Skip to main content Accessibility help
Famine in European History
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 3
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Curtis, Daniel R. and Dijkman, Jessica 2017. The escape from famine in the Northern Netherlands: a reconsideration using the 1690s harvest failures and a broader Northwest European perspective. The Seventeenth Century, p. 1.

    Alfani, Guido and Ó Gráda, Cormac 2018. The timing and causes of famines in Europe. Nature Sustainability, Vol. 1, Issue. 6, p. 283.

    Alfani, Guido and Ó Gráda, Cormac 2018. An Economist’s Guide to Economic History. p. 133.


Book description

This is the first systematic study of famine in all parts of Europe from the Middle Ages until the present. In case studies ranging from Scandinavia and Italy to Ireland and Russia, leading scholars compare the characteristics, consequences and causes of famine. The famines they describe differ greatly in size, duration and context; in many cases the damage wrought by poor harvests was confounded by war. The roles of human action, malfunctioning markets and poor relief are a recurring theme. The chapters also take full account of demographic, institutional, economic, social and cultural aspects, providing a wealth of new information which is organized and analyzed within a comparative framework. Famine in European History represents a significant new contribution to demographic history, and will be of interest to all those who want to discover more about famines - truly horrific events which, for centuries, have been a recurring curse for the Europeans.


'A wide-ranging and deeply informed collection of essays on a painful but historically important and fascinating phenomenon: famine in the European past. Covering many centuries and the entire continent, the essays are deeply researched and rely on sensible economic and statistical analysis. Edited by two world-renowned experts, this is one of the best anthologies on any topic in economic history to appear in a long time.'

Joel Mokyr - Northwestern University, Illinois

'A seminal exercise in historical comparison which places Europe’s many own grim encounters with death-dealing famine in a wholly new perspective.'

Bruce M. S. Campbell - The Queen's University of Belfast

'In this remarkable book Alfani and Ó Gráda present a broad sweep of the history of famine in Europe, showing continental trends over a period of time from the late middle ages to second world war. In an age when famine threatens to re-emerge as a global scourge, this book is a poignant reminder that not so very long ago, famine stalked the economies that are today among the world’s wealthiest.'

Daniel Maxwell - Tufts University, Massachusetts

'The editors have brought together the first truly comparative, Europe-wide measurement and assessment of famines as killing events from the late Middle Ages to World War II. The essays and the editorial introduction are strikingly effective in demonstrating that although many famines effecting large geographical regions were sparked by failures of agrarian output, their final outcomes were never purely a result of natural processes.'

Richard Smith - University of Cambridge

'An important and comprehensive contribution … Anyone doing research on famine, regardless of era and location, should find these essays of interest and use. Essential.'

M. J. Frost Source: Choice

'This impressive volume presents a series of quantitatively rich historical studies by leading scholars that together offer a broad picture of famine in Europe - scale, context, and cause and effect - from medieval times onward.'

Geoffrey McNicoll Source: Population and Development Review

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.


Aakjaer, S. 1936. ‘Maal, vaegt og taxter i Danmark’, in Nordisk Kultur 30: Mått och vikt. Stockholm: Albert Bonniers Förlag.
Aaraas, O. 1978. ‘Befolkningskrisa i Norge 1770–74: sult eller sykdom?’, PhD thesis: University of Bergen.
Abel, W. 1935. Agrarkrisen und Agrarkonjunktur in Mitteleuropa vom 13. bis zum 19. Jahrhundert. Berlin: Parey.
Abel, W. 1974. Massenarmut und Hungerkrisen im vorindustriellen Europa: Versuch einer Synopsis. Berlin: Parey.
Aberth, J. 2013. From the Brink of the Apocalypse: Confronting Famine, War, Plague and Death in the Later Middle Ages, 2nd edn. London: Routledge.
Abildgren, K. 2010. ‘Consumer prices in Denmark 1502–2007’. Scandinavian Economic History Review 58: 224.
Acemoglu, D., Johnson, S., and Robinson, J. A. 2001. ‘The colonial origins of comparative development: an empirical investigation’. American Economic Review 91: 1369–401.
Adamets, S. 2002. ‘Famine in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Russia: mortality by age, cause, and gender’, in Dyson, T., and Ó Gráda, C. (eds.). Famine Demography: Perspectives from the Past and Present. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 158–80.
Akçam, T. 2012. The Young Turks’ Crime against Humanity: The Armenian Genocide and Ethnic Cleansing in the Ottoman Empire. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Alfani, G. 2007. ‘Population and environment in northern Italy during the XVIth century’. Population 4: 137.
Alfani, G. 2010. ‘Climate, population and famine in northern Italy: general tendencies and Malthusian crisis, ca. 1450–1800’. Annales de Démographie Historique 120: 2353.
Alfani, G. 2011. ‘The famine of the 1590s in Northern Italy: an analysis of the greatest “system shock” of the sixteenth century’. Histoire et Mesure 26: 1749.
Alfani, G. 2012. ‘Ambiente fisico, colture, insediamento e reti socio-economiche: il case study del Canavese sul lunghissimo periodo’, in Alfani, G., Di Tullio, M., and Mocarelli, L. (eds.). Storia economica e ambiente italiano (ca. 1400–1850). Milan: Franco Angeli, pp. 168–87.
Alfani, G. 2013a. Calamities and the Economy in Renaissance Italy: The Grand Tour of the Horsemen of the Apocalypse. Basingstoke: Palgrave.
Alfani, G. 2013b. ‘Plague in seventeenth century Europe and the decline of Italy: an epidemiological hypothesis’. European Review of Economic History 17: 408–30.
Alfani, G. 2013c. ‘Population dynamics, Malthusian crises and Boserupian innovation in pre-industrial societies: the case study of Northern Italy (ca. 1450–1800) in the light of Lee’s “dynamic synthesis”’, in Malanima, P., and Chiarini, B. (eds.). From Malthus’s Stagnation to Sustained Growth. Basingstoke: Palgrave, pp. 1851.
Alfani, G. 2015. ‘Famines in late medieval and early modern Italy: a test for an advanced economy’, Working Paper no. 82. Milan: Dondena Centre for Research on Social Dynamics and Public Policy, Bocconi University.
Alfani, G., Dalla Zuanna, G., and Rosina, A. 2009. ‘Introduzione: differenze demografiche all’alba dell’era moderna’. Popolazione e Storia 10: 917.
Alfani, G., and Melegaro, A. 2010. Pandemie d’Italia: dalla peste nera all’influenza suina: l’impatto sulla società. Milan: Egea.
Alfani, G., and Rizzo, M. 2013. ‘Politiche annonarie, provvedimenti demografici e capitale umano nelle città assediate dell’Europa moderna’, in Nella morsa della guerra: Assedi, occupazioni militari e saccheggi in età preindustriale. Milan: Franco Angeli, pp. 1545.
Alifano, E. 1996. Il grano e la politica annonaria a Napoli nel settecento. Naples: Edizioni Scientifiche Italiane.
Allen, R. C. 2001. ‘The great divergence in European wages and prices from the Middle Ages to the first World War’. Explorations in Economic History 38: 411–47.
Allen, R. C., Bassino, J.-P., Debin, M., Moll-Murata, C., and van Zanden, J. L. 2011. ‘Wages, prices, and living standards in China, 1738–1925: in comparison with Europe, Japan, and India’. Economic History Review 64: 838.
Anbinder, T., and McCaffrey, H. 2015. ‘Which Irish men and women immigrated to the United States during the Great Famine migration of 1846–54?’. Irish Historical Studies 39: 620–42.
Andræ, C. G. 1967. ‘Nödår’, in Kulturhistoriskt lexikon för Nordisk medeltid, vol. XII. Malmö: Allhems Förlag, pp. 467–8.
Andreev, E. M., Darskii, L. E., and Kharkova, T. L. 1990. Istoriya naseleniya SSSR 1920–1959gg. Moscow: Goskomstat.
Andreev, E. M., Darskii, L. E., and Kharkova, T. L. 1998. Demograficheskaya istoriya Rossii: 1927–1959. Moscow: Goskomstat.
Anes, G. 1968. ‘Los pósitos en la España del siglo XVIII’. Moneda y Crédito 105: 3969.
Anes, G. 1970a. Las crisis agrarias en la España moderna. Madrid: Taurus.
Anes, G. 1970b. ‘La economía española (1782–1829)’, in El Banco de España: Una historia económica. Madrid: Banco de España, pp. 233–60.
Anes, G. 1970c. Economía e ilustración en la España del siglo XVIII. Barcelona: Ariel.
Anes, G. 1974. ‘Antecedentes próximos del motín contra Esquilache’. Moneda y Crédito 128: 219–24.
Anon, . 1741. The Groans of Ireland: In a Letter to a Member of Parliament. Dublin: Georg Faulkner.
Anon, . 1747. ‘Life of the Right Reverend Hugh Boulter D.D., Archbishop of Armagh’. London Magazine October: 397405.
Appleby, A. B. 1978. Famine in Tudor and Stuart England. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press.
Arizcun Cela, A. 1988. Economía y sociedad en un valle pirenaico de Antiguo Régimen: Baztán, 1600–1841. Pamplona: Institución Príncipe de Viana.
Auchmann, R., Brönnimann, S., Breda, L., Bühler, M., Spadin, R., and Stickler, A. 2012. ‘Extreme climate, not extreme weather: the summer of 1816 in Geneva, Switzerland’. Climate of the Past 8: 325–35.
Bade, K. 2000. Europa in Bewegung: Migration vom späten 18. Jahrhundert bis zur Gegenwart. Munich: Beck.
Baehrel, R. 1961. Une croissance: la Basse-Provence rurale de la fin du XVIe siècle à 1789. Paris: Sevpen.
Bailey, M. 1998. ‘Peasant welfare in England, 1290–1348’. Economic History Review 51: 223–51.
Banning, C. 1946. ‘Food shortage and public health, first half of 1945: the Netherlands during German occupation’. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 245: 93110.
Barber, J., and Dzeniskevich, A. (eds.) 2001. Zhizn’ ismert’ v blokirovannom Leningrade: Istoriko-meditsinskii aspect. St Petersburg: Akedimiya Voenno-Istoricheskikh Nauk.
Barber, J., and Dzeniskevich, A. (eds.) 2005. Life and Death in Besieged Leningrad, 1941–44. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Bardet, J.-P. 1983. Rouen aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles: Les mutations d’un espace social. Paris: Sedes.
Barker, D. J. 1995. ‘Foetal origins of coronary heart disease’. British Medical Journal 311: 171–4.
Barker, D. J., Winter, P. D., Osmond, C., Margetts, B., and Simmonds, S. J. 1989. ‘Weight in infancy and death from ischaemic heart disease’. Lancet 2: 577–80.
Barker, F., and Cheyne, J. 1821. An Account of the Rise, Progress and Decline of the Fever Lately Epidemical in Ireland, 2 vols. London: Baldwin, Craddock, and Joy.
Basini, G. L. 1970. L’uomo e il pane: Risorse, consumi e carenze alimentari della popolazione modenese nel cinque e seicento. Milan: Giuffrè.
Bass, H.-H. 1991. Hungerkrisen in Preussen während der ersten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts. St. Katharinen, Germany: Scripta Mercaturae Verlag.
Bass, H.-H. 2007. ‘The crisis in Prussia’, in Ó Gráda, Paping and Vanhaute (eds.), pp. 185212.
Baulant, M. 1968. ‘Le prix des grains à Paris de 1431 à 1788’. Annales ESC 23: 520–40.
Béaur, G. 1984. Le marché foncier à la veille de la Révolution: Les mouvements de propriété beaucerons dans les régions de Maintenon et de Janville de 1761 à 1790. Paris: Éd. de l’EHESS.
Béaur, G. 2000. Histoire agraire de la France au XVIIIe siècle: Inerties et changements dans les campagnes françaises à la fin de l’époque moderne (jusqu’en 1815). Paris: SEDES.
Béaur, G. 2007. ‘La soudure n’est plus ce qu’elle était: contribution à l’étude du mouvement saisonnier du marché du blé et du marché de la terre d’après le cas de la région de Chartres au XVIIIe siècle’, in Chauvard, J.-F., and Laboulais, I. (eds.). Les fruits de la récolte: Études offertes à Jean-Michel Boehler. Strasbourg: Presses Universitaires de Strasbourg, pp. 93107.
Béaur, G. Forthcoming. ‘Le niveau de vie des populations rurales et urbaines dans la France de l’Ancien Régime’. Revue d’Histoire Moderne et Contemporaine.
Béaur, G. Forthcoming. ‘Une révolution des objets, ene révolution industrieuse? Meaux et ses campagnes, aux 17e et 18e siècles’. Revue d'Histoire Moderne et Contemporaine.
Béaur, G., Chevet, J.-M., Ó Gráda, C., and Pérez-Picazo, M. T. (eds.) 2011. Histoire et Mesure 26 (special issue), Revisiter Le Crises.
Beckett, F. W. 2007. The Great War 1914–1918. London: Routledge.
Behringer, W. 1995. ‘Weather, hunger and fear: origins of the European witch-hunts in climate, society and mentality’. German History 13: 127.
Behringer, W., Lehmann, H., and Pfister, C. (eds.) 2005. Kulturelle Konsequenzen der ‘Kleinen Eiszeit’: Cultural Consequences of the ‘Little Ice Age’. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.
Bellettini, A. 1987. La popolazione italiana: Un profilo storico. Turin: Einaudi.
Benedictow, O. J. 2004. The Black Death 1346–1353: The Complete History. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell & Brewer.
Bengtsson, T. 2004. ‘Living standards and economic stress’, in Bengtsson, T., Campbell, C., and Lee, J. Z. (eds.). Life under Pressure: Mortality and Living Standards in Europe and Asia, 1700–1900. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 2759.
Bengtsson, T., and Dribe, M. 2005. ‘New evidence on the standard of living in Sweden during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries: long-term development of the demographic response to short-term economic stress’, in Allen, R. C., Bengtsson, T., and Dribe, M. (eds.). Living Standards in the Past: New Perspectives on Well-Being in Asia and Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 341–72.
Bengtsson, T., and Dribe, M. 2006. ‘Deliberate control in a natural fertility population: southern Sweden, 1766–1894’. Demography 43: 727–46.
Bengtsson, T., and Dribe, M. 2010. ‘Economic stress and reproductive responses’, in Tsuya, N. O., Feng, W., and Lee, J. (eds.). Prudence and Pressure: Reproduction and Human Agency in Europe and Asia, 1700–1900. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 97128.
Bengtsson, T., and Jörberg, L. 1975. ‘Market integration in Sweden during the 18th and 19th centuries: spectral analysis of grain prices’. Economy and History 18: 93106.
Bengtsson, T., and Ohlsson, R. 1985. ‘Age-specific mortality and short-term changes in the standard of living: Sweden, 1751–1859’. European Journal of Population 1: 309–26.
Berger, H., and Spoerer, M. 2001. ‘Economic crises and the European revolutions of 1848’. Journal of Economic History 61: 293326.
Berkhoff, K. 2004. Harvest of the Despair: Life and Death in the Ukraine under Nazi Rule. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Bernat i Martí, S., and Badenes Martín, M. A. 1988. ‘Cronología, intensidad y extensión de las crisis demográficas en el País Valencià (siglos XVII–XIX)’, in Pérez Aparicio, C. (ed.). Estudios sobre la població del País Valenciá, vol. I. Valencia: Alfons el Magnànim, pp. 537–57.
Berthe, M. 1984. Famines et épidémies dans les campagnes navarraises à la fin du Moyen Âge. Paris: Sfied [Catalan version: 1991. Fams i epidèmies al camp navarrès als segles XIV i XV. Barcelona: L’Avenç].
Betrán, J. L. 1996. La peste en la Barcelona de los Austrias. Lleida, Spain: Milenio.
Biraben, J.-N. 1975. Les hommes et la peste en France et dans les pays européens et méditerranéens, 2 vols. Paris: Mouton.
Biraben, J.-N. 1977. ‘La mortalité des évêques siégeant entre 1220 et 1458 sur le territoire actuel de la France’. Population 32: 467–80.
Black, R. C. D. 1960. Economic Thought and the Irish Question 1817–1870 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Blanco García, F. 1987. ‘Crisis meseteña de principios del siglo XIX’, unpublished PhD thesis. Complutense University of Madrid.
Blaschke, K. 1967. Bevölkerungsgeschichte von Sachsen bis zur industriellen Revolution. Weimar: Böhlau.
Blockmans, W., Pieters, G., Prevenier, W., and Van Schaïk, R., 1980. ‘Tussen crisis en welvaart: sociale veranderingen, 1300–1500’, in Algemene Geschiedenis der Nederlanden, vol. IV, Middeleeuwen. Haarlem: Fibula-Van Dishoeck, pp. 4286.
Bohstedt, J. 2010. The Politics of Provisions: Food Riots, Moral Economy, and Market Transition in England, c. 1500–1850. Farnham, UK: Ashgate.
Boisen, M. 1985. Saxos Danmarks krönike 2. Copenhagen: Peter Asschenfeldt’s Forlag.
Boserup, E. 1965. The Conditions of Agricultural Growth: The Economics of Agrarian Change under Population Pressure. London: Allen & Unwin.
Boserup, E. 1981. Population and Technological Change: A Study of Long-Term Trends. Oxford: Blackwell.
Boudia, Y. 2000. ‘Mortaliteit en pest in het kwartier van Gent: testregio: de kasselrij Kortrijk, de Oudburg en de stad Gent (c. 1350–1500)’, unpublished MA thesis. Ghent University.
Boulter, H. 1759. Letters Written by His Excellency Hugh Boulter D. D. … from 1724 to 1738, 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Bourin, M., Drendel, J., and Menant, F. (eds.) 2011. Les disettes dans la conjoncture de 1300 en Méditerranée occidentale. Rome: Collection de l’École Française de Rome.
Bourke, A. 1993. The Visitation of God? The Potato and the Irish Famine. Dublin: Lilliput Press.
Bouton, C. A. 1993. The Flour War: Gender, Class and Community in Late Ancien Régime French Society. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Boutruche, R. 1963. La crise d’une société: Seigneurs et paysans du Bordelais pendant la Guerre de Cent Ans. Paris: Les Belles Lettres.
Bradley, R. S., and Jones, P. D. (eds.) 1992. Climate since A.D. 1500. London: Routledge.
Brandenberger, A. 2004. Ausbruch aus der ‘Malthusianischen Falle’: Versorgungslage und Wirtschaftsentwicklung im Staate Bern 1755–1797. Bern: Peter Lang.
Brandt, K., Shiller, O., and Ahlgrimm, F. 1953. Management of Agriculture and Food in the German-Occupied and Other Areas of Fortress Europe: A Study in Military Government. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Bräuer, H. 2002. ‘Reflexionen über den Hunger im Erzgebirge um 1700’, in Hettling, M., Shirmer, U., Schötz, S., and Zwahr, H. (eds.). Figuren und Strukturen: Historische Essays für Hartmut Zwahr zum 65. Geburtstag. Munich: Saur, pp. 225–39.
Brázdil, R., Valásek, H., Luterbacher, J., and Macková, J. 2001. ‘Die Hungerjahre 1770–1772 in den böhmischen Ländern: Verlauf, meteorologische Ursachen und Auswirkungen’. Österreichische Zeitschrift für Geschichtswissenschaften 12: 4478.
Briffa, K. R., Jones, P. D., Schweingruber, F. H., and Osborn, T. J. 1998. ‘Influence of volcanic eruptions on Northern Hemisphere summer temperature over the past 600 years’. Nature 393: 450–5.
Britnell, R. 2004. Britain and Ireland 1050-1530: An Economic and Social History. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Broadberry, S., and Gupta, B. 2006. ‘The early modern Great Divergence: wages, prices and economic development in Europe and Asia, 1500–1800’. Economic History Review 59: 231.
Brönnimann, S., and Krämer, D., ‘Tambora and the “Year Without a Summer” of 1816’, Geographica Bernensia 690.
Bruegel, M., Chevet, J.-M., Lecocq, S., and Robin, J.-M. 2013. ‘Explaining the food purchases of the convent school at Saint-Cyr, 1703–1788’. Annals of Economics and Statistics 109/110: 6391.
Brumont, F. 1988. ‘Le pain et la peste: épidémie et subsistances en Vieille-Castille à la fin du XVIe siècle’. Annales de Démographie Historique: 207–20.
Bruneel, C. 1977. La mortalité dans les campagnes: Le Duché de Brabant aux XVIIe et XVIII siècles. Louvain, Belgium: Éditions Nauwelaerts.
Brusselle, E. 1997. ‘Demografische ontwikkeling, doopnaamgeving, kerkelijk leven, volksonderwijs en alfabetisatie in enkel parochies van het Brugse Vrije’, unpublished MA thesis, 2 vols. University of Louvain.
Buat, N. 2010. ‘Marchés et spéculation à Paris pendant la disette de 1692–1694: une approche par les prix’. Histoire et Mesure 25: 5593.
Buchner, T., and Hoffmann-Rehnitz, P. (eds.) 2011. Shadow Economies and Irregular Work in Urban Europe: 16th to Early 20th Centuries. Vienna: LIT Verlag.
Bulgarelli Lukacs, A. 2009. ‘La popolazione del regno di Napoli nel primo seicento (1595–1648): analisi differenziale degli effetti redistributivi della crisi e ipotesi di quantificazione delle perdite demografiche’. Popolazione e Storia 10: 77114.
Bullen, R., and Pelly, M. E. (eds.) 1987. Documents on British Policy Overseas, series 2, vol. II. London: HMSO.
Bullen, R., and Pelly, M. E. (eds.) 1999. Documents on British Policy Overseas, series 1, vol. IV. London: HMSO.
Burger, G., Stanstead, H., and Drummond, J. 1948. Malnutrition and Starvation in Western Netherlands, September 1944–45, parts I and II. The Hague: General State Printing Office.
Cabourdin, G., and Biraben, J.-N. 1988. ‘Les crises démographiques’, in Dupâquier, J. (ed.), Histoire de la population française, vol. II, De la Renaissance à 1789. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, pp. 175–91.
Campbell, B. M. S. 2009. ‘Four famines and a pestilence: harvest, price, and wage variations in England, 13th to 19th centuries’, in Liljewall, B., Flygare, I. A., Ulrich, L., Ljunggren, L., and Söderberg, J. (eds.). Agrarhistoria på många sätt: 28 studier om människan och jorden. Stockholm: Kungl. Skogs- och Lantbruksakademien, pp. 2356.
Campbell, B. M. S. 2010a. ‘Cause and effect? Physical shocks and biological hazards’, in Cavaciocchi (ed.), pp. 1332.
Campbell, B. M. S. 2010b. ‘Nature as historical protagonist: environment and society in pre-industrial England’. Economic History Review 63: 281314.
Campbell, B. M. S., and Ó Gráda, C. 2011. ‘Harvest shortfalls, grain prices, and famines in preindustrial England’. Journal of Economic History 71: 859–86.
Camuffo, D., and Enzi, S. 1992. ‘Reconstructing the climate of northern Italy from archive sources’, in Bradley and Jones (eds.), pp. 143–54.
Caravale, M., and Caracciolo, A. 1978. Lo Stato pontificio da Martino V a Pio IX. Turin: UTET.
Carbajo Isla, M. F. 1987. La población de la villa de Madrid: Desde finales del siglo XVI hasta mediados del siglo XIX. Madrid: Siglo XXI.
Carmichael, D. J. S. 2014. ‘Feeding and supporting the poor of London in the early seventeenth century: the City’s response to crisis’, unpublished PhD thesis. University of London.
Carmona, J. I. 2000. Crónica urbana del malvivir (s. XIV–XVII): Insalubridad, desamparo y hambre en Sevilla. Seville: University of Seville.
Carpentier, E. 1962. ‘Autour de la Peste Noire: famines et épidémies dans l’histoire du XIVe siècle’. Annales ESC 17: 1062–92.
Carr, E. H., and Davies, R. W. 1974. The Foundations of a Planned Economy 1926–29. London: Macmillan.
Castells, I. 1970. ‘El rebomboris del pa de 1789 a Barcelona’. Recerques 1: 5181.
Castenbrandt, H. 2012. ‘Rödsot i Sverige 1750–1900: en sjukdoms demografiska och medicinska historia’, unpublished PhD thesis. University of Gothenburg.
Cattini, M. 1983. ‘Per la storia della popolazione emiliana nel Cinquecento’, in Borelli, G. (ed.). Studi in onore di Gino Barbieri: problemi e metodi di storia ed economia, vol. I. Pisa: IPEM, pp. 449–67.
Cavaciocchi, S. (ed.) 2010. Le interazioni fra economia e ambiente biologico nell’Europa preindustriale. Florence: Florence University Press.
Cerisier, P. 2004. ‘Le commerce des grains dans la France du nord, fin XVIIe–1790 (Artois, Flandre, Hainaut, Cambrésis)’, unpublished PhD thesis. University of Lille 3.
Chen, S., and Kung, J. K.-S. 2016. ‘Of maize and men: the effect of a new crop on population and economic growth in China’. Journal of Economic Growth 21: 7199.
Chevet, J.-M. 1984. ‘Le Marquisat d’Ormesson: essai d’analyse économique’, unpublished PhD thesis. EHESS Paris.
Chevet, J.-M. 1993. ‘Les crises démographiques en France à la fin du XVIIe siècle et au XVIIIe siècle: un essai de mesure’. Histoire et Mesure 8: 117–44.
Chevet, J.-M., and Ó Gráda, C. 2004. ‘Revisiting subsistence crises: the characteristics of French demographic crises in the first half of the nineteenth century’. Food and Foodways 12 : 165–95.
Chevet, J.-M., and Ó Gráda, C. 2007. ‘Crisis: what crisis? Price and mortality in France in 1846’, in Ó Gráda, Paping and Vanhaute (eds.), pp. 247–65.
Chuprov, A. I., and Posnikov, A. S. (eds.) 1897. Vliianie urozhaev i khlebnykh tsen na nekotorye storony russkogo narodnogo khozyaistva, 2 vols. St Petersburg.
Clark, G. 2007. A Farewell to Alms: A Brief Economic History of the World. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Clark, P. (ed.) 1985. The European Crisis of the 1590s: Essays in Comparative History. London: HarperCollins.
Clarke, P. 2014. ‘Let them pay for their starvation: the imposition of income tax in Ireland (1853)’, unpublished communication presented at the annual conference of the Irish Accounting and Finance Association, Belfast, 30 May.
Clarkson, L. A. 1989. ‘Conclusion: famine and Irish history’, in Crawford (ed.), pp. 220–36.
Clogg, R. (ed.) 2008. Bearing Gifts to Greeks: Humanitarian Aid to Greece in the 1940s. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Cohn, S. K. 2002. The Black Death Transformed. London: Arnold.
Collantes de Terán, A. 1977. Sevilla en la Baja Edad Media: La ciudad y sus hombres. Seville: Publicaciones del Exmo, Sevilla.
Collet, D. 2010. ‘Storage and starvation: public granaries as agents of “food security” in early modern Europe’. Historical Social Research 35: 234–53.
Collet, D. 2011. ‘“Moral economy” von oben? Getreidesperren als territoriale und soziale Grenzen während der Hungerkrise 1770–72’. Jahrbuch für Regionalgeschichte 29: 4561.
Collet, D. 2014a. ‘Hungern und Herrschen: umweltgeschichtliche Verflechtungen der Ersten Teilung Polens und der europäischen Hungerkrise 1770–72’. Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas 62: 237–54.
Collet, D. 2014b. ‘Predicting the past? Integrating vulnerability, climate and culture during historical famines’, in Tischler, J., and Gresche, H. (eds.). Grounding Global Climate Change: Contributions from the Social and the Cultural Sciences. Dordrecht: Springer, pp. 3958.
Collet, D. 2015. ‘Mitleid Machen: die Nutzung von Emotionen in der Hungersnot 1770–72’. Historische Anthropologie 23: 5469.
Collingham, L. 2011. The Taste of War: World War Two and the Battle for Food. London: Allen Lane.
Collins, L. 2014. ‘The frosty winters of Ireland: poems of climate crisis 1739–41’. Journal of Ecocriticism 5: 111.
Colmenares, D. de 1969 [1637]. Historia de la insigne ciudad de Segovia y compendio de las historias de Castilla, 2 vols. Segovia: Academia de Historia y Arte de San Quirce.
Coniglio, G. 1940. ‘Annona e calmieri durante la dominazione spagnola’. Archivio storico della Provincia di Napoli 26: 105–53.
Connell, K. H. 1950. The Population of Ireland 1750–1845. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Connell, K. H. 1957. ‘Peasant marriage in Ireland after the Great Famine’. Past and Present 12: 7691.
Conquest, R. 1986. The Harvest of Sorrow: Soviet Collectivization and the Terror Famine. London: Hutchinson.
Corradi, A. 1973 [1865–94]. Annali delle epidemie occorse in Italia dalle prime memorie fino al 1850, 2 vols. Bologna: Forni.
Corritore, R. 2007. ‘La costituzione di scorte granarie pubbliche e la politica economica degli Stati in Età pre-industriale’, in Lopane, I., and Ritrovato, E. (eds.). Tra vecchi e nuovi equilibri: domanda e offerta di servizi in Italia in età moderna e contemporanea. Bari: Cacucci, pp. 490–4.
Cox, M. E. 2015. ‘Hunger games: or how the Allied blockade in World War I deprived German children of nutrition, and Allied food aid subsequently saved them’. Economic History Review 68: 600–31.
Crawford, E. M. (ed.) 1989a. Famine: The Irish Experience. Edinburgh: John Donald.
Crawford, E. M. 1989b. ‘William Wilde’s table of Irish famines 900–1850’, in Crawford (ed.), pp. 1–30.
Crawford, E. M. 1989c. ‘Subsistence crises and famines in Ireland: a nutritionist’s view’, in Crawford (ed.), pp. 199219.
Creighton, C. 1894. A History of Epidemics in Britain, vol. II, From the Extinction of Plague to the Present Time. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cronin, J., and Lenihan, P. Forthcoming. ‘The war for Ireland, 1641–1691’, in Ohlmeyer, J. (ed.). The Cambridge History of Ireland, vol. II, Early Modern Ireland, 1550–1730. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Crotty, R. 1966. Irish Agricultural Production: Its Volume and Structure. Cork: Cork University Press.
Crowley, J., Murphy, M., and Smith, W. J. (eds.) 2012. The Atlas of the Great Irish Famine. Cork: Cork University Press.
Crowley, T. J., and Lowery, T. S. 2000. ‘How warm was the Medieval Warm Period?’. Ambio 29: 51–4.
Cullen, K. 2010. Famine in Scotland: The ‘Ill Years’ of the 1690s. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Cullen, L. M. 1968. ‘Irish history without the potato’. Past and Present 11: 7283.
Cullen, L. M. 2010. ‘The food crises of the early 1740s: the economic conjuncture’. Irish Economic and Social History 37: 123.
Cullen, L. M. 2012. Economy, Trade, and Irish Merchants at Home and Abroad, 1600–1988. Dublin: Four Courts Press.
Curran, D., Kuciuk, L., and Newby, A. G. 2015. Famines in European Economic History: The Last Great European Famines Reconsidered. London: Routledge.
Curschmann, F. (ed.) 1900. Hungersnöte im Mittelalter: Ein Beitrag zur deutschen Wirtschaftsgeschichte des 8. bis 13. Jahrhunderts. Leipzig: B. G. Teubner.
Curtis, D. 2014. ‘The impact of land accumulation and consolidation on population trends in the pre-industrial period: two contrasting cases in the Low Countries’. Historical Research 87: 194228.
Curtis, D., and Campopiano, M. 2014. ‘Medieval land reclamation and the creation of new societies: comparing Holland and the Po Valley, 800–1500’. Journal of Historical Geography 44: 93103.
D’Haenens, A. 1959. ‘Les mutations monétaire du XIVe siècle et leur incidence sur les finances des abbayes bénédictines: le budget de Saint-Martin de Tournai de 1321 à 1348’. Revue belge de philologie et d’histoire 37: 317–42.
Dalle, D. 1963. De bevolking van Veurne-Ambacht in de 17de en 18de eeuw. Brussels: Paleis der Academiën.
Danilov, V., Manning, R., and Viola, L. (eds.). 1999. The Tragedy of the Soviet Village: Collectivization and Dekulakization: Documents and Materials, vol. I, May, 1927 – November, 1929. Moscow: Rosspen.
Danilov, V., Manning, R., and Viola, L. (eds.). 2001. The Tragedy of the Soviet Village: Collectivization and Dekulakization: Documents and Materials, vol. III, 1931–1933. Moscow: Rosspen.
Datta, R. 1990. ‘Rural Bengal: social structure and agrarian economy in the late eighteenth century’, unpublished PhD thesis. University of London.
Davies, N. 1994. Boże igrzysko: Historia Polski, vol. I. Krakow: Wydawnictwo Znak.
Davies, R. W., and Wheatcroft, S. G. 1974. ‘Further thoughts on the first Soviet Five-Year Plan’. Slavic Review 4: 790802.
Davies, R. W., and Wheatcroft, S. G. 2004. The Years of Hunger: Soviet Agriculture, 1931–33. London: Palgrave.
Davies, R. W., Harrison, M., and Wheatcroft, S. G. 1994. The Economic Transformation of the Soviet Union, 1913–1945. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
De Boer, D. 1978. Graaf en grafiek: Sociale en economische ontwikkelingen in het middeleeuwse ‘Noordholland’ tussen 1345 en 1415. Leiden: New Rhine Publishers.
De La Roncière, C.-M. 2011. ‘Les famines à Florence de 1280 à 1350’, in Bourin, M., Menant, F., and Drendel, J. (eds.). Les disettes dans la conjoncture de 1300 en Méditerranée occidentale. Rome: École Française de Rome, pp. 225–46.
De Maddalena, A. 1949. Prezzi e aspetti di mercato in Milano durante il secolo XVII. Milan: Malfasi.
De Ram, P. (ed.) 1861. Joannis Molani in Academia Lovaniensi s. theologiae et professoris Historiae Lovanensium, libri XIV, 2 vols. Brussels: Commission Royale d’Histoire.
De Silva, S. L., and Zielinski, G. A. 1998. ‘Global influence of the AD 1600 eruption of Huaynaputina, Peru’. Nature 393: 455–8.
De Visscher, M. 1978. ‘Het hongerjaar 1698’. Annales de la Société belge d’Histoire des Hôpitaux 23: 322.
De Vries, J., and Van der Woude, A. 1997. The First Modern Economy: Success, Failure, and Perseverance of the Dutch Economy, 1500–1815. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Degn, O. 1981. Rig og fattig i Ribe. Aarhus, Denmark: Universitetsforlaget.
Dehaeck, S. 2004. ‘Voedselconsumptie in het Brugse Sint-Jans Hospitaal tijdens de Middeleeuwen (1280–1440)’. Handelingen van het Genootschap voor Geschiedenis 141: 332–64.
Del Panta, L. 1980. Le epidemie nella storia demografica italiana. Turin: Loescher.
Del Panta, L., and Livi Bacci, M. 1977. ‘Chronologie, intensité et diffusion des crises de mortalité en Italie: 1600–1850’. Population 32: 401–46.
Delamayne, T. H. 1767. To Francis Bindon, Esq., on a Picture of His Grace Dr. Hugh Boulter. London: Williams.
Delaney, E. 2012. The Curse of Reason: The Great Irish Famine. Dublin: Gill & Macmillan.
Delumeau, J. 1957–59. Vie économique et sociale de Rome dans la seconde moitié du XVIe siècle, 2 vols. Paris: Boccard.
Demerson, P. de 1969. ‘La distribución de sopas económicas por la Real Sociedad Matritense en 1803–1804’. Boletín de la Real Academia de la Historia 164: 119–37.
Desai, M. 1993. ‘The agrarian crisis in medieval England: a Malthusian tragedy or a failure of entitlements?’. Bulletin of Economic Research 43: 223–58.
Devine, T. M. 1988. The Great Highland Famine: Hunger, Emigration and the Scottish Highlands in the Nineteenth Century. Edinburgh: John Donald.
Devine, T. M. 1995. ‘Why the Highlands did not starve: Ireland and Highland Scotland in the Potato Famine’, in Morris, R. J., Houston, R., and Connolly, S. (eds.). Conflict, Identity and Economic Development: Ireland and Scotland, 1600–1939. Preston, UK: Carnegie Publications, pp. 7788.
Devroey, J.-P., and Jaubert, A. N. 2011. ‘Family, income and labour around the North Sea, 500–1000’, in Vanhaute, E., Devos, I., and, Lambrecht, T. (eds.). Making a Living: Family, Income and Labour: Rural Economy and Society in North-Western Europe, 500–2000. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, pp. 544.
Deyon, P. 1967, Amiens, capitale provinciale: Étude sur la société urbaine au 17e siècle. Paris: Mouton.
Díaz Marín, P. 2003. ‘Crisis de subsistencia y protesta popular: los motines de 1847’. Historia Agraria 30: 3162.
Díaz Marín, P. 2006. ‘Subsistence crisis and popular protest in Spain: the motines of 1847’, in Ó Gráda, , Paping, and Vanhaute, (eds.), pp. 267–92.
Dickson, D. 1989. ‘The gap in famines: a useful myth?’, in Crawford (ed.), pp. 96111.
Dickson, D. 1997. Arctic Ireland: The Extraordinary Story of the Great Frost and Forgotten Famine of 1740–41. Belfast: White Row Press.
Dickson, D. 2005. Old World Colony: Cork and South Munster 1630–1830. Cork: Cork University Press.
Dickson, D. 2014. ‘Famine and economic change in eighteenth-century Ireland’, in Jackson, A. (ed.). The Oxford Handbook of Modern Irish History. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 422–38.
Dickson, D., Ó Gráda, C., and Daultrey, S. 1982. ‘Hearth-tax, household size and population change, 1672–1821’. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 82C: 125–81.
Diederiks, H. 1982. Een stad in verval: Amsterdam omstreeks 1800: demografisch, economisch, ruimtelijk. Amsterdam: Historisch Seminarium Universiteit van Amsterdam.
Dijkman, J. 2011. Shaping Medieval Markets: The Organisation of Commodity Markets in Holland, c. 1200 – c. 1450. Leiden: Brill.
Dodds, B., and Liddy, C. D. (eds.) 2011. Commercial Activity, Markets and Entrepreneurs in the Middle Ages: Essays in Honour of Richard Britnell. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell & Brewer.
Dols, M. J. L., and van Arcken, J. A. M. 1946. ‘Food supply and nutrition in the Netherlands during and immediately after World War II’. Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly 24: 319–58.
Dombrecht, K. 2014. ‘Plattelandsgemeenschappen, lokale elites en ongelijkheid in het Vlaamse kustgebied (14de – 16de eeuw): case-study: Dudzele ambacht’, unpublished PhD thesis. Ghent University.
Domínguez Ortiz, A. 1969. ‘La crisis de Castilla en 1677–1687’, in Crisis y decadencia de la España de los Austrias. Barcelona: Ariel, pp. 195217.
Domínguez Ortiz, A. 1976. Sociedad y Estado en el siglo XVIII español. Barcelona: Ariel.
Donnelly, J. S. 1975. The Land and the People of Nineteenth-Century Cork. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Donnelly, J. S. 1976. ‘The Irish agricultural depression of 1859–64’. Irish Economic and Social History 3: 3354.
Donnelly, J. S. 2002. The Great Irish Potato Famine. London: Sutton.
Dontenwill, S. 1973. ‘Mutations foncières lors des crises de 1652 et 1709 dans l’élection de Roanne: un exemple d’utilisation des sources notariales dans l’analyse d’une crise sociale’, in Actes du 98e Congrès National des Sociétés Savantes, vol. II. Saint-Étienne: Histoire Moderne, pp. 2942.
Drake, M. 1968. ‘The Irish demographic crisis of 1740–41’, in Moody, T. W. (ed.). Historical Studies. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, pp. 101–24.
Dribe, M., Olsson, M., and Svensson, P. 2012. ‘Was the manorial system an efficient insurance institution? Economic stress and demographic response in Sweden, 1749–1859’. European Review of Economic History 16: 292310.
Dribe, M., Olsson, M., and Svensson, P. 2016. ‘Famines in the Nordic Countries, AD 536–1875’. Lund Papers in Economic History 138. Lund: Department of Economic History, Lund University.
Dribe, M., Olsson, M., and Svensson, P. 2017. ‘The agricultural revolution and the conditions of the rural poor, Southern Sweden 1750–1860’. The Economic History Review 70: 483–508.
Dronin, N. M., and Bellinger, E. G. 2005. Climate Dependence and Food Problems in Russia, 1900–1990. Budapest: CEU Press.
Dunning, C. S. L. 2001. Russia’s First Civil War: The Time of Troubles and the Founding of the Romanov Dynasty. Philadelphia: Pennsylvania University Press.
Dupâquier, J. (ed.). 1988. Histoire de La Population Française. Paris: PUF.
Dupâquier, J. 1989. ‘Demographic crises and subsistence crises in France, 1650–1725’, in Walter, J., and Schofield, R. S. (eds.). Famine, Disease and the Social Order in Early Modern Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 189–99.
Dybdahl, A. 2010. ‘Klima og demografiske kriser i Norge i middelalder og tidlig nytid’. Historisk Tidsskrift 89: 183222.
Dybdahl, A. 2014. ‘Klimatiske sjokk, uår, sykdom og demografiske kriser i Trøndelag på 1600- og 1700-tallet’. Historisk Tidsskrift 93: 243–75.
Dyer, C. 1989. Standards of Living in the Later Middle Ages: Social Change in England, c. 1200–1520. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dyrvik, S., Mykland, K., and Oldervoll, J. 1976. The Demographic Crises in Norway in the 17th and 18th centuries: Some Data and Interpretations. Bergen: Universitetsforlaget.
Edvinsson, R., and Söderberg, J. 2010. ‘The evolution of Swedish consumer prices 1290–2008’, in Exchange Rates, Prices, and Wages, 1277–2008. Stockholm: Sveriges Riksbank, Ekerlids Förlag, pp. 412–52.
Edvinsson, R., Leijonhufvud, L., and Söderberg, J. 2009. ‘Väder, skördar och priser i Sverige’, in Liljewall, B. (ed.). Agrarhistoria på många sätt: 28 studier om människan och jorden. Stockholm: Kungl. Skogs- och Lantbruksakademien, pp. 115–36.
Edwards, R. D., and Williams, T. D. (eds.) 1956. The Great Famine: Essays in Irish History. Dublin: Browne and Nolan.
Egido López, T. 1980. ‘El motín madrileño de 1699’. Investigaciones Históricas: Época Moderna y Contemporánea 2: 253–94.
Eiríksson, A. 1997. ‘Food supply and food riots’, in Ó Gráda, C. (ed.). Famine 150: Commemorative Lecture Series. Dublin: Teagasc, pp. 6793.
Ellison, G. T., and Kelly, M. 2005. ‘Growth of Jersey schoolchildren during the 1940–1945 German occupation: comparison with schoolchildren on mainland Britain’. Human Biology 77: 761–72.
Ellman, M. 2000. ‘The 1947 Soviet famine and the entitlement approach to famines’. Cambridge Journal of Economics 24: 603–30.
Emmison, F. G. 1976. Elizabethan Life: Home, Work and Land. Chelmsford, UK: Essex Country Council.
Engler, S., Mauelshagen, F., Werner, J., and Luterbacher, J. 2013. ‘The Irish famine of 1740–1741: famine vulnerability and “climate migration”’. Climate of the Past 9: 1161–79.
Epstein, S. R. 2001. ‘The late medieval crisis as an “integration crisis’’’, in Prak, M. (ed.). Early Modern Capitalism: Economic and Social Change in Europe, 1400–1800. London: Routledge, pp. 2550.
Ermolov, A. S. 1909. Nashineurozhai i prodovol’stvennyivopros, 2 vols. St Petersburg.
Espadas Burgos, M. 1968. ‘El hambre de 1812 en Madrid’. Hispania 110: 594623.
Espadas Burgos, M. 1972. ‘Hambre, mendicidad y epidemia en Madrid (1812–1823)’. Anales del Instituto de Estudios Madrileños 8: 371–93.
Faber, J. A. 1976. Dure tijden en hongersnoden in pre-industrieel Nederland. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
Fagan, B. 2000. The Little Ice Age: How Climate Made History, 1300–1850. New York: Basic Books.
Fagan, P. 1991. ‘The population of Dublin in the eighteenth century with particular reference to the proportions of Protestants and Catholics’. Eighteenth-Century Ireland 6: 121–56.
Falchi, L., Pastura, R., and Sinisi, D. 1995. ‘L’Annona di Roma nel secolo XVI’, in Gli archivi per la storia dell’alimentazione. Rome: Ministero per i Beni Culturali e Ambientali, pp. 568–89.
Fazio, I. 1993. La politica del grano: Annona e controllo del territorio in Sicilia nel settecento. Milan: Franco Angeli.
Federico, G. 2005. Feeding the World: An Economic History of World Agriculture 1800–2000. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Fernández Hidalgo, M. C., and García Ruipérez, M. 1989. ‘La crisis agraria de 1802–1806 en la provincia de Toledo a través de los precios del trigo’. Revista de Historia Económica 7: 323–53.
Fernihough, A. 2014. ‘Famine mortality in Britain’, unpublished manuscript.
Ferreira Rodrigues, T. (ed.) 2008. História da população Portuguesa: Das longas permanências à conquista da modernidade. Porto: Ed. Afrontamento.
Ferreira Rodrigues, T. 2009. ‘Deteção e análise dos períodos de sobremortalidade em Portugal (séculos XVI a XIX) balanço de duas décadas de investigação’, in Godinho, P., Pereira Bastos, S., and Fonseca, I. (eds.). Homenagem a Jorge Crespo. Lisbon: 100 Luz, pp. 627–64.
Filtzer, D. 2002. Soviet Workers and Late Stalinism: Labour and the Restoration of the Stalinist System after World War II. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Filtzer, D. 2010. The Hazards of Urban Life in Late Stalinist Russia: Health, Hygiene, and Living Standards, 1943–1953. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Finzi, R. 1986. ‘Il sole, la pioggia, il pane e il lavoro: note su clima, raccolto, calendario agrario nel Bolognese durante il secolo XVIII’, in Le meteore e il frumento: Clima, agricoltura e meteorologia a Bologna nel ’700. Bologna: Il Mulino, pp. 347–87.
Finzi, R. 2009. Sazia assai ma dà poco fiato’: Il mais nell’economia e nella vita rurale italiane, secoli XVI–XX. Bologna: CLUEB.
Fisher, H. H. 1927. The Famine in Soviet Russia, 1919–1923: The Operations of the American Relief Administration. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Flinn, M. (ed.) 1977. Scottish Population History from the Seventeenth Century to the 1930s. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Floutard, G. 1972. ‘La crise de 1709–1713 à Albi’. Annales du Midi 84: 117–50.
Fogel, R. W. 1992. ‘Second thoughts on the European escape from hunger: famines, price elasticities, entitlements, chronic malnutrition, and mortality rates’, in Osmani, S. R. (ed.). Nutrition and Poverty. Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 243–86.
Fogel, R. W. 2004. The Escape from Hunger and Premature Death, 1700–2100. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Fossier, R. 1968. La terre et les hommes en Picardie jusqu’à la fin du XIIIe siècle, 2 vols. Paris: Béatrice-Nauwelaerts.
Fossier, R., and Fossier, L. 1955. ‘Aspects de la crise frumentaire en Artois et en Flandres gallicante’, in Recueil des travaux offerts a M. Clovis Brunel par ses amis, collègues et élèves. Paris: Société de l’École des Chartes, pp. 436–47.
Fourquin, G. 1964. Les campagnes de la région parisienne à la fin du Moyen Âge. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
Fox, L. (ed.) 1990. Minutes and Accounts of the Corporation of Stratford-upon-Avon and Other Records, vol. V, 1593–98. Warwick, UK: Dugdale Society.
Fraser, R. 2006. La maldita guerra de España: Historia social de la Guerra de la Independencia, 1808–1814. Barcelona: Crítica.
Frêche, G. 1974. Toulouse et la région Midi-Pyrénées au siècle des lumières, vers 1670–1789. Paris: Éd. Cujas.
Friis, A. 1953. ‘The two crises in the Netherlands in 1557’. Scandinavian Economic History Review 1: 193241.
Furió Diego, A. 2010. ‘La crisis de la Baja Edad Media: una revisión’, in Las crisis a lo largo de la historia. Valladolid, Spain: University of Valladolid, pp. 1345.
Furió Diego, A. 2011. ‘Disettes et famines en temps de croissance: une révision de la crise autour 1300: le royaume de Valence dans la première moitié du XIVe siècle’, in Bourin, M., Menant, F., and Drendel, J. (eds.). Les disettes dans la conjoncture de 1300 en Méditerranée occidentale. Rome: École Française de Rome, pp. 343416.
Gadd, C.-J., Johansen, H. C., and Lindkvist, T. 2011. ‘Scandinavia 1000–1750’, in Vanhaute, E., Devos, I., and Lambrecht, T. (eds.). Making a Living: Family, Income and Labour: Rural Economy and Society in North-Western Europe, 500–2000. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, pp. 265291.
Gailus, M. 2001. ‘Die Erfindung des “Korn-Juden”: zur Erfindung eines antijüdischen Feindbildes des 18. und frühen 19. Jahrhunderts’. Historische Zeitschrift 272: 597622.
García-Sanz, A. 1977. Desarrollo y crisis del Antiguo Régimen en Castilla la Vieja: Economía y sociedad en tierras de Segovia, 1500–1814. Madrid: Akal.
García-Sanz Marcotegui, A. García-Sanz Marcoteguy. 1985. Demografía y sociedad de la Barranca de Navarra (1760–1860). Pamplona: Institución Príncipe de Viana.
García-Sanz Marcotegui, A., and Zabalza Cruchaga, M. A. 1983. ‘Consecuencias demográficas de la Guerra de la Convención en Navarra: la crisis de mortalidad en 1794–1795’. Príncipe de Viana 44: 6387.
Gascon, R., and Latta, C. 1963. ‘Une crise urbaine au XVIIe siècle: la crise de 1693–1694 à Lyon. Quelques aspects démographiques et sociaux’. Cahiers d’Histoire 1: 371404.
Gatrell, P. 1999. A Whole Empire Walking: Refugees in Russia during World War I. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
Gauvard, C. 2005. Violence et ordre public au Moyen Âge. Paris: Picard.
Gay, G. I., and Fisher, H. H. (eds.) 1929. Public Relations of the Commission for Relief in Belgium: Documents. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, (accessed 14 August 2015).
Geary, L. 2014. ‘“Waiting and watching for food the live long day”: famine and fever in Ireland, 1879–1880’, unpublished manuscript.
Gehrmann, R. 2000. Bevölkerungsgeschichte Norddeutschlands zwischen Aufklärung und Vormärz. Berlin: A. Spitz.
Georgelin, J. 1982. ‘L’écologie du froment en Europe occidentale’, in Goy, J., and Le Roy Ladurie, E. (eds.). Prestations paysannes, dîmes, rente foncière et mouvement de la production agricole à l’époque préindustrielle, vol. II. Paris: Mouton, pp. 569–82.
Gerhard, H. J., and Engel, A. 2006. Preisgeschichte der vorindustriellen Zeit: Ein Kompendium auf Basis ausgewählter Hamburger Materialien. Stuttgart: Steiner.
Gerritsma, B. 1981. ‘Pauperisme, kriminaliteit en konjunktuur: Amsterdam 1771/1772’. Tijdschrift voor Sociale Geschiedenis 7: 374–91.
Gerschenkron, A. 1965. ‘Agrarian policies and Russian industrialization’, in Habakkuk, H. J., and Poston, M. M. (eds.). The Cambridge Economic History of Europe, vol. VI, The Industrial Revolutions and After: Incomes, Population and Technological Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 706800.
Gestrich, A. 2003. ‘Religion in der Hungerkrise von 1816/1817’, in Jakubowski-Tiessen, M., and Lehmann, H. (eds.). Um Himmels Willen: Religion in Katastrophenzeiten. Göttingen: Ruprecht & Vandenhoeck, pp. 275–93.
Ghazai, R. 2015. ‘Lebanon’s dark days of hunger: the Great Famine of 1915–18’, The National 14 April,
Gibson, A. J. S., and Smout, T. C. 1995. Prices, Food and Wages in Scotland, 1550–1780. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gillespie, R. 1984. ‘Harvest crisis in early seventeenth-century Ireland’. Irish Economic and Social History 11: 518.
Glaser, R. 2008. Klimageschichte Mitteleuropas: 1000 Jahre Wetter, Klima, Katastrophen. Darmstadt: Primus.
Goldman, D., and Filtzer, W. Z. 2015. Hunger and War: Food Provisioning in the Soviet Union during World War II. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
Gómez Mampaso, M. V. 1975. ‘La peste en el reinado de los Reyes Católicos: contribución al estudio de la demografía española de 1474 a 1516’, unpublished PhD thesis. Complutense University, Madrid.
Gómez Moreno, M., and de Mata Carriazo, J. (eds.) 1962. Memorias del reinado de los Reyes Católicos que escribía el bachiller Andrés Bernáldez, cura de los Palacios. Madrid: Real Academia de la Historia.
Goodspeed, T. B. 2013. ‘Famine, finance, and adjustment to environmental shock: microcredit and the Great Famine in Ireland’, unpublished manuscript.
Goody, J. 2006. The Theft of History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Goubert, P. 1960. Beauvais et le Beauvaisis de 1600 à 1730: Contribution à l’histoire sociale de la France du XVIIe siècle, 2 vols. Paris: EPHE.
Goubert, P. 1967. L’Avènement du Roi-Soleil: 1661. Paris: Julliard.
Goudriaan, K., and Ibelings, B. J. 2002. ‘Een menigte poorters en inwoners’, in Abels, P. H. A. M., Goudriaan, K., Habermehl, N. D. B., and Kompagnie, J. K. (eds.). Duizend jaar Gouda: Een stadsgeschiedenis. Hilversum, Netherlands: Verloren, pp. 3749.
Goy, J. 1968. ‘Dîmes, rendements, états de récoltes et revenu réel’. Studi storici 3/4: 794811.
Goy, J. 1982. ‘Les rendements du blé au pays d’Arles XVIIe–XVIIIe siècles’, in Goy, J., and Le Roy Ladurie, E. (eds.). Prestations paysannes, dîmes, rente foncière et mouvement de la production agricole à l’époque préindustrielle, vol. II. Paris: Mouton, pp. 245–54.
Grabbe, H.-J. 2001. Vor der grossen Flut: Die europäische Migration in die Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika 1783–1820. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag.
Graber, R. 2010. ‘Wohlstandswahrung für wenige oder Nahrungssicherung für alle? Armut, Tugenddiskurs und Krisenbekämpfungskonzepte im Kontext der Hungerkrise 1770/71 auf der Zürcher Landschaft’, in Holenstein, A., Rohr, C., and Schmidt, H. R. (eds.). Reichtum und Armut in den schweizerischen Republiken des 18. Jahrhunderts. Geneva: Slatkine, pp. 195213.
Gräslund, B. 2007. ‘Fimbulvintern, Ragnarök och klimatkrisen år 536–537 e. Kr’, in Saga och sed. Kungl. Gustav Adolfs akademiens årsbok: Annales Academiae Regiae Gustavi Adolphi. Uppsala: Kungl. Gustav Adolfs Akademien, pp. 93123.
Gräslund, B., and Price, N. 2012. ‘Twilight of the gods? The “dust veil event” of AD 536 in critical perspective’. Antiquity 86: 428–43.
Gray, P. 1995. The Irish Famine. London: Thames & Hudson.
Gray, P. 2007. ‘The European food crisis and the relief of Irish famine, 1845–1850’, in Ó Gráda, Paping and Vanhaute (eds.), pp. 95107.
Gregory, P. R. 1982. Russian National Income, 1885–1913. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Grenier, J.-Y. 1985. Séries économiques françaises (XVIe–XVIIIe siècles). Paris: Éd. de l’EHESS.
Grenier, J.-Y. 1996. ‘Vaches maigres, vaches grasses: une reconstitution des données climatiques en France du Nord (1758–1789)’. Histoire et Sociétés Rurales 6: 7793.
Grey, T. (ed.) 1993. Harvest Failure in Cornwall and Devon: The Book of Orders and the Corn Surveys of 1623 and 1630–1. Redruth, UK: Institute of Cornish Studies.
Groman, V. G. 1927. Vliyanie neurozhaev na narodnoe khozyaistvo Rossii. Moscow.
Grupo Complutense de Historia Económica Moderna 2013. ‘La mortalidad catastrófica y su papel en el declive de la mortalidad general en las dos Castillas, 1700–1864’, unpublished communication.
Grytten, O. 2004. ‘A consumer price index for Norway 1516–2003’, in Eitrheim, Ø., Klovland, J. T., and Qvigstad, J. F. (eds.). Historical Monetary Statistics for Norway. Oslo: Norges Bank, pp. 4798.
Guenzi, A. 1978. ‘Un mercato regolato: pane e fornai a Bologna nell’età moderna’. Quaderni Storici 37: 370–97.
Guenzi, A. 1979. ‘Processo popolare in piazza Maggiore: la carestia del 1648 a Bologna’. L’Archiginnasio 74: 161–79.
Guenzi, A. 1995. ‘Le magistrature e le istituzioni alimentari’, in Gli archivi per la storia dell’alimentazione. Rome: Ministero per i Beni Culturali e Ambientali, pp. 285301.
Guinnane, T. W. 1997. The Vanishing Irish: Households, Migration, and the Rural Economy in Ireland, 1850–1914. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Gullberg, E. 1968. Norrköpings historia, vol. VIII, Norrköpings kommunalstyrelse 1719–1862. Stockholm: P. A. Norstedts & Söner.
Gunnarsson, G. 1980. ‘A study of causal relations in climate and history: with an emphasis on the Icelandic experience’, Paper no. 1980/17. Lund: Department of Economic History, Lund University.
Gusev, A. A., Ponomareva, V. V., Braitseva, O. A., Melekestsev, I. V., and Sulerzhitsky, L. D. 2003. ‘Great explosive eruptions on Kamchatka during the last 10,000 years: self-similar irregularity of the output of volcanic products’. Journal of Geophysical Research 108: 118.
Gutiérrez Alonso, A. 1989. Estudio sobre la decadencia de Castilla: La ciudad de Valladolid en el siglo XVII. Valladolid, Spain: University of Valladolid.
Gutmann, M. P. 1980. War and Rural Life in the Early Modern Low Countries. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Häger, O., Norman, J.-H., and Villius, H. 1980. 1000 år: En svensk historia. Uppsala: Brombergs.
Häger, O., Torell, C., and Villius, H. 1978. Ett satans år: Norrland 1867. Stockholm: Sveriges Radio Libris.
Häkkinen, A., and Forsberg, H., 2015. ‘Finland’s famine years in the 1860s: a nineteenth-century perspective’, in Curran, D., Luciuk, L., and Newby, A. (eds.). Famines in European Economic History: The Last Great European Famines Reconsidered. Abingdon, UK: Routledge, pp. 99123.
Hall, E. 1809 [1548]. Hall’s Chronicle. London: J. Johnson etc.
Halperin, C. 1987. Russia and the Golden Horde: The Mongol Impact on Medieval Russian History. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
Hamilton, E. J. 1934. American Treasure and the Price Revolution in Spain, 1501–1650. New York: Octagon Books.
Hamilton, E. J. 1969. War and Prices in Spain 1651–1800. New York: Russell & Russell.
Hamrock, I. (ed.) 1998. The Famine in Mayo 1845–1850: A Portrait from Contemporary Sources. Castlebar, Ireland: Mayo County Council.
Harrison, M. (ed.) 1994. The Economics of World War II: Six Great Powers in International Comparison. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hart, N. 1993. ‘Famine, maternal nutrition and infant mortality: a re-examination of the Dutch Hunger Winter’. Population Studies 47: 2746.
‘t Hart, P. D. 1983. De stad Utrecht en haar inwoners: Een onderzoek naar samenhangen tussen sociaal-economische ontwikkelingen en de demografische geschiedenis van de stad Utrecht 1771–1825, PhD dissertation. Utrecht University.
Havari, E., and Peracchi, F. 2014. ‘Growing up in wartime: evidence from the era of two world wars’, Working Paper no. 05/14. Rome: Einaudi Institute for Economics and Finance.
Healey, J. 2014. The First Century of Welfare: Poverty and Poor Relief in Lancashire, 1620–1730. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell & Brewer.
Hecht, M. 2003. ‘Teuerungsproteste 1846/47 in Frankreich und Preussen: vergleichende Untersuchung ihrer Bedingungsfaktoren’. Francia: Forschungen zur Westeuropäischen Geschichte 30: 115–42.
Hecht, M. 2012. ‘Handeln in Hungerkrisen 1846/47: Nahrungsproteste und “Krisenmanagement” in Preussen’, in Collet, D., Lassen, T., and Schanbacher, A. (eds.). Handeln in Hungerkrisen: Neue Perspektiven auf soziale und klimatische Vulnerabilität. Göttingen: Universitätsverlag, pp. 131–50.
Hecker, J. F. C. 1839. Geschichte der neueren Heilkunde. Berlin: Enslin.
Heckscher, E. F. 1933. ‘En mätare på svenska folkets välståndsutveckling: den mantalsskrivna befolkningen 1634–1820’. Historisk Tidskrift: 365402.
Heckscher, E. F. 1936. Sveriges ekonomiska historia från Gustav Vasa. Stockholm: Albers Bonniers Förlag.
Heerma van Voss, L., and Van Leeuwen, M. H. D. 2012. ‘Charity in the Dutch Republic: an introduction’. Continuity and Change 27: 175–97.
Heijmans, B. T., Tobi, E. W., Stein, A. D., Putter, H., Blauw, G. J., Susser, E. S., Slagboom, P. E., and Lumey, L. H. 2008. ‘Persistent epigenetic differences associated with prenatal exposure to famine in humans’. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105: 17046–9.
Herlihy, D. 1967. Medieval and Renaissance Pistoia. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Hindle, S. 2001. ‘Dearth, fasting and alms: the campaign for general hospitality in late Elizabethan England’. Past and Present 172: 4486.
Hindle, S. 2008. ‘Dearth and the English revolution: the harvest crisis of 1647–50’. Economic History Review 61 (suppl.): 6498.
Hionidou, V. 2006. Famine and Death in Occupied Greece 1941–1944. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hipkin, S. 2008. ‘The structure, development and politics of the Kent grain trade, 1552–1647’. Economic History Review 61 (suppl.): 99139.
Hippel, W. von 1984. Auswanderung aus Süddeutschland: Studien zur württembergischen Auswanderung und Auswanderungspolitik im 18. und 19. Jahrhundert. Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta.
Hochedlinger, M., and Tanter, A. (eds.) 2005. ‘“…der größte Teil der Untertanen lebt elend und mühselig”: die Berichte des Hofkriegsrates zur sozialen und wirtschaftlichen Lage der Habsburgermonarchie 1770–1771’, Mitteilungen des österreichischen Staatsarchivs Special Volume no. 8. Vienna: Studien Verlag.
Holopainen, J., and Helama, S. 2009. ‘Little Ice Age farming in Finland: preindustrial agriculture on the edge of the grim reaper’s scythe’. Human Ecology 37: 213–25.
Holt, J. S. 2013. ‘A new view of the Fells: Sarah Fell of Swarthmoor and her cashbook’, in Hoyle, R. W. (ed.). The Farmer in England: 1650–1980. Farnham, UK: Ashgate, pp. 4368.
Hoover, H. 1951. The Memoirs of Herbert Hoover, vol. I, Years of Adventure, 1874–1920. New York: Macmillan.
Horrox, R., and Hammond, P. W. 1980. British Library Harleian Manuscript 433, vol. II. Upminster, UK: Richard III Society.
Howard, N. P. 1993. ‘The social and political consequences of the Allied food blockade of Germany, 1918–19’. German History 11: 161–88.
Howell, D. W. 2000. The Rural Poor in Eighteenth-Century Wales. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.
Hoyle, R. W. 2010. ‘Famine as agricultural catastrophe: the crisis of 1622–3 in east Lancashire’. Economic History Review 63: 9741002.
Hoyle, R. W. 2013. ‘Why was there no crisis in England in the 1690s?’, in The Farmer in England: 1650–1980. Farnham, UK: Ashgate, pp. 69100.
Hoyle, R. W. 2016. ‘Shrewsbury: the famines of 1586–87 and 1595–97 in England and extreme weather’, unpublished paper.
Hruschka, R. 1940. ‘Die Hungersnot 1771–72 im Fladinger Raum’. Zeitschrift des deutschen Vereins für die Geschichte Mährens und Schlesiens 42: 74–7.
Hughes, P. L., and Larkin, J. F. (eds.) 1969. Tudor Royal Proclamations, vol. II, The Later Tudors, 1553–1587. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Huhn, M. 1987. ‘Zwischen Teuerungspolitik und Freiheit des Getreidehandels: staatliche und städtische Maßnahmen 1770–1847’, in Teuteberg, H. J. (ed.). Durchbruch zum modernen Massenkonsum: Lebensmittelmärkte und Lebensmittelqualität im Städtewachstum des Industriezeitalters. Münster, Germany: Franz Steiner, pp. 3789.
Hull, C. H. (ed.) 1899. The Economic Writings of Sir William Petty…, vol. I. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hybel, N., and Poulsen, B. 2007. The Danish Resources c. 1000–1550: Growth and Recession. Amsterdam: Brill.
Ibarra Rodríguez, E. 1944. El problema cerealista en España durante el reinado de los Reyes Católicos (1475–1516). Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas.
Jacks, D. S. 2004. ‘Market integration in the North and Baltic Seas, 1500–1800’. Journal of European Economic History 33: 285329.
Jacquart, J. 1974. La crise rurale en Ile-de-France 1550–1670. Paris: Armand Colin.
Jäger, G. 2010. Schwarzer Himmel – kalte Erde – weißer Tod: Wanderheuschrecken, Hagelschläge, Kältewellen und Lawinenkatastrophen im ‘Land der Gebirge’: Eine kleine Agrar- und Klimageschichte von Tirol. Innsbruck: Universitätsverlag Wagner.
Jahn, P. M. 2010. Vom Roboter zum Schulpropheten: Hanso Nepila (1766–1856). Bautzen, Germany: Domowina.
Jansen, H., and Janse, A. (eds.) 1991. Kroniek van het klooster Bloemhof te Wittewierum. Hilversum, Netherlands: Verloren.
Jansen, P. C., and De Meere, J. M. M. 1982. ‘Het sterftepatroon in Amsterdam 1774–1930: een analyse van de doodsoorzaken’. Tijdschrift voor Sociale Geschiedenis 8: 180223.
Jenkins, D. 1990. ‘The demography of late Stuart Montgomeryshire, c. 1660–1720’. Montgomery Collections 78: 73113.
Johansen, H. C. 2002. Danish Population History: 1600–1939. Odense: University Press of Southern Denmark.
Johanson, V. F. 1924. Finlands agrarpolitiska historia: En skildring av det finländska lantbrukets ekonomiska betingelser, vol. I, Från 1600-talet till år 1870. Helsinki: Lantbruksvetenskapliga Samfundet.
Jones, R. E. 2013. Bread upon the Waters: The St Petersburg Grain Trade and the Russian Economy, 1703–1811. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
Jörberg, L. 1972. A History of Prices in Sweden 1732–1914, vol. 1, Sources, Methods, Tables. Lund, Sweden: Gleerup.
Jordan, W. C. 1996. The Great Famine: Northern Europe in the Early Fourteenth Century. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Jörg, C. 2008. Teure, Hunger, Grosses Sterben: Hungersnöte und Versorgungskrisen in den Städten des Reiches während des 15. Jahrhunderts. Stuttgart: Anton Hiersemann.
Jörg, C. 2010. ‘Die Besänftigung göttlichen Zorns in karolingischer Zeit: kaiserliche Vorgaben zu Fasten, Gebet und Buße im zeitlichen Umfeld der Hungersnot von 805/06’. Das Mittelalter 15: 3851.
Juerges, H. 2013. ‘Collateral damage: the German food crisis, educational attainment and labor market outcomes of German post-war cohorts’. Journal of Health Economics 32: 286303.
Jutikkala, E. 1955. ‘The great Finnish famine in 1696–97’. Scandinavian Economic History Review 3: 4863.
Jutikkala, E. 1971. ‘The structure of mortality during catastrophic years in a pre-industrial society’. Population Studies 25: 283–5.
Jütte, R. 2005. ‘Klimabedingte Teuerungen und Hungersnöte: Bettelverbote und Armenfürsorge als Krisenmanagement’, in Behringer, W., Lehmann, H., and Pfister, C. (eds.). Kulturelle Konsequenzen der ‘Kleinen Eiszeit’: Cultural Consequences of the ‘Little Ice Age’. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, pp. 225–37.
Kahan, A. 1989. Russian Economic History: The Nineteenth Century. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Kamen, H. 1974. La Guerra de Sucesión en España 1700–1715. Barcelona: Grijalbo.
Kaplan, S. 1976. Bread, Politics and Political Economics in the Reign of Louis XV. The Hague: Nijhoff.
Kaplan, S. 1982. Le complot de famine: Histoire d’une rumeur au XVIIIe siècle. Paris: A. Colin.
Kaukiainen, Y. 1984. ‘Harvest fluctuations and mortality in agrarian Finland (1810–1870)’, in Bengtsson, T., Fridlizius, G., and Ohlsson, R. (eds.). Pre-Industrial Population Change: The Mortality Decline and Short-Term Population Movements. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International, pp. 235–54.
Kay, A. J. 2006. ‘Germany’s Staatssekretäre, mass starvation and the meeting of 2 May 1941’. Journal of Contemporary History 41: 685700.
Keene, D. 2011. ‘Crisis management in London’s food supply, 1250–1500’, in Dodds and Liddy (eds.), pp. 4562.
Kelly, J. 1988. ‘The resumption of emigration from Ireland after the American War of Independence, 1783–1787’. Studia Hibernica 24: 6188.
Kelly, J. 1992a. ‘Harvests and hardship: famine and scarcity in Ireland in the late 1720s’. Studia Hibernica 26: 65105.
Kelly, J. 1992b. ‘Scarcity and poor relief in eighteenth-century Ireland: the subsistence crisis of 1782–4’. Irish Historical Studies 28: 3862.
Kelly, J. 2010. ‘Charitable societies: their genesis and development, 1720–1800’, in Kelly, J., and Powell, M. J. (eds.). Clubs and Societies in Eighteenth-Century Ireland. Dublin: Four Courts Press, pp. 89108.
Kelly, J. 2012. ‘Coping with crisis: the response to the famine of 1740–41’. Eighteenth-Century Ireland 27: 99122.
Kelly, M., and Ó Gráda, C. 2013. ‘The waning of the Little Ice Age’. Journal of Interdisciplinary History 44: 301–25.
Kelly, M., and Ó Gráda, C. 2014a. ‘Change points and temporal dependence in reconstructions of annual temperature: did Europe experience a Little Ice Age?’. Annals of Applied Statistics 8: 1372–94.
Kelly, M., and Ó Gráda, C. 2014b. ‘Living standards and mortality since the Middle Ages’. Economic History Review 67: 358–81.
Kelly, M., and Ó Gráda, C. 2015. ‘Why Ireland Starved after three decades: the Great Famine in cross-section reconsidered’. Irish Economic and Social History 42: 5361.
Kennedy, L., and Solar, P. M. 2007. Irish Agriculture: A Price History from the Mid-Eighteenth Century to the Eve of the First World War. Dublin: Royal Irish Academy.
Kerr, D. 1996. The Catholic Church and the Famine. Dublin: Columba Press
Kershaw, I. 1973. ‘The Great Famine and the agrarian crisis in England’. Past and Present 59: 350.
Kesternich, I., Siflinger, B., Smith, J. P., and Winter, J. K. 2014. ‘The effects of World War II on economic and health outcomes across Europe’. Review of Economics and Statistics 96: 103–18.
Kinealy, C. 1989. ‘The poor law during the Great Famine: an administration in crisis’, in Crawford (ed.), pp. 157–75.
Kluge, U. 1987. ‘Hunger, Armut und soziale Devianz im 18. Jahrhundert: Hungerkrisen, Randgruppen und absolutistischer Staat in Preußen’. Freiburger Universitätsblätter 26: 6191.
Kondrashin, V. V. (ed.) 2011–13. Golod v SSSR, 1928–34, 3 vols. Moscow.
Kondrat’ev, N. D. 1991 [1922]. Rynok khlebov i ego regulirovaniye vo vremya voiny i revolyutsii. Moscow: Nauka.
Kozlov, I., and Samsonova, A. 2005. ‘The impact of the siege on the physical development of children’, in Barber and Dzeniskevich (eds.), pp. 1174–96.
Krämer, D. 2015. ‘Menschen grasten nun mit dem Vieh’: Die letzte grosse Hungerkrise der Schweiz. Basel: Schwabe.
Kurmann, F. 2011. ‘Hungersnöte’. Historisches Lexikon der Schweiz, (accessed 16 February 2011).
Kuttner, E. 1949. Het Hongerjaar 1566. Amsterdam: NV Amsterdamsche Boek- en Courantmaatschappij.
Kuys, J. (ed.) 1983. De Tielse kroniek: Een geschiedenis van de Lage Landen van de volksverhuizingen tot het midden van het vijftiende eeuw, met een vervolg over de jaren 1552–1566. Amsterdam: Verloren.
Labrousse, E. 1933. Esquisse du mouvement des prix et des revenus en France au XVIIIe siècle. Paris: Librairie Dalloz.
Labrousse, E. 1944. La crise de l’économie française à la fin de l’Ancien Régime et au début de la Révolution. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
Lachiver, M. 1969. La population de Meulan du XVIIe au XIXe siècle (vers 1600–1870): Étude de démographie historique. Paris: EPHE.
Lachiver, M. 1991. Les années de misère: La famine au temps du Grand Roi, 1680–1720. Paris: Fayard.
Ladan, R. 2012. Gezondheidszorg in Leiden in de late Middeleeuwen. Hilversum, Netherlands: Verloren.
Ladero Quesada, M. A. 2014. ‘La población de reinos y ciudades en la Baja Edad Media española (de finales del siglo XIII a comienzos del XVI)’. Boletín de la Real Academia de la Historia 211: 3778.
Laliena Corbera, C. 2011. ‘Dévelopment économique, marché céréalier et disettes en Aragon et en Navarre, 1280–1340’, in Bourin, M., Menant, F., and Drendel, J. (eds.). Les disettes dans la conjoncture de 1300 en Méditerranée occidentale. Rome: École Française de Rome, pp. 277308.
Lamb, H. H. 1982. Climate, History and the Modern World. London: Routledge.
Landsteiner, E. 2005. ‘Wenig Brot und saurer Wein: Kontinuität und Wandel in der zentraleuropäischen Ernährungskultur im letzten Drittel des 16. Jahrhunderts’, in Behringer, W., Lehmann, H., and Pfister, C. (eds.). Kulturelle Konsequenzen der ‘Kleinen Eiszeit’: Cultural Consequences of the ‘Little Ice Age’. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, pp. 87147.
Lappalainen, M. 2014. ‘Death and disease during the Great Finnish Famine 1695–1697’. Scandinavian Journal of History 39: 425–47.
Larsson, D. 2006. ’Den dolda transitionen: om ett demografiskt brytningsskede i det tidiga 1700-talets Sverige’, unpublished PhD thesis. University of Gothenburg.
Larsson, H. A. 1999. Boken om Sveriges historia. Stockholm: Forum.
Laurénaudie, M.-J. 1952. ‘Les famines en Languedoc au XIVe et XVe siècles’. Annales du Midi 64: 2335.
Lázaro Ruiz, M. 1994. La población de la ciudad de Logroño durante el Antiguo Régimen (1500–1833). Logroño, Spain: Instituto de Estudios Riojanos.
Lázaro Ruiz, M., and Gurría García, P. A. 1989. Las crisis de mortalidad en La Rioja (siglos XVI–XVIII). Logroño, Spain: Instituto de Estudios Riojanos.
Le Mée, R. (ed.) 1980. ‘Bibliographie des monographies paroissiales’. Bulletin d’information de la Société de Démographie Historique 30 (special issue).
Le Roy Ladurie, E. 1969. ‘L’Aménorrhée de famine (XVIIe–XXe siècles)’. Annales: Économies, Sociétés, Civilisations 24: 1589–601.
Le Roy Ladurie, E. 1974. ‘Homme–animal, nature–culture: les problèmes de l’équilibre démographique’, in Morin, E., and Piattelli-Palmarini, M. (eds.). L’Unité de l’homme, vol. III, Pour une anthropologie fondamentale. Paris: Seuil, pp. 87128.
Le Roy Ladurie, E. 1978. ‘L’Histoire immobile’, in Le territoire de l’historien, vol. II. Paris: Gallimard, pp. 734.
Le Roy Ladurie, E. 1983. Histoire du climat depuis l’an mil, 2nd edn. Paris: Flammarion.
Le Roy Ladurie, E. 2006. Histoire humaine et comparée du climat, vol. II, Disettes et révolutions. Paris: Fayard.
Le Roy Ladurie, E. 2007. ‘Fluctuations météorologiques: retentissement sur la vie et la santé humaines (XIVe–XXIe siècles)’. Presse thermale et climatique 144: 95102.
Lee, J. J. 1973. The Modernization of Irish Society 1848–1921. Dublin: Gill & Macmillan.
Lee, J. S. 2011. ‘Grain shortages in late medieval towns’, in Dodds and Liddy (eds.), pp. 6380.
Lehmann, H. 1981. Das Zeitalter des Absolutismus: Gottesgnadentum und Kriegsnot. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer.
Lenihan, P. 1997. ‘War and population, 1649–1652’. Irish Economic and Social History 24: 121.
Levasseur, E. 1893. Les prix: Aperçu de l’histoire économique de la valeur et du revenu de la terre en France, du commencement du XIIIe siècle au XVIIIe siècle. Paris: Typographie Chamerot et Renouard.
Lewin, M. 1968. Russian Peasants and Soviet Power. London: George Allen & Unwin.
Lih, L. T. 1990. Bread and Authority in Russia, 1914–1921. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Livi Bacci, M. 1968. ‘Fertility and nuptiality changes in Spain from the 18th to the early 20th century’. Population Studies 22: 83102.
Livi Bacci, M. 1981. A Concise History of World Population. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Livi Bacci, M. 1991. Population and Nutrition: An Essay on European Demographic History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Livi Bacci, M. 1997. ‘Population, constraint and adaptation: a historical outlook’, in Dorfman, R., and Rogers, P. P. (eds.). Science with a Human Face: In Honor of Roger Randall Revelle. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, pp. 207–25.
Livi Bacci, M. 2000. The Population of Europe. Oxford: Blackwell.
Llopis Agelán, E., and Abarca, V. 2014. ‘El retroceso de la mortalidad catastrófica y su papel en la moderación de la mortalidad general en la España interior en los siglos XVIII y XIX’, unpublished communication.
Llopis Agelán, E., and Sánchez Salazar, F. 2014. ‘La crisis de 1803–1805 en las dos Castillas: subsistencias, mortalidad y colapso institucional’, unpublished paper. XVI Seminario de Historia Económica. Bernardos (Segovia).
Llopis Agelán, E., García-Hiernaux, A., García Montero, H., González Mariscal, M., and Hernández García, R. 2007. ‘Índices de precios de tres ciudades españolas, 1680–1800: Palencia, Madrid y Sevilla’. América Latina en la Historia Económica 32: 3180.
Llopis Agelán, E., Pérez Moreda, V., and Sebastián Amarilla, J. A. 2015. ‘Algunas sombras en el Siglo de las Luces: la sobremortalidad adulta en el interior castellano a mediados del setecientos’, in García Ruiz, J. L., and Ortiz-Villajos, J. M. (eds.). Ensayos de historia y pensamiento económicos: En homenaje al profesor Juan Hernández Andreu. Madrid: Universidad Complutense, pp. 6982.
Lo Cascio, E., and Malanima, P. 2005. ‘Cycles and stability: Italian population before the demographic transition’. Rivista di Storia Economica 3: 197232.
Lomagin, N. 2002. Neizvestnaya blokada, 2 vols. St Petersburg: Neva.
Lorcin, M.-T. 1981. Vivre et mourir en Lyonnais à la fin du Moyen Age. Paris: CNRS.
Lorimer, F. 1946. The Population of the Soviet Union: History and Prospects. Geneva: League of Nations.
Løvlien, A. 1977. ‘Dødelighetskrisa på 1740-tallet: en sammenligning mellom to norske landsdeler’, PhD thesis. University of Bergen.
Löwe, H.-D. 1986. ‘Teuerungsrevolten, Teuerungspolitik und Marktregulierung im 18. Jahrhundert in England, Frankreich und Deutschland’. Saeculum 37: 291312.
Lucas, H. 1930. ‘The Great European Famine of 1315, 1316, and 1317’. Speculum 5: 343–77.
Luce, A. A., and Jessop, T. E. (eds.) 1956. The Works of George Berkeley, Bishop of Cloyne, 9 vols. London: Thomas Nelson.
Lumey, L. H., and Stein, A. D. 1997. ‘Offspring birth weights after maternal intrauterine undernutrition: a comparison within sibships’. American Journal of Epidemiology 146: 810–19.
Lumey, L. H., and Vaiserman, A. (eds.) 2013. Early Life Nutrition and Adult Health and Development: Lessons from Changing Dietary Patterns, Famines and Experimental Studies. New York: Nova Science.
Lumey, L. H. and van Poppel, F. W. A. 2013. ‘The Dutch famine of 1944–45 as a human laboratory: changes in the early life environment and adult health’, in Lumey and Vaiserman (eds.), pp. 5976.
Lumey, L. H., Stein, A. D., Kahn, H. S., van der Pal-de Bruin, K. M., Blauw, G. J., Zybert, P. A., and Susser, E. S. 2007. ‘Cohort profile: the Dutch Hunger Winter families study’. International Journal of Epidemiology 36: 1196–204.
Lumey, L. H., Stein, A. D., and Susser, E. S. 2011. ‘Prenatal famine and adult health’. Annual Reviews of Public Health 32: 237–62.
Lundh, C. 2003. ‘Den regionala befolkningsstatistiken i Tabellverket: en databeskrivning’, Paper in Economic History no. 91. Lund, Sweden: Department of Economic History, Lund University.
Luterbacher, J., and Pfister, C. 2015. ‘The year without a summer’. Nature Geoscience 8: 246–8.
Luterbacher, J., García-Herrera, R., Akcer-On, S., Allan, R., Alvarez-Castro, M. C., and Benito, G. 2012. ‘A review of 2000 years of paleoclimatic evidence in the Mediterranean: the climate of the Mediterranean region’, in Lionello, P. (ed.). The Climate of the Mediterranean Region. New York: Elsevier, pp. 87183.
Lyashchenko, P. I. 1947. Istoriya Narodnogo Khozyaistvo SSSR. Leningrad.
Lyons, E. 1964. Herbert Hoover: A Biography. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
Lyons, M. C. 1989. ‘Weather, famine, pestilence, and plague in Ireland, 900–1500’, in Crawford (ed.), pp. 3174.
Lythe, S. G. E. 1960. The Economy of Scotland, 1550–1625. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd.
McCabe, D., and Ó Gráda, C. 2009. ‘Destitution, human agency, and relief: Enniskillen workhouse during the Irish Famine’, in Denie, M., and Farrell, S. (eds.). Power and Popular Culture in Modern Ireland: Essays in Honour of James S. Donnelly, Jr. Dublin: Irish Academic Press, pp. 730.
McGregor, P. P. L. 1989. ‘Demographic pressure and the Irish famine: Malthus after Mokyr’. Land Economics 65: 228–38.
McGregor, P. P. L. 2004. ‘“Insufficient for the support of a family?” Wages on the public works during the Great Irish Famine’. Economic and Social Review 35: 219–39.
MacSuibhne, B. 2013. ‘A jig in the poorhouse’. Dublin Review of Books 32:
Mahlerwein, G. 2007. ‘The consequences of the potato blight in south Germany’, in Ó Gráda, Paping and Vanhaute (eds.), pp. 213–21.
Majd, M. G. 2003. The Great Famine and Genocide in Persia, 1917–1919. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
Malanima, P. 2013. ‘Prezzi e salari’, in Malanima, P., and Ostuni, N. (eds.). Il Mezzogiorno prima dell’Unità: Fonti, dati, storiografia. Soveria Mannelli, Italy: Rubbettino, pp. 339–94.
Malthus, T. R. 1798. An Essay on the Principle of Population, as It Affects the Future Improvement of Society. London: Johnson.
Malthus, T. R. 1808. ‘Newenham and others on the state of Ireland’. Edinburgh Review 12: 336–45.
Marin, B., and Virlouvet, C. (eds.) 2003. Nourrir les cités de Méditerranée: Antiquité – temps modernes. Paris: Maisonneuve & Larose.
Marshall, J. D. (ed.) 1967. The Autobiography of William Stout of Lancaster, 1665–1752. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Martin, J. 2007. Medieval Russia, 980–1584. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Mattmüller, M. 1982. ‘Die Hungersnot der Jahre 1770/71 in der Basler Landschaft’, in Nicolai, B., and Quirinus, R. (eds.). Gesellschaft und Gesellschaften: Festschrift zum 65. Geburtstag von Prof. Dr. Ulrich Im Hof. Bern: Wyss, pp. 271–91.
Mattmüller, M. 1987. Bevölkerungsgeschichte der Schweiz, vol. I, Die Frühe Neuzeit 1500–1700. Basel: Helbing Lichtenhahn.
Mauelshagen, F. 2010. Klimageschichte der Neuzeit. Darmstadt: WBG.
Mazower, M. 1993. Inside Hitler’s Greece: The Experience of Occupation, 1941–44. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Mears, N., Raffe, A., Taylor, S., and Williamson, P. 2013. National Prayers: Special Worship since the Reformation, vol. I, Special Prayers, Fasts and Thanksgivings in the British Isles, 1533–1688. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell & Brewer.
Medick, H. 1985. ‘Teuerung, Hunger und “moralische Ökonomie von oben”: die Hungerkrise der Jahre 1816–17 in Württemberg’. Beiträge zur Historischen Sozialkunde 2: 3944.
Meister, A. (ed.) 1901. ‘Niederdeutsche Chroniken aus dem XV. Jahrhundert’. Annalen der Historischen Vereins für den Niederrhein 70: 4364.
Mentink, G. J., and van der Woude, A. M. 1965. De demografische ontwikkeling te Rotterdam en Cool in de 17e en 18e eeuw. Rotterdam: Gemeentearchief Rotterdam.
Mestayer, M. 1963. ‘Prix du blé et de l’avoine de 1329 à 1793’. Revue du Nord 45: 157–76.
Meuvret, J. 1946. ‘Les crises de subsistances et la démographie de la France d’Ancien Régime’. Population 1: 643–50.
Meuvret, J. 1977. Le problème des subsistances à l’époque Louis XIV, 2 vols. Paris: Éd. de l’EHESS-Mouton.
Militzer, S. 1998. ‘Sachsen: Klimatatsachen und Umriß von Klimawirkungen im 17. Jahrhundert’, in Schirmer, U. (ed.). Sachsen im 17. Jahrhundert: Krise, Krieg und Neubeginn. Brandis, Germany: Sax-Verlag, pp. 69100.
Miller, J. A. 1999. Mastering the Market: The State and the Grain Trade in Northern France, 1700–1860. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mironov, B. N. 1985. Khlebnietseny v Rossiizadvastoletiya (XVIII–XIX gg). Leningrad.
Mironov, B. N. 2010. Blagosostoyanie naseleniya i revolyutsii v imperskoi Rossii: XVIII – nachalo XX veka. Moscow: Novyi Khronograf.
Mitchell, B. R. 1975. European Historical Statistics. London: Macmillan.
Mocarelli, L. 2012. ‘Le crisi alimentari nello Stato di Milano tra metà Settecento e Restaurazione: una realtà di eccezione?’, in David, T., Mathieu, J., Schaufelbuehl, J. M., and Straumann, T. (eds.). Krisen: Ursachen, Deutungen und Folgen: Crises: Causes, interprétations et conséquences. Zurich: Chronos Verlag, pp. 97109.
Mocarelli, L. 2015. ‘Ripensare le crisi alimentari: lo Stato di Milano nel secondo Settecento’, in Ferrari, M. L., and Vaquero Piñeiro, M. (eds.). “Moia La Carestia”. La Scarsità Alimentare in Età Preindustriale. Bologna: Il Mulino, pp. 3554.
Mokyr, J. 1981. ‘Irish history with the potato’. Irish Economic and Social History 8: 829.
Mokyr, J. 1985. Why Ireland Starved: A Quantitative and Analytical History of the Irish Economy 1800–1850, 2nd edn. London: Allen & Unwin.
Mokyr, J., and Ó Gráda, C. 2002. ‘Famine disease and famine mortality: lessons from the Irish experience, 1845–50’, in Dyson, T., and Ó Gráda, C. (eds.). Famine Demography: Perspectives from the Past and Present. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 1943.
Molinier, A. 1985. Stagnations et croissance: Le Vivarais aux XVIIe–XVIIIe siècles. Paris: Éd. de l’EHESS.
Moltmann, G. (ed.) 1989. Aufbruch nach Amerika: Die Auswanderungswelle von 1816/17. Stuttgart: Metzlersche Verlagsbuchhandlung.
Monahan, G. W. 1993. Year of Sorrows: The Great Famine of 1709 in Lyon. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press.
Moreno Lázaro, J. 2009. Los hermanos de Rebeca: Motines y amotinados a mediados del siglo XIX en Castilla la Vieja y León. Palencia, Spain: Región Editorial.
Moriceau, J.-M., and Postel-Vinay, G. 1992. Ferme, entreprise, famille: Grande exploitation et changements agricoles: Les Chartier XVIIe–XIXe siècles. Paris: Éd. de l’EHESS.
Morineau, M. 1970a. Les faux-semblants d’un démarrage économique: Agriculture et démographie en France au XVIIIe siècle. Paris: Armand Colin.
Morineau, M. 1970b. ‘Cendrillon devenue fée? La pomme de terre au XVIIIe siècle’. Annales: Économies, Sociétés, Civilisations 6: 1767–85.
Moskoff, W. 1990. The Bread of Affliction: Food Supply in the USSR during World War II. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Müller, G. 1998. Hunger in Bayern 1816–1818: Politik und Gesellschaft in einer Staatskrise des frühen 19. Jahrhunderts. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.
Murray, K. A. H. 1955. Agriculture. London: HMSO.
Mus, F. 1984. ‘De historisch-demografische ontwikkeling van Aarsele tijdens de nieuwe tijd, 1627–1795’, unpublished MA thesis. University of Louvain.
Mykland, K. 1977. Norges historie, vol. VII, Gjennom nødsår og krig: 1648–1720. Oslo: Cappelen.
Myrdal, J. 1999. Jordbruket under feodalismen 1000–1700. Stockholm: Natur och Kultur.
Myrdal, J. 2011. ‘Farming and feudalism’, in Myrdal, J., and Morell, M. (eds.). The Agrarian History of Sweden. Lund, Sweden: Nordic Academic Press, pp. 72117.
Nadal i Oller, J. 1991. ‘Las grandes crisis de mortalidad de los años 1793–1812: los efectos a largo plazo en la población catalana’. Boletín de la Asociación de Demografía Histórica 8: 3749.
Nadal i Oller, J., and Giralt, E. 1960. La population catalane de 1553 à 1717: L'Immigration française et les autres facteurs de son développement. Paris: Sevpen.
Nairn, I. A., Shane, P. R., Cole, J. W., Leonard, G. J., Self, S., and Pearson, N. 2004. ‘Rhyolite magma processes of the ∼AD1315 Kaharoa eruption episode, Tarawera volcano, New Zealand’. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 131: 265–94.
Nally, D. P. 2011. Human Encumbrances: Political Violence and the Great Irish Famine. South Bend, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.
Nassiet, M. 1998. ‘La diffusion du blé noir en France à l’époque moderne’. Histoire et Sociétés Rurales 9: 5977.
Neal, F. 1998. Black ’47: Britain and the Famine Irish. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Neelsen, S., and Stratmann, T. 2011. ‘Effects of prenatal and early life malnutrition: evidence from the Greek famine’. Journal of Health Economics 30: 479–88.
Netting, R. 1981. Balancing on an Alp: Ecological Change and Continuity in a Swiss Mountain Community. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Neumann, J., and Lindgrén, S. 1979. ‘Great historical events that were significantly affected by the weather: 4, the Great Famines in Finland and Estonia, 1695–97’. Bulletin of American Meteorological Society 60: 775–87.
Neveux, H. 1980. Vie et déclin d’une structure économique: Les grains du Cambrésis, fin du 14e – début du 17e siècle. Paris: Mouton.
Neveux, H., and Tits-Dieuaide, M.-J. 1979. ‘Étude structurelle des fluctuations courtes des rendements céréaliers dans l’Europe du Nord-Ouest (XIVe–XVIe siècles)’. Cahiers des Annales de Normandie 11: 1742.
Ní Chinnéide, S. 1957. ‘Dialann Í Chonchubhair’. Galvia 4: 417.
Ní Urdail, M., and Ó Gráda, C. 2015. ‘Tadhg Ó Neachtain agus Muiris Ó Conaill ag trácht ar bhlianta an áir, 1739–42’, in Ó Ciosáin, N., and Cunningham, J. (eds.). Culture and Society in Ireland since 1750: Essays in Honour of Gearóid O Tuathaigh. Dublin: Lilliput Press, pp. 3343.
Nicholas, D. 1992. Medieval Flanders. New York: Longman.
Nicolai, N. M. 1803. Memorie, leggi ed osservazioni sulle campagne e sull’Annona di Roma, vol. III. Rome: Stamperia Pagliarini.
Nifontov, A. 1973. Zernovoeproizvodstvo v Rossiivovtoroy XIX veka. Moscow.
Noordam, D. J. 1986. Leven in Maasland: Een hoogontwikkelde plattelandssamenleving in de achttiende en het begin van de negentiende eeuw. Hilversum, Netherlands: Verloren.
Noordegraaf, L. 1980. ‘Levensstandaard en levensmiddelenpolitiek in Alkmaar vanaf het eind van de 16de tot in het begin van de 19de eeuw’. Alkmaarse Historische Reeks 4: 55100.
Noordegraaf, L. 1985a. ‘Dearth, famine and social policy in the Dutch Republic at the end of the sixteenth century’, in Clark, P. (ed.). The European Crisis of the 1590s: Essays in Comparative History. London: George Allen & Unwin, pp. 6783.
Noordegraaf, L. 1985b. Hollands welvaren? Levensstandaard in Holland 1450–1650. Bergen: Octavo.
Noordegraaf, L., and Valk, G. 1988. De gave Gods: De pest in Holland vanaf de late middeleeuwen. Amsterdam: Bert Bakker.
Ó Gráda, C. 1993. Ireland Before and After the Famine: Explorations in Economic History, 2nd edn. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Ó Gráda, C. 1994. An Drochshaol: Béaloideas agus Amhráin. Dublin: Coiscéim.
Ó Gráda, C. (ed.) 1997. Famine 150: Commemorative Lecture Series. Dublin: Teagasc.
Ó Gráda, C. 1999. Black ’47: The Great Irish Famine in History, Economy, and Memory. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Ó Gráda, C. 2001. ‘Markets and famines: evidence from nineteenth-century Finland’. Economic Development and Cultural Change 49: 575–90.
Ó Gráda, C. 2005. ‘Markets and famines in pre-industrial Europe’. Journal of Interdisciplinary History 36: 143–66.
Ó Gráda, C. 2006. Ireland’s Great Famine: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Dublin: UCD Press.
Ó Gráda, C. 2009. Famine: A Short History. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Ó Gráda, C. 2011. ‘Yardsticks for workhouse management during the Great Famine’, in Crossman, V., and Gray, P. (eds.). Poverty and Welfare in Ireland 1838–1948. Dublin: Irish Academic Press, pp. 6996.
Ó Gráda, C. 2015a. Eating People Is Wrong and Other Essays on the History and Future of Famine. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Ó Gráda, C. 2015b. ‘Neither feast nor famine: England before the Industrial Revolution’, in Nye, J., Greif, A., and Kiesling, L. (eds.). Institutions, Industrialization, and Innovation. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, pp. 131.
Ó Gráda, C., and Chevet, J.-M. 2002. ‘Famine and market in Ancien Régime France’. Journal of Economic History 62: 706–33.
Ó Gráda, C., and Ó Muirithe, D. 2010. ‘The Irish famine of 1740–41 in Gaelic poetry’. Éire – Ireland 45: 4162.
Ó Gráda, C., and O’Rourke, K. H. 1997. ‘Mass migration as disaster relief: lessons from the Great Irish Famine’. European Review of Economic History 1: 327.
Ó Gráda, C., Paping, R., and Vanhaute, E. (eds.) 2007. When the Potato Failed: Causes and Effects of the Last European Subsistence Crisis, 1845–1850. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols.
Ó Murchadha, C. 2011. The Great Famine: Ireland’s Agony 1845–1852. London: Bloomsbury.
O’Brien, H. 2010. The Famine Clearance in Toomevara, County Tipperary. Dublin: Four Courts Press.
O’Connell, M. 1746. Observationes Medicinales. Dublin: Kelly & Faulkner.
O’Neill, T. P. 1956. ‘The organization and administration of relief, 1845–52’, in Edwards and Williams (eds.), pp. 209–59.
O’Neill, T. P. 1966. ‘The famine of 1822’, unpublished MA thesis. University College Dublin.
O’Neill, T. P. 1989. ‘The food crisis of the 1890s’, in Crawford (ed.), pp. 176–97.
O’Neill, T. P. 1996. ‘Minor famines and relief in Galway, 1815–1925’, in Moran, G., and Gillespie, R. (eds.). Galway: History and Society. Dublin: Geography Publications, pp. 445–87.
O’Neill, T. P. 2000. ‘Famine evictions’, in King, C. (ed.). Famine, Land and Culture in Ireland. Dublin: UCD Press, pp. 2970.
O’Rourke, K. H. 1991. ‘Did the Great Famine matter?’. Journal of Economic History 51: 122.
Odenwälder, N. 2008. Nahrungsproteste und moralische Ökonomie: Das Alte Reich von 1600 bis 1789. Saarbrücken, Germany: Müller.
Offer, A. 1989. The First World War: An Agrarian Interpretation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Offermans, P. H. M. G. 1972. Arbeid en levensstandaard in Nijmegen omstreeks de Reductie, 1550–1600. Zutphen, Netherlands: De Walburg Pers.
Oliver-Smith, A. 2004. ‘Theorizing vulnerability in a globalized world: a political ecological perspective’, in Bankoff, G., Frerks, G., and Hillhorst, D. (eds.). Mapping Vulnerability: Disasters, Development and People. London: Earthscan, pp. 1024.
Oman, L., Roback, A., Stenchikov, G. L., and Thordarson, T. 2006. ‘High-latitude eruptions cast shadow over the African monsoon and the flow of the Nile’. Geophysical Research Letters 33:
Orlandi, G. 1996. ‘Il regno di Napoli nel settecento: il mondo di S. Alfonso Maria de Liguori’. Spicilegium Historicum Congregationis SSmi Redemptoris 44: 5389.
Ostrom, E. 1990. Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Otterness, P. 2004. Becoming German: The 1709 Palatine Migration to New York. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Outhwaite, R. B. 1981, ‘Dearth and government intervention in English grain markets, 1590–1700’. Economic History Review 34: 389406.
Outhwaite, R. B. 1991. Dearth, Public Policy and Social Disturbance in England, 1550–1800. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Overton, M. 1996. Agricultural Revolution in England: The Transformation of the Agrarian Economy, 1500–1800. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Palermo, L. 1990. Mercati del grano a Roma tra Medioevo e Rinascimento, vol. I, Il mercato distrettuale del grano in età comunale. Rome: Istituto nazionale di studi romani.
Palermo, L. 1997. Sviluppo economico e società preindustriali: Cicli strutture e congiunture in Europa dal medioevo alla prima età moderna. Rome: Viella.
Palermo, L., and Strangio, D. 1997. ‘Politiche dell’alimentazione e carestie nello Stato della Chiesa: un modello di lungo periodo (secoli XIV–XVIII)’, in Cavaciocchi, S. (ed.). Alimentazione e nutrizione. Florence: Le Monnier, pp. 325–38.
Pallach, U.-C. (ed.). 1986. Hunger: Quellen zu einem Alltagsproblem Quellen seit dem Dreissigjährigen Krieg, mit einem Ausblick auf die Dritte Welt. Munich: Deutscher Taschenbuch-Verlag.
Paping, R. 1995. Voor een handvol stuivers: De levensstandaard van boeren, arbeiders en middenstanders op de Groninger klei, 1770–1860. Groningen, Netherlands: NEHI.
Paping, R. 2004. ‘Family strategies, wage labour and the family life cycle in the Groningen countryside, c. 1850–1910’, in Kooij, P., and Paping, R. (eds.). Where the Twain Meet Again: New Results of the Dutch–Russian Project on Regional Development 1750–1917. Wageningen, Netherlands: NEHI, pp. 147–67.
Paping, R., and Tassenaar, V. 2007. ‘The consequences of the potato disease in the Netherlands, 1845–60: a regional approach’, in Ó Gráda, Paping and Vanhaute (eds.), pp. 149–84.
Parker, G. 2013. Global Crisis: War, Climate Change and Catastrophe in the Seventeenth Century. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Parziale, L. 2009. Nutrire la città: Produzione e commercio alimentare a Milano tra cinquecento e seicento. Milan: Franco Angeli.
Pedersen, E. A., and Widgren, M. 2011. Agriculture in Sweden: 800 BC – AD 100, in Myrdal, J., and Morell, M. (eds.). The Agrarian History of Sweden. Lund, Sweden: Nordic Academic Press, pp. 4671.
Peña Sánchez, D., and Sánchez-Albornoz, N. 1983. Dependencia dinámica entre precios agrícolas: El trigo en España, 1857–1890: Un estudio empírico. Madrid: Banco de España.
Pérez Moreda, V. 1980. Las crisis de mortalidad en la España interior (siglos XVI–XIX). Madrid: Siglo XXI.
Pérez Moreda, V. 1984. ‘Crisis demográficas y crisis agrarias: paludismo y agricultura en España a fines del siglo XVIII’, in Congreso de historia rural: Siglos XIV al XIX. Madrid: Casa de Velázquez Universidad Complutense, pp. 333–54.
Pérez Moreda, V. 1985. ‘Consum deficitari, fam i crisis demogràfiques a l’Espanya dels segles XVI-XIX’. Estudis d’Història Agrària 5: 724.
Pérez Moreda, V. 1998. ‘El final de la expansión demográfica: las crisis de mortalidad de los años 90’, in Ribot García, L. A., and Belenguer Cebrià, E. (eds.). Las sociedades ibéricas y el mar a finales del siglo XVI, vol. IV, La corona de Castilla. Madrid: Comisaría General de España en la Expo de Lisboa 98, pp. 523.
Pérez Moreda, V. 2010a. ‘Las crisis demográficas del periodo napoleónico en España’, in La Parra López, E. (ed.). La Guerra de Napoleón en España: Reacciones, imágenes, consecuencias. Alicante: Universidad de Alicante Casa de Velázquez, pp. 305–32.
Pérez Moreda, V. 2010b. ‘Una nueva interpretación de las relaciones entre mortalidad y economía: pruebas históricas contra el modelo de las “crisis de subsistencias”’, in Cavaciocchi (ed.), pp. 181218.
Pérez Serrano, J. 1992. Cádiz, la ciudad desnuda: Cambio económico y modelo demográfico en la formación de la Andalucía contemporánea. Cadiz: Universidad de Cádiz.
Perren, R. 2005. ‘Farmers and consumers under strain: Allied meat supplies in the First World War’. Agricultural History Review 53: 212–28.
Perrie, M. 2006. ‘The Time of Troubles (1603–1613)’, in The Cambridge History of Russia, vol. I, From Early Rus’ to 1689. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 409–32.
Perrot, J.-C. 1984. ‘L’Analyse dynamique des crises au XVIIIe siècle’, in Croix, A., Jacquart, J., and Lebrun, F. (eds.). Études réunies en l’honneur de Pierre Goubert. Toulouse: Privat, pp. 543–51.
Persson, K. G. 1999. Grain Markets in Europe 1500–1900: Integration and Deregulation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Peset, J. L., and de Carvalho, J. A. 1972. ‘Hambre y enfermedad en Salamanca: estudio d la repercusión de la “crisis de subsistencias” de 1803–1805 en Salamanca’. Asclepio 24: 225–66.
Pfister, C. 1984. Das Klima der Schweiz von 1525-1860 und seine Bedeutung in der Geschichte von Bevölkerung und Landwirtschaft, 2 vols. Bern: Haupt.
Pfister, C. 1990. ‘Food supply in the Swiss canton of Bern, 1850’, in Newman, L. F. (ed.). Hunger in History: Food Shortage, Poverty, and Deprivation. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 281303.
Pfister, C. 1999a. Wetternachhersage: 500 Jahre Klimavariationen und Naturkatastrophen (1496–1995). Bern: Haupt.
Pfister, C. 1999b. ‘Wanderungsgewinne und -verluste 1764–1990’, in Pfister, C., and Egli, H.-R. (eds.). Historisch-Statistischer Atlas des Kantons Bern 1750–1995: Umwelt – Bevölkerung – Wirtschaft – Politik. Bern: Historischer Verein, pp. 62–3.
Pfister, C. 2005. ‘Weeping in the snow: the second period of Little Ice Age-type impacts, 1570–1630’, in Behringer, W., Lehmann, H., and Pfister, C. (eds.). Kulturelle Konsequenzen der ‘Kleinen Eiszeit’: Cultural Consequences of the ‘Little Ice Age’. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, pp. 3186.
Pfister, C. 2007a. Bevölkerungsgeschichte und Historische Demographie 1500–1800, vol. II. Munich: Oldenbourg.
Pfister, C. 2007b. ‘Climatic extremes, recurrent crises and witch hunts: strategies of European societies in coping with exogenous shocks in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries’. Medieval History Journal 10: 3373.
Pfister, C., and Brázdil, R. 2006. ‘Social vulnerability to climate in the “Little Ice Age”: an example from central Europe in the early 1770s’. Climate of the Past 2: 115–29.
Pfister, U., and Fertig, G. 2010. ‘The population history of Germany: research strategy and preliminary results’, Working Paper no. 2010-035. Rostock, Germany: Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research.
Pfrenzinger, A. 1941. Die Mainfränkische Auswanderung nach Ungarn und den Österr: Erbländern im 18. Jahrhundert. Vienna: Melchior.
Pinto, G. 1978. Il libro del biadaiolo: Carestie ed annona a Firenze dalla metà del ‘200 al 1348. Florence: Olschki.
Pinto, G. 1996. ‘Dalla tarda antichità alla metà del XVI secolo’, in Del Panta, L., Livi Bacci, M., Pinto, G., and Sonnino, E. (eds.). La popolazione italiana dal Medioevo ad oggi. Rome: Laterza, pp. 1771.
Pinto, G. 2012. ‘Food security’, in Montanari, M. (ed.). A Cultural History of Food in the Medieval Age. London: Berg, pp. 5771.
Piquero, S. 1991. Demografía guipuzcoana en el Antiguo Régimen. Bilbao: Universidad del País Vasco.
Pitkänen, K. J. 2002. ‘Famine mortality in nineteenth-century Finland: is there a sex bias?’, in Dyson, T., and Ó Gráda, C. (eds.). Famine Demography: Perspectives from the Past and Present. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 6592.
Piuz, A.-M., and Zumkeller, D. 1985. ‘La politique de stockage des grains à Genève au XVIIIe siècle’, in Gast, M., and Sigaut, F. (eds.). Les techniques de conservation des grains à long terme: Leur rôle dans la dynamique des systèmes de cultures et des sociétés, vol. II. Paris: Éditions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, pp. 579–95.
Póirtéir, C. 1995. Famine Echoes. Dublin: Gill & Macmillan.
Póirtéir, C. 1996. Glórtha ón Ghorta: Béaloideas na Gaeilge agus an Gorta Mór. Dublin: Coiscéim.
Pollard, A. J. 1989. ‘The north-eastern economy and the agrarian crisis of 1438–1440’. Northern History 25: 88105.
Pomeranz, K. 2005. The Great Divergence: China, Europe, and the Making of the Modern World Economy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Post, J. D. 1977. The Last Great Subsistence Crisis in the Western World. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Post, J. D. 1984. ‘Climatic variability and the European mortality wave of the early 1740s’. Journal of Interdisciplinary History 15: 130.
Post, J. D. 1985. Food Shortage, Climatic Variability, and Epidemic Disease in Preindustrial Europe: The Mortality Peak in the Early 1740s. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Post, J. D. 1990. ‘The mortality crisis of the early 1770s and European demographic trends’. Journal of Interdisciplinary History 21: 2962.
Posthumus, N. W. 1964. Nederlandse prijsgeschiedenis, 2 vols. Leiden: Brill.
Priewer, H., Göbler, W., and Priewer, M. 2002. ‘Subsistenzkrisen im Kirchspiel Rückeroth/Ww. vom 17. bis zum 19: Jahrhundert aus historisch-demographischer Sicht’. Nassauische Annalen 113: 331–40.
Prims, F. 1933. Geschiedenis van Antwerpen: onder Hertog Jan de Derde (1312–1355), politieke en economische orde, vol. IV, part 1. Antwerp: N.V. Standaard Boekhandel.
Pult Quaglia, A. M. 1982. ‘Sistema annonario e commercio dei prodotti agricoli: riflessioni su alcuni temi di ricerca’. Società e Storia 15: 181–98.
Queipo deLlano y Ruiz de Saravia, J. M. [7th Count of Toreno] 1839. Historia del levantamiento, guerra y revolución de España, vol. III. Madrid: Imprenta del Diario.
Randall, A. 2006. Riotous Assemblies: Popular Protest in Hanoverian England. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Rankl, H. 2005. ‘Die bayerische Politik in der europäischen Hungerkrise 1770–1773’. Zeitschrift für bayerische Landesgeschichte 68: 745–79.
Rashin, A. G. 1956. Naselenie Rossiiza 100 let (1811–1913gg): Statisticheskiy ocherki. Moscow: Gos.
Ravn, M. O., and Uhlig, H. 2002. ‘On adjusting the Hodrick–Prescott filter for the frequency of observations’. Review of Economics and Statistics 84: 371–6.
Razuvaev, V. N., Apasova, E. G., and Martuganov, R. A. 2008. ‘Daily temperature and precipitation data for 223 former-USSR stations’, ORNL/CDIAC-56, NDP-040. Oak Ridge, TN: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, US Department of Energy,
Read, C. 2016. ‘Laissez-faire, the Irish famine, and British financial crisis’. Economic History Review 69: 411–34.
Reglero, C. 2011. ‘Les disettes dans le Royaume de Castille (entre 1250 et 1348)’, in Bourin, M., Menant, F., and Drendel, J. (eds.). Les disettes dans la conjoncture de 1300 en Méditerranée occidentale. Rome: École Française de Rome, pp. 309–42.
Reher, D. S. 1991. ‘Dinámicas demográficas en Castilla la Nueva, 1500–1900: un ensayo de reconstrucción’, in Nadal i Oller, J. (ed.). La evolución demográfica bajo los Austrias. Alicante: Instituto de Cultura Juan Gil-Albert, pp. 1775.
Reher, D. S. 1980. ‘La crisis de 1804 y sus repercusiones demográficas: Cuenca (1775–1825)’. Moneda y Crédito 154: 3572.
Reinhardt, V. 1991. Überleben in der frühneuzeitlichen Stadt: Annona und Getreideversorgung in Rom 1563–1797. Tübingen, Germany: Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom.
Reith, R. 2011. Umweltgeschichte der Frühen Neuzeit (Enzyklopädie deutscher Geschichte 89). Munich: Oldenbourg.
Revel, J. 1972. ‘Le grain de Rome et la crise de l’Annone dans la seconde moitié du XVIIIe siècle’. Mélanges de l’École Française de Rome: Moyen Age, Temps Modernes 84: 201–81.
Revel, J. 1975. ‘Les privilèges d’une capitale: l’approvisionnement de Rome à l’époque moderne’. Mélanges de l’École Française de Rome: Moyen Age, Temps Modernes 87: 460–93.
Revel, J. 1982. ‘Rendements, production et productivité agricoles: les grands domaines de la campagne romaine, XVIIe–XVIIIe siècles’, in Goy, J., and Le Roy Ladurie, E. (eds.). Prestation paysannes, dîmes, rente foncière et mouvement de la production agricole à l’époque préindustrielle, vol. I. Paris: Mouton, pp. 226–36.
Riera Melis, A. 2009. ‘El aprovisionamiento urbano de cereales en las ciudades de la Corona de Aragón durante la Baja Edad Media’, in Sesma, A (ed.). La Corona de Aragón en el centro de su historia, 1208–1458: Aspectos económicos y sociales. Zaragoza: Departamento de Educación, Cultura y Deporte, Gobierno Aragón, pp. 233–77.
Ritzmann-Blickenstorfer, H. 1997. Alternative Neue Welt: Die Ursachen der schweizerischen Überseeauswanderung im 19. und frühen 20. Jahrhundert. Zurich: Chronos.
Robbins, R. G. 1975. Famine in Russia, 1891–92. New York: Columbia University Press.
Rockefeller Foundation 1915. Annual Report 1915. New York: Rockefeller Foundation,
Rodríguez, L. 1973. ‘The Spanish riots of 1766’. Past and Present 52: 76136.
Roeck, B. 1987. Bäcker, Brot und Getreide in Augsburg. Sigmaringen, Germany: Jan Thorbecke.
Roessingh, H. 1976. ‘Het begin van de aardappelteelt en de aardappelconsumptie in Gelderland’. Gelders Oudheidkundig Contactbericht 68: 19.
Roessner, P. R. 2011. ‘The 1738–41 harvest crisis in Scotland’. Scottish Historical Review 90: 2763.
Rolf, G. 2010. ‘Wohlstandswahrung für wenige oder Nahrungssicherung für alle? Armut, Tugenddiskurs und Krisenbekämpfungskonzepte im Kontext der Hungerkrise 1770/1771 auf der Zürcher Landschaft’, in Holenstein, A., Kapossy, B., and Tosato-Rigo, D. (eds.). Reichtum und Armut in schweizerischen Republiken. Geneva: Slatkine, pp. 195213.
Rommes, R. 1990. ‘Pest in perspectief: Aspecten van een gevreesde ziekte in de vroegmoderne tijd’. Tijdschrift voor sociale geschiedenis 16: 244–66.
Rommes, R. 1991. ‘Op het spoor van de dood: de pest in en rond Utrecht’, in Vereniging Oud-Utrecht (ed.). Jaarboek Oud-Utrecht 1991. Utrecht: Vereniging Oud-Utrecht, pp. 93121.
Rosen, S. 1999. ‘Potato paradoxes’. Journal of Political Economy 107: 294313.
Rotberg, R. I., and Rabb, T. K. (eds.) 1985. Hunger and History: The Impact of Changing Food Production and Consumption Patterns on Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rubio Vela, A. 1982. ‘A propósito del “mal any primer”: dificultades cerealísticas en la Corona de Aragón en los años treinta del siglo XIV’, in Estudios dedicados a Juan Peset Aleixandre, vol. III. Valencia: Universidad de Valencia, pp. 477–87.
Rutty, J. 1770. Chronological History of the Weather and Seasons and of Prevailing Diseases in Dublin. Dublin: Sleator.
Ruwet, J. 1954. ‘Crises démographiques: problèmes économiques ou crises morales? Le pays de Liège sous l’Ancien Régime’. Population 9: 451–76.
Salmelli, D. 1986. ‘L’alluvione e il freddo: il 1705 e il 1709’, in Finzi (ed.), pp. 1797.
Salzmann, M. 1978. Die Wirtschaftskrise im Kanton Zürich 1845 bis 1848: Ihre Stellung und Wertung im Rahmen der wirtschaftlich-sozialen Entwicklung in der ersten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts. Bern: Peter Lang.
Sánchez-Albornoz, N. 1968. ‘La Crisis de Subsistencia de 1857’, in España hace un siglo: Una economía dual. Barcelona: Península, pp. 57–134.
Santa Cruz, A. de (ed. de Mata Carriazo, J.) 1927 [1552]. Crónica de los Reyes Católicos, 2 vols. Madrid: Espasa-Calpe.
Savy, P. 2011. ‘Les disettes en Lombardie d’après les sources narratives (fin XIIIe – début XIVe siècle)’, in Bourin, M., Menant, F., and Drendel, J. (eds.). Les disettes dans la conjoncture de 1300 en Méditerranée occidentale. Rome: École Française de Rome, pp. 181205.
Sax, P. (ed. Panten, A.) 1986 [1636]. Nova, totius Frisiae septentrionalis, Descriptio…. St. Peter Ording, Germany: Nordfriisk Instituut.
Schanbacher, A. 2012. ‘Vulnerabilität, Kartoffelkrankheit und Nahrungskrise vor Ort: das Fürstentum Osnabrück 1845–1847’, in Collet, D., Lassen, T., and Schanbacher, A. (eds.). Handeln in Hungerkrisen: Neue Perspektiven auf soziale und klimatische Vulnerabilität. Göttingen: Universitätsverlag, pp. 111–30.
Schanbacher, A. 2015. ‘Kartoffelkrankheit und Nahrungskrise in Nordwestdeutschland 1845–1849/61’, unpublished thesis. University of Göttingen.
Schlöder, C. 2014. Bonn im 18. Jahrhundert: Die Bevölkerung einer geistlichen Residenzstadt. Cologne: Böhlau.
Schmahl, H. 2001. ‘Innerlicher Mangel und Äusserliche Nahrungshoffnung: Aspekte der Auswanderung aus Kurmainz im 18. Jahrhundert’, in Hartmann, P. C. (ed.). Reichskirche – Mainzer Kurstaat – Reichserzkanzler. Frankfurt: Peter Lang, pp. 121–44.
Schmidt, G. 1991. ‘Die frühneuzeitlichen Hungerrevolten: soziale Konflikte und Wirtschaftspolitik im Alten Reich’. Zeitschrift für Historische Forschung 18: 257–80.
Schofield, P. R. 1997. ‘Dearth, debt and the local land market in a thirteenth-century village community’. Agricultural History Review 45: 117.
Schofield, P. R. 2008. ‘The social economy of the medieval village in the early fourteenth century’. Economic History Review 61 (suppl.): 3863.
Scholliers, E. 1960. De levensstandaard in de XVe en XVIe eeuw te Antwerpen. Antwerp: De Sikkel NV.
Schrier, A. 1958. Ireland and the American Emigration 1850–1900. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Schulte Beerbühl, M. 2004. ‘Frühneuzeitliche Flüchtlingshilfe in Großbritannien und das Schicksal der Pfälzer Auswanderer von 1709’, in Beer, M., and Dahlmann, D. (eds.). Über die trockene Grenze und über das offene Meer: Binneneuropäische und transatlantische Migrationen im 18. und 19. Jahrhundert. Essen: Klartext, pp. 303–28.
Sellin, T. 1946. ‘The Netherlands during German occupation’. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 245: 1180.
Sen, A. 1981. Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Sentrie, P. 2007. ‘Een demografische schets van West-Vlaanderen 1500–1850’, unpublished MA thesis. Ghent University.
Sesma Muñoz, J. A., and Laliena Corbera, C. (eds.) 2004. La población de Aragón en la Edad Media (siglos XIII–XIV): Estudios de demografía histórica. Zaragoza: Leyere editorial.
Sharp, B. 1980. In Contempt of All Authority: Rural Artisans and Riot in the West of England, 1586–1660. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Sharp, B. 2013. ‘Royal paternalism and the moral economy in the reign of Edward II: the response to the Great Famine’. Economic History Review 66: 628–47.
Sieglerschmidt, J. 1992. ‘Untersuchungen zur Teuerung in Südwestdeutschland 1816/17’, in Hagenmaier, M., and Holtz, S. (eds.). Krisenbewusstsein und Krisenbewältigung in der Frühen Neuzeit: Crisis in Early Modern Europe: Festschrift für Hans-Christoph Rublack. Frankfurt: Peter Lang, pp. 113–44.
Simms, J. Y. 1977. ‘The crisis in Russian agriculture at the end of the nineteenth century: a different view’. Slavic Review 36: 377–98.
Sköld, P. 2001. ‘Kunskap och kontroll: den svenska befolkningsstatistikens historia’, Demographic Database Report no. 17. Umeå, Sweden: Umeå University.
Slack, P. 1992. ‘Dearth and social policy in early modern England’. Social History of Medicine 5: 117.
Slaveski, F. 2013. ‘The occupiers’ burden: tackling food shortage and related health problems in post-war Germany, 1945–47’, in Lumey and Vaiserman (eds.), pp. 187206.
Slavin, P. 2014. ‘Market failure during the Great Famine in England and Wales (1315–1317)’. Past and Present 222: 949.
Slicher van Bath, B. H. 1970. ‘Welvaart op wankele basis: de sociaal-economische omstandigheden gedurende de middeleeuwen’, in Geschiedenis van Overijssel. Deventer: Kluwer, pp. 93105.
Slicher van Bath, B. H. 1977. ‘Agriculture in the vital revolution’, in Rich, E. E., and Wilson, C. H. (eds.). The Cambridge Economic History of Europe, vol. V, The Economic Organization of Early Modern Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 42132.
Smith, A. 1976 [1776]. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Smith, C. A. 1947. ‘Effects of wartime starvation in Holland on pregnancy and its products’. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 53: 599608.
Smith, R. M. 2015. ‘Dearth and local political responses: 1280–1325 and 1580–1596/7 compared’, in Kowaleski, M., Langdon, J., and Schofield, P. R. (eds.). Peasants and Lords in the Medieval English Economy: Essays in Honour of Bruce M. S. Campbell. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, pp. 377406.
Smyth, W. J. 2006. Map-Making, Landscapes and Memory: A Geography of Colonial and Early Modern Ireland c. 1530–1750. Cork: Cork University Press.
Soden, J. von 1828. Die annonarische Gesetzgebung: Versuch eines Systems…Nebst einer annonarischen Bibliothek. Nuremberg: Riegel & Wießner.
Soens, T. 2009. De spade in de dijk? Waterbeheer en rurale samenleving in de Vlaamse kustvlakte, 1280–1580. Ghent: Academia Press.
Soens, T., and Thoen, E. 2010. ‘Vegetarians or carnivores? Standards of living and diet in late medieval Flanders’, in Cavaciocchi (ed.), pp. 495527.
Sogner, S. 1976. Folkevekst og flytting: En historisk-demografisk studie i 1700-årenes Øst-Norge. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.
Sokoloff, K., and Engerman, S. L. 2000. ‘History lessons: institutions, land endowment, and paths of development in the New World’. Journal of Economic Perspectives 14: 217–32.
Solantie, R. 1988. ‘Climatic conditions for the cultivation of rye with reference to the history of settlement in Finland’. Fennoscandia Archaelogica 5: 320.
Solar, P. M. 1989. ‘The Great Famine was no ordinary subsistence crisis’, in Crawford (ed.), pp. 112–33.
Solar, P. M. 2007. ‘The crisis of the late 1840s: what can be learned from prices?’, in Ó Gráda, Paping and Vanhaute (eds.), pp. 7993.
Solar, P. M. 2015. ‘Why Ireland Starved and the big issues in pre-famine Irish economic history’. Irish Economic and Social History 42: 6275.
Sommarin, E. 1917. Det skånska jordbrukets ekonomiska utveckling 1801–1914, vol. I. Lund, Sweden: Berlingska Boktryckeriet.
Sommer, D. 2013. Eine baltisch-adlige Missionarin bewegt Europa: Barbara Juliane v. Krüdener, geb. v. Vietinghoff gen Scheel (1764–1824). Göttingen: Francke.
Sparén, P., Vågerö, D., Shestov, D. B., Plavinskaja, S., Parfenova, N., Hoptiar, V., Paturot, D., and Galanti, M. R. 2003. ‘Long term mortality after severe starvation during the siege of Leningrad: prospective cohort study’. British Medical Journal 328: doi: 10.1136/bmj.37942.603970.9A.
Spufford, M. 1974. Contrasting Communities: English Villages in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Stanner, S. A., and Yudkin, J. S. 2001. ‘Fetal programming and the Leningrad Siege study’. Twin Research 4: 287–92.
Statistics Sweden 1999. Befolkningsutvecklingen under 250 år: Historisk statistik för Sverige. Stockholm: Statistika Centralbyrån.
Stauter-Halsted, K. 2001. The Nation in the Village: The Genesis of Peasant National Identity in Austrian Poland, 1848–1914. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Stein, Z. A., Susser, M., Saenger, G., and Marolla, F. 1975. Famine and Human Development: The Dutch Hunger Winter of 1944/45. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Stewart, L. A. M. 2005, ‘Poor relief in Edinburgh and the famine of 1621–24’. International Review of Scottish Studies 30: 540.
Stöger, G. 2012. Sekundäre Märkte: Zum Wiener und Salzburger Gebrauchtwarenhandel im 17. und 18. Jahrhundert. Munich: Oldenbourg.
Stone, N. 1975. The Eastern Front 1914–1917. London: Macmillan.
Strangio, D. 1998. ‘Di fronte alla carestia in età preindustriale’. Rivista di Storia Economica 14: 161–92.
Strangio, D. 1999. Crisi alimentari e politica annonaria a Roma nel settecento. Rome: Istituto Nazionale di Studi Romani.
Strangio, D. 2013. ‘Papal debt in the Papal State, sixteenth to eighteenth century’. Journal of Interdisciplinary History 43: 511–37.
Strömmer, E. 2003. Klima-Geschichte: Methoden der Rekonstruktion und historische Perspektive: Ostösterreich 1700 bis 1830. Vienna: Deuticke.
Struick, E. 1981. ‘Utrechts Beziehungen zum flachen Land im Mittelalter’. Hansisch Geschichtsblätter 99: 110.
Studer, R. 2008. ‘Market integration and economic development: a comparative study of India and Europe, 1700–1900’, unpublished PhD thesis. University of Oxford.
Studer, R. 2015. The Great Divergence Reconsidered: Europe, India, and the Rise to Global Economic Power. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Studer, R., and Schuppli, P. 2008. ‘Deflating Swiss prices over the past five centuries’. Historical Methods: A Journal of Quantitative and Interdisciplinary Methods 41: 137–53.
Surface, F. M. 1926. American Pork Production in the World War. Chicago: Shaw.
Swift, J. 1948. History of the Dublin Bakers and Others. Dublin: Irish Bakers, Confectionery and Allied Workers Union.
Szöllösi-Janze, M. 1997. ‘Notdurft – Bedürfnis: historische Dimensionen eines Begriffswandels’. Geschichte in Wissenschaft und Unterricht 48: 653–73.
Taubenberger, J. K., and Morens, D. M. 2006. ‘1918 influenza: the mother of all pandemics’. Emerging Infectious Diseases 12: 1520.
Teuteberg, H. J., and Wiegelmann, G. 1986. ‘Einführung und Nutzung der Kartoffel in Deutschland’, in Unsere tägliche Kost: Geschichte und regionale Prägung. Münster, Germany: Coppenrath, pp. 93134.
Thoen, E. 1988. Landbouwekonomie en bevolking in Vlaanderen gedurende de late Middeleeuwen en het begin van de Moderne Tijden: Testregio: De kasselrijen van Oudenaarde en Aalst, eind 13de – eerste helft 16de eeuw, 2 vols. Ghent: Belgisch Centrum voor Landelijke Geschiedenis.
Thoen, E. 1995. ‘Historical demography in late medieval rural Flanders: recent results and hypotheses’, in Duvosquel, J.-M., and Thoen, E. (eds.). Peasants and Townsmen in Medieval Europe: Studia in honorem Adriaan Verhulst. Ghent: Snoeck-Ducaju, pp. 573–82.
Thompson, E. P. 1971. ‘The moral economy of the English crowd in the 18th century’. Past and Present 50: 76136.
Thorarinsson, S. 1944. Tefrokronologiska studier på Island: Þjórsárdalur och dess förödelse. Stockholm: Geografiska Annaler.
Tijms, W. 1977. Prijzen van granen en peulvruchten te Arnhem, Breda, Deventer, ‘s-Hertogenbosch, Kampen, Koevorden, Maastricht en Nijmegen, 2 vols. Groningen: Nederlands Agronomisch Historisch Instituut.
Tijms, W. 1989. ‘De effractie van Sint Andries te Roermond’. Studies over de sociaal-economische geschiedenis van Limburg 34: 112–63.
Tijms, W. 2000. Groninger graanprijzen: De prijzen van agrarische producten tussen 1546 en 1990. Groningen: Nederlands Agronomisch Historisch Instituut.
Tilly, L. A. 1972. ‘La révolte frumentaire, forme de conflit politique en France’. Annales: Économies, Sociétés, Civilisations 27: 731–57 [translation of (1971) ‘The food riot as a form of political conflict in France’. Journal of Interdisciplinary History 2: 2357].
Tilly, L. A. 1983. ‘Food entitlement, famine, and conflict’. Journal of Interdisciplinary History 14: 333–49.
Tilly, L. A. 1985. ‘Food entitlement, famine, and conflict’, in Rotberg and Rabb (eds.), pp. 135–51.
Tits-Dieuaide, M.-J. 1975. La formation des prix céréaliers en Brabant et en Flandre au XVe siècle. Brussels: Édition de l’Université de Bruxelles.
Tobi, E. W., Lumey, L. H., Talens, R. P., Kremer, D., Putter, H., Stein, A. D., Slagboom, P. E., and Heijmans, B. T. 2009. ‘DNA methylation differences after exposure to prenatal famine are common and timing- and sex-specific’. Human Molecular Genetics 18: 4046–53.
Tomasson, R. 1977. ‘A millennium of misery: the demography of the Icelander’. Population Studies 31: 405–27.
Trienekens, G. 2000. ‘The food supply in the Netherlands during the Second World War’, in Smith, D. F., and Phillips, J. (eds.). Food, Science, Policy and Regulation in the Twentieth Century. London: Routledge, pp. 117–34.
Turchin, P., and Nefedov, S. A. 2009. Secular Cycles. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Tvauri, A. 2014. ‘The impact of the climate catastrophe of 536–537 AD in Estonia and neighbouring areas’. Estonian Journal of Archaeology 18: 3056.
Uebele, M., Grünebaum, T., and Kopsidis, M. 2013. ‘King’s law and food storage in Saxony, c. 1790–1830’, Working Paper no. 2613. Münster, Germany: Center for Quantitative Economics, University of Münster.
Ulbrich, C. 1993. ‘Zwischen Resignation und Aufbegehren: Frauen, Armut und Hunger im vorindustriellen Europa’, in Klein, G. (ed.). Begehren und Entbehren: Bochumer Beiträge zur Geschlechterforschung. Pfaffenweiler, Germany: Centaurus, pp. 167–83.
Unger, W. S. 1916. ‘De Hollandsche graanhandel en de graanhandelspolitiek in de middeleeuwen’. De Economist 65: 243–70, 337–87, 461–87.
Utterström, G. 1955. ‘Climatic fluctuations and population problems in early modern history’. Scandinavian Economic History Review 3: 347.
Utterström, G. 1957. Jordbrukets arbetare: Levnadsvillkor och arbetsliv på landsbygden från frihetstiden till mitten av 1800-talet, 2 vols. Stockholm: Tidens Förlag.
Vågerö, D., Koupil, I., Parfenova, N., and Sparén, P. 2013. ‘Long-term health consequences following the siege of Leningrad’, in Lumey and Vaiserman (eds.), pp. 207–26.
Valdeón, J. 1969. ‘Aspectos de la crisis castellana de la primera mitad del siglo XIV’. Hispania 29: 524.
Valdeón, J. 1984. ‘Reflexiones sobre la crisis bajomedieval en Castilla’, in En la España medieval IV: Estudios dedicados al profesor D. Ángel Ferrari Núñez, vol. II. Madrid: Universidad Complutense, pp. 1047–60.
Vallin, J., Meslé, F., Adamets, S., and Pyrozhkov, S. 2012. ‘The crisis of the 1930s’, in Meslé, F., and Vallin, J. (eds.). Mortality and Causes of Death in 20th-Century Ukraine. New York: Springer, pp. 1338.
Van Bavel, B. 2010. Manors and Markets: Economy and Society in the Low Countries, 500–1600. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Van Bavel, B., and Van Zanden, J. L. 2004. ‘The jump-start of the Holland economy during the late-medieval crisis, c. 1350 – c. 1500’. Economic History Review 57: 503–32.
Van Bavel, B., and Rijpma, A. 2016. ‘How important were formalized charity and social spending before the rise of the welfare state? A long-run analysis of selected western European cases, 1400–1850’. Economic History Review 69: 159–87.
Van der Wee, H. 1966. ‘De handelsbetrekkingen tussen Antwerpen en de Noordelijke Nederlanden tijdens de 14e, 15e en 16e eeuw’. Bijdragen voor de Geschiedenis der Nederlanden 20: 268–85.
Van der Woude, A. M. 1972. Het Noorderkwartier: Een regionaal-historisch onderzoek in de demografische en economische geschiedenis van westelijk Nederland van de late Middeleeuwen tot het begin van de negentiende eeuw. Wageningen, Netherlands: Veenman.
Van der Zee, H. A. 1998. The Hunger Winter: Occupied Holland 1944–1945. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.
Van Osta, M.-H. 1969. ‘Het hongerjaar 1709: een onderzoek naar de prijsmechanismen van een crisisjaar en naar de toestand en de reacties van de bevolking in Vlaanderen en Brabant’, unpublished MA thesis. Ghent University.
Van Schaïk, R. 1978. ‘Prijs- en levensmiddelenpolitiek in de Noordelijke Nederlanden van de 14e tot de 17e eeuw: bronnen en problemen’. Tijdschrift voor Geschiedenis 91: 214–55.
Van Schaïk, R. 1987. Belasting, bevolking en bezit in Gelre en Zutphen, 1350–1550. Hilversum, Netherlands: Verloren.
Van Tielhof, M. 1995. De Hollandse graanhandel 1470–1570: Koren op de Amsterdamse molen. The Hague: Stichting Hollandse Historische Reeks.
Van Tielhof, M. 2002. The ‘Mother of All Trades’: The Baltic Grain Trade in Amsterdam from the Late 16th to the Early 19th Century. Leiden: Brill.
Van Werveke, H. 1959. ‘La famine de l’an 1315 en Flandre et dans les régions voisines’. Revue du Nord 41: 514.
Van Zanden, J. L. 2009. The Long Road to the Industrial Revolution: The European Economy in a Global Perspective, 1000–1800. Leiden: Brill.
Vandenbroeke, C. 1975. Agriculture et alimentation. Ghent: Belgisch Centrum voor Landelijke Geschiedenis.
Vanhaute, E. 2007. ‘“So worthy an example to Ireland”: the subsistence and industrial crisis of 1845–1850 in Flanders’, in Ó Gráda, Paping and Vanhaute (eds.), pp. 123–48.
Vanhaute, E., and Lambrecht, T. 2011. ‘Famine, exchange networks and the village community: a comparative analysis of the subsistence crises of the 1740s and the 1840s in Flanders’. Continuity and Change 26: 155–86.
Vasey, D. E. 1991. ‘Population, agriculture, and famine: Iceland, 1784–1785’. Human Ecology 19: 323–50.
Vasey, D. E. 1996. ‘Population regulation, ecology, and political economy in preindustrial Iceland’. American Ethnologist 23: 366–92.
Vasold, M. 2008. ‘Die Hunger- und Sterblichkeitskrise von 1770/73 und der Niedergang des Ancien Régime’. Saeculum 59: 107–42.
Verhaeghe, F. 1984. ‘The late medieval crisis in the Low Countries: the archaeological viewpoint’, in Seibt, F., and Eberhard, W. (eds.). Die Krise des Spätmittelalters. Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta, pp. 146–71.
Verhulst, A. 1965. ‘Prijzen van granen, boter en kaas te Brugge volgens de slag van het Sint-Donatiaanskapittel (1348–1801)’, in Verlinden, C., and Scholliers, E. (eds.). Dokumenten voor de geschiedenis van prijzen en lonen in Vlaanderen en Brabant, vol. II. Bruges: Thempelhof, pp. 370.
Vilar, P. 1969. Oro y moneda en la historia (1450–1920). Barcelona: Ariel.
Vilar, P. 1972. ‘El Motín de Esquilache y las crisis del Antiguo Régimen’. Revista de Occidente 107: 199249.
Villalba, J. de 1803. Epidemiología española, o historia cronológica de las pestes, contagios, epidemias y epizootias que han acaecido en España…hasta el año 1801, 2 vols. Madrid: Imprenta de D. Fermín Villalpando.
Vincent, C. P. 1985. The Politics of Hunger: The Allied Blockade of Germany, 1915–1919. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press.
Vivier, N. 2007. ‘The crisis in France: a memorable crisis but not a potato crisis’, in Ó Gráda, Paping and Vanhaute (eds.), pp. 223–45.
Voglis, P. 2006. ‘Surviving hunger: life in the cities and the countryside during the Occupation’, in Gildea, R., Wievorka, O., and Warring, A. (eds.). Surviving Hitler and Mussolini: Daily Life in Occupied Europe. Oxford: Berg, pp. 1641.
Voutilainen, M. 2015. ‘Feeding the famine: social vulnerability and dislocation during the Finnish famine of the 1860s’, in Curran, D., Luciuk, L., and Newby, A. (eds.). Famines in European Economic History: The Last Great European Famines Reconsidered. Abingdon, UK: Routledge, pp. 124–44.
Walford, C. 1878. The famines of the world: past and present. Journal of the Statistical Society of London 41: 433535.
Walter, J. 1980. ‘Grain riots and popular attitudes to the law: Maldon and the crisis of 1629’, in Brewer, J., and Styles, J. (eds.). An Ungovernable People: The English and Their Law in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. London: Hutchinson, pp. 4784.
Walter, J. 1989. ‘The social economy of dearth in early modern England’, in Walter, J., and Schofield, R. S. (eds.). Famine, Disease and the Social Order in Early Modern Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 75128.
Walter, J., and Schofield, R. S. 1989, ‘Famine, disease and crisis mortality in early modern society’, in Famine, Disease and the Social Order in Early Modern Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 174.
Walter, J., and Wrightson, K. 1976. ‘Dearth and the social order in early modern England’. Past and Present 71: 2242.
Watkins, S. C., and Menken, J. 1985. ‘Famines in historical perspective’. Population and Development Review 11: 647–75.
Weber, E. 2005. Untiefen, Flut und Flauten: Der Güterverkehr auf dem Rhein zwischen 1750 und 1850: Die Modernisierung der vorindustriellen Rheinschifffahrt aus einer wirtschafts-, sozial- und umweltgeschichtlichen Perspektive betrachtet, PhD dissertation. University of Bern.
Weber, S. 2012. ‘Migration als Herrschaftsproblem: die Maßnahmen der kurmainzischen Landesregierung gegen die Emigration von Untertanen 1763–1774’, in Rebitsch, R., Taddei, E., and Müller, M. (eds.). Migration und Reisen: Mobilität in der Neuzeit. Innsbruck: Studien Verlag, pp. 309–22.
Weiler, P. (ed.) 1935. Urkundenbuch des Stiftes Xanten, vol. I, (Vor 590) bis 1359. Bonn: Röhrscheid.
Weir, D. R. 1984. ‘Life under pressure: France and England, 1670–1870’. Journal of Economic History 44: 2747.
Weir, D. R. 1989. ‘Markets and mortality in France, 1600–1789’, in Walter, J., and Schofield, R. S. (eds.). Famine, Disease and the Social Order in Early Modern Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 201–34.
Wells, R. 1996. ‘The Irish famine of 1799–1801: market culture, moral economies and social protest’, in Randall, A., and Charlesworth, A. (eds.). Markets, Market Culture and Popular Protest in Eighteenth-Century Britain and Ireland. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, pp. 163–95.
Wheatcroft, S. G. 1976a. ‘Population dynamic and factors affecting it, in the USSR in the 1920s and 1930s, part I’, Soviet Industrialisation Project Series Discussion Paper no. 1. Birmingham: Centre for Russian and East European Studies, University of Birmingham.
Wheatcroft, S. G. 1976b. ‘Population dynamic and factors affecting it, in the USSR in the 1920s and 1930s, part II, statistical appendices’, Soviet Industrialisation Project Series Discussion Paper no. 2. Birmingham: Centre for Russian and East European Studies, University of Birmingham.
Wheatcroft, S. G. 1977. ‘The significance of climatic and weather change on Soviet agriculture (with particular reference to the 1920s and the 1930s)’, Soviet Industrialisation Project Series Discussion Paper no. 11. Birmingham: Centre for Russian and East European Studies, University of Birmingham.
Wheatcroft, S. G. 1981a. ‘Famine and factors affecting mortality in the USSR: the demographic crises of 1914–1922 and 1930–1933’, Soviet Industrialisation Project Series Discussion Paper no. 20. Birmingham: Centre for Russian and East European Studies, University of Birmingham.
Wheatcroft, S. G. 1981b. ‘Famine and factors affecting mortality in the USSR: the demographic crises of 1914–1922 and 1930–1933, statistical appendices’, Soviet Industrialisation Project Series Discussion Paper no. 21. Birmingham: Centre for Russian and East European Studies, University of Birmingham.
Wheatcroft, S. G. 1983. ‘Famine and epidemic crises in Russia, 1918–1922: the case of Saratov’. Annales de Demographie Historique: 329–52.
Wheatcroft, S. G. 1991. ‘Crises and the condition of the peasantry in late imperial Russia’, in Kingston-Mann, E., and Mixter, T. (eds.). Peasant Economy, Culture, and Politics of European Russia, 1800–1921. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, pp. 128–74.
Wheatcroft, S. G. 1992. ‘The 1891–92 famine in Russia: towards a more detailed analysis of its scale and demographic significance’, in Edmondson, L., and Waldron, P. (eds.). Economy and Society in Russia and the Soviet Union, 1860–1930. Basingstoke: Palgrave-Macmillan, pp. 4464.
Wheatcroft, S. G. 1993. ‘Famine and food consumption records in early Soviet history 1917–25’, in Geissler, C., and Oddy, D. J. (eds.). Food Diet and Economic Change: Past and Present. Leicester: Leicester University Press, pp. 151–74.
Wheatcroft, S. G. 2001a. ‘On grain harvests and evaluations of yield in USSR in 1931–33’, in Danilov, Manning and Viola (eds.), pp. 842–65.
Wheatcroft, S. G. 2001b. ‘On demographic evidence of the tragedy of the Soviet village, 1931–33’, in Danilov, Manning and Viola (eds.), pp. 866–87.
Wheatcroft, S. G. 2004. ‘Towards explaining the Soviet famine of 1931–3: political and natural factors in perspective’. Food and Foodways 12: 107–36.
Wheatcroft, S. G. 2009. ‘The first 35 years of Soviet living standards: secular growth and conjunctural crises in a time of famines’. Explorations in Economic History 46: 2452.
Wheatcroft, S. G. 2012. ‘The Soviet famine of 1946–1947, the weather and human agency in historical perspective’. Europe-Asia Studies 64: 9871015.
Wheatcroft, S. G. 2013. ‘Pokazateli demograficheskogo krizisa v period goloda’, in Kondrashin, V. (ed.). Golod v SSSR, 1929–1934: Dokumenty, vol. III, Leto 1933–1934, bk. 2. Moscow: MFD, pp. 719–71 [a fuller version is available on the website of the Russian State archives Administration (Gosarkhiv):].
Wheatcroft, S. G. (ed.) 2017. ‘Famines in Russia and the USSR’, working paper. Melbourne: Melbourne University.
Wheatcroft, S. G., and Bishop, I. 2017. ‘A crop weather model for the USSR’, in Wheatcroft (ed.).
Wheatcroft, S. G., and Ó Gráda, C. 2017. ‘The European famines of World Wars 1 and 2: causes and consequences’, working paper (with data appendix).
Wheatcroft, S. G., Garnaut, A., and Leikin, I. 2013. ‘Mapping crude death rates in Ukraine in 1933 and explaining the raion patterns’, in Golod v Ukraini y pershiipolovini XX stolittya: Prichini ta naslidki (1921–1923, 1932–1933, 1946–1947): Materiali mizhnarodnoi naukovoi konferentsii. Kiev: Institut istorii Ukraini, pp. 219–25.
White, S. 2013. ‘The Little Ice Age crisis of the Ottoman Empire: a conjuncture in Middle East environmental history’, in Mikhail, A. (ed.). Water on Sand: Environmental Histories of the Middle East and North Africa. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 7190.
Winter, J. 1997. ‘Surviving the war: life expectation, illness and mortality rates in Paris, London, and Berlin 1914–1919’, in Winter, J., and Robert, J.-L. (eds.). Capital Cities at War: Paris, London, Berlin 1914–1919. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 487523.
Wood, G. 2014. Tambora: The Eruption that Changed the World. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Woodham-Smith, C. 1962. The Great Hunger. London: Hamish Hamilton.
Woodward, D. R. 2003. Trial by Friendship: Anglo-American Relations, 1917–1918. Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky Press.
Wrigley, E. A., and Schofield, R. S. 1981. The Population History of England 1541–1871: A Reconstruction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wyffels, A. 1985. ‘Het kwalitatief en kwantitatief aspekt van het graanverbuik in Vlaanderen in de 16de en 17de eeuw’. Bijdragen tot de Prijzengeschiedenis 3: 113–20.
Zanetti, D. 1964. Problemi alimentari di una economia pre-industriale: Cereali a Pavia dal 1398 al 1700. Turin: Bollati Boringhieri.
Zima, V. F. 1996. Golod v SSSR 1946–1947 godov: Proiskhozhdenie i posledstviya. Moscow: Institut rossiiskoi istorii RAN.
Zimmermann, C. 1987. ‘“Noth und Theuerung” im badischen Unterland: Reformkurs und Krisenmanagement unter dem aufgeklärten Absolutismus’. Aufklärung 2: 95119.
Zimmermann, C. 1994. ‘Obrigkeitliche Krisenregulierung und kommunale Interessen: das Beispiel Württemberg 1770/71’, in Gailus, M., and Volkmann, H. (eds.). Der Kampf um das tägliche Brot: Nahrungsmangel, Versorgungspolitik und Protest 1770–1990. Opladen, Germany: Westdeutscher Verlag, pp. 107–31.
Zubkova, E. 1993. Russia after the War: Hopes, Illusions, and Disappointments, 1945–1957. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.
Zürcher, E. J. 2004. Turkey: A Modern History. London: I. B. Tauris.