Skip to main content
Expert Failure
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Cited by
    This (lowercase (translateProductType product.productType)) has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Devereaux, Abigail N. 2018. The nudge wars: A modern socialist calculation debate. The Review of Austrian Economics,

  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    Expert Failure
    • Online ISBN: 9781316481400
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

The humble idea that experts are ordinary human beings leads to surprising conclusions about how to get the best possible expert advice. All too often, experts have monopoly power because of licensing restrictions or because they are government bureaucrats protected from both competition and the consequences of their decisions. This book argues that, in the market for expert opinion, we need real competition in which rival experts may have different opinions and new experts are free to enter. But the idea of breaking up expert monopolies has far-reaching implications for public administration, forensic science, research science, economics, America's military-industrial complex, and all domains of expert knowledge. Roger Koppl develops a theory of experts and expert failure, and uses a wide range of examples - from forensic science to fashion - to explain the applications of his theory, including state regulation of economic activity.


Advance praise:‘If you are skeptical of elitist experts, cronies in government or business, but fearful of the populist uprising against them, you will like reading this book in the intellectual tradition of B. Mandeville, Adam Smith, and F. A. Hayek.'

Vernon Smith - Nobel Laureate, Professor of Economics and Law, Chapman University, California

Advance praise:‘The burgeoning literature on expertise, which crosses several disciplines, has needed an accessible, sophisticated, critical, synthetic overview that explains the importance of the issues. Roger Koppl has supplied one at last, and much can be learned from it.'

Stephen Turner - Distinguished University Professor, University of South Florida

Advance praise:‘In this lucid and wide-ranging examination, Roger Koppl sets forth several lines of thought that speak to this servant-master dichotomy. The book does not provide a recipe for creating servants and avoiding masters, but it provides a cogent framework for exploring this problem of human governance, closing with the wisdom: value expertise but fear expert power.'

Richard Wagner - Harris Professor of Economics, George Mason University, Washington, DC

Advance praise:'The growth of the administrative state, more intricate financial regulation, and the spread of behavioral economics as a basis for policy means that we are increasingly living under the rule of experts. Roger Koppl's book is an in-depth look at the epistemic and incentive problems created by what may appear to some as simply evidence-based policy. But much more is at stake here as Koppl revealingly demonstrates.'

Mario J. Rizzo - Associate Professor of Economics, New York University

Advance praise:'In Expert Failure, Roger Koppl has written a commanding synoptic and authoritative book on the fundamental problem of 'experts', when knowledge is not uniformly distributed. Koppl argues for polyarchy over hierarchy, covering an enormous range from Socrates, to the administrative state, to the tacit knowledge in the economy and the dangers of the 'entangled deep state'. Read this book.'

Stuart Kauffman, FRSC - Emeritus Professor, University of Pennsylvania

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
Ackerman, Spencer. (2011). There’s a Secret Patriot Act, Senator Says. Wired, May 25, 2011. Downloaded January 13, 2017 from
Ackerman, Spencer. (2015). West Point Law Professor Who Called for Attack on “Islamic Holy Sites” Resigns. The Guardian, August 31, 2015. Downloaded January 26, 2017 from
Adewunmi, Bim. (2017). Flint Isn’t Ready to Trust Anyone Yet. BuzzFeed News, May 24, 2017. Downloaded May 30, 2017 from
Aiello, Leslie C. and Dunbar, R. I. M. (1992). Neocortex Size, Group Size, and the Evolution of Language. Current Anthropology, 34(2), 184–93.
Aitkenhead, Decca. (2016). Prof Brian Cox: “Being anti-expert – that’s the way back to the cave.” The Guardian, July 2, 2016. Downloaded December 27, 2016 from
Akerlof, George A. (1970). The Market for “Lemons”: Quality Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 84(3), 488500.
Akerlof, George A. and Kranton, Rachel E. (2000). Identity and Economics. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 115(3), 715–53.
Akerlof, George A. and Kranton, Rachel E. (2002). Identity and Schooling: Some Lessons for the Economics of Education. Journal of Economic Literature, 40(4), 1167–201.
Akerlof, George A. and Kranton, Rachel E. (2005). Identity and the Economics of Organizations. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19(1), 932.
Akerlof, George A. and Kranton, Rachel E. (2008). Identity, Supervision, and Work Groups. American Economic Review, 98(2), 212–17.
Anderson, James. (1973). Ideology in Geography: An Introduction. Antipode, 5(3), 16.
Anderson, Richard C. and Pichert, James W. (1978). Recall of Previously Unrecallable Information Following a Shift in Perspective. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 17, 112.
Anderson, Richard C., Pichert, James W., and Shirey, Larry L. (1983). Effects of Reader’s Schema at Different Points in Time. Journal of Educational Psychology, 75(2), 271–9.
Arnush, Michael. (2005). Pilgrimage to the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi: Patterns of Public and Private Consultation. In Elsner, Jas and Rutherford, Ian, eds., Pilgrimage in Graeco-Roman and Early Christian Antiquity: Seeing the Gods. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 97110.
Arthur, W. Brian. (1994). Inductive Behaviour and Bounded Rationality. American Economic Review, 84, 406–11.
Arthur, W. Brian, Durlauf, Steven N., and Lane, David A. (1997). Introduction. In Arthur, W. B., Durlauf, S., and Lane, D., eds., The Economy as an Evolving Complex System II. Boston: Pearson Education, pp. 114.
Arthur, W. B., Holland, J., Le Baron, B., Palmer, R., and Taylor, P. (1997). Asset Pricing under Endogenous Expectations in an Artificial Stock Market. In Arthur, W. B., Durlauf, S., and Lane, D., eds., The Economy as an Evolving Complex System II. Boston: Pearson Education, pp. 1544.
Asch, S. E. (1951). Effects of Group Pressure upon the Modification and Distortion of Judgement. In Guetzkow, H., ed., Groups, Leadership and Men. Pittsburgh: Carnegie Press, pp. 177–90.
Bain, Joe S. (1956). Barriers to New Competition. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Barber, Michael D. (2004). The Participating Citizen: A Biography of Alfred Schutz. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Barry, Andrew and Slater, Don. (2002). Technology, Politics and the Market: An Interview with Michel Callon. Economy and Society, 31(2), 285306.
Bartley, W. W. III. (1987). Alienation Alienated: The Economics of Knowledge versus the Psychology and Sociology of Knowledge. In Radnitzsky, G. and Bartley, W. W. III, eds., Evolutionary Epistemology, Rationality, and the Sociology of Knowledge. La Salle: Open Court, pp. 423–51.
Bastiat, Frederic. (1845) [1851/1854–1864/1964]. Economic Sophisms. Translated by Goddard, Arthur. Irvington-on-Hudson: The Foundation for Economic Education, Inc.
Bator, Francis M. (1958). The Anatomy of Market Failure. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 72, 351–79.
Baumol, William J. (1982). Contestable Markets: An Uprising in the Theory of Industrial Structure. American Economic Review, 72(1), 115.
Baumol, William J., Panzar, John C., and Willig, Robert D. (1982). Contestable Markets and the Theory of Industry Structure. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Berger, Peter. (2016). In the Vortex of the Migration Crisis. The American Interest, May 18, 2016. Downloaded June 28, 2016 from
Berger, Peter and Luckmann, Thomas. (1966). The Social Construction of Reality. New York: Anchor Books.
Berger, Vance, Rosser Matthews, J., and Grosch, Eric N. (2008). On Improving Research Methodology in Clinical Trials. Statistical Methods in Medical Research, 17(3), 231–42.
Besley, T. and Hennessy, P. (2009). Letter to Queen Elizabeth. July 22, 2009. Downloaded January 11, 2016 from
Bhaskar, Roy. (1991). Knowledge, Theory of. In Bottomore, Tom, Harris, Lawrence, Kiernan, V. G., and Miliband, Ralph, eds., A Dictionary of Marxist Thought, 2nd edn. Oxford and Malden, MA: Blackwell, pp. 285–94.
Bickerton, Christopher and Accetti, Carlo Invernizzi. (2015). Populism and Technocracy: Opposites or Complements? Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy, 20(2), 186206.
Biscoe, Peter. (2007). Expert Witnesses: Recent Developments in NSW. Australian Construction Law Newsletter, #114, 3841.
Bloor, David. (1976). Knowledge and Social Imagery. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Blount, Zachary D., Borland, Christina Z., and Lenski, Richard E. (2008). Historical Contingency and the Evolution of a Key Innovation in an Experimental Population of Escherichia coli. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(23), 7899–906.
BLS, Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2015). Occupational Outlook Handbook 2014–15 Edition,
Boettke, Peter. (1998). Economic Calculation: The Austrian Contribution to Political Economy. Advances in Austrian Economics, 5, 131–58.
Boettke, Peter. (2001). Calculation and Coordination: Essays on Socialism and Transitional Political Economy. London and New York: Routledge.
Boettke, Peter. (2012). Living Economics: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow. Oakland: The Independent Institute.
Böhm-Bawerk, Eugen v. (1888) [1891/1930]. The Positive Theory of Capital. Translated by Smart, William. New York: G. E. Stechert & Co.
Bonar, James. (1894). A Catalogue of the Library of Adam Smith. London and New York: Macmillan and Co.
Boulding, Kenneth. (1964). The Meaning of the Twentieth Century. London: George Allen and Unwin, Ltd.
Boyte, Harry C. (2012). Populism – Bringing Culture Back In. The Good Society, 21(2), 300–19.
Bradford, William C. (2015). Trahison des Professeurs: The Critical Law of Armed Conflict Academy as an Islamist Fifth Column. National Security Journal, 3(2), 278461.
Branchi, Andrea. (2004). Introduzione a Mandeville. Rome and Bari: Editori Laterza, ebook.
Britton, Roswell S. (1933). The Chinese Periodical Press, 1800–1912. Shanghai: Kelly and Walsh.
Britton, Roswell S. (1934). Chinese News Interests. Pacific Affairs, 7(2), 181–93.
Broad, William J. (2006). The Oracle: Ancient Delphi and the Science behind Its Lost Secrets. New York: The Penguin Press.
Brock, William A. and Hommes, Cars H. (1997). A Rational Route to Randomness. Econometrica, 65(5), 1059–95.
Browne, W. A. F. (1854). Treatment of Medical Witnesses in Courts of Law in America. Association Medical Journal, 2(63), 243.
Buchanan, James M. (1959). Positive Economics, Welfare Economics, and Political Economy. The Journal of Law & Economics, 2, 124–38.
Buchanan, J. M. (1982). Order Defined in the Process of Its Emergence. Literature of Liberty 5. Downloaded June 19, 2010 from
Buchanan, James M. (2003). Public Choice: The Origins and Development of a Research Program, Fairfax, VA: Center for the Study of Public Choice. Downloaded May 18, 2007 from
Buchanan, James M. and Tullock, Gordon. (1962) [1999]. The Calculus of Consent: The Logical Foundations of Constitutional Democracy, volume 3 of The Collected Works of James M. Buchanan. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund.
Buehler, Hannah. (2017). Family Court Judge Denies Homeschool Mom’s Custody Request. WKBW Buffalo, February 9, 2017. Downloaded February 10, 2017 from
Burney, Ian A. (1999). A Poisoning of No Substance: The Trials of Medico-Legal Proof in Mid-Victorian England. Journal of British Studies, 38(1), 5992.
Burr, Vivien. (1995). An Introduction to Social Constructionism. London and New York: Routledge.
Burrill, Thomas J. (1890). Proceedings of the American Society of Microscopists. Minutes of the Thirteenth Annual Meeting. Proceedings of the American Society of Microscopists, 12, 208–52.
Butos, William and Koppl, Roger. (2003). Science as a Spontaneous Order: An Essay in the Economics of Science. In Jensen, H. S., Vendeloe, M., and Richter, L., eds. The Evolution of Scientific Knowledge. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 164–88.
Butos, William N. and McQuade, Thomas J. (2015). Causes and Consequences of the Climate Science Boom. The Independent Review, 20(2), 165–96.
Callon, Michel. (1998). Introduction: The Embeddedness of Economic Markets in Economics. The Sociological Review, 46(1), 157.
Campbell, Donald. (1987). Evolutionary Epistemology. In Radnitzky, Gerard and Bartley, W. W. III., eds., Evolutionary Epistemology, Rationality, and the Sociology of Knowledge. Chicago and La Salle, Illinois: Open Court, pp. 4789.
Canning, D. (1992). Rationality, Computability and Nash Equilibrium. Econometrica, 60(4), 877–88.
Chaitin, Daniel. (2017). Schumpeter Warns Trump: Intel Officials “Have Six Ways from Sunday at Getting Back at You,” Washington Examiner, January 3, 2017. Downloaded February 5, 2017 from
Chaitin, G., da Costa, N., and Doria, F. A. (2012). Gödel’s Way: Exploits into an Undecidable World. Leiden: CRC Press.
Chambers, Francesca. (2017). Is Intelligence Community Plotting Revenge on Trump for Attacking It? High-Profile Critic of Spies Says There’s “Open Warfare” between the CIA and President-Elect, Daily Mail, January 13, 2017. Downloaded February 5, 2017 from
Chen, Stephanie. (2009). Pennsylvania Rocked by “Jailing Kids for Cash” Scandal. CNN, February 24, 2009. Downloaded November 30, 2016 from
Cheng, Edward K. (2006). Same Old, Same Old: Scientific Evidence Past and Present. Michigan Law Review, 104(6), 1387–402.
Chroust, Anton-Hermann. (1967). Plato’s Academy: The First Organized School of Political Science in Antiquity. The Review of Politics, 29(1), 2540.
Chroust, Anton-Hermann. (1973). Aristotle: New Light on Some of His Lost Works. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press. Volume I: Some Novel Interpretations of the Man and His Life. Volume II: Observations on Some of Aristotle’s Lost Works.
Clark, Andy and Chalmers, David. (1998). The Extended Mind. Analysis, 58(1), 719.
Claybrook, Joan. (2007). Crash Test Dummies. New York Times, January 28, 2007. Downloaded July 16, 2016 from
Coase, Ronald H. (1974). The Market for Goods and the Market for Ideas. The American Economic Review. 64(2), 384–91.
Cockshott, Paul, Mackenzie, Lewis, and Michaelson, Greg. (2008). Physical Constraints on Hypercomputation. Theoretical Computer Science, 394, 159–74.
Coclanis, Peter A. (2013). Terror in Burma: Buddhists vs. Muslims. World Affairs, 176(4), 2533.
Colander, David and Kupers, Roland. (2014). Complexity and the Art of Public Policy: Solving Society’s Problems from the Bottom Up. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press.
Cole, Simon. (2005). More than Zero: Accounting for Error in Latent Fingerprint Identification. The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 95(3), 9851078.
Cole, Simon. (2010). Acculturating Forensic Science: What Is “Scientific Culture,” and How Can Forensic Science Adopt It? Fordham Urban Law Journal, 38(2), 435–72.
Cole, Simon A. (2012). Reply, Defending a Knowledge Hierarchy in Forensic ScienceFordham Urban Law Journal, City Square, 39, 97104.
Cole, Simon A. and Thompson, William C. (2013). Forensic Science and Wrongful Convictions. In Huf, C. Ronald and Killias, Martin, eds., Wrongful Convictions & Miscarriages of Justice: Causes and Remedies in North American and European Criminal Justice Systems. New York and London: Routledge, pp. 111–36.
Coley, Noel G. (1991). Alfred Swaine Taylor, MD, FRS (1806–1880): Forensic Toxicologist. Medical History, 35, 409–27.
Collins, H. M. and Evans, Robert. (2002). The Third Wave of Science Studies: Studies of Expertise and Experience. Social Studies of Science, 32(2), 235–96.
Collins, H. M. and Evans, Robert (2003). King Canute Meets the Beach Boys: Responses to the Third Wave. Social Studies of Science 33(3), 435–52.
Congleton, Roger. (2003). The Future of Public Choice. Public Choice Studies, 40, 5–23. Downloaded September 2, 2010 from
Conrad, Peter. (2007). The Medicalization of Society: On the Transformation of Human Conditions into Treatable Disorders. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Cook, Harold J. (1994). Good Advice and Little Medicine: The Professional Authority of Early Modern English Physicians. Journal of British Studies, 33(1), 131.
Cooper, Helene. (2016). Military Officials Distorted ISIS Intelligence, Congressional Panel Says. New York Times, August 11, 2016. Downloaded March 5, 2017 from
Cosmides, Leda, Tooby, John, and Barkow, Jerome, eds. (1992). The Adapted Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Cowan, E. James. (2012). Using Organizational Economics to Engage Cultural Key Masters in Creating Change in Forensic Science Administration to Minimize Bias and Errors. Journal of Institutional Economics, 8(1), 93117.
Cowan, E. James and Koppl, Roger. (2010). An Economic Perspective on Unanalyzed Evidence in Law-Enforcement Agencies. Criminology & Public Policy, 9(2), 409–17.
Cowan, E. James, and Koppl, Roger. (2011). An Experimental Study of Blind Proficiency Tests in Forensic Science. Review of Austrian Economics, 24(3), 251–71.
Coyne, Christopher. (2008). After War: The Political Economy of Exporting Democracy. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Coyne, Christopher and Coyne, Rachel L. eds. (2015). Flaws & Ceilings: Price Controls and the Damage They Cause. London: Institute of Economic Affairs.
D’Agostino, F. (2009). From the Organization to the Division of Cognitive Labor. Politics, Philosophy & Economics, 8, 101–29.
da Costa, N. C. A. and Doria, F. A. (2009). How to Build a Hypercomputer. Applied Mathematics and Computation, 215, 1361–7.
Daniel, James and Polansky, Ronald. (1979). The Tale of the Delphic Oracle in Plato’s Apology. The Ancient World, 2(3), 83–5.
Darby, Michael R. and Karni, Edi. (1973) Free Competition and the Optimal Amount of Fraud. Journal of Law & Economics, 16(1), 6788.
Davenport-Hines, Richard. (2009). “Palmer, William [the Rugeley Poisoner] (1824–1856). In Matthew, H. C. G. and Harrison, Brian, eds., Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn., ed. Lawrence Goldman, May 2009, (accessed April 5, 2016).
Davies, William. (1856). Presidential Address to the Provincial Medical and Surgical Association (Later the British Medical Association) as reported in “Association Intelligence.” Association Medical Journal, 4(185), 609–13.
de la Croix, David and Gosseries, Axel. (2009). Population Policy through Tradable Procreation Entitlements. International Economic Review, 50(2), 507–42.
de la Torre, Carlos. (2013). Technocratic Populism in Ecuador. Journal of Democracy, 24(3), 3346.
Debreu, Gerard. (1959). Theory of Value. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.
Defoe, Daniel. (1722). A Journal of the Plague Year. London: E. Nutt. Undated facsimile “reproduced from the copy in the Henry E. Huntington Library.”
Demsetz, Harold. (1969). Information and Efficiency: Another Viewpoint. Journal of Law and Economics, 12(1), 122.
de Roover, Raymond. (1955). New Perspectives on the History of Accounting. The Accounting Review, 30(3), 405–20.
Devins, Caryn, Koppl, Roger, Kauffman, Stuart, and Felin, Teppo. (2015). Against Design. Arizona State Law Journal, 47(3), 609–81.
Devins, Caryn, Koppl, Roger, Kauffman, Stuart, and Felin, Teppo. (2016). Still against Design: A Response to Steven Calabresi, Sanford Levinson, and Vernon Smith. Arizona State Law Journal, 48(1), 241–8.
Diamond, A. M. Jr. (1988). Science as a Rational Enterprise. Theory and Decision, 24, 147–67.
Dicey, A. V. (1982). Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution, Indianapolis, IN: Liberty Classics. (This volume is a reprint of the 8th edition of 1915.)
Dillon, Millicent and Foucault, Michel. (1980). Conversation with Michel Foucault. The Threepenny Review, 1, 45.
Drizin, Steen A. and Leo, Richard A. (2004). The Problem of False Confessions in the Post-DNA World. North Carolina Law Review, 82, 8911004.
Dror, Itiel E. and Charlton, David. (2006). Why Experts Make Errors. Journal of Forensic Identification, 56(4), 600–16.
Dror, Itiel E., Charlton, David, and Peron, Ailsa. (2006). Contextual Information Renders Experts Vulnerable to Making Erroneous Identifications. Forensic Science International, 156, 74–8.
Dulleck, Uwe and Kerschbamer, Rudolf. (2010). On Doctors, Mechanics, and Computer Specialists: The Economics of Credence Goods. Journal of Economic Literature, 44, 542.
Duncan, James and Ley, David. (1982). Structural Marxism and Human Geography: A Critical Assessment. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 72(1), 3059.
Durant, Darrin. (2011). Models of Democracy in Social Studies of Science. Social Studies of Science, 41(5), 691714.
Earl, P. E. and Potts, J. (2004). The Market for Preferences. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 28, 619–33.
Easterly, William. (2013). The Tyranny of Experts: Economists, Dictators, and the Forgotten Rights of the Poor. New York: Basic Books.
Easterly, William. (2016). Democracy Is Dying as Technocrats Watch. Foreign Affairs, December 23, 2016. Downloaded December 24, 2016 from
Edelman, Gerald M. and Gally, Joseph A. (2001). Degeneracy and Complexity in Biological Systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 98(24), 13763–8.
Edmond, Gary. (2009). Merton and the Hot Tub: Scientific Conventions and Expert Evidence in Australian Civil Procedure. Law and Contemporary Problems, 72, 159–89.
Edwards, James Don. (1960). Early Bookkeeping and Its Development into Accounting. The Business History Review, 34(4), 446–58.
Edwards, Thomas R. (1964). Mandeville’s Moral Prose. ELH, 31(2), 195212.
Eisenhower, Dwight D. (1961). Farewell Radio and Television Address to the American People. January 17, 1961. In Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States, Dwight D. Eisenhower 1960-61, Washington DC: Office of the Federal Register, National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, pp. 1035–40.
Eliasberg, W. (1945). Opposing Expert Testimony. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 36(4), 231–42.
Ellis, Lee. (2008). Reducing Crime Evolutionarily. In Duntley, Joshua D. and Shackelford, Todd K., eds., Evolutionary Forensic Psychology: Darwinian Foundations of Crime and Law. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 249–67.
Emons, Winand. (1997). Credence Goods and Fraudulent Experts. RAND Journal of Economics, 28(1), 107–19.
Emons, Winand. (2001). Credence Goods Monopolists. International Journal of Industrial Organization, 19(3–4), 375–89.
Epstein, Richard. (2008). Why the Modern Administrative State Is Inconsistent with the Rule of Law. NYU Journal of Law and Liberty, 3, 491515.
Fairbanks, Arthur. (1906). Herodotus and the Oracle at Delphi. The Classical Journal, 1(2), 3748.
Fallon, R. H. Jr. (1997). “The Rule of Law” as a Concept in Constitutional Discourse. Columbia Law Review, 97(1), 156.
FBI Director. (2002). An Audit of Houston Police Department Crime Laboratory-DNA/Serology Section, December 12–13.
Feaver, Peter D. and Kohn, Richard H. (2001). Conclusion: The Gap and What it Means for American National Security. In Feaver, Peter D. and Kohn, Richard H., eds., Soldiers and Civilians: The Civil-Military Gap and American National Security. Cambridge: MIT Press, pp. 459–73.
Feigenbaum, Susan and Levy, David M. (1993) The Market for (Ir)reproducible Econometrics. Social Epistemology, 7, 215–32.
Feigenbaum, Susan and Levy, David M. (1996) The Technical Obsolescence of Scientific Fraud. Rationality and Society, 8, 261–76.
Felin, Teppo, Kauffman, Stuart, Koppl, Roger, and Longo, Giuseppe. (2014). Economic Opportunity and Evolution: Beyond Bounded Rationality and Phase Space. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 8, 269–82.
Felin, Teppo, Koenderink, Jan, and Krueger, Joachim I. (2017). The All-Seeing Eye, Perception and Rationality. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 24, 1040–59.
Ferguson, A. (1767). An Essay on the History of Civil Society. London: A. Millar & T. Caddel; Edinburg: A. Kincaid & J. Bell.
Ferraro, Paul J. and Taylor, Laura O. (2005). Do Economists Recognize an Opportunity Cost When They See One? A Dismal Performance from the Dismal Science. Contributions to Economic Analysis & Policy, 4(1): Article 7. Downloaded September 3, 2010 from
Feynman, Richard. (1974). Cargo Cult Science. Engineering and Science, 37(7), 1013.
Filonik, Jakub. (2013). Athenian Impiety Trials: A Reappraisal.” Dike. Rivista di storia del diritto greco ed ellenistico, 16, 1196.
Fisher, R. A. (1936). Has Mendel’s Work been Rediscovered? Annals of Science, 1, 115–37.
Flexner, Abraham. (1910). Medical Education in the United States and Canada. New York: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.
Flint Water Advisory Task Force. 2016. Final Report. Downloaded April 22, 2017 from
Fogel, Robert William and Engerman, Stanley L. (1974). Time on the Cross: The Economics of American Negro Slavery. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.
Fontenrose, Joseph. (1978). The Delphic Oracle: Its Responses and Operations with a Catalogue of Responses. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Ford, Matt. (2015). The West Point Professor Who Contemplated a Coup. The Atlantic, August 31, 2015. Downloaded January 26, 2017 from
Foster, William L. (1897). Expert Testimony, Prevalent Complaints and Proposed Remedies. Harvard Law Review, 11(3), 169–86.
Foucault, Michel. (1972). “History, Discourse and Discontinuity. Translated by Nazzaro, Anthony M.. Salmagundi, 20, 225–48.
Foucault, Michel. (1980). Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings, (1972–1977). New York: Pantheon.
Foucault, Michel. (1982). The Subject and Power. Critical Inquiry, 8(4), 777–95.
Fox, Renée. (1978). Why Belgium? European Journal of Sociology, 19(2), 205–28.
Frank, Robert H. and Bernanke, Ben S. (2001). Principles of Microeconomics. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
Franklin, Allan. (2008). The Mendel-Fisher Controversy: An Overview. In Franklin, Allan, Edwards, A. W. F., Fairbanks, Daniel J., Hartl, Daniel L., and Seidenfeld, Teddy, eds., Ending the Mendel-Fisher Controversy. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, pp. 177.
Franklin, Benjamin. (1793) [1996]. The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, Inc.
Frazer, Persifor. (1894). Bibliotics: Or, The Study of Documents; Determination of the Individual Character of Handwriting and Detection of Fraud and Forgery, New Methods of Research. 3rd edn. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company.
Frazer, Persifor. (1901). A Manual of the Study of Documents to Establish the Individual Character of Handwriting and to Detect Fraud and Forgery, including Several New Methods of Research. 3rd edn. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company.
Frazer, Persifor. (1902). Expert Testimony: Its Abuses and Uses. The American Law Register, 50(2), 8796.
Frazer, Persifor. (1907). Scientific Methods in the Study of Handwriting. Journal of the Franklin Institute, 163(4), 245–75.
Friedersdorf, Conor. (2014). This Widow’s 4 Kids Were Taken after She Left Them Home Alone. The Atlantic, July 16, 2014. Downloaded November 29, 2016 from
Friedman, Milton. (1962). Capitalism and Freedom. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Froeb, Luke M. and Kobayashi, Bruce H. (1996). Naive, Biased, yet Bayesian: Can Juries Interpret Selectively Produced Evidence? Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, 12, 257–76.
Frohlich, N. and Oppenheimer, J. A. (2006). Skating on Thin Ice: Cracks in the Public Choice Foundation. Journal of Theoretical Politics, 18(3), 235–66.
Front National. (2016). Europe: Une Europe au service des peuples libres. Downloaded December 27, 2016 from
Galton, David J. (1998). Greek Theories on Eugenics. Journal of Medical Ethics, 24, 263–7.
Galton, Francis. (1904). Eugenics: Its Definition, Scope, and Aims. American Journal of Sociology, 10(1), 16.
Garrett, Brandon L. (2010). The Substance of False Convictions. Stanford Law Review, 62, 1051–119.
Gatewood, John B. (1983). Loose Talk: Linguistic Competence and Recognition Ability. American Anthropologist, 85(2), 378–87.
George, Henry. (1898). The Science of Political Economy. New York: Doubleday & McClure Co.
Giannelli, Paul C. (1997). The Abuse of Evidence in Criminal Cases: The Need for Independent Crime Laboratories. Virginia Journal of Social Policy & the Law, 4, 439–78.
Gökalp, Deniz and Ünsar, Seda. (2008). From the Myth of European Union Accession to Disillusion: Implications for Religious and Ethnic Politicization in Turkey. Middle East Journal, 62(1), 93116.
Golan, Tal. (1999). The History of Scientific Expert Testimony in the English Courtroom. Science in Context, 12(1), 732.
Golan, Tal. (2004). Laws of Men and Laws of Nature: The History of Scientific Expert Testimony in England and America. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Goldman, A. I. (1999). Knowledge in a Social World. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Goldman, Alvin. (2001). Experts: Which Ones Should You Trust? Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 63(1), 85110.
Goldman, Alvin. (2009). Social Epistemology. In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2009 edn.), ed. Edward N. Zalta. Downloaded May 31, 2010 from
Goldman, Alvin. (2010). Systems-Oriented Social Epistemology. In Gendler, T. and Hawthorne, J., eds., Oxford Studies in Epistemology, vol. 3. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 189214.
Goldman, Alvin I. and Cox, James C. (1996). Speech, Truth, and the Free Market for Ideas. Legal Theory, 2, 132.
Goldich, Robert L. (2011). American Military Culture from Colony to Empire. Daedalus, 140(3), 5874.
Goodale, Melvyn A. and Milner, A. David. (1995). Separate Visual Pathways for Perception and Action. Trends in Neuroscience, 15, 20–5.
Goodall, Jane. (1964). Tool-Using and Aimed Throwing in a Community of Free-Living Chimpanzees. Nature, 201(4926), 1264–6.
Goodwin, William W. (1878). Plutarch’s Morals Translated from the Greek by Several Hands, vol. V. Boston: Little, Brown, and Company.
Gordon, Scott. (1976). The New Contractarians. Journal of Political Economy, 84(3), 573–90.
Grann, D. (2009). Trial by Fire. The New Yorker, September 7, 2009. Downloaded September 7, 2009 from¼all.
Greenspan, Allan. (2008). “Testimony of Dr. Alan Greenspan.” Prepared for Committee of Government Oversight and Reform. October 23. Downloaded November 4, 2009 from
Greenwald, Glenn. (2011). With Liberty and Justice for Some: How the Law Is Used to Destroy Equality and Protect the Powerful. New York: Metropolitan Books.
Greenwald, Glenn. (2014). No Place to Hide: Edward Snowden, the NSA, and the U.S. Surveillance State. New York: Metropolitan Books.
Grillo, Giuseppe Piero “Beppe.” 2013. “Gli ‘esperti’ e la piattaforma M5S. Il Blog di Beppe Grillo, March 1, 2013. Downloaded December 27, 2016 from
Grim, R. (2013). “Police Groups Furiously Protest Eric Holder’s Marijuana Policy Announcement. Huffington Post, August 30, 2013. Downloaded September 2, 2013 from
Habermas, Jürgen. [1985] (1987). The Theory of Communicative Action, vol. 2. Boston: Beacon.
Hall, Stuart. (1979). The Great Moving Right Show. Marxism Today, January, 14–20.
Hand, Learned. (1901). Historical and Practical Considerations regarding Expert Testimony. Harvard Law Review, 15(1), 4058.
Harris, Shane. (2015). Exclusive: 50 Spies Say ISIS Intelligence Was Cooked. The Daily Beast, September 15, 2015. Downloaded March 5, 2017 from
Harth, Phillip. (1969). The Satiric Purpose of the Fable of the Bees. Eighteenth-Century Studies, 2(4), 321–40.
Haupt, Claudia E. (2016). Professional Speech. The Yale Law Journal, 125(5), 12381303.
Hausman, Daniel M. and McPherson, Michael S. (1993). Taking Ethics Seriously: Economics and Contemporary Moral Philosophy. Journal of Economic Literature, 31(2), 671731.
Havel, Vaclav. (1978) [1987]. The Power of the Powerless. In Vladislav, Jan, ed., Living in Truth: 22 Essays Published on the Occasion of the Award of the Erasmus Prize to Vaclav Havel. London: Faber & Faber, pp. 36122.
Hayek, F. A. (ed.). (1935). Collectivist Economic Planning, London: George Routledge & Sons, Ltd.
Hayek, F. A. (1937 [1948]. Economics and Knowledge. In Hayek, F. A., ed., Individualism and Economic Order. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, pp. 3356.
Hayek, Friedrich A. (1944). The Road to Serfdom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Hayek, F. A. (1945) [1948]. The Use of Knowledge in Society. In Hayek, F. A., ed., Individualism and Economic Order. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, pp. 7791.
Hayek, F. A. (1952a). The Sensory Order. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Hayek, F. A. (1952b). The Counter Revolution of Science: Studies in the Abuse of Reason. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Hayek, F. A. (1960) [1967]. The Corporation in a Democratic Society: In Whose Interest Ought It to and Will It Be Run? In Hayek, F. A., ed., Studies in Philosophy, Politics, and Economics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 300–12.
Hayek, F. A. (1967a). The Results of Human Action but Not of Human Design. In Hayek, F. A., ed., Studies in Philosophy, Politics, and Economics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 96105.
Hayek, F. A. (1967b). Studies in Philosophy, Politics and Economics. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Hayek, F. A. (1973). Law, Legislation and Liberty, Volume I: Rules and Order. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Hayek, F. A. (1978). “Dr. Bernard Mandeville. In Hayek, F. A., ed., New Studies in Philosophy, Politics, Economics and the History of Ideas. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 249–66.
Hayek, F. A. (1989). The Pretence of Knowledge. American Economic Review, 79(6): 37.
Hayek, F. A. (1994). Hayek on Hayek: An Autobiographical Dialogue. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Heiner, Ronald A. (1983). The Origin of Predictable Behavior. American Economic Review, 73, 560–95.
Heiner, Ronald. A. (1986). Uncertainty, Signal-Detection Experiments, and Modeling Behavior. In Langlois, R. N., ed., Economics as a Process: Essays in the New Institutional Economics. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 59115.
Henderson, Charles R. (1900). Science in Philanthropy. Atlantic Monthly, 85(508), 249–54.
Henrich, Joseph, Boyd, Robert, Bowles, Samuel, Camerer, Colin, Fehr, Ernst, Gintis, Herbert, McElreath, Richard, Alvard, Michael, Barr, Abigail, Ensminger, Jean, Smith Henrich, Natalie, Hill, Kim, Gil-White, Francisco, Gurven, Michael, Marlowe, Frank W., Patton, John Q., and Tracer, David. (2005). “Economic Man” in Cross-Cultural Perspective: Behavioral Experiments in 15 Small-Scale Societies. Behavior and Brain Sciences, 28, 795855.
Henrich, Joseph, Heine, Steven J., and Norenzayan, Ara. (2010). The Weirdest People in the World? Behavioral and Brain Science, 33, 61135.
Hewlett, A. W. (1913). Clinical Effects of “Natural” and “Synthetic” Sodium Salicylate. Journal of the American Medical Association, 61(5), 319–21.
Hickey, Colin, Rieder, Travis N., and Earl, Jake. (2016). Population Engineering and the Fight against Climate Change. Social Theory and Practice, 42(4), 845–70.
Hirschman, Albert O. (1977). The Passions and the Interests: Political Arguments for Capitalism before Its Triumph. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Holbaiter, Catherine and Byrne, Richard W. (2014). The Meanings of Chimpanzee Gestures. Current Biology, 24(14), 1596–600.
Holcombe, Randall. (2006). Leland Yeager’s Utilitarianism as a Guide to Public Policy. In Koppl, Roger, ed., Money and Markets: Essays in Honor of Leland B. Yeager. London and New York: Routledge, pp. 207–20.
Horwitz, Steven. (1992). Monetary Exchange as an Extra-Linguistic Social Communication Process. Review of Social Economy, 50(2), 193–6.
Horwitz, Steven. (2012). Expertise and the Conduct of Monetary Policy. In Koppl, Roger, Horwitz, Steven, and Dobuzinskis, Laurent, eds., Experts and Epistemic Monopolies, Advances in Austrian Economics, vol. 17. Bingley, UK: JAI Press, pp. 6180.
Huber, Peter W. (1993). Galileo’s Revenge. New York: Basic Books.
Hudson, Alexandra. (2017). “Families Sue NYC For Reporting Them To Child Services When They Homeschool.” The Federalist, February 4, 2017. Downloaded February 26, 2017 from
Hudson, Anne and Kenny, Anthony. (2004). Wyclif, John (d. 1384). In Matthew, H. C. G and Harrison, Brian, eds., Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford: Oxford University Press; online edn. September 2010. Downloaded July 15, 2016 from
Hume, David. (1778) [1983]. The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in 1688. Indianapolis, IN: Liberty Fund.
Hutchins, Edwin. (1990). The Technology of Team Navigation. In Galegher, J., Kraut, R., and Egido, C., eds., Intellectual Teamwork: Social and Technical Bases of Cooperative Work. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp. 191220.
Hutchins, Edwin. (1991). Organizing Work by Adaptation. Organization Science, 2(1), 1439.
Hutchins, E. (1995). Cognition in the Wild. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Hutt, William H. (1936) [1990]. Economists and the Public: A Study of Competition and Opinion. New Brunswick, NJ and London: Transaction Publishers.
Ingold, Tim. (1986). Evolution and Social Life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ioannidis, J. P. A. (2005). Why Most Published Research Findings Are False. PLoS Med, 2(8), e124 (0696–0701). Downloaded September 14, 2007 from
Ireland, Jane L. (2012). Evaluating Expert Witness Psychological Reports: Exploring Quality. University of Central Lancashire for Family Justice Council. Downloaded December 19, 2016 from
Isnardi, Margherita. (1959). “Studi Recenti e Problemi Aperti sulla Structura e la Funzione della Prima Accademia Platonica.” Rivista Storica Italiana, 71(2), 271–91.
Jaeger, Werner. (1923) [1934]. Aristotle, Fundamentals of the History of his Development. Translated by Robinson, Richard. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Jaeger, Werner. (1948). Aristotle, Fundamentals of the History of his Development, 2nd edn. Translated by Robinson, Richard. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Jakobsen, L. S., Archibald, Y. M., Carey, D. P., and Goodale, M. A. (1991). A Patient Recovering from Optic Ataxia. Neuropsychologia, 29(8), 803–9.
Jasanoff, Sheila. (2003). Breaking the Waves in Science Studies: Comment on H. M. Collins and Robert Evans, “The Third Wave of Science Studies,” Social Studies of Science, 33(3), 399400.
Jensen, Michael C. and Ruback, Richard S. (1983). The Market for Corporate Control. Journal of Financial Economics, 11, 550.
Johnson, Corey G. (2013). Female Inmates Sterilized in California Prisons Without Approval. Center for Investigative Reporting, July 7, 2013. Downloaded February 3, 2016 from
Jones, A. H. M. (1953). Inflation under the Roman Empire. The Economic History Review, New Series, 5(3), 293318.
Joung, Eun-Lee. (2016). North Korea’s Economic Policy as a Duet with Control and Relaxation: Dynamics Arising from the Development of Public Markets since the North Korean Famines in the 1990s. Journal of Asian Public Policy, 9(1), 7594.
Kaplan, Sarah. (2015). The Serene-Looking Buddhist Monk Accused of Inciting Burma’s Sectarian Violence. The Washington Post, May 27, 2015. Downloaded July 21, 2016 from
Kasaba, Reșat and Bozdoǧan, Sibel. (2000). Turkey at a Crossroad. Journal of International Affairs, 54(1), 120.
Kaye, David H. and Freedman, David. (2011). Reference Guide on Statistics. In National Research Council of the National Academies, Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence, 3rd edn. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, pp. 211302.
Keil, Frank C., Stein, Courtney, Webb, Lisa, Billings, Van Dyke, and Rozenblit, Leonid. (2008). Discerning the Division of Cognitive Labor: An Emerging Understanding of How Knowledge Is Clustered in Other Minds. Cognitive Science, 32(2), 259300.
Kelsen, Hans. (1937). The Philosophy of Aristotle and the Hellenic-Macedonian Policy. International Journal of Ethics, 48(1), 164.
Kenneally, Ivan. (2009). Technocracy and Populism.The New Atlantis, 24, 4660.
Kerkhof, Bert. (1995). A Fatal Attraction? Smith’s “Theory of Moral Sentiments” and Mandeville’s “Fable.” History of Political Thought, 16(2), 219–33.
Kessel, Reuben A. (1970). The A.M.A. and the Supply of Physicians. Law and Contemporary Problems, 35, 267–83.
Keynes, John Maynard. (1922) [1977]. “Reconstruction in Europe: An Introduction.” Transcribed in Johnson, Elizabeth, ed., The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes, vol. XVIII, Activities 1920–1922, Treaty Revision and Reconstruction. London and New York: Macmillan and Cambridge University Press, pp. 426–33.
Keynes, John Maynard. (1926) [1962]. The End of Laissez-Faire. In Keynes, John M., ed., Essays in Persuasion. New York and London: W. W. Norton & Company, pp. 312–22.
Keynes, John Maynard. (1927). Comments delivered to Malthusian League Dinner, July 26, 1927. Keynes papers, King’s College Cambridge, PS/3/109.
Keynes, John Maynard. (1936). Letter to Margaret Sanger, June 23, 1936. Margaret Sanger Papers at the Library of Congress. Marked “Recvd [?] 6/30/36.”
Keynes, John Maynard. (1944) [1980]. Letter to Hayek, 28 June 1944. Transcribed in Moggridge, Donald (ed.), The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes, vol. XXVII, Activities 1940–1946, Shaping the post-war world: Employment and commondities. London and New York: Macmillan and Cambridge University Press, pp. 385–8.
Kirzner, I. M. (1976). The Economic Point of View: An Essay in the History of Economic Thought. Kansas City: Sheed and Ward, Inc.
Kirzner, I. M. (1985). Discovery and the Capitalist Process. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Kitcher, Philip. (1993). The Advancement of Science. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Klein, Daniel B. and Stern, Charlotta. (2006). Economists’ Policy Views and Voting. Public Choice, 126, 331–42.
Knight, Frank H. (1933). Preface to the Re-Issue. In Frank, H. Knight, ed., Risk, Uncertainty and Profit. London: London School of Economics and Political Science, pp. xixxxvi.
Koppl, Roger. (1995). The Walras Paradox. Eastern Economic Journal, 21(1), 4355.
Koppl, Roger. 2002. Big Players and the Economic Theory of Expectations. London and New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Koppl, Roger. (2005a). How to Improve Forensic Science. European Journal of Law and Economics, 20(3), 255–86.
Koppl, Roger. (2005b). Epistemic Systems. Episteme: Journal of Social Epistemology, 2(2), 91106.
Koppl, Roger. (2009). Complexity and Austrian Economics. In Rosser, J. B. Jr., ed., Handbook of Research on Complexity. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Koppl, Roger. (2010a). The Social Construction of Expertise. Society, 47, 220–6.
Koppl, Roger. (2010b). Romancing Forensics: Legal Failure in Forensic Science Administration. In Lopez, Edward, ed., The Pursuit of Justice: Law and Economics of Legal Institutions. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 5170.
Koppl, Roger. (2010c). Organization Economics Explains Many Forensic Science Errors. Journal of Institutional Economics, 6(1), 7181.
Koppl, Roger. (2012a). Leveraging Bias in Forensic ScienceFordham Urban Law Journal, City Square, 39, 3756.
Koppl, Roger. (2012b). Information Choice Theory. Advances in Austrian Economics, 17, 171202.
Koppl, Roger. (2014). From Crisis to Confidence: Macroeconomics after the Crash. London: The Institute of Economic Affairs.
Koppl, Roger and Cowan, E. James. (2010). A Battle of Forensic Experts Is Not a Race to the Bottom. Review of Political Economy, 22(2), 235–62.
Koppl, Roger, Kauffman, Stuart, Felin, Teppo, and Longo, Giuseppe. (2015a). Economics for a Creative World. Journal of Institutional Economics, 11(1): 131.
Koppl, Roger, Kauffman, Stuart, Felin, Teppo, and Longo, Giuseppe. (2015b). Economics for a Creative World: A Response to Comments. Journal of Institutional Economics, 11(1), 61–8.
Koppl, Roger, Charlton, David, Kornfield, Irving III, Krane, Dan, Risinger, D. Michael, Robertson, Christopher T., Saks, Michael, and Thompson, William. (2015c). Do Observer Effects Matter? A Comment on Langenburg, Bochet, and Ford. Forensic Science Policy & Management: An International Journal, 6(1–2), 16.
Koppl, Roger and Krane, Dan. (2016). Minimizing and Leveraging Bias in Forensic Science. In Robertson, Christopher T. and Kesselheim, Aaron S., eds., Blinding as a Solution to Bias. Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic Press, pp. 151–65.
Koppl, Roger, Kurzban, Robert and Kobilinsky, Lawrence. (2008). Epistemics for Forensics. Epistmeme: Journal of Social Epistemology, 5(2), 141–59.
Koppl, Roger and Sacks, Meghan. (2013). The Criminal Justice System Creates Incentives for False Convictions. Criminal Justice Ethics, 32(2), 126–62.
Koppl, Roger and Yeager, Leland. (1996). Big Players and Herding in Asset Markets: The Case of the Russian Ruble. Explorations in Economic History, 33(3), 367–83.
Krane, Dan. (2008). Evaluating Forensic DNA Evidence. Downloaded July 20, 2009 from
Krane, Dan E., Ford, S., Gilder, J. R., Inman, K., Jamieson, A., Koppl, R., Kornfield, I. L., Risinger, D. M., Rudin, N., Taylor, M. S., and Thompson, W. C. (2008). Sequential Unmasking: A Means of Minimizing Observer Effects in Forensic DNA Interpretation. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 53(4), 1006–7.
Kuhn, Thomas S. (1970). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 2nd edn., enlarged, volume 2, number 2 of International Encyclopedia of Unified Science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Lachmann, Ludwig. (1969 [1977]. Methodological Individualism and the Market Economy. In Lachmann, Ludwig, ed., Capital, Expectations, and the Market Process. Kansas City: Sheed Andrews and McMeel, Inc., pp. 149–65.
Lakatos, Imre. (1970). Falsification and the Methodology of Scientific Research Programs. In Lakatos, I. and Musgrave, A., eds., Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 91196.
Lakatos, Imre. (1976). Proofs and Refutations: The Logic of Mathematical Discovery. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Langlois, Richard N. (2002). Modularity in Technology and Organization. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 49, 1937.
Langlois, Richard N. and Koppl, Roger. (1991). Fritz Machlup and Marginalism: A Reevaluation. Methodus, 3(2), 86102.
Latour, Bruno. (1987). Science in Action: How to Follow Scientists and Engineers through Society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Latour, Bruno and Woolgar, Steve. (1979). Laboratory Life. London: Sage.
Law, John. (1705) [1966]. Money and Trade Considered, with a Proposal for Supplying the Nation with Money. New York: Augustus M. Kelley Publishers.
Leary, Mike. (1988). If You Have Kent Cigarettes, All Romania Is Your Oyster. Philadelphia Inquirer, April 28. Downloaded August 18, 2016 from
Lee, Gary. (1987). In Romania, Kents as Currency. The Washington Post, August 29. Downloaded August 18, 2016 from
Leonard, Thomas C. (2005). Retrospectives: Eugenics and Economics in the Progressive Era. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19(4), 207–24.
Leonard, Thomas C. (2016). Illiberal Reformers: Race, Eugenics & American Economics in the Progressive Era. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press.
LeRoy, Stephen F. (1989). Efficient Capital Markets and Martingales. Journal of Economic Literature, 23(4), 1583–621.
Levy, David M. (2001). How the Dismal Science Got Its Name: Classical Economics and the Ur-Text of Racial Politics. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Levy, David M., Houser, Daniel, Padgitt, Kail, Peart, Sandra J., and Xiao, Erte. (2011). Leadership, Cheap Talk and Really Cheap Talk. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 77(1): 4052.
Levy, David M. and Peart, Sandra J. (2006) The Fragility of a Discipline when a Model has Monopoly Status. Review of Austrian Economics, 19, 125–36.
Levy, David M. and Peart, Sandra J. (2007). Sympathetic Bias. Statistical Methods in Medical Research, 17, 265–77.
Levy, David M. and Peart, Sandra J. (2008a). Thinking about Analytical Egalitarianism. American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 67(3), 473–9.
Levy, David M. and Peart, Sandra J. (2008b). Inducing Greater Transparency: Towards an Econometric Code of Ethics. Eastern Economic Journal, 34, 103–14.
Levy, David M. and Peart, Sandra J. (2012). Tullock on Motivated Inquiry: Expert-Induced Uncertainty Disguised as Risk. Public Choice, 15(1–2): 163–80.
Levy, David M. and Peart, Sandra J. (2017). Escape from Democracy: The Role of Experts and the Public in Economic Policy. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press.
Lewis, Alain A. (1992). On Turing Degrees of Walrasian Models and a General Impossibility Result in the Theory of Decision-Making. Mathematical Social Sciences, 24, 141–71.
Lewis, Paul. (2010). Peter Berger and His Critics: The Significance of Emergence. Society, 47, 207–13.
Lindblom, Charles E. (1959). The Science of “Muddling Through.” Public Administration Review, 19, 7988.
Liptak, Adam. (2016). Supreme Court Finds Racial Bias in Jury Selection for Death Penalty Case. New York Times, May 23, 2016. Downloaded June 1, 2016 from
Lloyd-Jones, Hugh. (1976). The Delphic Oracle. Greece & Rome, 23(1), 6073.
Lofgren, Mike. (2016). The Deep State: The Fall of the Constitution and the Rise of a Shadow Government. New York: Penguin Books.
Longo, Giuseppe, Montévil, Maël, and Kauffman, Stuart. (2012). No Entailing Laws, but Enablement in the Evolution of the Biosphere. Physics ArXiv, 1201.2069v1,
Lotka, Alfred J. (1945). The Law of Evolution as a Maximal Principle. Human Biology, 17(3), 167–94.
Lowe, Josh. (2016). Michael Gove: I’m “Glad” Economic Bodies Don’t Back Brexit. Newsweek, June 3, 2016. Downloaded December 19, 2016 from
Luban, David, Strudler, Alan, and Wasserman, David. (1992). Moral Responsibility in the Age of Bureaucracy. Michigan Law Review, 90(8), 2348–92.
Ludden, Jennifer. (2016). Should We Be Having Kids in the Age of Climate Change? NPR, August 18, 2016. Downloaded April 30, 2017 from
Lutz, Donna J. and Keil, Frank C. (2003). Early Understanding of the Division of Cognitive Labor. Child Development, 73(4), 1073–84.
Lynch, Micael and Cole, Simon A. (2005). Science and Technology Studies on Trial: Dilemmas and Expertise. Social Studies of Science, 35(2), 269311.
Machlup, Fritz. (1955). The Problem of Verification in Economics. Southern Economic Journal, 22, 121.
Mackay, Charles. (1852). Memoirs of Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds. London: Office of the National Illustrated Library. Downloaded February 5, 2004 from
Maloney, L. T. and Wandell, B. A. (1987). Color Constancy: A Method for Recovering Surface Spectral Reflectance. In Fischler, M. A. and Firschein, O., eds., Readings in Computer Vision: Issues, Problems, Principles, and Paradigms. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann, pp. 293–7.
Mandeville, Bernard. (1729) [1924]. The Fable of the Bees: Or, Private Vices, Publick Benefits, with a Commentary Critical, Historical, and Explanatory by F. B. Kaye, in two volumes. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Mandeville, Bernard. (1732) [1953]. A Letter to Dion, Occasion’d by his Book call’d Alciphron or the Minute Philosopher. London: J. Roberts in Warwick Lane. Facsimile reproduction in The Augustan Reprint Society publication number 41. Los Angeles: William Andrews Clark Memorial Library, University of California.
Manne, Henry G. (1965). Mergers and the Market for Corporate Control. The Journal of Political Economy, 73(2), 110–20.
Mannheim, Karl. (1936) [1985]. Ideology and Utopia: An Introduction to the Sociology of Knowledge. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc.
Mannheim, Karl. (1940). Man and Society in an Age of Reconstruction: Studies in Modern social structure. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.
Mannheim, Karl. (1952). The Problem of Generations. In Mannheim, Karl, ed., Essays in the Sociology of Knowledge. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd., pp. 276322.
Margolis, Howard. (1998). Tycho’s Illusion and Human Cognition. Nature, 392, 857.
Margolis, Howard. (2007). Are Economists Human? Applied Economics Letters, 14, 1035–7.
Markose, S. M. (2005). Computability and Evolutionary Complexity: Markets as Complex Adaptive Systems. Economic Journal, 115, F159–92.
Martin, Adam. (2015). Degenerate Cosmopolitanism. Social Philosophy and Policy, 32(1), 74100.
Martin, David. (1968). The Sociology of Knowledge and the Nature of Social Knowledge. The British Journal of Sociology, 19(3), 334–42.
Marx, Karl. (1867) [1909]. Capital: A Critique of Political Economy. Volume I: The Process of Capitalist Production. Edited by Engels, Friedrich and translated from the third German edition (1873) by Samuel Moore and Edward Aveling. Chicago: Charles H. Kerr & Company.
Marx, Karl. (1859) [1904]. Author’s Preface. In A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy, translated from the second German edition (1897) by Stone, N. I.. Chicago: Charles H. Kerr & Company, pp. 915.
Mauss, Marcel. (1925) [1969]. The Gift: Forms and Functions of Exchange in Archaic Societies. London: Cohen and West.
McCabe, Kevin, Houser, Daniel, Ryan, Lee, Smith, Vernon, and Trouard, Theodore. (2001). A Functional Imaging Study of Cooperation in Two-Person Reciprocal Exchange. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 98(20), 11832–5.
McCullagh, Declan. (2013). NSA Spying Flap Extends to Contents of U.S. Phone Calls. CNET, June 15, 2013. Downloaded January 13, 2017 from
McKeon, Michael. (2005). The Secret History of Domesticity: Public, Private, and the Division of Knowledge. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Mendel, Gregor. (1865) [1996]. Experiments in Plant Hybridization. English translation of German original. Downloaded October 7, 2010 from
Menger, Carl. (1871) [1981] Principles of Economics. Translated by Dingwell, James and Hoselitz, Bert F.. New York and London: New York University Press.
Merlan, Philip. (1954). Isocrates, Aristotle and Alexander the Great. Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte, 3(1), 6081.
Merton, Robert K. (1937) [1957]. Science and the Social Order. Reproduced in Merton, Robert K., Social Theory and Social Structure, rev edn. New York: The Free Press, pp. 537–49.
Merton, Robert K. (1945). “Role of the Intellectual in Public Bureaucracy. Social Forces, 23(4): 405–15.
Merton, Robert. (1976). Sociological Ambivalence and Other Essays. New York: Free Press.
Merton, Robert and Barber, Elinor. (1976). Sociological Ambivalence. In Merton, Robert, ed., Sociological Ambivalence and Other Essays. New York: Free Press, pp. 331.
Milgrom, P. and Roberts, J. (1986). Relying on Information of Interested Parties. RAND Journal of Economics, 17, 1832.
Mill, J. S. (1869) [1977]. On Liberty. In Essays on Politics and Society, vol. 18, Collected Works of John Stuart Mill. Edited by Robson, J.. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, pp. 213310.
Miller, James C. III. (1999). Monopoly Politics. Stanford: Hoover Press.
Miller, James C. III. (2006). Monopoly Politics and Its Unsurprising Effects. In Koppl, Roger, ed., Money and Markets: Essays in Honor of Leland B. Yeager. New York: Routledge, 2006, pp. 4865.
Miller, Jeff. (1998). Aristotle’s Paradox of Monarchy and the Biographical Tradition. History of Political Thought, 19(4), 501–16.
Mills, Steve, McRoberts, Flynn, and Possley, Maurice. (2004). Man Executed on Disproved Forensics: Fire that Killed His 3 Children Could Have Been Accidental, Chicago Tribune, 9 December 2004.
Mises, L. von [1920] (1935). Economic Calculation in the Socialist Commonwealth. In Hayek, F. A., ed., Collectivist Economic Planning. George Routledge and Sons, London, pp. 87130.
Mises, Ludwig von. [1932] (1981). Socialism. 3rd rev. edn. Indianapolis: Liberty Classics.
Mises, Ludwig. (1966). Human Action: A Treatise on Economics, 3rd rev. edn. Chicago: Henry Regnery Company.
Mnookin, Jennifer L. (2001). Scripting Expertise: The History of Handwriting Identification Evidence and the Judicial Construction of Reliability. Virginia Law Review, 87(8), 1723–845.
Mnookin, Jennifer, Cole, Simon A., Dror, Itiel E., Fisher, , Barry, A. J., Houck, Max M., Inman, Keith, Kaye, David H., Koehler, Jonathan J., Langenburg, Glenn, Risinger, D. Michael, Rudin, Norah, Siegel, Jay, and Stoney, David A. (2011). The Need for a Research Culture in the Forensic Sciences. UCLA Law Review, 58, 725–79.
Mudde, Cas. (2004). The Populist Zeitgeist. Government and Opposition, 39(4), 542–63.
Mudie, Robert. (1840). Preliminary Address. The Surveyor, Engineer, and Architect, 1(1), 16.
Mueller, Dennis C. (1986). Rational Egoism versus Adaptive Egoism as Fundamental Postulate for a Descriptive Theory of Human Behavior. Public Choice, 51, 323.
Mueller, D. C. (1989). Public Choice II. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Müller, Gerhard. (1951). Studien zu den platonischen Nomoi. Munich: C. H. Beck.
Musacchio, J. M. (2003). Dissolving the Explanatory Gap: Neurobiological Differences between Phenomenal and Propositional Knowledge. Brain and Mind, 3, 331–65.
Narasu, Lakshmi P. (1912). The Essence of Buddhism with Illustrations of Buddhist Art. Madras: Srinivasa Varadachari.
NAS, National Academy of Sciences, Committee on Identifying the Needs of the Forensic Sciences Community. (2009). Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
Neisser, Ulrich. (1976). Cognition and Reality: Principles and Implications of Cognitive Psychology. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman.
Neumann, John von and Morgenstern, Oskar. (1953). Theory of Games and Economic Behavior. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Nichols, Ronald G. (2007). Defending the Scientific Foundations of the Firearms and Toolmark Identification Discipline: Responding to Recent Challenges. Journal of Forensic Science, 52(3), 586–94.
Nilsson, Martin P. (1940) [1972]. Greek Folk Religion. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
NIST. (2011). Latent Print Examination and Human Factors: Improving the Practice through a Systems Approach. The Report of the Expert Working Group on Human Factors in Latent Print Analysis. Washington, DC: National Institute of Standards and Technology Forensic Science Program.
Nock, Arthur Darby. (1942). Religious Attitudes of the Ancient Greeks. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 85(5), 472–82.
Odling, William. (1860). Science in Courts of Law. The Journal of the Society of Arts, 8(375): 167–8.
Office of the Inspector General. (2006). A Review of the FBI’s Handling of the Brandon Mayfield Case. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice.
Ojakangas, Mika. (2011). Michel Foucault and the Enigmatic Origins of Bio-Politics and Governmentality. History of the Human Sciences, 25(1), 114.
O’Neill, Brian C., Dalton, Michael, Fuchs, Regina, Jiang, Leiwen, Pachauri, Shonali, and Zigova, Katarina. (2010). Global Demographic Trends and Future Carbon Emissions. PNAS, 107(41), 17521–6. 2016. “Top Spenders.” Downloaded July 22, 2016 from
Orchard, Lionel and Stretton, Hugh. (1997. Public Choice. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 21, 409–30.
Ostrom, Vincent. (1989). The Intellectual Crisis in American Public Administration, 2nd edn. Tuscaloosa and London: The University of Alabama Press.
Owen, Robert. (1841). Lectures on the Rational System of Society. London: Home Colonization Society.
Pak, Sunyoung. (2004). The Biological Standard of Living in the Two Koreas. Economics and Human Biology, 2, 511–21.
Pearson, Karl. (1911). The Scope and Importance to the State of the Science of National Eugenics, 3rd edn. London: Dulau Co., Ltd.
Peart, Sandra J. and Levy, David M. (2005) The “Vanity of the Philosopher”: From Equality to Hierarchy in Postclassical Economics. Ann Arbor, The University of Michigan Press.
Peart, Sandra J. and Levy, David M. (2010). If Germs Could Sponsor Research: Reflections on Sympathetic Connections amongst Subjects and Researchers. Paper presented at the 3rd biennial Wirth Institute workshop on Austrian Economics, Vancouver, October 14–16, 2010.
Pierce, A. (2008). The Queen Asks Why No One Saw the Credit Crunch Coming. Telegraph, November 5, 2008. Downloaded February 26, 2013 from
Penrose, Clement B. and Frazer, Persifor. (1902). Expert Testimony. A Discussion. The American Law Register, 50(6), 346–50.
Perrow, Charles. (1984) [1999]. Normal Accidents: Living with High Risk Systems. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Pichert, James W. and Anderson, Richard C.. (1977). Taking Different Perspectives on a Story. Journal of Educational Psychology, 69(4), 309–15.
Pickering, Andrew. (1992). From Science as Knowledge to Science as Practice. In Pickering, Andrew, ed., Science as Practice and Culture. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, pp. 126.
Pinker, Steven. (2011). The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined. New York: Viking.
Podolsky, Scott H., Jones, David S., and Kaptchuk, Ted J. (2016). From Trials to Trials: Blinding, Medicine, and Honest Adjudication. In Robertson, Christopher T. and Kesselheim, Aaron S., eds., Blinding as a Solution to Bias. Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic Press, pp. 4558.
Polanyi, Michael. (1958). Personal Knowledge. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Polanyi, Michael. (1962). The Republic of Science: Its Political and Economic Theory. Minerva, 1, 5473.
Popper, K. (1959). The Logic of Scientific Discovery. Hutchinson: London.
Popper, Karl. (1979). Objective Knowledge: An Evolutionary Approach, rev. edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Posner, Richard A. (1974). Theories of Economic Regulation. The Bell Journal of Economics and Management Science, 5(2), 335–58.
Potts, Jason. (2012). Novelty-Bundling Markets. In Andersson, David E., ed., The Spatial Market Process, Advances in Austrian Economics, vol. 16. Bradford: Emerald Publishing Group, pp. 291312.
Prasad, K. (2009). The Rationality/Computability Trade-Off in Finite Games. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 69, 1726.
Prendergast, Renee. (2010). Accumulation of Knowledge and Accumulation of Capital in Early “Theories” of Growth and Development. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 34(3), 413–31.
Prendergast, Renee. (2014). Knowledge, Innovation and Emulation in the Evolutionary Thought of Bernard Mandeville. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 38(1), 87107.
Price, David H. (1998). Cold War Anthropology: Collaborators and Victims of the National Security State. Identities, 4(3–4), 389430.
Quiggin, John. (1987). Egoistic Rationality and Public Choice: A Critical Review of Theory and Evidence. Economic Record, 63(1), 1021.
Quine, W. V. (1951). Two Dogmas of Empiricism. The Philosophical Review, 60(1), 2043.
Radford, R. A. (1945). The Economic Organisation of a P.O.W. Camp. Econometrica, 48, 189201.
Radnitzky, Gerard and Bartley, W. W. III. eds. (1987). Evolutionary Epistemology, Rationality, and the Sociology of Knowledge. Chicago and La Salle, IL: Open Court.
Rahula, Walpola. (1974). What the Buddha Taught, revised and expanded edn. New York: Grove Press.
Read, Leonard E. (1958) [1999]. I, Pencil: My Family Tree as Told to Leonard. E. Read. Irvington-on-Hudson, NY: The Foundation for Economic Education, Inc. Currently available at
Reagan, Michael D. (1965). Why Government Grows. Challenge, 14(1), 47.
Reason, James. (1990). Human Error. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Reeve, C. D. C. (1990). Socrates in the Apology. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Company.
Rehg, William. (2013). Selinger and Contested Expertise: The Recognition Problem. In Turner, Stephen, Rehg, William, Douglas, Heather, and Selinger, Evan, eds., Book Symposium on Expertise: Philosophical Reflections by Evan Selinger Philosophy & Technology, 26(1), 93109.
Reid, Sue. (2012). “The ‘Experts’ Who Break Up Families: The Terrifying Story of the Prospective MP Branded an Unfit Mother by Experts Who’d Never Met Her – A Nightmare Shared by Many Other Families. Daily Mail, March 28, 2012, updated March 29, 2012. Downloaded December 19, 2016 from
Reynolds, Russell. (1867). On Some of the Relations between Medical and Legal Practice. (Lumleian Lectures, Delivered before the Royal College of Physicians). The British Medical Journal, 1(335), 644.
Riley, Ricky. (2017). Buffalo CPS Takes Children, Has Mother Arrested for Choosing to Homeschool Them. Atlanta Black Star, February 10, 2017. Downloaded February 10, 2017 from
Risinger, D. Michael, Denbeaux, Mark P., and Saks, Michael J. (1989). Exorcism of Ignorance as a Proxy for Rational Knowledge: The Lessons of Handwriting Identification “Expertise.” University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 137(3), 731–92.
Risinger, Michael, Saks, Michael J., Thompson, William C., and Rosenthal, Robert. (2002). The Daubert/Kumho Implications of Observer Effects in Forensic Science: Hidden Problems of Expectation and Suggestion. California Law Review, 90, 156.
Robertson, C. T. (2010). The Blind Expert: A Litigant-Driven Solution to Bias and Error. New York University Law Review, 85, 174257.
Robertson, Christopher T. (2011). Biased Advice. Emory Law Journal, 60(3), 653703.
Robertson, Christopher T. (2016). Why Blinding? How Blinding? A Theory of Blinding and Its Application to Institutional Corruption. In Robertson, Christopher T. and Kesselheim, Aaron S., eds., Blinding as a Solution to Bias. Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic Press, pp. 2538.
Rosenthal, Robert. (1978). How Often Are Our Numbers Wrong? American Psychologist, 33, 1005–8.
Rosenthal, Robert and Fode, Kermit T. (1961). The Problem of Experimenter Outcome-Bias. In Ray, Donald P., ed., Symposium Studies Series No. 8, Series Research in Social Psychology. Washington, DC: The National Institute of Social and Behavioral Science, pp. 914.
Ross, David. (1952). The Works of Aristotle, vol. XII: Select Fragments. Oxford: The Clarendon Press.
Ross, Stephen A. (1973). The Economic Theory of Agency: The Principal’s Problem. The American Economic Review, 63(2), 134–9.
Roucek, Joseph S. (1963). Some Academic “Rackets” in the Social Sciences. The American Behavioral Scientist, 6(5), 910.
Rousselle, Christine. (2017). Bill Nye the Eugenics Guy: Maybe We Should Penalize People with “Extra Kids.”, April 26, 2017. Downloaded May 1, 2017 from
Roy, Avik. (2014). ACA Architect: “The Stupidity of The American Voter” Led Us to Hide Obamacare’s True Costs from the Public. Forbes, November 10, 2014. Downloaded December 20, 2016 from
Rubel, Alexander. (2014). Fear and Loathing in Ancient Athens: Religion and Politics during the Peloponnesian War. Durham, UK and Bristol, CT: Acumen.
Rucker, Philip and Costa, Robert. (2017). Bannon Vows a Daily Fight for “Deconstruction of the Administrative State.” Washington Post, February 23, 2017. Downloaded March 15, 2017 from
Ryle, G. (1949). Knowing How and Knowing That. In Ryle, G., ed., The Concept of Mind. London: Hutchinson’s University Library, pp. 2561.
Sah, Raaj Kuma and Stiglitz, Joseph E. (1986). The Architecture of Economic Systems: Hierarchies and Polyarchies. American Economic Review, 76(4), 716–27.
Salter, Alexander William. (2017). The Constitution of Economic Expertise: Deep History, Extended Present, and the Institutions of Economic Scholarship. February 28, 2017. Downloaded March 4, 2017 from
Sandefur, Timothy. (2015–16). Free Speech for You and Me, But Not for Professionals. Regulation, 38(4), 4853.
Sandford, Jeremy A. (2010). Experts and Quacks. The RAND Journal of Economics, 41(1), 199214.
Savage, Deborah A. (1994). The Professions in Theory and History: The Case of Pharmacy. Business and Economic History, 23(2), 129–60.
Scheler, Max. (1926) [1960/1980]. Problems of a Sociology of Knowledge. London, Boston, and Henley: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Schiemann, John. (2000). Meeting Halfway between Rochester and Frankfurt: Generative Salience, Focal Points, and Strategic Interaction. American Journal of Political Science, 44(1), 116.
Schlauch, Margaret. (1940). The Revolt of 1381 in England. Science & Society, 4(4), 414–32.
Schulz, Kenneth F. and Grimes, David A. (2002). Blinding in Randomised Trials: Hiding Who Got What. The Lancet, 359, 696700.
Schutz, Alfred. (1932) [1967]. The Phenomenology of the Social World. Translated by Walsh, George and Lehnert, Frederick. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.
Schutz, Alfred. (1943). The Problem of Rationality in the Social World. Economica, N. S. 10, 130–49.
Schutz, Alfred. (1945). On Multiple Realities. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 5(4), 533–76.
Schutz, Alfred. (1946). The Well-Informed Citizen. Social Research, 13(4), 463–78.
Schutz, A. (1951) [1962]. Choosing among Projects of Action. In Schutz, A., ed., Collected Papers I: The Problem of Social Reality. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, pp. 6796.
Schutz, A. (1953) [1962]. Common-Sense and Scientific Interpretation of Human Action. In Schutz, A., ed., Collected Papers I: The Problem of Social Reality. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, pp. 347.
Schutz, A. (1959) [1962]. Husserl’s Importance for the Social Sciences. In Collected Papers I: The Problem of Social Reality. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, pp. 140–9.
Schutz, A. (1996). Political Economy: Human Conduct in Social Life. In Collected Papers IV. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, pp. 93105.
Schwekendiek, Daniel. (2009). Height and Weight Differences between North and South Korea. Journal of Biosocial Science, 41(1), 51–5.
Scott, Peter Dale. (2007). The Road to 9/11: Wealth, Empire, and the Future of America. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Senn, Peter R. (1951). Cigarettes as Currency. Journal of Finance, 6(3), 329–32.
Shavit, David. (1990). The United States in Asia: A Historical Dictionary. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Shaw, Julia. (2016). The Real Reason We Don’t Trust Experts Anymore. Independent, July 8, 2016. Downloaded March 19, 2016 from
Shepard, Jon. 2013. Cengage Advantage: Sociology, 11th edn. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
Sherif, Muzafer and Sherif, Carolyn. (1969). Social Psychology. New York: Harper & Row.
Shreffler, Karina M., McQuillan, Julia, Greil, Arthur L., and Johnson, David R. (2015). Surgical Sterilization, Regret, and Race: Contemporary Patterns. Social Science Research, 50, 3145.
Siddiqui, Usaid. (2015). Myanmar’s Buddhist Terrorism Problem. Aljazeera America, February 18, 2015. Downloaded July 21, 2016 from
Simon, Herbert A. (1962). The Architecture of Complexity. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 106(6), 467–82.
Singerman, David Roth. (2016). Keynesian Eugenics and the Goodness of the World. Journal of British Studies, 55, 538–65.
Skenazy, Lenore. (2014). Mom Jailed Because She Let Her 9-Year-Old Daughter Play in the Park Unsupervised. Reason, July 14, 2014. Downloaded December 19, 2016 from
Small, Albion. (1908). Ratzenhofer’s Sociology. The American Journal of Sociology, 13(4), 433–8.
Smith, Adam. (1759) [1761/1767/1774/1781/1790/1976/1984]. The Theory of Moral Sentiments, ed. Raphael, D. D. and Mactie, A. L.. Indianapolis, IN: Liberty Press.
Smith, Adam. (1776) [1789/1904/2000]. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. Library of Economics and Liberty,, last visited January 27, 2012. (This online edition of the book is based on Edwin Cannan’s 1904 compilation of the 5th edition, which was published in 1789.)
Smith, Adam. (1982). Lectures on Jurisprudence. Indianapolis, IN: Liberty Fund, Inc.
Smith, Adam C., Wagner, Richard E., and Yandle, Bruce. (2011). A Theory of Entangled Political Economy, with Application to TARP and NRA. Public Choice, 148, 4566.
Smith, R. Angus. (1860). Science in Our Courts of Law. Journal of the Society of Arts, 8(374), 135–42.
Smith, Nicholas D. (1989). Diviners and Divination in Aristophanic Comedy. Classical Antiquity, 8(1), 140–58.
Smith, Vernon. (1998). The Two Faces of Adam Smith. Southern Economic Review, 65(1), 119.
Smith, Vernon. (2003). Constructivist and Ecological Rationality in Economics. American Economic Review, 93(3), 465508.
Smith, Vernon. (2009). Rationality in Economics: Constructivist and Ecological Forms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Smith, Vernon. (2014). F.A. Hayek and the Nobel Prize, video created by the Mercatus Center at George Mason University. Smith’s comments can be found at 37:47.
Sokal, Alan D. (1996). Transgressing the Boundaries: Toward a Transformative Hermeneutics of Quantum Gravity. Social Text, 46(47), 217–52.
Stanek, Richard W., Leidholt, Michael H., McConnell, Robert, Steckler, Craig T., Ramsey, Charles H., and Bushman, Bob. (2013). Letter to US Attorney General Eric H. Holder, Jr., August 30, 2013. Downloaded September 2, 2013 from
Steckel, Richard H. (1995). Stature and the Standard of Living. Journal of Economic Literature, 33(4), 1903–40.
Stern, Alexandra Minna. (2005). Sterilized in the Name of Public Health: Race, Immigration, and Reproductive Control in Modern California. American Journal of Public Health, 95(7), 1128–38.
Stewart, Francis E. (1928). Origin of the Council of Pharmacy and Chemistry of the American Medical Association. Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 17(12), 1234–9.
Stigler, George J. (1971). The Theory of Economic Regulation. The Bell Journal of Economics and Management Science, 2(1), 321.
Strauss, Peter L. (1984). The Place of Agencies in Government: Separation of Powers and the Fourth Branch. Columbia Law Review, 84(3), 573669.
Svorny, Shirley. (2004). Licensing Doctors: Do Economists Agree? Economic Journal Watch, 1(2), 279305.
Svorny, Shirley and Herrick, Devon M. (2011). Increasing Access to Health Care. In Koppl, Roger, ed., Enterprise Programs: Freeing Entrepreneurs to Provide Essential Services for the Poor, A Task Force Report. Dallas: National Center for Policy Analysis, pp. 7188.
Szasz, Thomas S. (1960). The Myth of Mental Illness. American Psychologist, 15(2), 113–18.
Taleb, Nassim. (2012). Antifragile. New York: Penguin.
Taylor, Alfred Swaine. (1859). On Poisons in Relation to Medical Jurisprudence and Medicine, 2nd US edn. Philadelphia: Blanchard and Lea.
Taylor, Alfred Swaine. (1880). A Manual of Medical Jurisprudence, 8th US edn. Philadelphia: Henry C. Lea’s Son & Co.
Taylor, John Pitt. (1848). A Treatise of the Law of Evidence, as Administered in England and Ireland. London: A. Maxwell & Son, Law Booksellers and Publishers.
Taylor, John Pitt. (1887). A Treatise of the Law of Evidence, as Administered in England and Ireland, from the 8th English edn. Philadelphia: The Blackstone Publishing Company.
Tetlock, Philip and Gardner, Dan. (2015). Superforcasting: The Art and Science of Prediction. New York: Crown Publishers.
Theoharis, Athan. (2007). The Quest for Absolute Security: The Failed Relations among U.S. Intelligence Agencies. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee.
Thompson, William C. (1995). Subjective Interpretation, Laboratory Error and the Value of Forensic DNA Evidence: Three Case Studies. Genetica, 96, 153–68.
Thompson, William C. (2008). Beyond Bad Apples: Analyzing the Role of Forensic Science in Wrongful Convictions. Southwestern University Law Review, 37, 1027–50.
Thompson, William C. (2009). Painting the Target around the Matching Profile: The Texas Sharpshooter Fallacy in Forensic DNA Interpretation. Law, Probability and Risk, 8(3), 257–76.
Tiebout, C. (1956). A Pure Theory of Local Expenditures. Journal of Political Economy, 64, 416–24.
Triplett, Jeremy S. 2013. National Survey on the Use of Court Fees for the Funding of Crime Laboratory Operations. Poster presented at 2013 ASCLD Symposium, Durham, NC, May 4–9, 2013.
Tsuji, M., daCosta, N. C. A., and Doria, F. A. (1998). The Incompleteness of Theories of Games. Journal of Philosophical Logic, 27, 553–64.
Tullock, Gordon. (1966) [2005]. The Organization of Inquiry. Indianapolis, IN: Liberty Fund.
Turley, Jonathan. (2012). 10 Reasons the U.S. Is No Longer the Land of the Free. Washington Post, January 13, 2012. Downloaded March 16, 2017 from
Turner, Stephen. (1991). Social Construction and Social Theory. Sociological Theory, 9(1), 2233.
Turner, Stephen. (2001). What Is the Problem with Experts? Social Studies of Science, 31(1), 123–49.
Turner, Stephen (2003). Liberal Democracy 3.0: Civil Society in an Age of Experts. London: Sage Publications.
Turner, Stephen. (2010). Normal Accidents of Expertise. Minerva, 48, 239–58.
Turner, Stephen. (2014). The Politics of Expertise. New York and London: Routledge.
Tversky, A. and Kahneman, D. (1974). Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases. Science, 185(September 27), 1124–31.
Uexküll, J. (1934) [2010]. A Foray into the World of Animals and Humans: With a Theory of Meaning. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Ullmann-Margalit, E. (1978). Invisible-Hand Explanations. Synthese, 39(2), 263–91.
Unattributed. (1844). Review of Mr. Taylor’s Medical Jurisprudence. Provincial Medical Journal and Retrospect of the Medical Sciences, 7(171), 271–3.
Unattributed. (1856). The Evidence in Palmer’s Case. The American Law Register, 5(1), 2046.
Unattributed. (1859). “Review” of Taylor, J. S. 1859. The American Law Register, 7(9), 573–5.
Unattributed. (1877a). Expert Testimony. The British Medical Journal, 2(881), 704.
Unattributed. (1877b). The Penge Case: Medical Evidence of the Experts. The British Medical Journal, 2(874), 449.
Unattributed. (1890). Expert Evidence. The British Medical Journal, 1(1522), 491–2.
Unattributed. (2017). Water Lead-Level Falls below Federal Limit in Flint. Associated Press, January 24, 2017. Downloaded May 30, 2017 from
Urbina, Ian. 2009. Despite Red Flags about Judges, a Kickback Scheme Flourished. New York Times, March 27, 2009. Downloaded November 30, 2016 from
Vasari, G. (1996) [1568]. Lives of the Painters, Sculptors and Architects. London: Everyman’s Library.
Velupillai, Vela. 2007. The Impossibility of an Effective Theory of Policy in a Complex Economy. In Salzano, Massimo and Colander, David, eds., Complexity Hints for Economic Policy. Milan: Springer., pp. 273–90.
Velupillai, Vela, ed. (2005). Computability, Complexity and Constructivity in Economic Analysis. Oxford: Blackwell.
Vico, Giambattista. (1744) [1959]. Principi di scienza nuova d’intorno all commune natura dell nazioni. In Vico, Giambattista Opere, corrected, clarified and expanded (“Corretta, Schiarita, e notabilmente Accresciuta”) by Paolo Rossi. Milan: Rizzoli. (At the time of this writing available online at:
Villagra, Hector. (2013). Release Secret Interpretation of the Patriot Act. Albuquerque Journal, June 14, 2013. Downloaded January 13, 2017 from
Vitali, Stefania, Glattfelder, James B., and Battiston, Stefano. (2011). The Network of Global Corporate Control. PLoS ONE, 6(10), e25995.
Wagner, Helmut R. (1963). Types of Sociological Theory: Toward a System of Classification. American Sociological Review, 28(5), 735–42.
Wagner, Helmut R. and Psathas, George. (1996). “Editors’ Introduction.” In Schutz, A., Collected Papers IV. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, p. 93.
Wagner, Richard E. (2006). Retrogressive Regime Drift within a Theory of Emergent Order. Review of Austrian Economics, 19, 113–23.
Wagner, Richard E. (2010). Mind, Society, and Human Action: Time and Knowledge in a Theory of Social Economy. London and New York: Routledge.
Walras, Léon. (1874–7) [1954]. Elements of Pure Economics, translated from the Edition Définitive of 1926 by Jaffé, William. Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin, Inc.
Walravens, Hartmut. (2006). The Early East Asian Press in the Eyes of the West. Some Bibliographical Notes. In Walravens, Hartmut, ed., Newspapers of the World Online: U.S. and International Perspectives. Proceedings of Conferences in Salt Lake City and Seoul, 2006. München: K. G. Saur, pp. 159–72.
Washburn, Emory. (1876). Expert Testimony and the Public Service of Experts. Public Health Papers and Reports, 3, 3241.
Watts, Nicole F. (1999). Allies and Enemies: Pro-Kurdish Parties in Turkish Politics, 1990–94. International Journal of Middle East Studies, 31(4), 631–56.
Wassink, Alfred. (1991). Inflation and Financial Policy under the Roman Empire to the Price Edict of 301 A.D. Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte, 40(4), 465–93.
Webb, Sidney. (1912). The Economic Theory of a Legal Minimum Wage. Journal of Political Economy, 20(10), pp. 973–98.
Webb, Sidney and Webb, Beatrice. (1897) [1920]. Industrial Democracy. London: Longmans Green.
Weber, Max. (1927) [1981]. General Economic History. New Brunswick and London: Transaction Books.
Weber, Max. (1956) [1978]. Economy and Society: And Outline of Interpretive Sociology. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Weinstein, Michael M. (2009). Paul A. Samuelson, Economist, Dies at 94. New York Times, December 13, 2009.
Whitacre, James and Bender, Axel. (2010). Degeneracy: A Design Principle for Achieving Robustness and Evolvability. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 263, 143–53.
White, L. H. (2005). The Federal Reserve System’s Influence on Research in Monetary Economics. Economic Journal Watch, 2(2), 325–54.
Whitman, D. Glen and Koppl, Roger. (2010). Rational Bias in Forensic Science. Law, Probability and Risk, 9(1), 6990.
Wible, James. (1998). The Economics of Science: Methodology and Epistemology as If Economics Mattered. London and New York: Routledge.
Wierzchosławski, Rafał Paweł. (2016). Florian Znaniecki, Alfred Schutz, Milieu Analysis and Experts Studies. In Hałas, Elżbieta, ed., Life-World, Intersubjectivity, and Culture: Contemporary Dilemmas. New York,: Peter Lang, IAP, pp. 245–62.
Williams, Joan C. (2016). What So Many People Don’t Get About the U.S. Working Class. Harvard Business Review, November 10, 2016. Downloaded November 29, 2016 from
Williams, Deirdre and Lankes, Tiffany. (2017). Support, Criticism Surround Home-Schooling Mom’s Claims. The Buffalo News, February 25, 2017. Downloaded February 26, 2017 from
Williamson, Oliver. (1976). Franchise Bidding for Natural Monopolies – In General and with Respect to CATV. Bell Journal of Economics, 7(1), 73104.
Willingham v. State, 897 S.W.2d. 351, 357, Tex.Crim.App. (1995.
Wilson, Woodrow. (1887). The Study of Administration. Political Science Quarterly, 2(2), 197222.
Woodward, John. (1902). Expert Evidence. The North American Review, 175(551), 486–99.
Wolfram, S. (1984). Universality and Complexity in Cellular Automata. Physica, 10D, 135.
Wolinsky, Asher. (1993). Competition in a Market for Informed Experts’ Services. RAND Journal of Economics, 24(3), 380–98.
Wolinsky, Asher. (1995). Competition in Markets for Credence Goods. Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics, 151(1), 117–31.
Wolpert, David H. (2001). Computational Capabilities of Physical Systems. Physical Review E, 65(016128), 127.
Wrona, Richard M. (2006). A Dangerous Separation: The Schism between the American Society and Its Military. World Affairs, 169(1), 2538.
Yamey, B. S. (1949). Scientific Bookkeeping and the Rise of Capitalism. The Economic History Review, New Series, 1(2/3), 99113.
Yandle, Bruce. (1983). Bootleggers and Baptists: The Education of a Regulatory Economist. Regulation, 7(3), 12.
Yeager, Leland B. (1960). Methodenstreit over Demand Curves. Journal of Political Economy, 63, 5364.
Yeager, Leland B. (1984). Henry George and Austrian Economics. History of Political Economy, 16, 157–74.
Yilmaz, Ihsan. (2002). Secular Law and Emergence of the Unofficial Turkish Islamic Law. Middle East Institute, 56(1), 113–31.
Young, Allyn A. (1928). Increasing Returns and Economic Progress. The Economic Journal, 38(152), 527–42.
Xenophon. (2007). The Apology of Socrates. Translated by H. G. Dakyns. eBooks@Adelaide.
Zick, Timothy. (2015). Professional Rights Speech. Arizona State Law Journal, 48(4), 12891360.
Zuccino, D. (2006). Duke Case Worsens for Prosecution. Los Angeles Times, December 16, 2006. Downloaded August 1, 2016 from
Zuiderent-Jerak, Teun. (2009). Competition in the Wild: Reconfiguring Healthcare Markets. Social Studies of Science, 39(5), 765–92.