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Fact-Finding without Facts
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Book description

Fact-Finding Without Facts explores international criminal fact-finding - empirically, conceptually, and normatively. After reviewing thousands of pages of transcripts from various international criminal tribunals, the author reveals that international criminal trials are beset by numerous and severe fact-finding impediments that substantially impair the tribunals' ability to determine who did what to whom. These fact-finding impediments have heretofore received virtually no publicity, let alone scholarly treatment, and they are deeply troubling not only because they raise grave concerns about the accuracy of the judgments currently being issued but because they can be expected to similarly impair the next generation of international trials that will be held at the International Criminal Court. After setting forth her empirical findings, the author considers their conceptual and normative implications. The author concludes that international criminal tribunals purport a fact-finding competence that they do not possess and, as a consequence, base their judgments on a less precise, more amorphous method of fact-finding than they publicly acknowledge.


'Combs supports her critique of the fact-finding competence of the tribunals with empirical evidence combining trial transcripts with a sample of interviews of defence counsel, prosecutors, and investigators.'

Source: Journal of Law and Society

'Combs’ analysis of trial transcripts and her torrent of examples of testimonial inconsistency warrant admiration and gratitude from others in the field.'

Asad Kiyani Source: International Journal of Transitional Justice

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Book Chapters
Ackerman, John E., Assignment of Defense Counsel at the ICTY, in Essays on ICTY Procedure and Evidence in Honor of Gabrielle Kirk McDonald 167 (May, Richard. eds., 2001)
Andenaes, Johannes, The Scandinavian Countries, inChildren's Evidence in Legal Proceedings: An International Perspective 9 (Spencer, J. R.. eds. 1989)
Bitti, Gilbert, Two Bones of Contention Between Civil and Common Law: The Record of the Proceedings and the Treatment of a Concursus Delictorum, in International and National Prosecution of Crimes Under International Law 273 (Fischer, Horst. eds., 2001)
Bitti, Gilbert, Functions and Powers of the Trial Chamber, in 2 Commentary on the Rome Statute of The International Criminal Court 1215 (Triffterer, Otto ed., 2008)
Bradley, Craig, United States, in Criminal Procedure: A Worldwide Study 395 (Bradley, Craig M., ed., 1999)
Burns, Robert P., How Law Knows in the American Trial Court, in How Law Knows 126 (Sarat, Austin. eds., 2007)
Cohen, David, Beyond Nuremburg: Individual Responsibility for War Crimes, in Human Rights in Political Transitions: Gettysburg to Bosnia 53 (Hesse, Carla & Post, Robert eds., 1999)
Cooke, Michael, Aboriginal Evidence in the Cross-Cultural Courtroom, in Language in Evidence: Issues Confronting Aboriginal and Multicultural Australia 55 (Eades, Diana ed., 1995)
Cooke, Michael, Understood by All Concerned?: Anglo/Aboriginal Legal Translation, in Translation and the Law 37 (Morris, Marshall ed., 1995)
Cordon, Ingrid M.., Children in Court, inAdversarial Versus Inquisitorial Justice: Psychological Perspectives on Criminal Justice Systems 167 (Koppen, Peter J. & Penrod, Steven D. eds., 2003)
Corso, Piermaria, Italy, in Criminal Procedure Systems in the European Community 223 (Van, ChristineWyngaert, . eds., 1993)
Cutler, Brian L.., Conceptual, Practical, and Empirical Issues Associated with Eyewitness Identification Test Media, in Adult Eyewitness Testimony: Current Trends and Developments 163 (Ross, David F.. eds., 1994)
Danner, Allison M., Joint Criminal Enterprise, in International Criminal Law 483 (Bassiouni, M. Cherif ed., 2008)
Des Forges, Alison, & Longman, Timothy, Legal Responses to Genocide in Rwanda, inMy Neighbor, My Enemy: Justice and Community in the Aftermath of Mass Atrocity 49 (Stover, Eric & Weinstein, Harvey eds., 2004)
Gurmendi, Silvia A. F., International Criminal Law Procedures, in The International Criminal Court: The Making of the Rome Statute 217 (Lee, Roy S. ed., 1999)
León, Lourdes, The Mixtecs' Annual 3000-Mile Journey, in Nosotros, The Hispanic People of Oregon, Essays and Recollections 119 (Gamboa, Erasmo & Buan, Carolyn M. eds., 1995)
DeMuniz, Paul J., Introduction toImmigrants in Courts 3 (Moore, Joanne I. ed., 1999)
Douglas, William O., Foreword toJerome Frank & Barbara Frank, Not Guilty 11 (1971)
Dunnigan, Timothy, & Downing, Bruce T., Legal Interpreting on Trial: A Case Study, in Translation and the Law 93 (Morris, Marshall ed., 1996)
Ellis, Hadyn D., Practical Aspects of Face Memory, inEyewitness Testimony: Psychological Perspectives 12 (Wells, Gary L. & Loftus, Elizabeth F. eds., 1984)
Feeley, Malcolm, The Adversary System, in 2 Encyclopedia of the American Judicial System 753 (Janosik, Robert J. ed., 1987)
Feldman, David J., England and Wales, in Criminal Procedure: A Worldwide Study 91 (Bradley, Craig M. ed., 1999)
Fox, James J., Tracing the Path, Recounting the Path: Historical Perspectives on Timor, inOut of the Ashes: Destruction and Reconstruction of East Timor 8 (Fox, James J. & Babo-Soares, Dionísio eds., 2003)
Franklin, Benjamin, Letter from Benjamin Franklin to Benjamin Vaughan (Mar. 14, 1785), inXI The Works of Benjamin Franklin 11 (Bigelow, John ed., Fed. Ed., 1904)
Frase, Richard S., Comparative Criminal Justice Policy, in Theory and in Practice, in Int'l Conf. for the 25th Anniversary of the Int'l Inst. of Higher Stud. inCrim. Sci., Comparative Criminal Justice Systems: From Diversity to Rapprochement 109 (1998)
Fuller, Lon L., The Adversary System, in Talks on American Law 30 (Berman, Harold J. ed., 1962)
Goldstone, Richard J., 50 Years After Nuremberg: A New International Criminal Tribunal for Human Rights Criminals, in Contemporary Genocides: Causes, Cases, Consequences 215 (Jongman, Albert J. ed., 1996)
Greve, Vagn, Denmark, in Criminal Procedure Systems in the European Community 51 (Wyngaert, Christine. eds., 1993)
Gumperz, John J., Contextualization and Ideology in Intercultural Communication, in Culture of Communication: Analyses of Intercultural Situations 35 (Di Luzio, Aldo. eds., 2001)
Hall, David F.., Postevent Information and Changes in Recollection for a Natural Event, inEyewitness Testimony: Psychological Perspectives 124 (Wells, Gary L. & Loftus, Elizabeth F. eds., 1984)
Harhoff, Frederik, The Role of the Parties Before International Criminal Courts, inInternational and National Prosecution of Crimes under International Law 645 (Fischer, Horst. eds., 2001)
Harhoff, Frederik, Sense and Sensibility in Sentencing: Taking Stock of International Criminal Punishment, in Law at War: The Law as It Was and the Law as It Should Be 121 (Engdahl, Ola & Wrange, Pål eds., 2008)
Harnon, Eliahu, & Stein, Alex, Israel, in Criminal Procedure: A Worldwide Study 217 (Bradley, Craig ed., 1999)
Hatchard, John, Criminal Procedure in England and Wales, in Comparative Criminal Procedure 176 (Hatchard, John. eds., 1996)
Henige, David, Oral Tradition as a Means of Constructing the Past, in Writing African History 176 (Edward, John Philips ed., 2005)
Hyams, Paul, Trial by Ordeal: The Key to Proof in the Early Common Law, in On the Laws and Customs of England, Essays in Honor of Samuel E. Thorne 90 (Arnold, Morris S.. eds., 1981)
Jebens, Sverre E., The Right to Fair Trial in Norway, inThe Right to a Fair Trial 584 (Weissbrodt, David & Wolfrum, Rüdiger eds., 1997)
Jörg, Nico., Are Inquisitorial and Adversarial Systems Converging? in Criminal Justice in Europe: A Comparative Study 41 (Fennell, Phil. eds., 1995)
Kay, Stephen, & Swart, Bert, The Role of the Defense, in II The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court 1421 (Cassese, Antonio. eds. 2002)
Lahiouel, Hafida, The Right of the Accused to an Expeditious Trial, in Essays on ICTY Procedure and Evidence in Honour of Gabrielle Kirk McDonald 197 (May, Richard. eds., 2001)
Lamb, Susan, Illegal Arrest and the Jurisdiction of the ICTY, in Essays on ICTY Procedure and Evidence in Honour of Gabrielle Kirk McDonald 27 (May, Richard. eds., 2001)
Lewis, Peter, Trial Procedure, inThe International Criminal Court: Elements of Crimes and Rules of Procedure and Evidence 539 (Lee, Roy S.. eds. 2001)
Longman, Timothy, & Rutagengwa, Théonèste, Memory, Identity and Community in Rwanda, inMy Neighbor, My Enemy: Justice and Community in the Aftermath of Mass Atrocity 162 (Stover, Eric & Weinstein, Harvey eds., 2004)
Maier, Charles S., Doing History, Doing Justice: The Narrative of the Historian and of the Truth Commission, in Truth v. Justice 261 (Rotberg, Robert I. & Thompson, Dennis eds., 1999)
Mansour, Aly A., Hudud Crimes, in General Principles of Criminal Evidence in Islamic Jurisprudence, in The Islamic Criminal Justice System 195 (Bassiouni, M. Cherif ed., 1988)
May, Richard, & Wierda, Marieke, Evidence Before the ICTY, in Essays on ICTY Procedure and Evidence in Honour of Gabrielle Kirk McDonald 249 (May, Richard. eds., 2001)
May, Richard, Gabrielle Kirk McDonald: A Biographical Note, inEssays on ICTY Procedure and Evidence in Honour of Gabrielle Kirk McDonald 3 (May, Richard. eds., 2001)
McAuley, Finbarr, & O'Dowd, John, Ireland, in Criminal Procedure Systems in the European Community 185 (Wyngaert, Christine. eds., 1993)
Mikkelson, Holly, & Mintz, Hanne, Orientation Workshops for Interpreters of All Languages: How to Strike a Balance Between the Ideal World and Reality, in The Critical Link: Interpreters in the Community 55 (Carr, Silvana E.. eds., 1995)
Moore, Joanne I., & Mamiya, Ron A., Interpreters, in Court Proceedings, inImmigrants in Courts 29 (Moore, Joanne I. ed., 1999)
Narby, Douglas J.., The Effects of Witness, Target, and Situational Factors on Eyewitness Identifications, in Psychological Issues in Eyewitness Identification 23 (Sporer, Siegfried L.. eds. 1996)
Oosthuizen, Gabriël, Of Misconduct, Contempt, False Testimony, Rule Mutations and Other Interesting Powers: A Potpourri of Questions and Notes, in Essays on ICTY Procedure and Evidence in Honour of Gabrielle Kirk McDonald 387 (May, Richard. eds., 2001)
Orie, Alphons, Accusatorial v. Inquisitorial Approach in International Criminal Proceedings Prior to the Establishment of the ICC and in the Proceedings before the ICC, in 2 The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: A Commentary 1439 (Cassese et al. eds., 2002)
Pakes, Francis J., Styles of Trial Procedure at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, inAdversarial Versus Inquisitorial Justice: Psychological Perspectives on Criminal Justice Systems 309 (Koppen, Peter J. & Penrod, Steven D. eds., 2003)
Palerm, Juan-Vicente., Mexican Immigrants in Courts, inImmigrants in Courts 73 (Moore, Joanne I. ed., 1999)
Park, Roger, Adversarial Influences on the Interrogation of Trial Witnesses, in Adversarial Versus Inquisitorial Justice: Psychological Perspectives on Criminal Justice Systems 131 (Koppen, Peter J. & Penrod, Steven D. eds., 2003)
Peters, Douglas P., Eyewitness Memory and Arousal in a Natural Setting, in 1 Practical Aspects of Memory: Current Research and Issues: Memory in Everyday Life 89 (Gruneberg, Michael M.. eds., 1988)
Pölönen, Pasi, Witness Examination in Finnish Criminal Trials, in 51 Scandinavian Studies in Law: Procedural Law 437 (2007)
Ramadan, Hisham M., On Islamic Punishment, in Understanding Islamic Law: From Classical to Contemporary 43 (Ramadan, Hisham M. ed., 2006)
Salama, Ma'amoun M., General Principles of Criminal Evidence in Islamic Jurisprudence, in The Islamic Criminal Justice System 109 (Bassiouni, M. Cherif ed., 1988)
Salas, Denis, The Role of the Judge, inEuropean Criminal Procedures 488 (Delmas-Marty, Mireille & Spencer, J. R. eds., 2002)
Schwikkard, P. J., & Merwe, W. E., South Africa, inCriminal Procedure: A Worldwide Study 319 (Bradley, Craig ed., 1999)
Shapiro, Barbara J., “Fact” and the Proof of Fact, in How Law Knows 25 (Sarat, Austin. eds., 2007)
Shaw, Rosalind, Cannibal Transformations: Colonialism and Commodification in the Sierra Leone Hinterland, in Magical Interpretations, Material Realities: Modernity, Witchcraft and the Occult in Post-Colonial Africa 50 (Moore, Henrietta L. & Sanders, Todd eds., 2001)
Shaw, Rosalind, Robert Kaplan and “Juju Journalism” in Sierra Leone's Rebel War: The Primitivizing of an African Conflict, in Magic and Modernity: Interfaces of Revelation and Concealment 81 (Meyer, Birgit & Pels, Peter eds., 2003)
Shaw, Rosalind, “Tok Af, Lef Af”: A Political Economy of Temne Techniques of Secrecy and Self, in African Philosophy as Cultural Inquiry 25 (Karp, Ivan & Masolo, D. A. eds., 2000)
Swart, A. H. J., The Netherlands, in Criminal Procedure Systems in The European Community 279 (Wyngaert, Christine. eds., 1993)
Ta, Tai, Vietnamese Immigrants in American Courts, inImmigrants in Courts 140 (Moore, Joanne I. ed., 1999)
Trial of Ulrich Greifelt and Others, in XIII Law Reports of Trials of the War Criminals 1 (U. N. War Crimes Commission ed., 1949)
Caenegem, Raoul C., The Law of Evidence in the Twelfth Century: European Perspectives and Intellectual Background, in Proceedings of the Second International Congress of Medieval Canon Law 298 (Kuttner, Stephan & Ryan, J. Joseph eds., 1965)
Caenegem, Raoul C., Public Prosecution of Crime in Twelfth-Century England, in Church and Government in the Middle Ages, 41 (Brooke, C. N. L.. eds., 1976)
Wyngaert, Christine, Belgium, in Criminal Procedure Systems in the European Community 1 (Den, , Wyngaert. eds., 1993)
Koppen, Peter J., & Penrod, Steven D., The John Wayne and Judge Dee Versions of Justice, inAdversarial Versus Inquisitorial Justice: Psychological Perspectives on Criminal Justice Systems 347 (Koppen, Peter J. & Penrod, Steven D. eds., 2003)
Koppen, Peter J., & Penrod, Steven D., Adversarial or Inquisitorial: Comparing Systems, inAdversarial Versus Inquisitorial Justice: Psychological Perspectives on Criminal Justice Systems 1 (Koppen, Peter J. & Penrod, Steven D. eds., 2003)
Vogler, Richard, Criminal Procedure in France, in Comparative Criminal Procedure 14 (Hatchard, John. eds., 1996)
Walsh, Michael, Interactional Styles in the Courtroom: An Example from Northern Australia, in Language and the Law 217 (Gibbons, John ed., 1994)
Weinstein, Harvey M., & Stover, Eric, Introduction: Conflict, Justice and Reclamation, inMy Neighbor, My Enemy: Justice and Community in the Aftermath of Mass Atrocity 1 (Weinstein, Harvey M. & Stover, Eric eds., 2004)
Zahar, Alexander, The Rwamakuba Case and the Problem of False Testimony at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, in Annotated Leading Cases of International Criminal Tribunals, Vol. 25: International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, 2006–2007 (Klip, André & Sluiter, Göran eds., forthcoming 2010)
Newspaper Articles
Acquittals of Former Government Officials Raises Mixed Reactions, Hirondelle News Agency, Feb. 26, 2004.
Ahmići Muslims Shocked by UN Acquittal of War Crimes Suspects, Agence France-Presse, Oct. 23, 2001
Another Dirty War Witness Goes Missing, A.P., Apr. 30, 2008.
Baguma, Steven, Genocide Survivor Boycotts Gacaca, Cites Harassment, The New Times (Kigali), Nov. 16, 2006
Baguma, Steven, Gacaca Witnesses Attacked, The New Times (Kigali), Dec. 18, 2006
Bavier, Joe, Congo Ministers Attacked in Bemba trial “Warning,”Reuters, Aug. 31, 2009
Bennett, Jessica, Not Above the Law, Newsweek, June 12, 2007
Bouwknegt, Thijs, Rwanda's Genocide Tribunal's Witness “Hiding,”Radio Netherlands Worldwide, Oct. 2, 2008
Carlin, Peter, What Becomes of the Resurrected?, Los Angeles Times Magazine, Mar. 8, 1992, at 22
Cleary, Paul, It's the Economy Stupid, Wall St. J., May 23, 2007
,Coalition for International Justice, ICTR Judges to Visit Crime Scenes, Aug. 16, 2000, available at
Corder, Mike, Former Congolese Child Soldier Recants Testimony, Throws Trial of Warlord into Confusion, A. P., Jan. 28, 2009
Court Quashes Appeal, Int'l Just. Trib., June 8, 1998
Croatia's Top Court Orders War Crimes Retrial, Reuters, Aug. 19, 2004
Cruvellier, Thierry, Grass-Roots Justice, Int'l Just. Trib., Mar. 29, 1999
Cruvellier, Thierry, Shocking Arrest of Rusatira, Int'l Just. Trib., May 17, 2002
Cruvellier, Thierry, Judge Ostrovsky Speaks Out, Int'l Just. Trib., Apr. 23, 2002
Cruvellier, Thierry, Angolan Capture, Int'l Just. Trib., Aug. 13, 2002
Cruvellier, Thierry, The Error, Int'l Just. Trib., Aug. 13, 2002
Darehshori, Sara, Inching Toward Justice in Rwanda, N.Y. Times, Sept. 8, 1998
Ega-Musa, Nasser, Another Failure of Justice in Africa, Wash. Post, Mar. 6, 1997
Finn, Peter, Lawyers Criticize Quality of Guantanamo Interpreters, Wash. Post, Oct. 14, 2008
Flottau, Renate, Fragwürdige Abmachungen, Der Spiegel, Jan. 17, 2005
Four Witnesses in Saddam Trial Held, A.P., June 1, 2006
Gacaca Witness' House Set Ablaze, The New Times (Kigali), Oct. 22, 2006
Genocide Survivors in Danger, Says IBUKA, Hirondelle News Agency, Nov. 16, 2005
Glassborow, Katy, ICC Investigative Strategy Under Fire, Int'l War & Peace Reporting, Oct. 17, 2008
Goldberg, Jeffrey, A Continent's Chaos: Why Do Americans Find It Intolerable in Europe but Inevitable in Africa?N.Y. Times Mag., May 21, 2000
Goodman, Sara, Albanian Witness Refuses to Testify in Haradinaj Trial, 505 Int'l War & Peace Reporting, June 8, 2007
Gosnell, Christopher M., A Court Too Far, Int'l Herald Trib., Mar. 28, 2008
Hudson, Alexandra, U.N. Tribunal Upholds Acquittal of Kosovo Ex-Rebels, Reuters, Sept. 27, 2007
ICTR/Prosecution – Synthesis: Prosecutors at the ICTR, Hirondelle News Agency, Oct. 28, 2003
ICTR/Rusatira – General Rusatira's Release Heightens Tension Between Rwanda and the ICTR, Hirondelle News Agency, Oct. 29, 2003
,ICTR/Zigiranyirazo-Bagaragaza Press Release, Witness Gives the Defense a Hard Time, Hirondelle News Agency, June 15, 2006.
Indonesia Colluded with Timor Militia Terror: Gusmao Wife, Agence France-Presse, Nov. 9, 2000
“Intuitive' Identification,” Sense News Agency, June 25, 2007
It's a Lying Shame, South China Morning Post, Mar. 22, 2006
Kessy, Modestus, Genocide Witness Killed After Testifying, The Guardian (Dar es Salam), Oct. 22, 2004
Kigali Denounces Acquittals at UN Tribunal, UN Integrated Regional Information Networks, Feb. 26, 2004
Kocieniewski, David, A Little Girl Shot, and a Crowd That Didn't See, N.Y. Times, July 9, 2007
Kolker, Ken, Trial and Errors, Grand Rapids Press, Feb. 21, 1993
Kosovo Journalist Indicted by UN Court, Balkan Insight, May 20, 2008
Metcalf, J. Coll, An Interview with United Nations' Chief War Crimes Prosecutor, Carla del Ponte, Internews, Feb. 15, 2000
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Ntambara, Paul, Jean Mpambara's Acquittal Enrages Residents, The New Times (Sept. 16, 2006)
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