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Ethnic Patriotism and the East African Revival
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Book description

Ethnic Patriotism and the East African Revival shows how, in the era of African political independence, cosmopolitan Christian converts struggled with East Africa's patriots over the definition of culture and community. The book traces the history of the East African Revival, an evangelical movement that spread through much of eastern and central Africa. Its converts offered a subversive reading of culture, disavowing their compatriots and disregarding their obligations to kin. They earned the ire of East Africa's patriots, who worked to root people in place as inheritors of ancestral wisdom. This book casts religious conversion in a new light: not as an inward reorientation of belief, but as a political action that opened up novel paths of self-narration and unsettled the inventions of tradition.


‘In this superb book, Peterson pulls off the rare feat of combining a compelling, comprehensive argument about a huge regional movement with sharply drawn, detailed documentation of the local singularity of the forms it took in seven different areas in Uganda, Tanzania, and Kenya. The big picture positions the East African Revival as a form of critical practice, engaged in contestation with alternative, more conservative visions of society based on ethnic consolidation and the re-invention of tradition. In the documentation of local trajectories, what comes through most vividly is the converts themselves, in all their idiosyncrasy and humanity … individual voices and vignettes reveal the energy, initiative, and creativity these people brought to the radical project of convening a new kind of community. This book is a major achievement by any standards - original, convincing, deeply and broadly researched, and beautifully written.’

Karin Barber - University of Birmingham

'This is a remarkable book, admirably researched and deeply thoughtful … Few historians of Africa have equalled Peterson’s capacity to hear the people of the past talking to one another.'

Source: African Studies

'As a meticulous researcher and astute scholar, Peterson provides excellent footnotes and an extensive bibliography on the topic, including detailed descriptions of forty-six archives on three continents and 170 informants from Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania. This insightful and comprehensive monograph serves the scholarly purpose of stimulating further research on the Revival and its socio-political implications in late colonial Africa.'

Daewon Moon Source: African Studies Quarterly

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Archives in Uganda

Uganda National Archives, Entebbe (UNA)

The following deposits were consulted:

A 46

Correspondence and reports, Chief Secretary

A 13

Unyoro and Western province

A 14

Toro correspondence

A 22

CMS, 1900–1906

A 42–45

Toro district, reports





Kabarole District Archives, Fort Portal (KabDA)

This collection has recently been moved from the derelict attic of the Kabarole District headquarters to Mountains of the Moon University in Fort Portal, where the papers are currently being cleaned, preserved, and re-boxed. I have used the original box numbers in this book’s notes. A catalogue is currently being prepared, and the old box numbers will be cross-referenced with the new numbering system. The boxes are now organized under the following topical headings:

Boxes 1–17


Boxes 20–24


Boxes 26–37

Statistics and Census

Boxes 38–39


Boxes 40–49


Boxes 50–56

Veterinary and Agriculture

Boxes 58–62


Boxes 65–70


Boxes 75–83

Sports and Leisure

Boxes 84–85


Boxes 87–89


Box 91


Boxes 100–148

Local government, administration

Boxes 160–169


Boxes 190–196, 198


Boxes 197, 199


Boxes 200–252


Boxes 260–268

Tours and Visits

Boxes 270–274


Boxes 280–282


Boxes 283–290

Arms and Ammunition

Boxes 294–298


Boxes 300–318


Boxes 320–329


Boxes 330–343

Building and Housing

Boxes 344–345


Boxes 347–351


Boxes 352–353

Building and Housing

Toro Government archives, Fort Portal (Muchwa)

This collection of files and loose papers is kept in a cellar below the Toro kingdom’s parliament chambers. The covers of a great number of files have been torn away. It is hoped that these papers will soon be added to the new archival repository at Mountains of the Moon University. The following files were consulted:

  • Agricultural Productivity (Policy)

  • Annual Reports

  • Chiefs: Appointments, Transfers, Dismissals

  • Control of Drinking

  • Ebaruaziga Omulimo omu Government

  • Honours

  • Kabarole Hospital

  • Kaboyo School

  • Kyebambe Girls School

  • Leg. Co.

  • Markets

  • Misc. Minor Works

  • No cover (Police)

  • No cover (Rukurato minutes)

  • Programme of Rukirabasiaja

  • Provincial Team

  • Roads, Bridges

  • St Leo’s College

  • Toro Government Policy

  • Toro Native Government Tax

  • Toro Public Service Commission

  • Uganda Prime Ministers’ Conference

  • Visit of Uganda Africans to UK

Catholic Diocese of Fort Portal archives, Virika Cathedral, Fort Portal (Virika)

The following boxes were consulted:


Bible Society of Uganda


Kasese Diocese


Ordinary marriage


Fort Portal municipal government


Constitutional commissions

Church of Uganda Provincial Archives, Uganda Christian University, Mukono (CoU)

This archive has been reorganized in the course of a microfilming project organized by the Yale Divinity School. My reference numbers refer to the system in use prior to the reorganization. A cross-reference catalogue is available. The following deposits were consulted:

02 Bp

Bishop’s papers

1 Abp

Archbishop’s papers


CMS papers


Mothers Union papers

Kigezi District Archives, Kabale (KigDA)

This archive is held in the attic above the offices of the Regional District Commissioner in Kabale. The materials are organized in numbered bundles, bound with twine. The following files were consulted, numbered by bundle:


Appointment and Dismissal of Chiefs, 1939–47


Church Missionary Society

Labour, General

Labour Inspection Reports, 1949


Safaris, Rukiga County

Resettlement in Ankole


No cover (wartime correspondence)


Native Affairs

RC Mission Plots

Consolidated Resettlement return


Native Affairs, Relations with Ankole


Immigration and Emigration


File 178: Miscellaneous (Native Courts)

Native Affairs, Chiefs’ Appointments and Dismissals


Blue Book Returns




Marriage, General



Native Affairs, Diseases and Sickness


Roman Catholic Mission


Criminal Courts, 1931–35


Native Affairs, Presents to Chiefs

Medical, Sleeping Sickness


Native Affairs, Chiefs’ Appointments


Reports on Native Administration, 1936




File 160: Judicial, Native Courts


File 2433: Askaris Serving, Family Matters


Native Labour


Rhona Ross and Cyril Sofer, ‘Survey of the Banyaruanda Complex,’ 22 May 1950.


Correspondence with Ruanda


File 1295: Judicial


Native Affairs

Native Administration, General


File 62: No cover

Return of Lunacy Cases, 1939


Relations with Belgian Ruanda


Land, Mission, General policy

Luwalo Inspectorate


Land and Survey

File 217: Land and Survey

File 1414: Land Policy, Natives in Kigezi

Forestry, General


File 58: Native Affairs: Political Disturbances

File 406: Nyakishenyi: Rebels and Disturbances

File 165: Fugitive Offenders

File 202: Native Affairs, Chiefs Labor and Tribute

File 542: Veterinary: Relations with Belgian Territory

Native Affairs, Belgian Congo


Native Affairs, Repatriation of Banyaruanda

File 280: Political Deportees

File 39: Reports and Returns

Native Affairs, Correspondence with Biumba

File 810: Famine Reports

File 914: Kigezi Resettlement

Ankole District Archives, Mbarara (Mbarara)

This archive is held at the office of the Chief Administrative Officer in Mbarara. The following files were consulted:



Resettlement in Ankole

Archdiocese of Kampala archives, Rubaga Cathedral, Kampala (Rubaga)

This archive contains the papers and correspondence of the priests and lay workers of the White Fathers Mission in Uganda. The following files were consulted:

D.19 folio 1

Bishop Forbes’ Correspondence

D.20 folio 1

Streicher’s Correspondence

D.20 folio 2

Streicher’s Correspondence

D.20 folio 3

Correspondence with Government

D.21 folio 4

No title

D.22 folio 3

Luganda Orthography

D.31 folio 6

Protectorate Government, 1933–34

D.32 folios 5 & 6


D.34 folio 1

Correspondence with Government

D.39 folio 5

Bishop Michaud, Criticisms and Complaints, 1935–1946

D.39 folio 9

No title

D.47 folio 5


D.47 folio 2

Correspondence with Missions/Parishes

D.48 folio 4

Annual Parish Reports, 1944–1960

D.84 folio 2

Hancock Commission

D.94 folio 9

No title

D.99 folio 1

No title

D.99 folio 2

Buganda Government, 1932–35

D.99 folio 5

Bulungi bwa nsi Schools Troubles, 1947–1948

D.99 folio 7

Disturbances, 1949

Kasese District Archives, Kasese (KasDA)

This archive is kept in the offices of the Chief Administrative Officer. The following files were consulted:

  • Research Projects and Archives

  • Mr. Bonne Baluku-Nyondo

Hoima District Archives, Hoima (HDA)

This collection is kept on the premises of the Chief Administrative Officer. The following files were consulted:

  • Ankole District Report, 1960

  • Annual Report 1938

  • Annual Report 1951

  • Annual Report 1957

  • Bujenje Saza, Touring

  • Bugahya Touring Book

  • Bujenje Touring Book

  • Bunyoro District Book

  • Census, 1948

  • Clubs and Other Societies

  • CMS

  • Courts: Civil Cases

  • District Council

  • District Team

  • Empire Day

  • Excessive Drinking

  • Honours

  • Language, Orthography

  • Local Government Policy: Lost Counties

  • Maps, Places, Historical Notes

  • Missions, Land

  • Mukama and Saza Chiefs

  • Native Courts

  • No cover (courts) (two files)

  • No cover (standing committees)

  • No cover (veterinary)

  • Personal Records, Chiefs, Masindi

  • Petitions and Complaints

  • Petitions and Complaints, Bujenje

  • Petitions, Complaints and Enquiries, General

  • Political Parties

  • Queen Elizabeth’s Coronation

  • RA the Mukama

  • Records of Chiefs and Officers, Bunyoro

  • Relationships Commission

  • Rukurato Speeches

  • Tombs of the Bakama in Mubende District

  • Uganda Independence Celebrations

  • Visits of Uganda Africans to Other Territories

Makerere University Library archives, Kampala (Makerere)

The following deposits were consulted:

AR N 3

Native Anglican Church, Archbishop’s papers

MS 276

Papers concerning the African Orthodox Church

AR J 3

B. L. Jacobs papers

AR L 1

Ladbury papers

K I 9

Apollo Kivebulaya papers

AR KA 43

S. Kadumukasa papers, 1927–1947

No number

Yusufu Bamu’ta papers

George Kahigwa papers, Harugali, Bundibugyo (Kahigwa)

These are papers relating to the Bakonzo Life History Research Society, in the possession of the late Mr. George Kahigwa, who kindly allowed me to view them.

Diocese of Kabarole archives, St. John’s Cathedral, Fort Portal (KabDio)

This is a loose collection of papers and files kept at the diocesan offices in Kabarole. I consulted the Minute Book of the church council and a correspondence file without a cover.

Diocese of Kigezi archives, St. Peter’s Cathedral, Kabale (St. Peter’s)

This collection consists of baptism registers, minute books and some scant correspondence. The following files were consulted:

  • Ababatiziibwe, 1922 to 1927

  • Abasoma Okubatizibwa, 1929–39

  • Abasoma Okubatizibwa, 1939–45

  • Abasoma Okubatizibwa, 1945–1953

  • Cash Book, 1932–37

  • Enkiiko za Kanisa, 1950s

  • Ekyababatize, Ndorwa and Rukiga Counties, July 1933 to December 1938

  • Olukiko lweisaza Ndorwa, 1943-

  • Olukiko lwe Twale, 1954

Archives in Kenya

Kenya National Archives, Nairobi (KNA)

The following deposits were consulted:


Ministry of Community Development


Ministry of Defence


Ministry of Information and Broadcasting

PC Nyanza

Provincial Commissioner, Nyanza

PC Central

Provincial Commissioner, Central Province


Provincial Commissioner, Western

DC Central Nyanza

District Commissioner, Central Nyanza

DC Kisumu

District Commissioner, Kisumu

DC Kakamega

District Commissioner, Kakamega

DC Mombasa

District Commissioner, Mombasa

DC North Nyanza

District Commissioner, North Nyanza


District Commissioner, Kakamega


District Commissioner, Central Nyanza


Prisons and Police


Ministry of African Affairs


Ministry of African Affairs

MSS 61

Church Missionary Society special collection

MSS 129

Christian Council of Kenya

Presbyterian Church of East Africa archives, Nairobi (PCEA)

This collection is kept in the tower above St. Andrew’s church in Nairobi. I have referenced material from this archive by listing the series number, followed by the topical category and the box number. Topical categories are as follows:


General Correspondence


Annual Reports


Tumutumu Papers


Thogoto Papers












Kikuyu Language Committee




Contracts and Testimonials for Mission Apprentices




Log Books; Dictionaries; Bible Translations

Tumutumu Church archives, Karatina (TT)

The following files were consulted:

  • Conference Reports

  • Constitutions

  • Correspondence with Chogoria

  • Correspondence with Kikuyu

  • DC and Forest Officer, June 1935 to December 1939

  • DOs and Chiefs, 1950s

  • Domestic Science

  • Education Misc., 1939–63

  • Estimates

  • Finance

  • Fort Hall Supervisor

  • General and Miscellaneous

  • Government Exams

  • Hospital Board: Correspondence

  • Kiama gia Coci ya Tumutumu, 1930–1946

  • Kiamwangi Kirk Session, 1936–42

  • Kirk Session ya Tumutumu, 1936–58

  • Language: Kikuyu Orthography

  • Ministers, to 1955

  • Ministers, 1956

  • Minutes cia Presbytery

  • Marua Makonii Synod

  • Nyeri District Law Panel minutes, 1950s

  • Presbytery Business, Minutes etc. to 1932

  • Presbytery of Kenya, Tumutumu, 1933-

  • Presbytery of Tumutumu: Marua Makonii Kirk Session o na kana Members Acio

  • Presbytery ya Tumutumu: Committee ya Presbytery, 1938–50

  • Presbytery ya Tumutumu: Letters

  • Presbytery ya Tumutumu: Maciira Maria Mangi

  • Property

  • Religious Instruction for Teachers in Training, 1930s-50s

  • Rev. C.M. Kareri

  • Statistics

  • Teachers Detained, Court Cases, 1954

  • Teachers Training

  • Tumutumu Parish

  • Women’s Guild

Anglican Church of Kenya archives, Nairobi (ACK)

The following files were consulted:


North Nyanza Rural Deanery, 1951–52

Nyanza Chaplaincy, Central and South Nyanza, 1948–51

Nyanza Chaplaincy, Kisumu and South Nyanza Rural Deanery Council, 1947–52

Bishop of Mombasa, North Nyanza Ruridecanal Council, 1951–52

Ruridecanal Council, Ng’iya, Nyanza Chaplaincy, 1935–42

Kavirondo archdeaconry, 1939–1952

Nyanza Chaplaincy, 1942–51

Nyanza Chaplaincy, 1951–53

Nyanza Chaplaincy, 1954–60


Nyanza Chaplaincy, Nyanza Conventions, 1951–55

South Nyanza Rural Deanery, April 1951 to December 1958

North Nyanza Rural Deanery, December 1952- December 1960


Revival Movement, 1953–56


Luyia Translation, 1938–1946

No number

Mau Mau I

North Highlands Rural Deanery

Kenya National Archives, Kakamega Provincial Records Centre (Kakamega)

This archive, which is kept in an unmarked warehouse at the District Commissioner’s headquarters in Kakamega, contains material of comparatively recent provenance. The following deposits were consulted:


District Officer, Sirisia


Provincial Commissioner, Nyanza


District Commissioner, Bungoma


District Agricultural Office, Bungoma


District Commissioner, North Nyanza


Provincial Education Office, Nyanza


District Commissioner, South Nyanza

Kenya National Archives, Kisumu Provincial Records Centre (Kisumu)

This archive is kept in an office in the children’s prison in Kisumu. It contains material of recent provenance. The following deposits were consulted:


Provincial Commissioner, Nyanza


District Land Office, Kisumu


District Commissioner, Kisumu

Africa Inland Mission archives, Nairobi (AIM)

The following files were consulted:

  • Papers on ‘Isms’

  • Problems, Dowry etc., 1920s-30s

  • Sects, Dangers etc.

Papers of the Kikuyu Traders Association, Othaya (KTA)

This is a collection of registers, log books, minutes, and correspondence concerning the Kikuyu Traders Association of Othaya division. The materials are in the possession of Mr. Kariuki Kiboi of Othaya town, who kindly allowed me to view them.

National Museum of Kenya, Nairobi (NMK)

The following deposits were consulted:


Gordon Dennis papers


Gordon Dennis photographic collection


Gladys Beecher papers


indexed Leonard Beecher papers

Archives in Tanzania

Tanzania National Archives, Dar es Salaam (TNA)

The following deposits were consulted:

Acc. 59

Bukoba District, Courts

Acc. 64

Bukoba Regional Office

Acc. 71

Bukoba District

Acc. 197

Ngara District Office

Acc. 201


Acc. 215

Annual Reports

Acc. 217


Acc. 227

Ngara District, courts

Acc. 239

District Agricultural Office, Ngara

Acc. 268

Ngara District

Acc. 289

District Agricultural Office, Bukoba

Acc. 318

Bukoba District

Acc. 435

Medical and Sanitary

Acc. 450

Medical and Sanitary

Acc. 529

Bukoba District

Acc. 530

Ngara District

Acc. 571

Papers of Mzee Hassan Suleiman

Acc. 602

Shabaan Robert papers


Secretariat papers

Tanzania National archives, Mwanza Regional Records Centre (Mwanza)

This rich collection is exceptionally well maintained by the archivist, Mr. Herman Rwechungura. The archive is kept in Kirumba stadium in Mwanza town. Accession 1 (Mwanza) and Accession 9 (Bukoba) were consulted.

Bukoba District Archives, Bukoba (Rwamishenye)

This collection is housed at the local council’s administrative center in Rwamishenye, outside Bukoba town. There is a rough catalogue. The following files were consulted:

Box 2

Local Councils

Box 7

Football Association

Box 12

Chief of Missenye

Box 17

Bahaya Union School, Rubare

Box 18


Box 21

Church of the Holy Spirit

Box 26

Mukama Lutinwa

Box 30


Box 31

Native Authority Dressers

Box 32

Destitute Persons

Box 33

Omukama of Kianja

Box 35

Communicable Diseases

Box 36

Maternity Services

War Graves

Box 43



Bukoba District Council minute book

Hans Cory papers, East Africana Collection, University of Dar es Salaam (Cory)

This collection contains the papers, correspondence, and notes of Hans Cory, Tanganyika’s government sociologist during the 1950s and early 1960s.

White Fathers Mission (Société des Missionnaires d’Afrique) archives, Dar es Salaam (WFM)

This is a collection of logbooks from several White Fathers Mission stations in Tanganyika, kept at Atiman House in Dar es Salaam. The following materials were consulted:

  • Buhororo Mission diary, 1932–1949

  • Rubya (Ihangiro) Mission diary, 1904–1961

  • Katoke Mission diaries

  • Herman Schleiber, ‘Kihaya proverbs,’ n.d.

  • Kashozi Mission diary, 1909–1928

  • Kashozi Council book, 1909–1947

  • Kagondo Mission diary

Diocese of Central Tanganyika archives, Dodoma, Tanzania (DCT)

This small collection is kept in the diocesan offices at MacKay House in Dodoma. The following files were consulted:

  • Diocesan Council Minutes, 1953–60

  • Diocesan Newsletters, 1928–56

  • Diocesan Council Minutes, 20 May 1933 to 4 November 1950

  • Gogo dictionaries and grammar books

  • Minute Book of the Central Church Council of the Tanganyika Mission

  • Missionaries’ Annual Letters, 1951

  • Msingi, Maelezo, Sheria na Kanuni za Uaskofu wa Central Tanganyika

  • No title, labeled ‘Mrs. Dyson’

Evangelical Lutheran Church of Tanzania, Northwest Diocese archives, Bukoba (ELCT)

This collection is kept in the ELCT’s diocesan headquarters. Much of the correspondence is written in Swedish, especially after the Second World War when the work of the Lutheran mission in Tanzania was taken on by the Church of Sweden. There is no catalogue. The following boxes were consulted:

  • Box A II b:2

  • Box A IV:1

  • Box A X:1

  • Box B II:1

  • Box B II:2

  • Box E I a:1

  • Box E I a:2

  • Box E I b:1

  • Box E I b:3

  • Box E I b:6

  • Box E I b:12

  • Box E II f:1

  • Box E IV b.3

  • Box E IV b:4

  • Box E IV b:5

  • Box E VI b:2

  • Box E VI b:3

  • Box E VI b:4

  • Box F

  • Box F II c:1

  • Box WCI 6:N

  • Logbook: Kashasha Girls’ School, 1937–58

Diocese of Ngara archives, Murugwanza, Ngara (Murugwanza)

The following materials were consulted:

  • Baptismal Register, August 1932-

  • Marriage Register, October 1936-

  • Record of Habari Cards, 1928-

Archives in the United Kingdom

Cambridge University Library

The following deposits were consulted:

Add. 7916

Derrick Stenning papers


British and Foreign Bible Society archives

Church Missionary Society archives, University of Birmingham Library (CMS)

The following accessions were consulted:

Acc. 392

Records of Maseno Mission, 1959–1966

Acc. 83

Papers of Archdeacon Owen, 1909–1945

G3 A7

Uganda Mission papers

G3 A11

Ruanda Mission papers

G3 A8

Tanganyika Mission papers

G3 A5

East Africa Mission papers


Medical Department

Church Missionary Society archives, Oxford (CMS Oxford)

The papers of Rwanda missionary Dora Skipper were consulted.

Churchill College archives, Cambridge (Churchill)

The papers of British parliamentarian Fenner Brockway (FEBR) and advocate Dingle Foot (DGFT) were consulted.

Edinburgh University Library, Edinburgh (EUL)

The following deposits were consulted:

Gen. 1785/1–10

A. R. Barlow, Kikuyu language notes

Gen. 1786/1–11

A. R. Barlow, correspondence, papers, photographs and recordings

Entebbe Secretariat Archives, notes in the possession of Prof. John Lonsdale (JML)

Prof. Lonsdale conducted research at the Entebbe Secretariat Archives (now the Uganda National Archives) in the 1960s, where he took notes on files that are now no longer available in Uganda. I have referenced these materials by listing the original file number, as noted by Prof. Lonsdale.

Henry Martyn Centre, Cambridge (HMC)

The Joe Church collection came to the Henry Martyn Centre in 2007. There were eight footlockers and eleven box files of material, all carefully organized by Dr. Church himself. The material has now been placed in archive boxes and a catalogue has been created. The Church collection is referenced with the abbreviation JEC.

Imperial and Commonwealth Museum, Bristol (Bristol)

The following deposits were consulted:

Mss. 2002

James Breckenridge papers

Mss. 2000

Robin Wainwright papers

Mss. 1996

W.H. Thompson papers

London School of Economics archives, London (LSE)

The papers of anthropologist Audrey Richards were consulted.

Mid-Africa Ministry archives, University of Birmingham (MAM)

The following subject classifications were consulted:


Administrative Correspondence and Papers, 1926–49


Minutes of the Ruanda Council, 1926–40





National Library of Scotland, Edinburgh (NLS)

The following deposits were consulted:

ACC 7548

Church of Scotland Mission, Kenya papers

MS 7605–08

Church of Scotland Mission, Kenya papers

National Archives of Britain, Public Records Office, Kew (NAB)

The following deposits were consulted:

CO 691

Correspondence, Tanganyika Territory

CO 533

Correspondence, Kenya

CO 536 & 682

Correspondence, Uganda

CO 822

Correspondence, East Africa

Rhodes House Library, University of Oxford (RH)

The following deposits were consulted:

Mss. Afr. 592

Ralph Leech papers

Mss. Afr. 622

George MacLean papers

Mss. Afr. 642

Peter Bostock papers

Mss. Afr. 951

Boyd papers

Mss. Afr. 1047

Vickers-Haviland papers

Mss. Afr. 1352

Herbert Carr papers

Mss. Afr. 1384

James Elliot papers

Mss. Afr. 1475

T. Cashmore, interview

Mss. Afr. 1478

M. Moller papers

Mss. Afr. 1483

Papers regarding Buganda

Mss. Afr. 1534

Mau Mau papers, misc.

Mss. Afr. 1579

Sidney Fazan, interview

Mss. Afr. 2114

Richard Stone, interview

Mss. Afr. 2257

Howard Church papers

School of Oriental and African Studies archives, London (SOAS)

The following deposits were consulted:

PP Ms 38

Melvin Perlman papers


Movement for Colonial Freedom


Council of British Mission Societies


International Missionary Council

Jocelyn Murray papers, London Mennonite Centre (Murray papers)

This un-catalogued collection consists of the papers of church historian Jocelyn Murray. The following files were consulted:

  • Revival: Secondary Literature

  • Revival: Replies to Questionnaire

  • Correspondence with ex-missionaries

  • Kabare, Embu, Meru

  • Revival: Analysis

  • Box of notebooks

Archives in the United States

Gakaara wa Wanjau papers, Yale University Library, New Haven, CT (GW)

The papers of the late Gakaara wa Wanjau are kept at his home in Karatina. At the invitation of his wife, Shifra Wairire, several thousand pages were photocopied by Ann Biersteker and Dorothy Woodson. The photocopies were deposited in the Yale University Library, where I catalogued them. The material has now been microfilmed and will be deposited at the Kenya National Archives.


I conducted oral interviews in Bukoba and Ngara districts (northwestern Tanzania); Kigezi District (southern Uganda); Hoima, Kabarole, Kasese, and Bundibugyo districts (western Uganda); Buganda (central Uganda); Nyanza Province (western Kenya); and Nyeri District (central Kenya). I worked alongside a very generous cadre of colleagues and translators: in Ngara, Canon Fareth Sendegeya; in Hoima, Rev. David Kato; in Fort Portal, Rev. Richard Baguma; in Kigezi, Canon John Basingwire and Mr. Wilson Mbabazi; in Nyanza, Mr. Henry Adera; and in Kasese and Bundibugyo, Mr. Ezron Muhumuza.

Western Kenya

Truphena Obisa Abayo, Masogo, West Kano, Nyanza, 20 November 2007
Habakuk Onyang’o Abongo, Kisumu, 20 November 2007
Fanuel Aguoko Agong’a, Rabuor, Nyanza, 21 November 2007
Baraka Amumi Agwengo, Rafael Akobi Arua, Harun Oguma, Kesia Odela, Doris Achola Nyawara, Wilikista Goro Otieno, Lois Achieng’ Juma, and Pilista Olanga, Tieng’re, Nyanza, 22 November 2007
Matthew Ajuoga, Kisumu town, 24 November 2007
Joshua Aluoch Gawo, Maseno, 23 November 2007
Julia Okumu Mubiri, Helen Anyang’o, Preska Sewe, Preska Wajewa, Kisumu town, 24 November 2007
Eusto Ndege, Masogo, West Kano, Nyanza, 20 November 2007
Nathaniel Gaya Ogado, Ndira, Central Nyanza, 23 November 2007
Naomi Olweny, Nyayiera, Siaya, Nyanza, 23 November 2007
Okello Pande, Helena Onyango, and Seleina Onyango, Gobei, Asembo, Nyanza, 23 November 2007

Central Kenya

Liliani Gachigua, Kiamariga, Nyeri, 9 and 10 August 1998
Daudi Gachonde, Tumutumu, Nyeri, 22 February 1998
Arthur Kihumba, Othaya town, Nyeri, 7 July and 16 September 1998
Gerard Gachau King’ori, Gitugi, Nyeri, 19 June and 8 July 1998
Jedidah Kirigu, Magutu, Nyeri, 12 August 1998
Elijah Kiruthi, Mahiga, Nyeri, 15 June and 16 September 1998
Muriuki Kiuria, Magutu, Nyeri, 13 May 1998
Peterson Muchangi, Tumutumu, Nyeri, 15 September 1998
Cecilia Muthoni Mugaki, Tumutumu, Nyeri, 25 July 1996 and 16 September 1998
Peter Munene, Iruri, Nyeri, 12 May and 9 August 1998
John Muriuki, Ngorano, Nyeri, 14 May and 6 August 1998
William Mwangi, Ruare, Nyeri, 3 April 1998
Geoffrey Ngare, Nairobi, 27 May 1994
Ngunu wa Huthu, Magutu, Nyeri, 12 August 1998
Timothy Gathu Njoroge, Kangema, 29 June 1994

Northwestern Tanzania

Dario Bakundukize, Raymond Kagero, and Mary Kagero, Mugisagala, Ngara, 18 August 2006
Philemon Uwitijije Bashigwari, Dar es Salaam, 28 March 2007
Anord Biyoboke and Lameck Bitemba, Mukarehe, Kagera, Ngara, 18 August 2006
Richard Bugwoya, Mubinyanganya, Ngara, 18 August 2006
Samuel Habimana, Bukoba town, 22 August 2006
Jafeth Kabyemera, Bukoba town, 8 August 2006
Herman and Dorothy Kataraia, Bukoba town, 11 August 2006
Martha Kibira, Kibeeta, Bukoba, 22 August 2006
Erasto and Elina Kigabogabo, Murugina, Kagera, 19 August 2006
Christian Komulaga, Kashai B, Bukoba town, 14 August 2006
Wilson Lugakingira, Bukoba town, 12 August 2006
Ernest Lutashobya, Dar es Salaam, 25 August 2006
Philemon Majoro, Nyamiaga, 20 August 2006
Samuel Masoko, Biharamulo town, 16 August 2006
William Migembe, Mugisagala, Ngara, 18 August 2006
Eustace Mujoauzi, Bukoba town, 22 August 2006
Christian Mushumbuzi, Kibeeta, Bukoba, 11 August 2006
Eliabu Ndimugwanko, Murutabo, Ngara, 17 August 2006
Urias Ntamalengelo, Mabawe, Ngara, 19 August 2006
Nathan Nzisehere, Salmon Nzikobanyanka, Dani Nyanana, Elias Bitambikwa, Danieli Sempiga, Muruvyagila, Ngara, 17 August 2006
Wilson Nzobakenga and Mathayo Mutabazi, Mubuhenge, Ngara, 17 August 2006
Apolonia Rugina, Mumahoro, Ngara, 19 August 2006
Johanssen Rutabingwa, Bukoba town, 14 August 2006
Paulina Sendegeya and Anastasia Sendegeya, Murugina, Mabawe, Ngara, 19 August 2006
Juliana Shogotera, Mabawe, Ngara, 20 August 2006

Southern Uganda

Amos Bakeine, Kabale town, 21 August 2005
Amos Betungura, Ruharo, Ankole, 7 July 2004
Nasani Biryabarema, Kabale town, 19 August 2005
Kezia Bwegye, Kabale town, 21 August 2005
Rwamangye Eliezar, Kabale town, 20 August 2005
Ida Marere Ezina, Kabale town, 20 August 2005
Ibrahim Kagungule, Anna and Joy Kagungule, and Nasani Ndasarorera, Rugarama, Kabale town, Kigezi, 4 July 2004
Azaliya Kamara, Kabale town, 20 August 2005
Eldad Kanje, Kamwezi, Kigezi, 5 July 2004
George William Kasigairi, Kabale town, 19 August 2005
Festo Karwemera, Kabale town, 28 June and 1 July 2004
Alfred Katebalirwe, Kabale town, 20 August 2005
Wilson Komunda, Bukinda, Rukiga, Kigezi, 25 June 2004
Kosiya Kyamabara, Kabale town, 19 August 2005
Enoch Lugimbirwa, Ruharo, Ankole, 8 July 2004
Ezra Mahega, Bubare, Ndorwa, Kigezi, 26 June 2004
Zebedee Masereka, Kabale town, 21 August 2005
Stanley Matheka, Bukinda, Rukiga, Kigezi, 25 June 2004
Amos Mbitama, Kagarama, Ndorwa, Kigezi, 27 June 2004
Julaina Mufuko, Kandago, Bukinda, Kigezi, 25 June 2004
Phinhas Nyenda, Ruharo, Ankole, 7 July 2004
Gersamu Ruhindi, Kabale town, 21 August 2005
Enoch Rukare, Ruharo, Ankole, 7 July 2004
Robin Rwaminyonyo, Georgina Kajagyi, and Gershom Kashaje, Kabale town, 18 August 2005
Asanasio Rwandare, Rwenyunza, Rukiga, Kigezi, 26 June 2004 and 21 August 2005
David John Ziine, Rugarama, Kabale town, 1 July 2004

Central Uganda

Zeb Kabaza, Kasanga, Kampala, 10 July 2004
Peter Kigozi, Ntinda, Kampala, 13 July 2004
Yowasi Musajakaawa, Kampala, 12 July 2004

Western Uganda

Hezironi Acurubwe and Seremasi Baseka, Kisanja, Masindi, 1 September 2005
Agabus Baguma, Fort Portal, 28 August 2007
Richard Baguma, Fort Portal, 16 August 2005
Joram Bahwere, Harugale, Bundibugyo, 3 September 2007
Timosewo Munakenya Bawalana, Fort Portal, 28 May 2010 and 15 July 2011
Erina Bira, Buganikere, Bundibugyo, 6 September 2007
Isaac Bitanihirwe, Fort Portal, 16 August 2005
James Bizarwenda, Nyakasura, Kabarole, 30 August 2007
Hezekiah Bukombi, Bundibugyo town, 3 September 2007
Yeremiya Byasalya, Kabatinda, Busongora, 10 September 2007
Michael Gafabusa, Kyambogo, Kabarole, 1 September 2007
Mundeke Ibrahim, Kakuka, Bundibugyo, 5 September 2007
Yonia Irumba, Duhaga, Hoima, 30 August 2005
Jotham and Janet Kabuzi, Nyakasura, Kabarole, 30 August 2007
Erasto Kakongolo and Rachel Kakongolo, Kigama, Hoima, 1 September 2005
Irene Kamanyire, Fort Portal, 12 August 2005
Eustace Kamanyire, Fort Portal, 14 August 2005
Augustine Kayonga, Fort Portal, 27 August 2007
Benezeri Kisembo, Fort Portal, 28 August 2007
Edison Kithamuliko, Kabatunde, Busongora, Kasese, 10 September 2007
Charles Komurasi, Fort Portal, 27 August 2007
Buusu Koronen, Kasindi, Bubandi, Bundibugyo, 7 September 2007
Josephat Kule, Bwera town, Kasese, 13 September 2007
Yona Kule, Kisinga, Kasese, 12 September 2007
James Murumba Kwirabosa, Kisonko, Galilaya, Nduguto, Bundiguyo, 12 June 2010
Erinesti Kyambyo, Tombwe I, Bubandi, Bundibugyo, 7 September 2007
Daudi Lhubibi, Mutiti, Bundibugyo, 5 September 2007
Yofesi Maasa, Kirabaho, Busongora, Kasese, 10 September 2007
Shemu Maate, Buganikere, Bundibugyo, 6 September 2007
Yonia Maate, Buganikere, Bundibugyo, 6 September 2007
Dolosi Magabali, Fort Portal, 11 August 2005
Celili Makoma, Kisinga, Kasese, 12 September 2007
Paulo Makwera, Nyahuka, Bundibugyo, 4 September 2007
Yeremiya Maliba, Kayenze, Busaru, Bundibugyo, 12 June 2010
Atenasi Masereka, Kasese, 4 June 2010
Yohana Masereka, Kisinga, Kasese, 12 September 2007
Zebedee Masereka, Kasese town, 11 September 2007
Yowasi Mateso, Kanyampura, Burahya, Kabarole, 9 June 2010
Shemu Matte, Kasanzi, Buganikere, Bundibugyo, 6 September 2007
Edison Mujuku, Bubandi, Bundibugyo, 4 September 2007
Grace Mujuku, Bubandi, Bundibugyo, 4 September 2007
Metusera Mujungu, Kabutabula, Bubandi, Bundibugyo, 4 September 2007
Christine Mukirane, Kasese town, 12 September 2007 and 29 May 2010
Yustasi Mukirane, Bwera town, Kasese, 13 September 2007
Edrana Kabugho Mukirania, Kitsutsu, Munkunyu, Kasese, 30 May 2010
Cosmas Mukonzo, Karambi, Bwera, 13 September 2007
Yolamu Mulima, Kasese town, 11 September 2007 and 29 May 2010
Mumbere Asanasiyo Mulokole, Kabatunde, Busongora, Kasese, 10 September 2007
Asumani Mumbere, Kasese town, 12 September 2007
Charles Wesley Mumbere, Kasese town, 4 June 2010
Petero Kaamba Mupalya, Fort Portal, 15 August 2005 and 28 August 2007
Kaheru Mutusera and Kezia Kaheru, Bulindi, Hoima, 31 August 2005
Sam Mweisigya, Hoima town, 29 August 2005
Tito Ndorotyo, Duhaga, Hoima, 1 September 2005
Eriya Ngobi, Nabwina, Rwimi, Bunyangabu, Kabarole, 8 June 2010
Paul Mutabali Nyamwesa, Bunyangari, Bundibugyo, 5 September 2007
Georgina Nyaruboona, Bulindi, Hoima, 31 August 2005
Yoweri Nziabake, Kasese town, 17 June 2010
Mary Nzura, Kakuka, Bundibugyo, 5 September 2007
Jotham Rugomboora, Nyakasura, Kabarole, 30 August 2007
Edward Rugumayo, Fort Portal, 1 September 2007
Julaina Ruhukya, Hoima town, 31 August 2005
George Kahigwa Rukambi, Harugali, Bundibugyo, 3 September 2007
Erinesti Rupunjura, Butama III, Bundibugyo, 7 September 2007
Sylvester Rutaara and Agabus Baguma, Fort Portal, 10 August 2005
Shem Rutaare, Fort Portal, 17 August 2005
James Rwabwoni, Fort Portal, 28 August 2007
Dinah Rwakaikara, Bulindi, Hoima, 31 August 2005
Paulo Rwibende, Hima, Kasese, 11 September 2007 and 29 May 2010
Amon Seruboyo, Nyahuka, Bundibugyo, 6 September 2007
Eliezar Sirabwa, Mutiti, Bundibugyo, 5 September 2007
Wanza Stanley, Kakuka, Bundibugyo, 5 September 2007
Muhindo Yusuf, Kakuka, Bundibugyo, 6 September 2007

Books, Articles, and Manuscripts

Achieng, Jane. Paul Mboya’s Luo Kitgi gi Timbegi. Nairobi: Atai Joint, 2001.
Ahimbisibwe-Katebaka, John. ‘The Revival Movement and its Impact on the Church of Uganda in West Ankole Diocese, with Particular Reference to Kabwohe Archdeaconry, 1935–1995.’ Dip. Theo. thesis, Bishop Tucker Theological College, 1997.
Ahmed, Ali, ed. The Invention of Somalia. Lawrenceville, NJ: Red Sea Press, 1995.
Akita, J. M. ‘The Development of the National Archives and the National Documentation Centre.’ Paris: UNESCO, 1979.
Allman, Jean M.The Quills of the Porcupine: Asante Nationalism in an Emergent Ghana. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1993.
Allman, Jean M. ed. Fashioning Africa: Power and the Politics of Dress. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2004.
‘Americans’ Role Seen in Uganda Anti-Gay Push.’ New York Times (3 January 2010).
Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origins and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso, 1983.
Anderson, David M.Depression, Dust Bowl, Demography, and Drought: The Colonial State and Soil Conservation in East Africa during the 1930s.’ African Affairs 83, no. 332 (1984), 321–43.
Anderson, David M.Vigilantes, Violence and the Politics of Public Order in Kenya.’ African Affairs 101, no. 4 (2002), 531–55.
Anderson, David M.Histories of the Hanged: The Dirty War in Kenya and the End of Empire. New York: Norton, 2005.
Anderson, David M. ‘“Yours in the Struggle for Majimbo”: Nationalism and the Party Politics of Decolonization in Kenya, 1955–64.’ Journal of Contemporary History 40, no. 3 (2005), 547–64.
‘The Anti-Homosexuality Bill, 2009.’ Uganda GazetteCII, no. 47 (25 September, 2009).
Appiah, Kwame Anthony. Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a World of Strangers. New York: W.W. Norton, 2007.
Apter, David. The Political Kingdom in Uganda: A Study in Bureaucratic Nationalism. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1961.
Asad, Talal. Formations of the Secular: Christianity, Islam, Modernity. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2003.
Askew, Kelly. Performing the Nation: Swahili Music and Cultural Politics in Tanzania. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002.
Austen, Ralph. Northwest Tanzania under German and British Rule: Colonial Policy and Tribal Politics, 1889–1939. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1968.
Ayany, Samuel. Kar Charuok Mar Luo. Nairobi: East African Literature Bureau, 1952.
Barber, Karin, ed. Africa’s Hidden Histories: Everyday Literacy and Making the Self. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2006.
Barber, Karin, The Anthropology of Texts, Persons, and Publics: Oral and Written Culture in Africa and Beyond. Cambridge, 2007.
Barber, Karin, Mkiki Mkiki wa Siasa Tanganyika. Nairobi: East African Literature Bureau, 1966.
Barra, G.1000 Kikuyu Proverbs. Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau, 1994 [1939].
Basikania, Swaleh Tibawenda. ‘Chronological Appraisal on the Bakonzo/Bamba Traditional Leadership.’ Kampala: Office of the Crown Prince, 25 May 2005.
Bayart, Jean-François. The State in Africa: The Politics of the Belly. London: Longman, 1993.
Beck, Ulrich. The Cosmopolitan Vision. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2006.
Beecher, Leonard and Gladys. ‘A Kikuyu-English Dictionary.’ Nairobi: CMS Bookshop, 1938.
Bender, Thomas. The Anti-Slavery Debate: Capitalism and Abolitionism as a Problem in Historical Interpretation. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.
Benhabib, Seyla. Another Cosmopolitanism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.
Bennett, George. Kenya, A Political History: The Colonial Period. London: Oxford University Press, 1963.
Benson, T. G.Kikuyu-English Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1964.
Bernstein, Henry. ‘Notes on State and the Peasantry: The Tanzanian Case.’ Review of African Political Economy 8, no. 21 (1981), 44–62.
Bessell, M. J.Nyabingi.’ Uganda Journal 2, no. 2 (1938), 73–86.
Bilindabagabo, Alexis with Alan Nichols. Rescued by Angels: The Story of Miracles during the Rwandan Genocide. Brunswick East, Australia: Acorn, 2001.
Bjorklund, Diane. Interpreting the Self: Two Hundred Years of American Autobiography. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998.
Blount, Ben G.Aspects of Luo Socialization.’ Language in Society 1, no. 2 (October 1972), 235–48.
Boesen, Jannik, Birgit Madsen, and Tony Moody. Ujamaa: Socialism from Above. Uppsala: Scandinavian Institute of Development Studies, 1977.
Branch, Daniel. Defeating Mau Mau, Creating Kenya: Counterinsurgency, Civil War, and Decolonization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Branch, Daniel, Nic Cheeseman, and Leigh Gardner, eds. Our Turn to Eat: Politics in Kenya Since 1950. Berlin: LitVerlag, 2010.
Brazier, F. S. ‘The Nyabingi Cult: Religion and Political Scale in Kigezi, 1900–1930.’ Kampala: East African Institute for Social Research, 1968.
Breckenridge, James. Forty Years in Kenya. Great Britain: Creeds, n.d.
Breckenridge, Keith. ‘Verwoerd’s Bureau of Proof: Total Information in the Making of Apartheid.’ History Workshop Journal 59, no. 1 (2005), 83–108.
Brennan, James. ‘Realizing Civilization through Patrilineal Descent: The Intellectual Making of an African Racial Nationalism in Tanzania, 1920–50.’ Social Identities 12, no. 4 (2006), 405–23.
Brennan, JamesBlood Enemies: Exploitation and Urban Citizenship in the Nationalist Political Thought of Tanzania, 1958–75.’ Journal of African History 47, no. 4 (2006), 389–413.
Brennan, JamesFighting for the Sultan’s Flag: Sovereignty and Decolonization in Coastal Kenya, 1945–1964.’ Comparative Studies in Society and History 50, no. 4 (2008), 831–61.
Brennan, James, Andrew Burton, and Yusuf Lawi, eds. Dar es Salaam: Histories from an Emerging Metropolis. Dar es Salaam: Mkuki na Nyota, 2007.
Brounéus, Karen. ‘The Trauma of Truth Telling: Effects of Witnessing in the Rwandan Gacaca Courts on Psychological Health.’ Journal of Conflict Resolution 54, no. 3 (2010), 408–37.
Brownlie, Ian. African Boundaries: A Legal and Diplomatic Dictionary. London: Hurst and Co., 1979.
Bunyan, John. The Pilgrim’s Progress from This World to That Which is to Come. Uhrichsville, Ohio: Barbour and Co., n.d. [1678].
Butler, Bill. Hill Ablaze. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1976.
Calamy, Edmund, ed. Abridgement of Mr. Baxter’s History of His Life and Times. London: John Lawrence, 1713 [1702].
Canandine, David. Ornamentalism: How the British Saw Their Empire. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.
Carotenuto, Matthew. ‘Cultivating an African Community: The Luo Union in 20th Century East Africa.’ Ph.D. dissertation, Indiana University, 2006.
Carotenuto, MatthewRiwruok E Teko: Cultivating Identity in Colonial and Postcolonial Kenya.’ African Affairs 53, no. 2 (2006), 53–73.
Carotenuto, Matthew and Katherine Luongo. ‘Navigating the Kenya National Archives: Research and its Role in Kenyan Society.’ History in Africa 32 (2005), 445–55.
Carswell, Grace. Cultivating Success in Uganda: Kigezi Farmers and Colonial Policies. Oxford: James Currey, 2007.
Chanock, Martin. Law, Custom, and Social Order: The Colonial Experience in Malawi and Zambia. Portsmouth, N.H.: Heinemann, 1998.
Chatterjee, Partha. The Nation and its Fragments: Colonial and Postcolonial Histories. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993.
Chidester, David. Savage Systems: Colonialism and Comparative Religion in Southern Africa. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1996.
Chrétien, Jean-Pierre. The Great Lakes of Africa: Two Thousand Years of History. New York: Zone Books, 2003.
Church, Joe. Awake, Uganda! The Story of Blasio Kigozi and His Vision of Revival. Kampala: Uganda Bookshop, 1957 [1936].
Church, JoeForgive Them: The Story of an African Martyr. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1966.
Church, JoeWilliam Nagenda: A Great Lover of Jesus. London: Ruanda Mission, 1974.
Church, JoeQuest for the Highest: An Autobiographical Account of the East African Revival. Exeter: Paternoster, 1981.
Churchill, Winston. My African Journey. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1908.
Clark, Phil. Justice Without Lawyers: Peace, Justice and Reconciliation in Rwanda. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.
Clark, Phil and Zachary Kaufman, eds. After Genocide: Transitional Justice, Post-Conflict Reconstruction and Reconciliation in Rwanda and Beyond. New York: Columbia University Press, 2009.
Clough, Marshall. Mau Mau Memoirs: History, Memory, and Politics. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 1998.
Cohen, David William and E. S. Atieno Odhiambo. Siaya: The Historical Anthropology of an African Landscape. London: James Currey, 1989.
Cohen, David William and E. S. Atieno OdhiamboBurying S.M.: The Politics of Knowledge and the Sociology of Power in Africa. Portsmouth: Heinemann, 1992.
Cole, Henry. ‘Notes on the Wagogo of German East Africa.’ Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 32 (July–December 1902), 305–38.
Coleman, James S.Nationalism in Tropical Africa.’ American Political Science Review 48, no. 2 (1954), 404–26.
Comaroff, John and Jean Comaroff. Of Revelation and Revolution, vol. I: Christianity, Colonialism, and Consciousness in South Africa. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991.
Comaroff, John and Jean ComaroffOf Revelation and Revolution, vol. II: The Dialectics of Modernity on a South African Frontier. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997.
Cook, Albert. A Medical Dictionary and Phrase Book in Luganda. Kampala: Uganda Book Shop, 1921.
Cory, Hans and M. M. Hartnoll. Customary Law of the Haya Tribe, Tanganyika Territory. London: International African Institute, 1945.
Creary, Nicholas. Domesticating a Religious Import: The Jesuits and the Inculturation of the Catholic Church in Zimbabwe, 1879–1980. New York: Fordham University Press, 2011.
Dann, Frances. ‘The Work of an Australian CMS Missionary in the Late Colonial Period in Tanganyika, 1929–1945.’ B. Theo. thesis, Yarra Theological Union, 2002.
Davidson, Basil. The Black Man’s Burden: Africa and the Curse of the Nation-State. New York: Three Rivers Press, 1993.
Davis, David Brion. The Problem of Slavery in Western Culture. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1966.
Denoon, Donald, ed. A History of Kigezi in South-West Uganda. Kampala: The National Trust, 1972.
des Forges, Alison. Defeat is the Only Bad News: Rwanda Under Musinga, 1896–1931, edited by David Newbury. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2011.
Dinwiddy, Hugh. ‘The Search for Unity in Uganda: Early Days to 1966.’ African Affairs 80, no. 321 (1981), 501–18.
Dobson, Andrew. ‘Thick Cosmopolitanism.’ Political Studies 54, no. 1 (2006), 165–84.
Doornbos, Martin. The Ankole Kingship Controversy: Regalia Galore Revisited. Kampala: Fountain Publishers, 2001.
Doyle, Shane. Crisis and Decline in Bunyoro: Population and Environment in Western Uganda, 1860–1955. Oxford: James Currey, 2006.
Doyle, Shane“The Child of Death”: Personal Names and Parental Attitudes Towards Mortality in Bunyoro, Western Uganda.’ Journal of African History 49, no. 3 (2008), 361–82.
Doyle, ShaneImmigrants and Indigenes: The Lost Counties Dispute and the Evolution of Ethnic Identity in Colonial Buganda.’ Journal of Eastern African Studies 3, no. 2 (2009), 284–302.
Doyle, ShaneBefore HIV: Sexuality, Fertility and Mortality in East Africa, 1900–1980. London: Oxford University Press, forthcoming.
Eakin, John Paul. How Our Lives Become Stories: Making Selves. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1999.
Eckert, Andreas. ‘Useful Instruments of Participation? Local Government and Co-operative Societies in Tanzania, 1940s to 1970s.’ International Journal of African Historical Studies 40, no. 1 (2007), 97–118.
Edel, May. The Chiga of Uganda. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 1996 [1957].
Elkins, Caroline. ‘Detention, Rehabilitation, and the Destruction of Kikuyu Society.’ In Mau Mau and Nationhood: Arms, Authority, and Narration, edited by John Lonsdale and Atieno Odhiambo, 191–226. London: James Currey, 2003.
Elkins, CarolineImperial Reckoning: The Untold Story of Britain’s Gulag in Kenya. New York: Henry Holt, 2005.
Ellerbek, Finn Allan. Karagwe Diocese: A Lutheran Church History, As Seen and Studied by a Missionary. Copenhagen: Academic Press, 1992.
Ellis, Stephen and Gerrie ter Haar. Worlds of Power: Religious Thought and Political Practice in Africa. London: Hurst and Co., 2004.
English, Patrick. ‘Archives of Uganda.’ American Archivist 18, no. 3 (July 1955), 224–30.
Englund, Harri. Prisoners of Freedom: Human Rights and the African Poor. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006.
Epprecht, Marc. Heterosexual Africa? The History of an Idea from the Age of Exploration to the Age of AIDS. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2008.
Fallers, Lloyd. The King’s Men: Leadership and Status on the Eve of Independence. London: Oxford University Press, 1964.
Feierman, Steven. Peasant Intellectuals: Anthropology and History in Tanzania. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1990.
Feierman, Steven ‘Colonizers, Scholars, and the Creation of Invisible Histories.’ In Beyond the Cultural Turn: New Directions in the Study of Society and Culture, edited by Victoria Bonnell and Lynn Hunt, 182–216. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999.
Fields, Karen. Revival and Rebellion in Colonial Central Africa. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1985.
Fisher, Humphrey. ‘Conversion Reconsidered.’ Africa: Journal of the International African Institute 43, no. 1 (1973), 27–40.
Frazer, J. G.The Golden Bough. London: MacMillan, 1890.
Frazer, J. G.Questions on the Manners, Customs, Religion, Superstitions &c. of Uncivilized or Semi-Civilized Peoples.’ Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 18 (1889), 431–40.
Freedman, Jim. ‘Ritual and History: The Case of Nyabingi.’ Cahiers d’Etudes Africaines 14, no. 53 (1974), 170–80.
Freedman, Jim ‘Three Muraris, Three Gahayas and the Four Phases of Nyabingi.’ In Chronology, Migration, and Drought in Interlacustrine Africa, edited by J. B. Webster, 175–87. Thetford: Longman, 1979.
Freedman, JimNyabingi: The Social History of an African Divinity. Tervuren: Annales du Musee Royal de lAfrique Centrale, 1984.
Furedi, Frank. The Mau Mau War in Perspective. Nairobi: Heinemann, 1989.
Gathigira, Stanley. Mĩikarĩre ya Agĩkũ;yũ;. Nairobi: Scholars Publications, 1986 [1933].
Gatu, John. Joyfully Christian, Truly African. Nairobi: Acton Publishers, 2006.
Geiger, Susan. TANU Women: Gender and Culture in the Making of Tanganyikan Nationalism. Portsmouth: Heinemann, 1997.
Geissler, Paul Wenzel and Ruth Jane Prince. The Land is Dying: Contingency, Creativity and Conflict in Western Kenya. Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2010.
Geschiere, Peter. The Perils of Belonging: Autochthony, Citizenship, and Exclusion in Africa and Europe. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009.
Giblin, James. A History of the Excluded: Making Family a Refuge from State in Twentieth Century Tanzania. Oxford: James Currey, 2005.
Gifford, Paul. Ghana’s New Christianity: Pentecostalism in a Globalizing African Economy. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2005.
Gifford, PaulChristianity, Politics, and Public Life in Kenya. London: Hurst, 2009.
Gikoyo, Gucu wa. We Fought for Freedom. Nairobi: East African Publishing House, 1979.
Gilroy, Paul. Postcolonial Melancholia. New York: Columbia University Press, 2006.
Godfrey, Nick. ‘Understanding Genocide: The Experience of Anglicans in Rwanda.’ Ph.D. dissertation, University of Cambridge, 2008.
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