectives. ).
International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). (nd. b). Customary international humanitarian law, Rule 65, perfidy.
International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). (nd. c). Customary international humanitarian law, Rule 62, improper use of the flags or military emblems, insignia or uniforms of the adversary.
International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). (nd. d). Customary international humanitarian law, Rule 96, hostage taking.
International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). (nd. e). Customary international humanitarian law, Rule 97, human shields. .
International Court of Justice (ICJ). (1975). Western Sahara, Advisory Opinion. October 16. .
International Institute of Strategic Studies (IISS). (1999). The Kosovo Liberation Army. Volume 5, Issue 4. 1999.
International Institute of Strategic Studies (IISS). (2006). The military balance 2006. .
International Security Assistance Force (ISAF). (2011). Effective civil partnerships: Community project yields unlikely find. August 25. .
Iraq Body Count. (2012). Iraqi deaths from violence 2003-2011. .
Israel High Court of Justice (HCJ). (2005). The Public Committee against Torture in Israel and the Palestinian Society for the Protection of Human Rights and the Environment v. The Government of Israel and others. Case 769/02.
Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA). (2009). The operation in Gaza: Factual and legal aspects. Jerusalem; MFA.
Israel Security Agency. (nd.). Analysis of attacks in the last decade, 2000–2010. .
Issacharoff, A. (2009). Rights group: Most Gazans killed in war were civilians. Haaretz, September 9. .
Iyob, R. (1995). The Eritrean struggle for independence: Domination, resistance, nationalism, 1941–1993. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Janes, . (2007). Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) (Sudan). Jane’s World Insurgency and Terrorism, January 30.
Jensen, B. (2012). The Taliban’s wedge strategy. New York Times, August 21. .
Johnson, D. H. (1998). The Sudan People’s Liberation Army and the Problem of Factionalism. In Clapham, C. (Ed.), African guerrillas (pp. 53–72). Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
Johnson, T. H. (2007). The Taliban insurgency and an analysis of Shabnamah (Night Letters). Small Wars and Insurgencies, 18(3): 317–344.
Johnson, N. (2010). Small projects reap large gains in Helmand. ISAF. .
Johnson, M. and Johnson, T. (1981). Eritrea: The national question and the logic of protracted struggle. African Affairs, 80(319), 181–195.
Johnson, T. and Bruno, G. (2012). The lengthening list of Iran sanctions. Council on Foreign Relations, July 31. .
Judah, T. (2000). The Kosovo Liberation Army. Perceptions, Sep-Nov, 61–77.
Jurist, . (2011). Spain court turns over Guantanamo torture investigation to US. The Juris, April 13. .
Kalb, M. and Saivetz, C. (2007). The Israeli – Hezbollah war of 2006: The media as a weapon in asymmetrical conflict. The Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 12(3), 43–66.
Kaldor, M. (1997). Introduction. In Kaldor, M. and Vashee, B., Restructuring the global military sector. Volume 1: New wars (pp. 3–33). New York: Pinter.
Kalyvas, S. N. (2003). The ontology of “political violence”: Action and identity in civil wars. Perspectives on Politics, 1, 475–494.
Kalyvas, S. N. (2006). The logic of violence in civil war. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kalyvas, S. N. and Kocher, M. (2007). How “free” is free-riding in civil wars?World Politics, 59(2), 177–216.
Kasfir, N. (2005). Guerrillas and civilian participation: The National Resistance Army in Uganda, 1981–86. Journal of Modern African Studies,43(2), 271–296.
Kasymov, S. (2011). The right of communities to self-determination. Peace Review: A Journal of Social Justice, 23(2), 221–227.
Katz, Y. (2012). Security and defense: Protecting the weakest link. The Jerusalem Post, June 1. .
Kaurin, P. (2010). With fear and trembling: An ethical framework for nonlethal weapons. Journal of Military Ethics, 9(1), 100–114.
Kearney, M. (2007). The prohibition of propaganda for war in international law. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kelsay, J. (2007). Arguing the just war in Islam. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Kelsey, J. T. (2008). Hacking into International Humanitarian Law: The principles of distinction and neutrality in the age of cyber warfare. Michigan Law Review, 106(7), 1427–1451.
Keynes, J. M. (1940). How to pay for the War: A radical plan for the Chancellor of the Exchequer. New York: Harcourt Brace and Company.
Khatchadourian, R. (2010). Street fight on the high seas posted. The New Yorker, January 12. .
Khoury, J. (2013). Analysis: For Palestinian prisoners in Israel, hunger strikes have become a winning strategy. Haaretz, April 24. .
Khoury-Machool, M. (2007). Palestinian youth and political activism: The emerging internet culture and new modes of resistance. Policy Futures in Education, 5(1), 17–36.
Kilcullen, D. (2009). The accidental guerrilla: Fighting small wars in the midst of a big one. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
King, M. E. (2007). A quiet revolution: The first Palestinian Intifada and nonviolent resistance. New York: Nation Books.
Kingsbury, D. (2000). East Timor to 1999. In Kingsbury, D. (Ed.), Guns and ballot boxes East Timor’s vote for independence (pp. 17–28). Victoria, Australia: Monash Asia Institute.
Kirkpatrick, D. D. (2011). NATO strikes at Libyan state TV. New York Times, July 30. .
Klare, M. T. (1992/1993). The next great arms race. Foreign Affairs, 72, 136–152.
Knoke, D. (1988). Incentives in collective action organizations. American Sociological Review, 53(3), 311–329.
Kober, A. (2007). Targeted killing during the second intifada: The quest for effectiveness. Journal of Conflict Studies, 27(1). .
Kocher, M. (2007). The decline of PKK and the viability of a one–state solution in Turkey. Democracy and human rights in multicultural societies. International Journal on Multicultural Societies, 4(1), Societies. .
Koplow, D. A. (2006). Nonlethal weapons. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kopp, C. (2007). Technology of improvised explosive devices. Defence Today, 6(3), 45–47.
Kraja, G. (2011). Recruitment practices of Europe’s last guerrilla: Ethnic mobilization, violence and networks in the recruitment strategy of the Kosovo Liberation Army. Unpublished senior thesis, Yale University.
Krajeski, J. (2012). After the hunger strike. The New Yorker, November 29. .
Kruglanski, A. W., Chen, X., Dechesne, M., Fishman, S. and Orehek, E. (2009). Fully committed: Suicide bombers’ motivation and the quest for personal significance. Political Psychology, 30(3), 331–357.
Kymlicka, W. (1998). Is federalism a viable alternative to secession? In Lehning, P. B. (Ed.), Theories of secession (pp. 109–148). New York: Routledge.
Landau-Tassero, E. (2006). Non-combatants in Muslim legal thought. Center on Islam, Democracy, and the Future of the Muslim World, Research Monographs on the Muslim. World Series No 1, Paper No 3, December. Washington, DC: Hudson Institute. .
Lango, J. W. (2010). Nonlethal weapons, noncombatant immunity, and combatant nonimmunity: A study of just war theory. Philosophia 38(3), 475–497.
Lappin, Y. (2009). IDF releases Cast Lead casualty numbers. Jerusalem Post, March 26. .
Laqueur, W. (1998). Guerrilla warfare: A historical and critical study. New Brunswick/London: Transaction Publishers.
Lasswell, H. D. (1927). The theory of political propaganda. The American Political Science Review, 21(3), 627–631.
Lee, J. (2014). South Koreans seethe, sue as credit card details swiped. Reuters, January 21. .
Leigh, D. (2010). US forces hit target ‘with no civilian deaths’ – but Afghans tell different tale. The Guardian, July 26. .
Levin, D. (2004). Memorandum for James B. Comey, Deputy Attorney General, Re: legal standards applicable under 18 U.S.C. §§ 2340-2340. December 30. .
Levitt, M. (2006). Hamas: Politics, charity, and terrorism in the service of jihad. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Levy, P. I. (1999). Sanctions on South Africa: What did they do?The American Economic Review, 89(2), 415–420.
Lewis, J. A. (2002). Assessing the risks of cyber terrorism, cyber war and other cyber threats. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic & International Studies.
Lewis, J. A. (2010). Thresholds for cyberwar. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies. .
Lewis, J. A. (2011). Cyberwar thresholds and effects. Security & Privacy, IEEE 9(5), 23–29.
Lieber, F. (1863). Instructions for the Government of Armies of the United States in the Field (Lieber Code). .
Lieberman, E. (2012). Reconceptualising deterrence. London: Routledge.
Lim, A. (2012). The Case for Sanctions against Israel. London: Verso.
Limor, Y. and Nossek, H. (2006). The Military and the media in the twenty-first century: Towards a new model of relations. Israel Affairs, 12(3), 484–510.
Looney, R. E. (2005). The business of insurgency: The expansion of Iraq’s shadow economy. The National Interest, 81, 67–72.
Lopez, G. A. (2012). In defense of smart sanctions: A response to Joy Gordon. Ethics & International Affairs, 26 (1), 135–46.
Lopez, G. A. and Cortright, D. (1997). Economic sanctions and human rights: Part of the problem or part of the solution?The International Journal of Human Rights, 1(2), 1–25.
Love, J. B. (2010). Hezbollah: Social services as a source of power (No. JSOU-10-05). Hurlburt Field, FL: Joint Special Operations University.
Lowe, V. and Tzanakopoulos, A. (2012). Economic warfare. In Wolfrum, R. (Ed.), Max Planck encyclopedia of public international law. Oxford: Oxford University Press. .
Lutz, J. M. and Lutz, B. J. (2006). Terrorism as economic warfare. Global Economy Journal, 6(2), 1–20.
Ly, P. E. (2007). The charitable activities of terrorist organizations. Public Choice, 131(1–2), 177–195.
Lyall, R. (2008). Voluntary human shields, direct participation in hostilities and the international humanitarian law obligations of states. Melbourne Journal of International Law, 9, 313–334.
Macdonald, S. (2007). Propaganda and information warfare in the twenty-first century: Altered images and deception operations. London: Routledge.
Mackey, R. (2012). Attack on pro-Assad television studio raises questions on rules of war. New York Times, June 27. .
Maguire, M. (1980). Impact of burglary upon victims. The British Journal of Criminology, 20, 261–275.
Maital, S. (1972). Inflation, taxation and equity: How to pay for the war revisited. The Economic Journal, 82(325), 158–169., P. (2010). Ireland revisited week 15. The Examiner, December 21. .
Manheim, J. B. (1990). Strategic public diplomacy: The evolution of influence. New York: Oxford University Press.
Mantel, B. (2009). Terrorism and the internet. Should websites that promote terrorism be shut down?CQ Global Researcher, 3(11), 129–152.
March, A. and Sil, R. (1999). The “Republic of Kosovo” (1989–1998) and the resolution of ethno-separatist conflict: rethinking “sovereignty” in the post-cold war era. Working Paper Series #99-01, Political Science Department, University of Pennsylvania, Philidelphia, PA. .
Marcus, A. (2007). Blood and belief: The PKK and the Kurdish fight for independence. New York: New York University Press.
Margalit, A. and Raz, J. (1990). National self-determination. The Journal of Philosophy, 87(9), 439–461.
Margalit, A. and Walzer, M. (2009). Israel: Civilians & combatants. New York Review of Books, 56(8), 21–22.
Marks, T. A. and Palmer, D. S. (2005). Radical Maoist insurgents and terrorist tactics: Comparing Peru and Nepal 1. Low Intensity Conflict & Law Enforcement, 13(2), 91–116.
Marten, K. (2006/2007) Warlordism in comparative perspective, International Security, 31(3), 41–73.
Marten, K. (2011). Warlords. In Strachan, H. and Scheipers, S. (Eds.), The changing character of war (pp. 302–314). New York: Oxford University Press.
Marten, K. (2012). Patronage versus professionalism in new security institutions. Prism, 2(4), 83–98.
Martin, J. K. (2009). Dragon’s claws: The improvised explosive device (IED) as a weapon of strategic influence. Unpublished masters’ thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA.
Martin, L. J. (1982). Disinformation: An instrumentality in the propaganda arsenal. Political Communication and Persuasion, 2(1), 47–64.
McCormick, G. H. and Fritz, L. (2009). The logic of warlord politics. Third World Quarterly, 30(1), 81–112.
McCormick, G. H. and Giordano, F. (2007). Things come together: Symbolic violence and guerrilla mobilisation. Third World Quarterly, 28(2), 295–320.
McGoldrick, A. (2006). War journalism and ‘objectivity.’ Conflict & Communication online, 5(2), 1–7. .
McKay, S. and Mazurana, D. (2004). Where are the Girls? Girls in fighting forces in Northern Uganda, Sierra Leone and Mozambique: Their lives during and after war. Montreal, Canada: International Centre for Human Rights and Democratic Development.
McMahan, J. (1985). Deterrence and deontology. Ethics, 95(3), 517–536.
McMahan, J. (2009). Killing in war. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Meisels, T. (2008). The trouble with terror. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Melzer, N. (2009). Interpretive guidance on the notion of direct participation in hostilities under international humanitarian law. Geneva: International Committee of the Red Cross.
Metelits, C. (2004). Reformed rebels? Democratization, global norms, and the Sudan People’s Liberation Army. Africa Today, 51(1), 65–82.
Middle East Media Research Institute (Memri). (2006). Special dispatch No. 1323. Islamist Websites Monitor no. 7. October 13, clashes between Al-Qaeda in Iraq and Iraqi mujahideen who are not members of Al-Qaeda or of Its Shura Council. .
Miller, D. (1998). Secession and the principle of nationality. In Moore, M. (Ed.), National self-determination and secession (pp. 62–78). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Moloney, E. (2003). A secret history of the IRA. New York: WW Norton & Company.
Monro, D. H. (1982). Civil rights and conscription. In Anderson, M. and Honegger, B. (Eds.), The military draft: Selected readings on conscription (pp. 133–152). Stanford. CA: The Hoover Institute.
Moorcraft, P.L. and Taylor, P. M. (2007). War watchdogs or lapdogs?British Journalism Review, 18(4), 39–50.
Moorcraft, P. L. and Taylor, P. M. (2008). Shooting the messenger: The politics of war reporting. Sterling, VA: Potomic Books.
Moore, C. (2006). Our very strange day with Hezbollah. CNN. .
Moore, M. (1998). Introduction: The self-determination principle and the ethics of secession. In Moore, M. (Ed.), National self-determination and secession (pp. 1–14). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Moore, S. (2001). The Indonesian military’s last years in East Timor: An analysis of its secret documents. Indonesia, 72, 9–44.
Moore, S. (2011). Taliban sleeper agent kills 9 at Afghan base. Associated Press, April 17 . .
Mor, B. D. (2007). The rhetoric of public diplomacy and propaganda wars: A view from self-presentation theory. European Journal of Political Research, 46(5), 661–683.
Mor, B. D. (2012). Credibility talk in public diplomacy. Review of International Studies, 38(2), 393–422.
Moreno, J. (1975). Che Guevara on guerrilla warfare: Doctrine, practice and evaluation. In Sarkesian, S. C. (Ed.), Revolutionary guerrilla warfare (pp. 395–420). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Morris, B. (2011). Righteous victims: A history of the Zionist-Arab conflict, 1881–1998. New York: Random House Digital, Inc.
Mshvidobadze, K. (2011). State-sponsored cyber terrorism: Georgia’s experience. Presentation to the Georgian Foundation for Strategic and International Studies, 1–7.
Mukhopadhyay, D. (2009). Disguised warlordism and combatanthood in Balkh: The persistence of informal power in the formal Afghan state. Conflict, Security & Development, 9(4), 535–564.
Nakashima, E., Miller, G., and Tate, J. (2012). US, Israel developed Flame computer virus to slow Iranian nuclear efforts, officials say. The Washington Post online, 1–4, June 19. .
Namazi, S. (2013). Sanctions and medical supply shortages in Iran. Woodrow Wilson Center, Viewpoints, 20. .
Napoleoni, L. (2004). The new economy of terror: How terrorism is financed. In Schmid, A. P. (Ed.), Forum on Crime and Society, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime 4 (1, 2), (pp. 31–48). New York: United Nations Publications.
National Research Council (NRC). (2003). An assessment of nonlethal weapons science and technology. Committee for an Assessment of Nonlethal Weapons Science and Technology Naval Studies Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
NATO. (2011). NATO strikes Libyan state TV satellite facility. July 30. .
Navias, M. S. (2002). Finance warfare as a response to international terrorism. The Political Quarterly, 73(s1), 57–79.
Naylor, R. T. (1993). The insurgent economy: Black market operations of guerrilla organizations. Crime, Law and Social Change, 20(1), 13–51.
Neff, S. C. (1988). Boycott and the law of nations: Economic warfare and modern international law in historical perspective. British Yearbook of International Law, 59(1), 113–149.
Nepstad, S. E. (2013). Mutiny and nonviolence in the Arab Spring: Exploring military defections and loyalty in Egypt, Bahrain, and Syria. Journal of Peace Research, 50(3), 337–349.
Nevins, J. (2005). A not-so-distant horror: Mass violence in East Timor. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Nielson, K. (1998). Liberal nationalism and secession. In Moore, M. (Ed.), National self-determination and secession (pp. 103–133). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Niner, S. (2007). Martyrs, heroes and warriors: The leadership of East Timor. In Kingsbury, D. and Leach, M. (Eds.), East Timor: Beyond independence (pp. 113–128). Victoria, Australia: Monash University Press.
Nissen, T. E. (2007). The Taliban’s information warfare: A comparative analysis of NATO information operations (info ops) and Taliban information activities. Copenhagen: Royal Danish Defence College.
Nordland, R. (2013). Attacks on aid workers rise in Afghanistan, UN says. New York Times, December 4. .
Norton-Taylor, R. (2003). TV station attack could be illegal. The Guardian, March 26.
Nuwayhid, I., Zurayk, H., Yamout, R., and Cortas, C. S. (2011). Summer 2006 war on Lebanon: A lesson in community resilience. Global Public Health, 6(5), 505–519.
Nyce, J. M. and Dekker, S. W. (2010). IED casualties mask the real problem: It’s us. Small Wars & Insurgencies, 21(2), 409–413.
Nye, J. S. (2008). Public diplomacy and soft power. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 616(1), 94–109.
OAU. (1981). African [Banjul] charter on human and peoples’ rights, adopted June 27, 1981. OAU Doc. CAB/LEG/67/3 rev. 5, 21 I.L.M. 58 (1982). .
Obama, B. (2009). Remarks by the President at the acceptance of the Nobel Peace Prize. The White House, Office of the Press Secretary. .
O’Driscoll, C. (2012). A fighting chance or fighting dirty? Irregular warfare, Michael Gross and the Spartans. European Journal of Political Theory, 11(2): 112–130.
Olsthoorn, P. and Bollen, M. (2013). Civilian care in war: lessons from Afghanistan. In Gross, M. L. and Carrick, D. (Eds.), Military Medical Ethics in the 21st Century (pp. 59–70). London: Ashgate Publishing.
Özdemir, H. (2012). Where do terror organizations get their money? A case study: Financial resources of the PKK, International Journal of Security and Terrorism, 3(2), 85–102.
Özerdem, A. (2003). From a ‘terrorist’ group to a ‘civil defence’ corps: The ‘transformation’ of the Kosovo Liberation Army. International Peacekeeping, 10(3), 79–101.
Palestinian Centre for Human Rights (PCHR). (2009). The dead in the course of the Israeli recent military offensive on the Gaza strip between 27 December 2008 and 18, January 2009. March 19, 2009. .
Pape, R. (1997). Why economic sanctions do not work. International Security, 22(2), 90–136.
Pape, R. (2005). Dying to win: The strategic logic of suicide terrorism. New York: Random House Digital, Inc.
Parker, A. M. S. (2009). Cyberterrorism: The emerging worldwide threat. In Canter, D. (Ed.), The faces of terrorism: Multidisciplinary perspectives (pp. 245–66). Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.
Pateman, R. (1990). The Eritrean war. Armed Forces & Society, 17(1), 81–98.
Payne, K. (2005). The media as an instrument of war. Parameters, 35(1), 81–93.
Pedahzur, A., Perliger, A. and Weinberg, L. (2003). Altruism and fatalism: The characteristics of Palestinian suicide terrorists. Deviant Behavior, 24(4), 405–423.
Peimani, H. (2004). Armed violence and poverty in Chechnya: Mini case study for the armed violence and poverty initiative. Bradford, UK: University of Bradford, Center for International Cooperation and Security.
Peksen, D. (2009). Better or worse? The effect of economic sanctions on human rights. Journal of Peace Research, 46(1), 59–77.
Perkins, M. (2002). International law and the search for universal principles in journalism ethics. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 17(3), 193–208.
Perritt, H. H. (2008). Kosovo Liberation Army: The inside story of an insurgency. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press.
Peskowitz, A. (2010). IO on the counterinsurgency battlefield: Three case studies. Global Security Studies, l(2), 100–114.
Peters, J. (2010). The Gaza disengagement: Five years later. Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs 4(3), 33–44.
Petit, B. S. (2003). Chechen use of the internet in the Russo-Chechen conflict. Fort Leavenworth KS: Army Command and General Staff College.
Pew, . (2007). Journalists in Iraq – A survey of reporters on the front lines embedding. The Pew Research Center’s Project for Excellence in Journalism. November 28. .
Phillips, E. (2009).The business of kidnap for ransom. In Canter, D. (Ed.), The faces of terrorism: Multidisciplinary perspectives (pp. 189–206). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Philpott, D. (1998). Self-determination in practice. In Moore, M. (Ed.), National self-determination and secession (pp. 79–102). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Physicians for Human Rights, Israel (PHR). (2008). Holding health to ransom: GSS interrogation and extortion of Palestinian patients at Erez Crossing. .
Physicians for Human Rights, Israel (PHR). (2010). Humanitarian minimum: Israel’s role in creating food and water insecurity in the Gaza Strip. .
Pictet, J. 1985. Development and principles of international humanitarian law. Leiden, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff.
Pinto, C. and Jardine, M. (1997). East Timor’s unfinished struggle: Inside the Timorese resistance. Cambridge, MA: South End Press.
Plaisance, P. L. (2005). The propaganda war on terrorism: an analysis of the United States’ “shared values” public-diplomacy campaign after September 11, 2001. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 20(4), 250–268.
Plata v. Brown. (2013). United States District Court, Northern District of California, C01-1351 THE, August 19.
Politkovskaya, A. (2003). A small corner of hell: Dispatches from Chechnya. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Poller, N. (2011). The Muhammad al-Dura hoax and other myths revived. Middle East Quarterly. .
Pratkanis, A. (2009). Public diplomacy in international conflicts. In Snow, N. and Taylor, P. (Eds.), Routledge handbook of public diplomacy (pp. 111–154). London: Routledge.
Primoratz, I. (2013). Terrorism: A philosophical investigation. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Public Affairs Guidance (PAG). (2003). On embedding media during possible future operations/deployments in the U.S. Central Commands (CENTCOM) area of responsibility, February. .
Pugh, M. C., Cooper, N., and Goodhand, J. (2004). War economies in a regional context: The challenges of transformation. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Pula, B. (2004). The emergence of the Kosovo “parallel state,” 1988–1992. Nationalities Papers: The Journal of Nationalism and Ethnicity, 32(4), 797–826.
Qazi, S. H. (2011). Rebels of the frontier: Origins, organization, and recruitment of the Pakistani Taliban. Small Wars & Insurgencies, 22(4), 574–602.
Radu, M. (1999). Don’t arm the KLA. FPRI (Foreign Policy Research Institute), April 6. .
Rapin, A. J. (2009). Does terrorism create terror?Critical Studies on Terrorism, 2(2), 165–179.
Rawls, J. (1971). A theory of justice. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.
Rawls, J. (2001). The law of peoples: With “the idea of public reason revisited.” Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Reitan, R. (2000). Strategic nonviolent conflict in Kosovo. Peace & Change, 25(1), 70–102.
Renz, B. (2010). The status and treatment of detainees in Russian Chechen campaigns. In Scheipers, S. (Ed.), Prisoners in war (pp. 205–218). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Reuters. (2007). FACTBOX-War in Lebanon, one year ago. July 9. .
Rid, T. and Hecker, M. (2009). War 2.0: Irregular warfare in the information age. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.
Riechmann, D. (2011). Shooter in Afghan army uniform kills NATO troops. Associated Press. July 16. .
Rigby, A. (1997). The legacy of the past: The problem of collaborators and the Palestinian case. Jerusalem: Palestinian Academic Society for the Study of International Affairs.
Rigby, A. (2010). Palestinian resistance and nonviolence. Jerusalem: Palestinian Academic Society for the Study of International Affairs.
Roberts, L. D., Indermaur, D. and Spiranovic, C. (2013). Fear of cyber-identity theft and related fraudulent activity. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 20(3), 315–328.
Rockoff, H. (2012). America’s economic way of war: War and the US economy from the Spanish-American War to the Persian Gulf War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rodin, D. (2005). War and self-defense. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Rogel, C. (2003). Kosovo: Where it all began. International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society, 17(1), 167–182.
Rogers, P. (2000). Political violence and economic targeting aspects of provisional IRA strategy, 1992–7. Civil Wars, 3(4), 1–28.
Roling, K. (nd.). Provincial development council discusses projects in Ghazni. ISAF (International Security Assistance Force). .
Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. (2010). Annex I, Amendments to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court on the crime of aggression, Article 8 bis Crime of aggression, paragraph 2, 11 June.
Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. (2002). .
Rosenberg, M. and Nordland, R. (2012). Abandoning hopes for Taliban peace deal. New York Times, October 2. .
Ross, M. L. (2005). Resources and rebellion in Aceh, Indonesia. In Collier, P. and Sambanis, N. (Eds.), Understanding civil war: Evidence and analysis – Europe, Central Asia, and other regions (pp. 39–62). Washington, DC: World Bank Publications.
Rubin, A. J. and Bowley, G. (2012). Suicide attack kills 9 in Eastern Afghanistan. New York Times, February 28. .
Rubin, E. (2006). In the land of the Taliban. New York Times, October 22.
Rudner, M. (2010). Hizbullah terrorism finance: Fund-raising and money-laundering. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 33(8), 700–715.
Rule, S. (1987). Ethiopian guerrillas raid food convoy, halting drought aid. New York Times, October 27. .
Royal United Services Institute (RUSI). (2009). Reforming the Afghan National Police. A joint report of the Royal United Services Institute for Defence and Security Studies (London) and the Foreign Policy Research Institute (Philadelphia). .
Russett, B. M. (1969a). The price of war. Society, 6, 28–35.
Russett, B. M. (1969b). Who pays for defense?The American Political Science Review, 63(2), 412–426.
Ryan, M. and Brunnstrom, D. (2011). Libyan TV still on air despite NATO bombing. Reuters, July 30. .
Sabo, L. E. and Kibirige, J. S. (1989). Political violence and Eritrean health care. Social Science & Medicine, 28(7), 677–684.
Sarkesian, S. C. (Ed.). (1975). Revolutionary guerrilla warfare. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Sarma, K. (2007). Defensive propaganda and IRA political control in Republican communities. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 30(12), 1073–1094.
Sassòli, M. (2011). Introducing a sliding-scale of obligations to address the fundamental inequality between armed groups and states?International Review of the Red Cross, 93 (882), 426–431.
Sassòli, M., Bouvier, A. A. and Quintin, A. (2011). How does law protect in war? Cases, documents and teaching materials on contemporary practice (3rd ed., vol. 1). Geneva: International Committee of the Red Cross.
Schaap, A. J. (2009). Cyber warfare operations: Development and use under international law. Air Force Law Review, 64, 121–173.
Scheipers, S. (2010). Introduction: Prisoners in war. In Scheipers, S. (Ed.), Prisoners in war (pp. 1–22). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Schiff, Z. and Ya’ari, E. (1991). Intifada: The Palestinian uprising-Israel’s third front. New York: Touchstone Books.
Schindler, D. (1979). Wars of national liberation. The different types of armed conflicts according to the Geneva conventions and protocols. In Collected Courses of the Hague Academy of International Law, 117–164. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
Schmid, A. (2005). Terrorism as psychological warfare. Democracy and Security, 1(2), 137–146.
Schmitt, M. N. (2004). Direct Participation in hostilities and 21st century armed conflict. In Fischer, H. (Ed.), Krisensicherung und Humanitärer Schutz (Crisis management and humanitarian protection) (pp. 505–509). Berlin: Berliner Wissenschaftsverlag.
Schmitt, M. N. (2005). Precision attack and international humanitarian law. International Review of the Red Cross, 87(859), 445–466.
Schmitt, M. N. (2008). Human shields in international humanitarian law. Israel Yearbook on Human Rights, 38, 17–59.
Schmitt, M. N. (2010a). Interpretive guidance on the notion of direct participation in hostilities: A critical analysis. The Harvard National Security Journal, 1, 5–44.
Schmitt, M. N. (2010b). Deconstructing direct participation in hostilities: The constitutive elements. New York University Journal of International Law and Politics, 42, 697–739.
Schmitt, M. N. (2011). Cyber operations and the jus in bello. Israel Yearbook on Human Rights, 41, 113–135.
Schmitt, M. N. (Ed.). (2013). Tallinn manual on the international law applicable to cyber warfare. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Schock, K. (1999). People power and political opportunities: Social movement mobilization and outcomes in the Philippines and Burma. Social Problems, 46(3), 355–375.
Schock, K. (2013). The practice and study of civil resistance. Journal of Peace Research, 50, 277–290.
Schulze, K. E. (2003). The struggle for an independent Aceh: The ideology, capacity, and strategy of GAM. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 26(4), 241–271.
Schulze, K. E. (2004). The free Aceh movement (GAM): Anatomy of a separatist organization. Washington, DC: Policy Studies, East-West Center.
Sderot Media Center. (2009). What you need to know about qassams. March 3. .
Seely, R. (2001). Russo-Chechen conflict: 1800–2000; A deadly embrace. New York: Psychology Press.
Seib, P. (2009). Public diplomacy and journalism parallels, ethical issues, and practical concerns. American Behavioral Scientist, 52(5), 772–786.
Sharp, G. (1973). The Politics of nonviolent action. Boston: Porter Sargent.
Sharp, G. (1989). The intifadah and nonviolent struggle. Journal of Palestine Studies, 19(1), 3–13.
Shore, M. (2013) The Jewish hero history forgot. New York Times, April 18. .
Shulman, M. R. (1998). Discrimination in the laws of information warfare. Columbia Journal of Transnational Law 37, 939–968.
Shultz, R. H. and Dew, A. J. (2006). Insurgents, terrorists, and militias: The warriors of contemporary combat. New York: Columbia University Press.
Silver, R. C., Holman, E. A., McIntosh, D. N., Poulin, M. and Gil-Rivas, V. (2002). Nationwide longitudinal study of psychological responses to September 11. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 288(10), 1235–1244.
Sinclair, J. S. (2010). Fears of terrorism and future threat: theoretical and empirical considerations. In Antonius, D. (Eds.), Interdisciplinary analyses of terrorism and political aggression (pp. 101–115). Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
Sinclair, S. J. and Antonius, F. (2012a). The psychology of terrorism fears. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Sinclair, S. J. and LoCicero, A. (2007). Fearing future terrorism: Development, validation, and psychometric testing of the Terrorism Catastrophizing Scale (TCS). Traumatology, 13, 75–90.
Sivakumaran, S. (2009). Courts of armed opposition groups fair trials or summary justice?Journal of International Criminal Justice, 7(3), 489–513.
Sivakumaran, S. (2011). Lessons for the law of armed conflict from commitments of armed groups: Identification of legitimate targets and prisoners of war. International Review of the Red Cross, 93(882), 463–482.
Skerker, M. (2004). Just war criteria and the new face of war: Human shields, manufactured martyrs, and little boys with stones. Journal of Military Ethics, 3(1), 27–39.
Slater, J. (2012). Just war moral philosophy and the 2008–09 Israeli campaign in Gaza. International Security, 37(2), 44–80.
Society of Professional Journalists. (1996). Code of ethics. .
Solà-Martín, A. (2007). The Western Sahara cul-de-sac. Mediterranean Politics, 12(3), 399–405.
Solis, G. D. (2010). The law of armed conflict: International humanitarian law in war. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Spencer, M. E. (1970). Weber on legitimate norms and authority. The British Journal of Sociology, 21(2), 123–134.
Steinberg, G. M. (2006). Soft powers play hardball: NGOs wage war against Israel. Israel Affairs, 12(4), 748–768.
Steinberg, G. M. (2011). The politics of NGOs, human rights and the Arab-Israel conflict. Israel Studies, 16(2), 24–54.
Steinhoff, U. (2004). How can terrorism be justified? In Primoratz, I. (Ed.), Terrorism: The philosophical issues (pp. 97–112). Hampshire: Palgrave MacMillan.
Stephan, M. J. (2006). Fighting for statehood: The role of civilian-based resistance in the East Timorese, Palestinian, and Kosovo Albanian self-determination movements. Fletcher Forum for World Affairs, 30(2), 57–80.
Stephan, M. J. and Chenoweth, E. (2008). Why civil resistance works: The strategic logic of nonviolent conflict. International Security, 33(1), 7–44.
Stephan, M. J. and Mundy, J. (2006). A battlefield transformed: from guerrilla resistance to mass nonviolent struggle in the Western Sahara. Journal of Military and Strategic Studies, 8(3).
Streckfuss, R. (1990). Objectivity in journalism: A search and a reassessment. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 67(4), 973–983.
Studenski, P. and Krooss, H. E. (1963). Financial history of the United States. New York: McGraw Hill.
Suter, K. (1984). An international law of guerrilla warfare: The global politics of law-making. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Svensson, I. and Lindgren, M. (2011). Community and consent: Unarmed insurrections in non-democracies. European Journal of International Relations, 17(1), 97–120.
Tafoya, W. L. (2011). Cyber terror. .
Tesón, F. R. (2003). The liberal case for humanitarian intervention. In Holzgrefe, J. and Keohane, R. O. (Eds.), Humanitarian intervention: Ethical, legal and political dilemmas (pp. 93–129). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Theoharis, A. G. (2006). A new agency: The origins and expansion of CIA covert operations. In Theoharis, A. G. (Ed.), The Central Intelligence Agency: Security under scrutiny (pp. 155–188). Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group.
Thom, W. G. (1974) Trends in Soviet support for African liberation. Air University Review, July-August. .
Thomas, T. (2000). Manipulating the mass consciousness: Russian & Chechen “information war” tactics in the Second Chechen-Russian conflict. In Aldis, A. (Ed.), The Second Chechen War (pp. 112–129). Shrivenham, Wilts: Strategic and Combat Studies Institute (Great Britain).
Thruelsen, P. D. (2010). The Taliban in southern Afghanistan: A localised insurgency with a local objective. Small Wars & Insurgencies, 21(2), 259–276.
Tishkov, V. A. (2004). Chechnya: Life in a war-torn society. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Tuck, D. (2011). Detention by armed groups: Overcoming challenges to humanitarian action. International Review of the Red Cross, 93(883), 759–782.
Tugwell, M. (1981). Politics and propaganda of the Provisional IRA. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 5(1–2), 13–40.
Turkel, . (2010). Turkel Commission report, summary, report of the public commission to examine the maritime incident of 31 May 2010 – Part One. Jerusalem: The Public Commission To Examine the Maritime Incident of 31 May 2010. .
UNICEF. (1999). Update. September 23. .
United Nations (UN). (2004). A more secure world: our shared responsibility, report of the high-level panel on threats, challenges and change. New York: The United Nations.
United Nations (UN). (2012). Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs occupied Palestinian territory. Five years of blockade: The humanitarian situation in the Gaza Strip. June.
United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA). (2012). Afghanistan: Annual report 2011, Protection of civilians in armed conflict, February 2012. Accessed .
United Nations General Assembly. (1947). Resolution 181, November 29. (Partition of Palestine into Jewish and Arab states).
United Nations General Assembly. (1966). Resolution 2229 [XXI], December 20. (Western Sahara).
United Nations General Assembly. (1972). Resolution 2983, December 14. (Western Sahara).
United Nations General Assembly. (1975). Resolution 3485 (XXX), December 12. (Question of Timor).
United Nations General Assembly. (1976). Resolution 389, Adopted by the Security Council at its 1914th meeting, on April 22, 1976, S/RES/389.
United Nations General Assembly. (2005). World summit outcome, A/60/L.1 Paragraph 139. .
United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC). (2009). Human rights in Palestine and other occupied Arab territories. Report of the UN fact-finding mission on the Gaza conflict (The “Goldstone Report”). A/HRC/12/48, September 25. .
United Nations News Centre. (2011). UN official deplores NATO attack on Libyan television station, 8. August.
United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, occupied Palestinian territory (UNOCHA). (2011). Occupied Palestinian territory, special focus. .
United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, occupied Palestinian territory (UNOCHA). (2012). Five years of blockade. .
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). (2012). World drug report. New York: United Nations.
United Nations Secretary General. (2011). Report of the Secretary-General’s Panel of Inquiry on the 31 May 2010 Flotilla Incident. New York: United Nations. .
United Nations Secretary General. (2012). Report of the Secretary-General on the situation concerning Western Sahara. United Nations S/2012/197, April 5.
United Nations Security Council (UNSC). (1990). Resolution 661: The Situation between Iraq and Kuwait. U.N. Doc. S/RES/661.
United States Code. (2006). Title 18, Part I, Chapter 115, § 2381 – Treason. .
United States Code. (2009). Title 10§ 948a(7), (Supp. III 2009). Definitions: Unprivileged enemy belligerent.
USA Today. (2010). Taliban fights back with bombs, using civilians as human shields. USA TODAY, February 18. .
Utzinger, J. and Weiss, M. G. (2007). Editorial: Armed conflict, war and public health. Tropical Medicine & International Health, 12(8), 903–906.
Vall, A. (2000). Can terrorism be justified? In Vall, A. (Ed.), Ethics in international affairs (pp. 65–80). Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
Veuthey, M. (1976). Guerrilla warfare and humanitarian law. International Review of the Red Cross, 16(183), 277–294.
Vidanage, H. R. (2004). Cyber cafes in Sri Lanka: Tamil virtual communities. Economic and Political Weekly, 39(36), 3988–3991.
Wall Street Journal (WSJ). (2012). ‘Lawfare’ loses big. The Wall Street Journal, January 28.
Walzer, M. (1977). Just and unjust wars: A moral argument with historical illustrations. New York: Basic Books.
Walzer, M. (2004). After 9/11: Five questions about terrorism. In Walzer, M., Arguing about war (pp. 130–142). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Weinstein, J. M. (2007). Inside rebellion. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Weiss, T. G. (1999). Sanctions as a foreign policy tool: Weighing humanitarian impulses. Journal of Peace Research, 36(5), 499–509.
Weldemichael, A. T. (2013). Third world colonialism and strategies of liberation: Eritrea and East Timor compared. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wellman, C. H. (1995). A defense of secession and political self-determination. Philosophy & Public Affairs, 24(2), 142–171.
Wennmann, A. (2009). Grasping the financing and mobilization cost of armed groups: A new perspective on conflict dynamics. Contemporary Security Policy, 30(2), 265–280.
World Health Organization(WHO). (2010). Health conditions in the occupied Palestinian territory, including east Jerusalem, and in the occupied Syrian Golan A63/INF.DOC./J 13.
Wijedasa, N. (2011). Sri Lanka’s ghosts of war. New York Times, December 30. .
Williams, P. (2007). Terrorist financing and organized crime: Nexus, appropriation of transformation. In Biersteker, T. J. and El Eckert, S. (Eds.), Countering the financing of terrorism (pp. 126–149). London: Routledge.
Wilson, C. (2006). Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) in Iraq and Afghanistan: Effects and countermeasures. CRS Report for Congress, The Library of Congress. .
Wilson, H. A. (1988). International law and the use of force by national liberation movements. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Woldemikael, T. M. (1991). Political mobilization and nationalist movements: The case of the Eritrean People’s Liberation Front. Africa Today, 38(2), 31–42.
Wood, R. M. (2010). Rebel capability and strategic violence against civilians. Journal of Peace Research, 47(5), 601–614.
Wood, T. (2007). Chechnya: The case for independence. Brooklyn: Verso Books.
World Medical Association. (2006) Declaration of Malta on Hunger Strikers. .
Wright, J. and Bryett, K. (1991). Propaganda and justice administration in Northern Ireland. Terrorism and Political Violence, 3(2), 25–42.
Yehuda, R. (2002). Post-traumatic stress disorder. New England Journal of Medicine, 346(2), 108–114.
Yehuda, R., Bryant, R., Marmar, C., and Zohar, J. (2005). Pathological responses to terrorism. Neuropsychopharmacology, 30(10), 1793–1805.
Yildiz, K. and Breau, S. (2010). Historical background. In Yildiz, K. and Breau, S. (Eds.), The Kurdish conflict: International humanitarian law and post-conflict mechanisms (pp. 4–28). London: Routledge.
Young, R. (2004). Political terrorism as a weapon of the politically powerless. In Primoratz, I. (Ed.), Terrorism: The philosophical issues (pp. 55–64). Hampshire: Palgrave MacMillan.
Zehr, N. A. (2013). Legitimate authority and the war against Al-Qaida. In Lang, A. F. Jr., O’Driscoll, C., and Williams, J. (Eds.), Just war: Authority, tradition and practice (pp. 97–114). Georgetown: Georgetown University Press.
Zemishlany, Z. (2012). Resilience and vulnerability in coping with stress and terrorism. Israel Medical Association Journal, 14, 307–309.
Zunes, S. (1999). Unarmed resistance in the Middle East and North Africa. In Zunes, S., Asher, S. B., and Kurtz, L. (Eds.), Nonviolent social movements: A geographical perspective (pp. 41–51). Oxford: Blackwell.