Skip to main content
From Empires to NGOs in the West African Sahel
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 13
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Dedieu, Jean-Philippe and Mbodj-Pouye, Aïssatou 2018. The Fabric of Transnational Political Activism: “Révolution Afrique” and West African Radical Militants in France in the 1970s. Comparative Studies in Society and History, Vol. 60, Issue. 4, p. 1172.

    Rodet, Marie and County, Brandon 2018. Old homes and new homelands: imagining the nation and remembering expulsion in the wake of the Mali Federation's collapse. Africa, Vol. 88, Issue. 3, p. 469.

    Slobodkin, Yan 2018. State of Violence. French Historical Studies, Vol. 41, Issue. 1, p. 33.

    Chafer, Tony 2018. The Palgrave Handbook of African Colonial and Postcolonial History. p. 801.

    Charbonneau, Bruno 2017. Intervention in Mali: building peace between peacekeeping and counterterrorism. Journal of Contemporary African Studies, Vol. 35, Issue. 4, p. 415.

    Giannini, Alessandra Krishnamurthy, P. Krishna Cousin, Rémi Labidi, Naouar and Choularton, Richard J. 2017. Climate risk and food security in Mali: A historical perspective on adaptation. Earth's Future, Vol. 5, Issue. 2, p. 144.

    Hames, John 2017. Language Activism on the Airwaves: Pulaar Radio Broadcasting in the Senegal River Valley. Communication, Culture & Critique, Vol. 10, Issue. 4, p. 657.

    Hames, John 2017. “A river is not a boundary”: interplays of national and linguistic citizenship in Pulaar language activism. Canadian Journal of African Studies / Revue canadienne des études africaines, Vol. 51, Issue. 1, p. 103.

    Hernann, Andrew 2016. Discourse in crisis: situating slavery, jihad and military intervention in northern Mali. Dialectical Anthropology, Vol. 40, Issue. 3, p. 267.

    MBODJ-POUYE, AÏSSATOU 2016. Fixed abodes: Urban emplacement, bureaucratic requirements, and the politics of belonging among West African migrants in Paris. American Ethnologist, Vol. 43, Issue. 2, p. 295.

    O'Sullivan, Kevin Hilton, Matthew and Fiori, Juliano 2016. Humanitarianisms in context. European Review of History: Revue européenne d'histoire, Vol. 23, Issue. 1-2, p. 1.

    Dedieu, Jean-Philippe and Mbodj-Pouye, Aissatou 2016. The first collective protest of black African migrants in postcolonial France (1960–1975): a struggle for housing and rights. Ethnic and Racial Studies, Vol. 39, Issue. 6, p. 958.

    Mc Laughlin, Fiona 2015. Linguistic warscapes of northern Mali. Linguistic Landscape, Vol. 1, Issue. 3, p. 213.

  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    From Empires to NGOs in the West African Sahel
    • Online ISBN: 9781139061209
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

This book looks beyond the familiar history of former empires and new nation-states to consider newly transnational communities of solidarity and aid, social science and activism. Shortly after independence from France in 1960, the people living along the Sahel - a long, thin stretch of land bordering the Sahara - became the subjects of human rights campaigns and humanitarian interventions. Just when its states were strongest and most ambitious, the postcolonial West African Sahel became fertile terrain for the production of novel forms of governmental rationality realized through NGOs. The roots of this 'nongovernmentality' lay partly in Europe and North America, but it flowered, paradoxically, in the Sahel. This book is unique in that it questions not only how West African states exercised their new sovereignty but also how and why NGOs - ranging from CARE and Amnesty International to black internationalists - began to assume elements of sovereignty during a period in which it was so highly valued.


'Gregory Mann gives us a thought-provoking, nuanced, deeply researched exposition of what sovereignty does and does not mean in the context of the decolonization of French West Africa and the inability of African states to meet the hopes of most of their citizens. He explores Africans’ immersion in different forms of connection across space, conflicting claims of African states and the French government to regulate cross-border migration within Africa, controversies over the rights of former citizens from Africa to work and live in France, and the effects of NGO interventions on how Africa is governed.'

Frederick Cooper - author of Citizenship between Empire and Nation: Remaking France and French Africa, 1945–1960

'While the rise of NGOs has too often been treated as a simple product of ‘neoliberalism', Gregory Mann here argues that, at least in the Sahel, it was international interventions during an earlier period of supposedly strong state sovereignty that laid the foundations for ‘nongovernmentality'. An original and important contribution.'

James Ferguson - Stanford University, California

'Driving across the Sahel, but refusing stereotypes, Gregory Mann discovered that it was anticolonialists who opened borders to nongovernmental organizations, which ‘reprogrammed’ their hosts but in a complex pattern of coexistence. A new sort of politics was created, with the rise of neoliberalism … Cutting across space and time in an original way, the book magnificently complicates so many familiar stories that it makes crucial reading for anyone interested in the makings of our times.'

Samuel Moyn - Harvard University, Massachusetts

'This well-researched and written book surveys the pursuit and practice of sovereignty in the Sahel, notably Soudan/Mali … This innovative and insightful book includes maps and deserves inclusion in research university libraries. Summing up: highly recommended.'

P. C. Naylor Source: Choice

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
Works Cited
Books, Articles, and Reports
l’Aide de la France aux états de la Sahel victimes de la sécheresse. 1973. Paris: Secrétariat Général du Comité Interministériel pour l’Information.
Adedze, Agbenyega. 2003. In the Pursuit of Knowledge and Power: French scientific research in West Africa, 1938–65. Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 23, 1–2: 335–44.
Adler, Alfred, and Balandier, Georges, eds. 1986. Afrique Plurielle, Afrique Actuelle: Hommage à Georges Balandier. Paris: Karthala.
Agier, Michel. 2011. Managing the Undesireables: Refugee Camps and Humanitarian Government. Translated by Fernbach, David. Malden, MA: Polity.
al-Karansi, Awad al-Sid. 1987. The Establishment of neo-Mahdism in the Western Sudan, 1920–1936. African Affairs 86, 344: 385–404
Al-Naqar, ‘Umar. 1969a. Takrur: the History of a name. Journal of African History 10, 3: 365–74.
Al-Naqar, ‘Umar. 1969b. West Africa and the Muslim Pilgrimage: An Historical Study with Special Reference to the Nineteenth Century. Ph.D., School of Oriental and African Studies (University of London).
Al-Naqar, ‘Umar. 1972. The Pilgrimage Tradition in West Africa: An Historical Study with Special Reference to the Nineteenth Century. Khartoum: Khartoum University Press.
Alleg, Henri. 2008 [1958]. la Question. Paris: Editions Minuit.
Alpha Gado, Boureima. 1993. Une Histoire des famines au Sahel: étude des grandes crises alimentaires, XIXe-XXe siècles. Paris: l’Harmattan.
American Friends Service Committee [AFSC]. 1982. Tin Aicha Nomad Village. Philadelphia: American Friends Service Committee.
Amin, Samir. 1969. Le Monde des Affaires Sénégalais. Paris: Editions de Minuit.
Amin, Samir. 1973. Neo-Colonialism in West Africa. New York: Monthly Review Press.
Amselle, Jean-Loup. 1977. Les Négociants de la Savane: Histoire et organisation sociale des Kooroko (Mali). Paris: Editions Anthropos.
Amselle, Jean-Loup. 1978. le Mali socialiste, 1960–1968. Cahiers d’études africaines 18, 72: 631–34.
Amselle, Jean-Loup. 1985. Socialisme, capitalisme, et precapitalisme au Mali (1960–1982). In Contradictions of Accumulation in Africa, edited by Bernstein, Henry and Campbell, Bonnie K., 249–66. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Amselle, Jean-Loup. 2001. Branchements: Anthropologie de l’universalité des cultures. Paris: Flammarion.
Amselle, Jean-Loup. 2006. Les usages politiques du passé: le N’Ko et la décentralisation administrative au Mali. In Décentralisation et Pouvoirs en Afrique: En contrepoint, modèles territroriaux français, edited by Fay, C., Koné, Y. F. and Quiminal, C., 39–66. Paris: IRD Editions.
Arendt, Hannah. 1951 [1994]. Origins of Totalitarianism. San Diego, CA: Harcourt, Brace.
Asiwaju, A. I. 1979. Control through Coercion: A study of the indigénat regime in French West African administration, 1887–1946. Bulletin de l’IFAN, séries B 41: 35–75.
Autra, Ray [aka Mamadou Traoré]. 1964. l’Institut National de Recherches et de Documentation de la République de Guinée. Recherches Africaines 1–4: 5–35.
Awad, Mohamed. 1966. Report on Slavery. New York: United Nations.
, Amadou Hampâté. 1994. Oui, Mon Commandant!Arles: Actes Sud.
Babou, Cheikh Anta. 2005. Contesting Space, Shaping Places: Making room for the Muridiyya in colonial Senegal, 1912–45. Journal of African History 46, 3: 405–26.
Bagayogo, Shaka. 1999. Le Cheminement du Mali vers un Espace Politique Pluriel, Cercle de Réflexion Djoliba. Bamako: Centre Djoliba.
Bah, Tahirou. 2010. Mali: Le Procès permanent. Paris: l’Harmattan.
Balamoan, G. Ayoub. 1976. Migration Policies in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, 1884 to 1956. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Center for Population Studies.
Balamoan, G. Ayoub. 1981. Peoples and Economics in the Sudan, 1884 to 1956: The First Part of a History of Human Tragedies on the Nile (1884 to 1984). Rev. and extended ed., edited by Wyon, J. B.. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Center for Population Studies.
Balandier, Georges. 1948a. Erreurs noires. Présence Africaine 1, 3: 392–404.
Balandier, Georges. 1948b. l’Or de la Guinée Françaises [sic]. Présence Africaine 1, 4: 539–48.
Balandier, Georges. 1950a. Aspects de l’évolution sociale chez les Fang du Gabon (Afrique Équatoriale Française). Cahiers Internationaux de Sociologie 9: 76–106.
Balandier, Georges. 1950b. O. Mannoni: Psychologie de la colonisation. Cahiers Internationaux de Sociologie 9: 183–86.
Balandier, Georges. 1950c. La Participation de l’AEF à la Conférence Internationale des Africanistes de l’Ouest. Bulletin: Institut d’études centrafricains, nouvelle série 1, 79–80.
Balandier, Georges. 1951. La Situation coloniale: Approche théorique. Cahiers Internationaux de Sociologie 11: 44–79.
Balandier, Georges. 1952. Contribution à une sociologie de la dépendance. Cahiers Internationaux de Sociologie 12: 47–69.
Balandier, Georges. 1955a. Sociologie actuelle de l’Afrique noire: dynamique sociale en Afrique. Paris: Presses Universitaires de la France.
Balandier, Georges. 1955b. Sociologie des Brazzavilles Noires. Paris: A. Colin.
Balandier, Georges., ed. 1956. Le ‘Tiers Monde’: Sous-développement et développement, Institut National d’Etudes Démographiques. Travaux et Documents, Cahier No. 27. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
Balandier, Georges. 1965. Problématique des classes sociales en Afrique noire. Cahiers Internationaux de Sociologie 38: 131–42.
Balandier, Georges. 1966. Ambiguous Africa: Cultures in Collision. Translated by Weaver, Helen. New York: Pantheon.
Balandier, Georges. 1977. Histoire d’Autres. Paris: Stock.
Balandier, Georges. 1997. Conjugaisons. Paris: Fayard.
Balandier, Georges.. 2002. La Situation coloniale: Ancien concept, nouvelle réalité. French Politics, Culture and Society 20, 2: 4–10.
Balandier, Georges, Steinmetz, George, and Sapiro, Gisèle. 2010. Tout parcours scientifique comporte des moments autobiographiques. Actes de la Recherche en Sciences Sociales 185: 44–61.
Balfour, Ian, and Cadava, Edouard. 2004. The Claims of Human Rights: An introduction. South Atlantic Quarterly 103, 2–3: 277–96.
Barbour, K. M. 1966. Population Shifts and Changes in Sudan since 1898. Middle Eastern Studies 2, 2: 98–122.
Barnett, Michael. 2011. Empire of Humanity: A History of Humanitarianism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Barthélémy, Pascale. 2010. Africaines et Diplômées à l’époque coloniale (1918–1957). Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes.
Bat, Jean-Pierre. 2012. Le Syndrome Foccart: La politique française en Afrique, de 1959 à nos jours, Folio Histoire. Paris: Editions Gallimard.
Baulin, Jacques. 1986. Conseiller du Président Diori. Paris: Eurafor-Press.
Bawa Yamba, Christian. 1995. Permanent Pilgrims: The Role of Pilgrimage in the Lives of West African Muslims in Sudan. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Bayart, Jean-François. 2000. Africa in the World: A history of extraversion. African Affairs 99, 395: 217–67.
Bayart, Jean-François. 2011. Les Etudes Postcoloniales: Un Carnaval académique. Paris: Karthala.
Bechtold, Peter K. 1976. Politics in the Sudan: Parliamentary and Military Rule in an Emerging African Nation. New York: Praeger.
Beck, Kurt. 2013. Roadside Comforts: Truck stops on the forty days road in Western Sudan. Africa 83, 3: 426–55.
Bergamaschi, Isaline. 2009. Mali: Origins, patterns and limits of donor-driven ownership. In The Politics of Aid: African Strategies for Dealing with Donors, edited by Whitfield, Lindsay, 217–45. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Béridogo, Bréhima. 2006. Processus de décentralisation et pluralité de logiques des acteurs du Mali. In Décentralisation et Pouvoirs en Afrique: En contrepoint, modèles territroriaux français, edited by Fay, C., Koné, Y. F. and Quiminal, C., 199–217. Paris: IRD Editions.
Bernault, Florence. 2001. l’Afrique et la modernité des sciences sociales. Vingtième Siècle 70: 127–38.
Bertoncello, Brigitte, and Bredeloup, Sylvie. 2004. Colporteurs Africains à Marseille: Un siècle d’aventures. Paris: Editons Autrement.
Bianchini, Pascal. 2011. Suret-Canale: de la Résistance à l’anticolonialisme: entretiens autobiographiques. Paris: l’Esprit frappeur.
Biobaku, S., and al-Hajj, M.. 1966. The Sudanese Mahdiyya and the Niger-Chad region. In Islam in Tropical Africa, edited by Lewis, I. M., 425–42. London: International African Institute.
Birks, J. S. 1978. Across the Savannas to Mecca: The Overland Pilgrimage Route from West Africa. Totowa, NJ: F. Cass.
Bogosian, Catherine. 2003. The ‘Little Farming Soldiers’: The Evolution of a labor army in post-colonial Mali. Mande Studies 5: 83–100.
Boilley, Pierre. 1993. l’Organisation Commune des Régions Sahariennes (OCRS): Une tentative avortée. In Nomades et commandants: Administration et sociétés nomades dans l’ancienne A.O.F., edited by Bernus, Edmond, Boilley, Pierre, Clauzel, Jean, and Triaud, Jean-Louis, 215–39. Paris: Karthala.
Boilley, Pierre. 1999 [2012]. Les Touaregs Kel Adagh: dépendances et révoltes: du Soudan francais au Mali contemporain. Paris: Karthala.
Boilley, Pierre. 2003. Administrative Confinements and Confinements of Exile: The reclusion of nomads in the Sahara. In A History of Prison and Confinement in Africa, edited by Bernault, Florence, 221–38. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Bonnecase, Vincent. 2008. Pauvreté au Sahel: La construction des savoirs sur les niveaux de vie au Burkina Faso, au Mali et au Niger (1945–1974). Ph.D., Paris-I.
Bonnecase, Vincent. 2010. Retour sur la famine au Sahel du début des années 1970: la construction d’un savoir de crise. Politique Africaine 119: 23–42.
Bonnecase, Vincent. 2011. La Pauvreté au Sahel: du Savoir colonial à la mesure international. Paris: Karthala.
Bonnet, Jean. 1990. Soundiata. Hommes et migrations 1132: 57–59.
Boone, Catherine. 2003. Political Topographies of the African State: Territorial Authority and Institutional Choice. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Bourdieu, Pierre. 1993. Esprits d’Etat. Actes de la Recherche en Sciences Sociales 96–97: 49–62.
Bredeloup, Sylvie. 2007. La Diams’pora du fleuve Senegal. Toulouse: Presses Universitaires du Mirail.
Brenner, Louis. 2000. Amadou Hampâté Bâ: Tijânî francophone. In La Tijâniyya: Une Confrérie Musulmane à la conquête de l’Afrique, edited by Triaud, Jean-Louis and Robinson, David, 289–326. Paris: Karthala.
Brenner, Louis. 2001. Controlling Knowledge: Religion, Power, and Schooling in a West African Muslim Society. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Brot, Michel. 1999. Did the Popular Front have any Significant Impact in Guinée? In French Colonial Empire and the Popular Front, edited by Chafer, Tony and Sackur, Amanda, 188–202. New York: St. Martin’s.
Brumpt, L., et al. 1965. Pathologie des noirs transplantés. In Approche des problèmes de la migration noire en France, Special issue of Hommes et migrations: 3–58.
Brunschwig, Henri. 1983. Noirs et blancs dans l’Afrique noire française, ou, Comment le colonisé devient colonisateur, 1870–1914. Paris: Flammarion.
Buchanan, Tom. 2002. ‘The Truth Will Set You Free’: The making of Amnesty International. Journal of Contemporary History 37, 4: 575–97.
Buell, Raymond Leslie. 1928. The Native Problem in Africa. 2 vols. New York: Macmillan.
Bugnicourt, J. 1974. Un peuple privé de son environnement. In Programme ‘Formation pour l’environnement’. Dakar: IDEP-UNEP-SIDA.
Burbank, Jane, and Cooper, Frederick. 2008. Empire, Droits, et Citoyenneté, de 212 à 1946. Annales: Histoire, Sciences Sociales 63, 3: 495–531.
Burke, Roland. 2010. Decolonization and the Evolution of International Human Rights. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Burrill, Emily S. (In Press). States of Marriage: Gender, Justice, and Rights in Colonial Mali. Athens: Ohio University Press.
Camara, Moussa Makan. 1998. Questions Brûlantes pour une démocratie naissante. Dakar: Les Nouvelles Editions Africaines du Sénégal.
Camara, Sikhé. 1973. La Guinée vers le socialisme. Conakry: s.p.
Campbell, Penelope 2011. Africare: Black American Philanthropy in Africa. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
Campbell, Wallace J. 1990. The History of CARE: A Personal Account. New York: Praeger.
Campmas, Pierre. 1976. L’Union Soudanaise, Section Soudanaise du Rassemblement Démocratique Africain, 1946–1968. Thèse de 3ème Cycle, Université de Toulouse-le Mirail.
Campmas, Pierre. 1978. L’Union Soudanaise R.D.A.: l’histoire d’un grand parti politique africain. Collection la Récade. Abidjan: Editions Communication Intercontinentale.
CELHTO [Centre d’études linguistiques et historiques par tradition orale]. 2008. La Charte du Kurukan Fuga: Aux Sources d’une pensée politique en Afrique. Paris: l’Harmattan.
Centre Djoliba and Mémorial Modibo Keita. 2002. Bâtissons la mémoire du Mali démocratique: 26 mars 1991–26 mars 2001, Xe anniversaire. Bamako: Centre Djoliba and Mémorial Modibo Keïta.
Césaire, Aimé. 2010 [1956]. Letter to Maurice Thorez. Translated by Chike Jeffers, Social Text 28, 2: 145–52.
Chafer, Tony. 2002. The End of Empire in French West Africa: France’s Successful Decolonization?New York: Berg.
Chalfin, Brenda. 2010. Neoliberal Frontiers: An Ethnography of Sovereignty in West Africa. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Chatterjee, Partha. 1993. The Nation and Its Fragments: Colonial and Postcolonial Histories. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Chatterjee, Partha. 2004. The Politics of the Governed: Reflections on Popular Politics in Most of the World. New York: Columbia University Press.
CILSS. 1973a. Report of the Meeting of Experts. Ouagadougou: CILSS.
CILSS. 1973b. Strategy Guidelines for Control of the Drought and Its Consequences. Ouagadougou: CILSS.
Cissé, Youssouf Tata, and Kamissoko, Wa. 1988. La Grande geste du Mali, des origines à la fondation de l’Empire. Paris: Karthala/ARSAN.
Cissé, Youssouf Tata, Fofana, Aboubakar, and Sagot-Duvaroux, J.-L.. 2003. la Charte du Mandé et autres traditions du Mali. Paris: Albin Michel.
Cissoko, Sékéné Mody. 1968. Famines et epidemies à Tombouctou et dans la Boucle du Niger du XVI’ au XVIII’ siècle. Bulletin de l’IFAN, série B 30, 3: 806–21.
Clancy-Smith, Julia Ann. 2012. Mediterraneans: North Africa and Europe in an Age of Migration, c. 1800–1900. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Clapperton, Hugh. 2005. Hugh Clapperton into the Interior of Africa: Records of the Second Expedition 1825–1827. Edited by Bruce-Lockhart, Jamie and Lovejoy, Paul. Leiden: Brill.
Clarence-Smith, William G. 2006. Islam and the Abolition of Slavery. London: C. Hurst.
Clark, Ann Marie. 2001. Diplomacy of Conscience: Amnesty International and Changing Human Rights Norms. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Clarke, Lindsay. 2012. Nomads, Quakers, and the Malian State: Sedentarization from Colonial Agrarian Reform to Drought Relief, c. 1940–1960. Dual MA in International History, LSE/Columbia University.
Clauzel, Jean. 1960. L’Exploitation des salines de Taoudenni. Algiers: Institut de Recherche sur le Sahara.
Cohen, William B. 1971. Rulers of Empire: The French Colonial Service in Africa. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press.
Comité d’Etudes Historiques et Scientifiques de l’Afrique Occidentale Française. 1939. Coutumiers juridiques de l’AOF, tome 1: Senegal; tome 2: Soudan Français. 2 vols. Paris: Larose.
Comité Information Sahel. 1974. Qui se nourrit de la famine en Afrique? le Dossier politique de la faim au Sahel. Paris: F. Maspero.
Conklin, Alice. 1997. A Mission to Civilize: The Republican Idea of Empire in France and West Africa, 1895–1930. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Conklin, Alice. 2002. The New ‘Ethnology’ and ‘la Situation Coloniale’ in interwar France. French Politics, Culture and Society 20, 2: 29-46.
Cooper, Barbara MacGowan. 2006. Evangelical Christians in the Muslim Sahel. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Cooper, Frederick. 1996. Decolonization and African Society: The Labor Question in French and British Africa. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Cooper, Frederick. 2000. Conditions Analogous to Slavery: Imperialism and free labor ideology in Africa. In Beyond Slavery: Explorations of Race, Labor, and Citizenship in Postemancipation Societies, edited by Cooper, Frederick, Holt, Thomas, and Scott, Rebecca J., 107–50. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Cooper, Frederick. 2002. Africa since 1940: The Past of the Present. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Cooper, Frederick. 2005. Colonialism in Question: Theory, Knowledge, History. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Cooper, Frederick. 2008. Possibility and Constraint: African Independence in historical perspective. Journal of African History 49, 2: 167–96.
Cooper, Frederick. 2009. Alternatives to Empire: France and Africa after World War II. In The State of Sovereignty: Territories, Laws, Populations, edited by Howland, Douglas and White, Luise, 94–123. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Cooper, Frederick. 2014. Citizenship between Empire and Nation: Remaking France and French Africa, 1945–1960. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Copans, Jean. 1975. Sécheresses et famines du Sahel, Dossiers africains. Paris: F. Maspero.
Copans, Jean., ed. 2001a. Georges Balandier, lecture et re-lecture, Special issue of Cahiers Internationaux de Sociologie110.
Copans, Jean. 2001b. La ‘Situation Coloniale’ de Georges Balandier: Notion conjoncturelle ou modèle sociologique et historique?Cahiers Internationaux de Sociologie 110: 31–52.
Copans, Jean. 2010. Un demi-siècle d’africanisme africain. Terrains, acteurs et enjeux des sciences sociales en Afrique indépendante. Paris: Karthala.
Coquery-Vidrovitch, Catherine. 1999. The rise of Francophone African Social Science: From colonial knowledge to knowledge of Africa. In Out of One, Many Africas: Reconstructing the Study and Meaning of Africa, edited by Martin, William G. and West, Michael O., 39–53. Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
Coquery-Vidrovitch, Catherine. 2001. Nationalité et citoyenneté en Afrique Occidentale Française: Originaires et citoyens dans le Sénégal colonial. Journal of African History 42, 2: 285–305.
Coquery-Vidrovitch, Catherine. 2010. Le vote des femmes en AOF, de la seconde guerre mondiale à 1958. In Les Elections législatives et sénatoriales outre-mer (1848–1981), edited by Jalabert, Laurent, Joly, Bertrand and Weber, Jacques, 283–93. Paris: les Indes Savantes.
Cousturier, Lucie. 1920. Des Inconnus chez moi. Paris: Editions de la Sirène.
Cousturier, Lucie. 1925. Mes Inconnus chez eux. 2 vols. Paris: Reider.
Crombé, Xavier, and Jézéquel, Jean-Hervé, eds. 2007. Niger 2005: Une catastrophe si naturelle. Paris: Karthala.
Crowder, Michael. 1967. Senegal: A Study of French Assimilation Policy. Rev. ed. London: Methuen.
Daly, M. W. 2007. Darfur’s Sorrow: A History of Destruction and Genocide. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Danioko, Charles Abdoulaye. 1984. Contribution à l’étude des partis politiques au Mali de 1945 à 1960. Thèse de doctorat de troisième cycle, Paris VII.
Daum, Christophe. 1998. Les Associations de Maliens en France: migrations, développement et citoyenneté. Paris: Karthala.
De Benoist, Joseph-Roger. 1982. L’Afrique Occidentale Française de la Conférence de Brazzaville (1944) à l’indépendance (1960). Dakar: Nouvelles éditions africaines.
De l’Estoile, Benoît. 2005. Rationalizing Colonial Domination: Anthropology and native policy in French-ruled Africa. In Empires, Nations, and Natives: Anthropology and State-Making, edited by de l’Estoile, Benoît, Neiburg, Frederico and Sigaud, Lygia, 30–57. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
De Lattre, Anne. 1979. A Conversation with Anne de Lattre: Developing the Sahel. American Enterprise Institute.
De Moraes Farias, P. F., ed. and transl. 2001. Arabic Medieval Inscriptions from the Republic of Mali: Epigraphy, Chronicles and Songhay-Tuăreg History, Fontes historiae Africanae. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
De Suremain, Marie-Albaine. 2004. Faire du terrain en AOF dans les années cinquante. Ethnologie Française 34, 4: 651–59.
De Waal, Alexander. 1998. Famine Crimes: Politics & the Disaster Relief Industry in Africa. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
De Waal, Alexander. 2005a [1989]. Famine that Kills: Darfur, Sudan, 1984–1985. Rev. ed. New York: Oxford University Press.
De Waal, Alexander. 2005b. Who are the Darfurians? Arab and African identities, violence and external engagement. African Affairs 104, 415: 181–205.
Decottignies, Roger, and de Biéville, Marc. 1963. Les Nationalités africaines. Paris: A. Pedone.
Dedieu, Jean-Philippe. 2012. La Parole Immigrée: Les Migrants africains dans l’espace public en France (1969–1995). Paris: Klincksieck.
Delavignette, Robert. 1950. Freedom and Authority in French West Africa. London: Published for the International African Institute by the Oxford University Press.
Delavignette, Robert. 1965. Une receveuse et trois ébouers. In Approche des problèmes de la migration noire en France, Special issue of Hommes et Migrations: 68–72.
Delerm, Robert. 1965. l’Immigration noire en France: perspectives, conséquences. In Approche des problèmes de la migration noire en France, Special issue of Hommes et Migrations: 73–81.
Delmet, Christian. 1994. Sur la route du pèlerinage: les Peuls au Soudan. Cahiers d’Etudes Africaines 133/135: 473–81.
Dembélé, Assimi S. 2003. Transferts Définitifs. Bamako: le Figuier.
Derrick, J. 1977. The Great West African Drought. African Affairs LXXVI, 305: 537–86.
Diagne, Souleymane Bachir. 2009. Individual, Community, and Human Rights: A lesson from Kwasi Wiredu’s philosophy of personhood. Transition 101: 8–15.
Diallo, Abdoulaye. 2008. Sékou Touré et l’indépendance guinéenne: Déconstruction d’un mythe et retour sur l’histoire. Outre-mers 96, 358–359: 267–88.
Diallo, Demba. 2005. Çagoloba! Carnets d’un militant du tiers-monde, 1925–1960. Bamako: Cauris.
Diarra, Idrissa. 1964. Voies et moyens du socialisme au Mali. Economie et politique 123: 97–108.
Diarra, Souleymane. 1968. les Travailleurs africains noirs en France. Bulletin de l’I.F.A.N. (série B) 30, 3: 884–1044.
Diarrah, Cheick Oumar. 1986. Le Mali de Modibo Keita. Paris: l’Harmattan.
Diawara, Mamadou. 2003. Ce que travailler veut dire dans le monde Mande. In Le travail en Afrique, edited by d’Almeida –Topor, Hélène and Spittler, Gerd, 67–80. Paris: Karthala.
Diawara, Mamadou. 2011. Development and Administrative Norms: The Office du Niger and decentralization in French Sudan and Mali. Africa 81, 3: 434–54.
Dimier, Véronique. 2003. Décentraliser l’empire? Du compromis colonial à l’institutionnalisation d’un gouvernement local dans l’Union Française. Outre-Mers 90, 338–39: 83–107.
Diop, Majhemout. 1971. Histoire des classes sociales dans l’Afrique de l’Ouest, Vol. 1: le Mali. Paris: François Maspero.
Diouf, Mamadou. 1999. Privatisations des économies et des états africains: commentaires d’un historien. Politique Africaine 73: 16–23.
Diouf, Mamadou. 2000. Assimilation coloniale et identités religieuses de la civilité des originaires des Quatre Communes (Sénégal). Canadian Journal of African Studies 34, 3: 565–87.
Djibo, Bakary. 1992. Silence! On décolonise … : itineraire politique et syndical d’un militant africain. Paris: l’Harmattan.
Dougnon, Isaie. 2011. Child Trafficking or Labor Migration? A historical perspective from Mali’s Dogon country. Humanity 2, 1: 85–105.
Doukouré, Abdoul. 1978. Le Déboussolé. Sherbrooke, Québec:Naaman.
Doumbia, Souleymane. 2010. Adhésion à l’ONU: sous le parrainage de la Tunisie et du Ceylon. In Notre Mali, 1960–2010: Maliba Kera Anw Ta Ye, edited by AMAP, 78–79. Bamako: AMAP.
Downs, Laura Lee.` 2013. La République garantit l’égalité des citoyen(ne)s. In Une contre-histoire de la IIIe République, edited by Fontaine, Marion, Prochasson, Christophe, and Monier, Frédéric, 138–49. Paris: La Découverte.
Dozon, Jean-Pierre. 2002. Georges Balandier dans l’histoire et l’épistémè de l’africanisme français. Recherches sociologiques 33, 2: 21–29.
Droz, Bernard. 2008. l’Election législative du 30 Novembre 1958 en Algérie. Outre-Mers 96, 1: 29–44.
Du Bois, Victor. 1974. The Drought in Niger: Part 1: The Physical and Economic Consequences; Part 2: The Logistics of Relief Operations; Part 3: The Flight of the Malian Tuareg; Part 4: The New Refugee Camp at Lazaret. New York: American Universities Field Staff.
Duffield, Mark. 1981. Maiurno: Capitalism and Rural Life in Sudan. London: Ithaca Press.
Duffield, Mark. 1983. Change among West African Settlers in Northern Sudan. Review of African Political Economy 26: 45–59.
Dumont, René. 1962. l’Afrique noire est mal partie. Paris: Seuil.
Eckel, Jan. 2013. The International League for the Rights of Man, Amnesty International, and the Changing Fate of Human Rights Activism from the 1940s through the 1970s. Humanity 4, 2: 183–214.
El Hamel, Chouki. 2002. La vie intellectuelle Islamique dans le Sahel Ouest Africain (XVI-XIX’ siècles): une étude sociale de l’enseignement Islamique en Mauritanie et au Nord du Mali (XVI-XIX’ siècles) et traduction annotée de Fath ash-shakur d’al-Bartali al-Walati (mort en 1805). Paris: l’Harmattan.
El Shakry, Omnia. 2007. The Great Social Laboratory: Subjects of Knowledge in Colonial and Postcolonial Egypt. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
El Sheikh, Fath el Rahman Abdalla. 1975. Development of Nationality Laws in the Sudan. LLM Thesis, University of Khartoum.
Ellis, Stephen. 2002. Writing Histories of Contemporary Africa. Journal of African History 43, 1: 1–26.
Englund, Harri. 2006. Prisoners of Freedom: Human Rights and the African Poor. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Ensor, F. Sidney. 1881. Incidents on a Journey through Nubia to Darfoor. London: W. H. Allen.
Ernst, Klaus. 1976. Tradition and Progress in an African Village: Non-Capitalist Transformation of Rural Communities in Mali. Translated by Genin, Salomea. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
de Lauture, Escayrac, Stanislas d’, Pierre Henri. 1853. Le Desert et le Soudan. Paris: J. Dumaine.
de Lauture, Escayrac, Stanislas d’, Pierre Henri. 1855–1856a. Mémoire sur le Soudan, géographie naturelle et politique, histoire et ethnographie, moeurs et institutions de l’Empire des Fellatas, du Bornou, du Baguermi, du Waday, du Dar-Four. Paris: A. Bertrand.
de Lauture, Escayrac, Stanislas d’, Pierre Henri. 1855–1856b. Mémoire sur le Soudan, rédigé d’après des renseignements entièrement nouveaux … troisième cahier: Examen du gouvernement, des institutions militaires, de la religion et des superstitions des peuples du Takrour. Extrait de la bulletin de la Société de Géographie (Janvier et février 1856). 3 vols. Vol. 3. Paris: Imprimerie de L. Martinet.
Fanon, Frantz. 1959. l’An V de la Révolution Algérienne: Sociologie d’une révolution. Paris: François Maspero.
Fanon, Frantz. 1964. Pour la Révolution Africaine: Ecrits politiques. Paris: F. Maspero.
Fassin, Didier. 2011. Humanitarian Reason: A Moral History of the Present. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Fay, Claude. 1995. La démocratie au Mali, ou le pouvoir en pâture. Cahiers d’études africaines 35, 1: 19–53.
Fay, Claude, Koné, Yaouaga Félix, and Quiminal, Catherine, eds. 2006. Décentralisation et Pouvoirs en Afrique: En contrepoint, modèles territroriaux français. Paris: IRD.
Faysal, Amir. 1963. Ministerial statement of 6 November 1962 by Prime Minister Amir Faysal of Saudi Arabia. Middle East Journal 17, 1–2: 161–62.
Fédération Internationale des ligues des Droits de l’Homme and Association Malienne des Droits de l’Homme. 1998–99. Soutenir les défenseurs des droits de l’homme au Mali, Special Issue of la Lettre bimensuelle de la FIDH279.
Feher, Michel. 2007. The Governed in politics. In Nongovernmental Politics, edited by Feher, Micheal, 12–30. New York: Zone.
Feldman, Ilana. 2007. The Quaker Way: Ethical labor and humanitarian relief. American Ethnologist 34, 4: 689–705.
Ferguson, James. 1994. The Anti-politics Machine: “Development,” Depoliticization, and Bureaucratic Power in Lesotho. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Ferguson, James. 2006. Global Shadows: Africa in the Neoliberal World OrderDurham, NC: Duke University Press.
Ferguson, James, and Gupta, Akhil. 2002. Spatializing States: Toward an ethnography of neoliberal governmentality. American Ethnologist 29, 4: 981–1002.
Foucault, Michel. 1977. Discipline and Punish: the Birth of the Prison. Translated by Sheridan, Alan. New York: Pantheon.
Foucault, Michel. 2007. Security, Territory, Population: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1977–78. edited by Senellart, Michel, Ewald, François, and Fontana, Alessandro; translated by Burchell, Graham. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
Franke, Richard W. and Chasin, Barbara H.. 1980. Seeds of Famine: Ecological Destruction and the Development Dilemma in the West African Sahel. Montclair, NJ: Rowman & Allanheld.
Gary-Tounkara, Daouda. 2003. Circulation et reseaux migratoires soudanais-maliens en Afrique de l’Ouest (1932–1974). Migrations-Société 15, 90: 67–82.
Gary-Tounkara, Daouda. 2008. Migrants Soudanais/maliens et conscience ivoirienne: les étrangers en Cote d’Ivoire (1903–1980). Paris: l’Harmattan.
Gastaut, Yvan. 2000. l’Immigration et l’opinion publique en France sous la Vème République. Paris: Seuil.
Gérard, Claude. 1975. Les Pionniers de l’indépendance. Saint Romain en Gier: Intercontinents.
Giri, Jacques. 1983. Le Sahel demain: catastrophe ou renaissance?Paris: Karthala.
Giuffrida, Alessandra. 2005. Metamorphoses des relations de dépendance chez les Kel Antessar du Cercle du Goundam. Cahiers d’études africaines 45, 179/80: 805–29.
Glantz, M., ed. 1976. Politics of Natural Disaster: The Case of the Sahel Drought. New York: Praeger.
Glenzer, Kent. 2002. La Sécheresse: The social and institutional construction of a development problem in the Malian (Soudanese) Sahel, 1900–1982. Canadian Journal of African Studies 36, 1: 1–34.
Glenzer, Kent. 2007. ‘We Aren’t the World’: La production institutionnelle du succès partiel. In Niger 2005: Une catastrophe si naturelle, edited by Crombé, Xavier and Jézéquel, Jean-Hervé, 117–44. Paris: Karthala.
Gluckman, Max. 1958. Analysis of a Social Situation in Modern Zululand. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.
Godelier, Maurice. 2005. la Parenté et l’histoire: Entretien avec Maurice Godelier. Afrique et histoire 4, 2: 247–81.
Gosnell, Harold F. 1958. The 1958 Elections in the Sudan. Middle East Journal 12, 4: 409–17.
Griaule, Marcel. 1948. l’Action sociologique en Afrique Noire. Présence Africaine 1, 3: 388–91.
Grisman, C. S. 1955. West Africans in Eritrea. Nigerian Field 20: 41–45.
Gueye, Abdoulaye. 2001. Les intellectuels africains en France. Paris: l’Harmattan.
Gueye, Abdoulaye. 2006. The Colony Strikes Back: African protest movements in postcolonial France. Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa, and the Middle East 26, 2: 225–42.
Guèye, Omar. 2011. Sénégal: Histoire du mouvement syndical, la marche vers le Code du travail. Paris: l’Harmattan.
Guiart, Jean. 1976. A Propos de ‘Critiques et politiques de l’anthropologie’. l’Homme 16, 1: 151–55.
Hall, Bruce. 2011a. Bellah Histories of Decolonization, Iklan Paths to Freedom: The meanings of race and slavery in the late-colonial Niger Bend (Mali), 1944–1960. International Journal of African Historical Studies 44, 1: 61–87.
Hall, Bruce. 2011b. A History of Race in Muslim West Africa, 1600–1960. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hanretta, Sean. 2009. Islam and Social Change in French West Africa: History of an Emancipatory Community. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Harrison, Graham. 2010. Neoliberal Africa: The Impact of Global Social Engineering. London: Zed.
Harvey, David. 2007. A Brief History of Neoliberalism. Rev. ed. New York: Oxford University Press.
Haski, Pierre. ‘la Secheresse n’explique pas tout.’Croissance des Jeunes Nations, April 1974: 27–30.
Hassan, Salah D. 1999. Inaugural issues: The cultural politics of the early présence Africaine, 1947–55. Research in African Literatures 30, 2: 194–221.
Hassoun, Isam Ahmad. 1952. ‘Western’ migration and settlement in the Gezira. Sudan Notes and Records 33: 60–112.
Hawkins, Sean. 2002. Writing and Colonialism in Northern Ghana: The Encounter Between the LoDagaa and “the World on Paper,” 1892–1991. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Hearn, Julie. 2007. African NGOs: The new compradors?Development and Change 38, 6: 1095–1110.
Hecht, Gabrielle. 2012. Being Nuclear: Africans and the Global Uranium Trade. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Held, Jean-Francis. 1974. Visit to an African nightmare. Atlas World Press Review 21, 5: 13–15.
Herbst, Jeffrey Ira. 2000. States and Power in Africa: Comparative Lessons in Authority and Control. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Hibou, Béatrice, ed. 1999. La Privatisation des états. Paris: Karthala.
Higgot, Richard, and Fugelstand, Finn. 1975. The 1974 coup d’état in Niger: Towards an explanation. Journal of Modern African Studies 13, 3: 383–98.
Hino, Shun’ya. 1986. Pilgrimage and Migration of the West African Muslims: a Case study of the Fellata people in the Sudan. Sudan Sahel Studies 2: 15–109.
Hmed, Choukri. 2006. Tenir ses hommes: la gestion des étrangers ‘isolés’ dans les foyers SONACOTRA après la guerre d’Algérie. Politix 76: 11–30.
Ho, Engseng. 2006. The Graves of Tarim: Genealogy and Mobility across the Indian Ocean. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Hopgood, Stephen. 2006. Keepers of the Flame: Understanding Amnesty International. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Howland, Douglas, and White, Luise, eds. 2009. The State of Sovereignty: Territories, Laws, Populations. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Hunwick, John O. 1962. Ahmad Baba and the Moroccan invasion of the Sudan (1591). Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria 2, 3: 311–28.
Hunwick, John O., ed. and transl. 1999. Timbuktu and the Songhay Empire: Al-Saʻdi’s Taʾrikh al-Sudan Down to 1613, and Other Contemporary Documents. Leiden: Brill.
Idrissa, Kimba. 2001a. La dynamique de la gouvernance: Administration, politique et ethnicité au Niger. In Le Niger: Etat et démocratie, 15–83. Paris: l’Harmattan.
Idrissa, Kimba., ed. 2001b. Le Niger: Etat et démocratie. Paris: l’Harmattan.
Idrissa, Kimba., ed. 2008. Armée et politique au Niger. Dakar: CODESRIA.
Igoe, J., and Kelsall, T., eds. 2005. Between a Rock and a Hard Place: African NGOs, Donors and the State. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.
Imperato, Pascal James. 1975. A Wind in Africa: A Story of Modern Medicine in Mali. St. Louis, MO: Warren H. Green.
Imperato, Pascal James. and Imperato, Gavin H.. 2008. Historical Dictionary of Mali. 4th ed. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press.
Issa, Mahaman Malam. 2008. le Régime militaire de Seyni Kountché, 1974–1987. In Armée et politique au Niger, edited by Idrissa, Kimba, 125–62. Dakar: CODESRIA.
Jackson, Stephen. 2005. ‘The State Didn’t Even Exist’: Non-governmentality in Kivu, eastern DR Congo. In Between a Rock and a Hard Place: African NGOs, Donors and the State, edited by Igoe, J. and Kelsall, T., 165–196. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.
Jeanneret, Charles. 1983. Quelle stratégie pour le Sahel? La difficile harmonisation de la stratégie du CILSS et du Club du Sahel avec les plans de développement nationaux des pays sahéliens. Canadian Journal of African Studies 16, 3: 443–77.
Jennings, Michael. 2008. Surrogates of the State: NGOs, Development, and Ujamaa in Tanzania. Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian Press.
Jézéquel, Jean-Hervé. 2006. ‘Collecting Customary Law’: Educated Africans, ethnographic writings, and colonial justice in French West Africa. In Intermediaries, Interpreters, and Clerks: African Employees in the Making of Colonial Africa, edited by Lawrance, Benjamin, Osborn, Emily and Roberts, Richard L., 139–58. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
Jézéquel, Jean-Hervé. 2007. Voices of their Own? African participation in the production of colonial knowledge in French West Africa, 1910–1950. In Ordering Africa: Anthropology, European Imperialism, and the Politics of Knowledge, edited by Tilley, Helen, 145–72. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.
Jézéquel, Jean-Hervé. 2011. Les professionels Africains de la recherche dans l’etat colonial tardif: le personnel local de l’Institut Français d’Afrique Noire entre 1938 et 1960. Revue d’Histoire des Sciences Humaines 24: 35–60.
Johnson, Cedric. 2007. Revolutionaries to Race Leaders: Black Power and the Making of African-American Politics. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Johnson, G. Wesley. 1971. The Emergence of Black Politics in Senegal: The Struggle for Power in the Four Communes, 1900–1920. Stanford, CA: Published for the Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace by Stanford University Press.
Jolly, Eric. 2010. L’épopée en contexte: Variantes et usages politiques de deux récits épiques (Mali/Guinée). Annales 65, 4: 885–912.
Jones, William I. 1976. Planning and Economic Policy in Socialist Mali and Her Neighbors. Washington DC: Three Continents Press.
Kaba, Mamadou. 1989 Nouvelles d’hier… et d’aujourd’hui: le Mali de 1970 à 1980. Bamako: Jamana.
Keaton, Trica Danielle, Sharpley-Whiting, T. Denean, and Stovall, Tyler, eds. 2012. Black France/France Noire: The History and Politics of Blackness. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Keenan, Thomas. 2007. ‘Where are Human Rights … ?’ Reading a Communiqué from Iraq. In Nongovernmental Politics, edited by Feher, Michael, 57–71. New York: Zone.
Kéita, Aoua. 1975. Femme d’Afrique: la vie d’Aoua Kéita racontée par elle-même. Paris: Présence africaine.
Keita, Madeira. 1960. Le Parti unique en Afrique. Présence Africaine 30: 3–24.
Keita, Modibo S. 1965. Discours et interventions. Bamako, Mali: n.p.
Keita, Naffet, ed. 2012. l’Esclavage au Mali. Paris: l’Harmattan.
Keita, Sidiki Kobélé. 1978. Le P.D.G., artisan de l’indépendance nationale en Guinée (1947–1958). 2 vols. Vol. 1. ConakryI.N.R.D.G. Bibliothèque nationale.
Klaeger, Gabriel. 2013. Introduction: The perils and possibilities of African roads. Africa 83, 3: 359–66.
Klute, Georg. 1999. De la Chefferie administrative à la parasouverainété régionale. In Horizons nomades en Afrique sahélienne: Sociétés, développement et démocratie, edited by Bourgeot, André, 167–82. Paris: Karthala.
Konaré, Adam Ba. 1993. Dictionnaire des femmes célèbres du Mali. Bamako: Jamana.
Konaté, Hamidou. 1993. Le Procés Crimes de Sang. Bamako: Jamana.
Koné, Kassim. 1996. Bamana Verbal Art: An Ethnographic Study of Proverbs. Ph.D., Indiana University.
Konings, Piet. 2011. The Politics of Neoliberal Reforms in Africa: State and Civil Society in Cameroon. Leiden: African Studies Centre; Bamenda, Cameroon: Langaa.
[Kouyaté], Seydou Badian. 1965. Les Dirigeants d’Afrique noire face à leur peuple. Paris: François Maspero.
Lambert, Michael C. 2002. Longing for Exile: Migration and the Making of a Translocal Community in Senegal, West Africa. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Languille, Sonia. 2010. Mali: la politique de décentralisation à l’heure de l’Agenda de Paris pour l’efficacité de l’aide. Politique africaine 120: 129–52.
Larkin, Brian, and Meyer, Brigit. 2006. Pentecostalism, Islam, and Culture: New religious movements in West Africa. In Themes in West Africa’s History, edited by Akyeampong, Emmanuel Kwaku, 286–312. Athens: Ohio University Press.
Latour, Bruno. 2005. Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor-Network-Theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Launay, Robert, and Soares, Benjamin F.. 1999. The Formation of an “Islamic Sphere” in French Colonial West Africa. Economy and Society 28: 487–519.
Laurens, Sylvian. 2008. ‘1974’ et la fermeture des frontières: Analyse critique d’une décision érigée en turning-point. Politix 82: 69–94.
Laya, Dioulde. 1978. La Brousse est morte. Niamey: IRSH.
Lecocq, Baz. 2004. Unemployed Intellectuals in the Sahara: The Teshumara nationalist movement and the revolutions in Tuareg society. International Review of Social History 49: 87–109.
Lecocq, Baz. 2005. The Bellah Question: Slave emancipation, race, and social categories in late twentieth-century Northern Mali. Canadian Journal of African Studies 39, 1: 42–68.
Lecocq, Baz. 2008. Ranger le chevre et le chou. Paper presented to Seventh International Conference on Mande Studies [MANSA]. Lisbon.
Lecocq, Baz. 2010. Disputed Desert: Decolonisation, Competing Nationalisms and Tuareg Rebellions in Contemporary Mali. Leiden: Brill.
Lecocq, Baz. 2012. The hajj from West Africa from a Global Historical Perspective (19th and 20th centuries). African Diaspora 5: 187–214.
Lecocq, Baz, Mann, Gregory, Whitehouse, Bruce, et al. 2013. One Hippopotamus and Eight Blind Analysts: A multivocal analysis of the 2012 political crisis in the divided Republic of Mali. Review of African Political Economy 40, 137: 343–57.
Lewin, André. 2009. Ahmed Sékou Touré (1922–1984), Président de la Guinée. Vol. 1 (1922-fév. 1955). Paris: l’Harmattan.
Lewin, André. 2010. Ahmed Sékou Touré (1922–1984), Président de la Guinée. Vol. 7 (juin 1977-mars 1984). Paris: l’Harmattan.
Lewis, Mary Dewhurst. 2007. Boundaries of the Republic: Migrant Rights and the Limits of Universalism in France, 1918–1940. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Linden, Eugene. 1976. The Alms Race: The Impact of American Voluntary Aid Abroad. New York: Random House.
Lisette, Gabriel. 1983. le Combat du Rassemblement Démocratique Africain. Paris: Présence Africaine.
Livre d’Or de la République du Mali. 1963. Paris: l’Afrique nouvelle.
Londres, Albert. 1929. A Very Naked People. Translated by Stuart, Sylvia. New York: Horace Liveright.
Ly, Ibrahima. 1990. Paroles pour un continent: la vie et l’œuvre d’Ibrahima Ly. Paris: l’Harmattan.
Ly, Ibrahima. 1997 [1982]. Toiles d’araignées. Arles: Actes Sud.
Lydon, Ghislaine. 2009. On Trans-Saharan Trails: Islamic Law, Trade Networks, and Cross-Cultural Exchange in Nineteenth-Century Western Africa. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Lyons, Amelia H. 2009. Social welfare, French Muslims and decolonization in France: the case of the Fonds d’Action Sociale. Patterns of Prejudice 43, 1: 65–89.
Macey, David. 2000. Frantz Fanon: A Life. London: Granta.
Maffesoli, Michel, and Rivière, Claude, eds. 1985. Une Anthropologie des turbulences: Hommage à Georges Balandier. Paris: Berg International.
Mamdani, Mahmood. 1996. Citizen and Subject: Contemporary Africa and the Legacy of Late Colonialism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Mamdani, Mahmood. 2001. Beyond Settler and Native as Political Identities: Overcoming the political legacy of colonialism. Comparative Studies in Society and History 43, 4: 651–64.
Mamdani, Mahmood. 2007. Savoirs and Survivors: Darfur, Politics, and the War on Terror. New York: Pantheon.
Manchuelle, François. 1987. Background to Black African Emigration to France: The Labor Migrations of the Soninke, 1848–1987. Ph.D., University of California-Santa Barbara.
Manchuelle, François. 1997. Willing Migrants: Soninke labor diasporas, 1848–1960. Athens: Ohio University Press.
Manière, Laurent. 2007. Le Code de l’indigénat en Afrique occidentale française et son application: le cas du Dahomey (1887–1946). Ph.D., Université Paris-VII.
Mann, Gregory. 2003. Violence, Dignity, and Modibo’s New Model Army, 1960–1968. Mande Studies 5: 65–82.
Mann, Gregory. 2006. Native Sons: West African Veterans and France in the Twentieth Century. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Mann, Gregory. 2013. Anticolonialism and Social Science: Georges Balandier, Madeira Keita, and ‘the Colonial Situation’ in French Africa. Comparative Studies in Society and History 55, 1: 92.
Mann, Gregory, and Lecocq, Baz. 2007. Between Empire, umma, and Muslim Third World: The French Union and African Pilgrims to Mecca, 1946–1958. Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa, and the Middle East 27, 2: 367–83.
Mannoni, Octave. 1950. Psychologie de la Colonisation. Paris: Seuil.
de Sacré-Coeur, Marie-Andrée. 1954. l’Activité politique de la femme en Afrique Noire. Revue Juridique et Politique de l’Union Française 8, 4: 476–91.
Mariko, Amadou. 2001. Mémoires d’un Crocodile: du sujet français au citoyen malien. Edited by Boilley, Pierre. Bamako: Editions Donniya.
Mariko, Kélétigui A. 1993. l’Attitude de l’administration face au servage. In Nomades et Commandants: Administration et sociétés nomades dans l’ancienne A.O.F., edited by Bernus, Edmond, Boilley, Pierre, Clauzel, Jean and Triaud, Jean-Louis, 193–201. Paris: Karthala.
Marty, André. 1993. La répartition des terres lacustres du Gourma malien. In Nomades et Commandants: Administration et sociétés nomades dans l’ancienne A.O.F., edited by Bernus, Edmond, Boilley, Pierre, Clauzel, Jean and Triaud, Jean-Louis, 167–80. Paris: Karthala.
Masquelier, Adeline. 2002. Road Mythographies: Space, mobility, and the historical imagination in postcolonial Niger. American Ethnologist 29, 4: 829–56.
Mauxion, Aurelien. 2012. Moving to Stay: Iklan spatial strategies towards socioeconomic emancipation in Northern Mali, 1898–1960. Journal of African History 53, 2: 195–213.
Mazov, Sergey. 2010. Distant Front in the Cold War: The USSR in West Africa and the Congo, 1956–1964. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press; Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Mbacké, Khadim. 2004. Le Pèlerinage aux lieux saints de l’Islam: Participation Sénégalaise, 1886–1986. Dakar: Presses Universitaires de Dakar.
Mbembe, Achille. 2001. On the Postcolony. Berkeley: University of California Press.
McCleary, Rachel M. 2009. Global Compassion: Private Voluntary Organizations and U.S. Foreign Policy since 1939. New York: Oxford University Press.
McKeown, Adam. 2008. Melancholy Order: Asian Migration and the Globalization of Borders. New York: Columbia University Press.
McLagan, Meg. 2007. Human Rights, Testimony, and Transnational Publicity. In Nongovernmental Politics, edited by Feher, Michel, 304–17. New York: Zone.
McLoughlin, Peter F. M. 1962. Economic Development and the Heritage of Slavery in the Sudan Republic. Africa: Journal of the International African Institute 32, 4: 355–91.
Meillassoux, Claude. 1968. Urbanization of an African Community: Voluntary Associations in Bamako. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
Meillassoux, Claude. 1974. Development or Exploitation: Is the Sahel famine good business?Review of African Political Economy 1: 27–33.
Meillassoux, Claude. 1981. Maidens, Meal, and Money: Capitalism and the Domestic Community. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Mercier, Paul. 1965. Classes et changements politiques en Afrique Noire. Cahiers Internationaux de Sociologie 38: 143–54.
Merle, Isabelle. 2002. Retour sur le régime de l’indigénat: genèse et contradictions des principes répressifs dans l’empire français. French Politics, Culture and Society 20, 2: 77–97.
Meunier, Dominique. 1980. Le commerce de sel de Taoudeni. Journal des Africanistes 50, 2: 133–44.
Michael, Sarah. 2004. Undermining Development: The Absence of Power among Local NGOs in Africa. Oxford: James Currey.
Miers, Suzanne. 2003. Slavery in the Twentieth Century: The Evolution of a Global Pattern. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.
Minter, William, Hovey, Gail, and Cobb, Charles, eds. 2008. No Easy Victories: African Liberation and American Activists over a Half-Century, 1950–2000. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press.
Mitchell, Timothy. 2002. Rule of Experts: Egypt, Techno-Politics, Modernity. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Mongia, Radhika Viyas. 2007. Historicizing State Sovereignty: Inequality and the Form of Equivalence. Comparative Studies in Society and History 49, 2: 384–411.
Moore, Sally Falk. 1994. Anthropology and Africa: Changing Perspectives on a Changing Scene. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press.
Morgenthau, Ruth Schachter. 1964. Political Parties in French-Speaking West Africa. London: Clarendon Press.
Moyn, Samuel. 2010. The Last Utopia: Human Rights in History. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
N’Diaye, Jean-Pierre. 1970. Négriers modernes: les travailleurs noirs en France. Paris: Présence Africaine.
N’Diaye, Jean-Pierre, Bassene, J, and Germain, Denis. 1963. Les Travailleurs noirs en France: Pourquoi les migrations?Réalités Africaines 5: 1–120.
N’Diaye, Mamadou Belco. 2010. Quand le pouvoir délire. Bamako: EDIM-SA.
N’Dongo, Sally. 1975. Voyage forcé: Itineraire d’un militant. Paris: François Maspero.
N’Dongo, Sally. 1976. Exil, Connais pas …Paris: Cerf.
Nachtigal, Gustav. 1971. Sahara and Sudan, Vol. 4: Wadai and Darfur. Translated by Fisher, Allan G. B., Fisher, Humphrey J., with O’Fahey, Rex S.. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Naepels, Michael. 2010. l’Anthropologie face aux temps. Annales 65, 4: 873–84.
Naudet, Jean-David. 1999. Trouver des problèmes aux solutions: Vingt ans d’aide au Sahel. Paris: Editions de l’OCDE/Club du Sahel.
Ndiaye, Pap. 2008. La Condition Noire: Essai sur une minorité française. Paris: Gallimard.
Nolutshungu, Sam C. 1996. Limits of Anarchy: Intervention and State Formation in Chad. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia.
Nugent, Paul. 2012. Africa since Independence: A Comparative History. 2nd ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
O’Fahey, R. S. 2008. The Darfur Sultanate: A History. New York: Columbia University Press.
Parti Progressiste Nigérien [PPN]. 1961. l’Independence du Niger et l’unité africaine: Parti Progressiste Nigérien, Section Nigérienne du RDA, Conférences: Aout 1959, Mai 1960, Octobre 1960, Décembre 1960. Niamey: Service d’Information de la République du Niger.
Pauthier, Céline. 2007. Tous derrière, les femmes devant! Femmes, représentations sociales et mobilisation politique en Guinée (1945–2006). In Perspectives historiques sur le genre en Afrique, edited by Goerg, Odile, 219–38. Paris: l’Harmattan.
Pelckmans, Lotte. 2011. Travelling Hierarchies: Roads in and out of Slave Status in a Central Malian Fulbe Network. Leiden: African Studies Centre.
Pierce, Steven. 2001. Punishment and the Political Body: Flogging and Colonialism in Northern Nigeria. Interventions 3, 2: 206–21.
Piot, Charles. 2010. Nostalgia for the Future: West Africa after the Cold War. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Plummer, Brenda Gayle. 2012. In Search of Power: African Americans in the Era of Decolonization, 1956–1974. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Poiret, Christian. 1997. Familles Africaines en France. Paris: l’Harmattan.
Pollard, Miranda. 1998. Reign of Virtue: Mobilizing gender in Vichy France. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Poussibet, Félix. 1978. Notes sur Tâoudannî. B.I.F.A.N. (B) 40, 3: 513–55.
Pringle, Robert. 2005. Mali’s Unlikely Democracy, The Wilson Quarterly 30, 2: 31–39.
Quiminal, Catherine. 1991. Gens d’ici, gens d’ailleurs: migrations Soninké et transformations villageoises. Paris: Christian Bourgeois.
Raghavan, N. 1992. Les ONG au Mali. Politique africaine 47: 91–100.
Rillon, Ophélie. 2010. Corps rebelles: la mode des jeunes urbains dans les années 1960–1970 au Mali. Genèses 81: 64–83.
Roberts, Richard L. 2005. Litigants and Households: African Disputes and Colonial Courts in the French Soudan, 1895–1912. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Robins, Steven L. 2008. From Revolution to Rights in South Africa: Social Movements, NGOs & Popular Politics After Apartheid. Rochester, NY: James Currey.
Robinson, David. 1985. The Holy War of Umar Tal: The Western Sudan in the Mid-Nineteenth Century. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Robinson, David. 2000. Paths of Accommodation: Muslim societies and French Colonial Authorities in Senegal and Mauritania, 1880–1920. Athens: Ohio University Press.
Robinson, Pearl. 1978. The Political Context of Regional Development in the West African Sahel. Journal of Modern African Studies 16, 4: 579–95.
Rodet, Marie. 2009. Les Migrantes ignorées du Haut-Sénégal (1900–1946). Paris: Karthala.
Roitman, Janet L. 2005. Fiscal Disobedience: An Anthropology of Economic Regulation in Central Africa. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Rosanvallon, Pierre. 2001. Le Sacré du citoyen. Paris: Folio.
Rosenberg, Clifford. 2012. The International Politics of Vaccine Testing in Interwar Algiers. American Historical Review 117, 3: 671–97.
Rossi, Bernadetta. 2007. Les paradoxes de l’aide chronique. In Niger 2005: Une catastrophe si naturelle, edited by Crombé, Xavier and Jézéquel, Jean-Hervé, 145–72. Paris: Karthala.
Saada, Emmanuelle. 2002a. La République des indigènes. In Dictionnaire critique de la République, edited by Duclert, Vincent and Prochasson, Christophe, 364–70. Paris: Flammarion.
Saada, Emmanuelle., ed. 2002b. Regards croisés: Transatlantic Perspectives on the Colonial Situation, Special issue of French Politics, Culture and Society 20, 2.
Salifou, André. 2010. Biographie politique de Diori Hamani. Paris: Karthala.
Sall, Abdoulaye. 1989. l’Organisation du monde rural du Mali (1910–1988). Bamako: Editions-Imprimerie du Mali.
Samaké, Guédiouma. 2009 [1998]. Le Chemin de l’honneur. 2nd ed. Bamako: Jamana.
Samaké, Soungalo (Capitaine). 2007. Ma Vie de soldat. Bamako: Libraire Traore.
Sanankoua, Bintou. 1990. La Chute de Modibo Keita. Paris: Editions Chaka.
Sangaré, Samba. 2001. Dix ans dans le bagne-mouroir de Taoudenit. Bamako: la Ruche à livres.
Saul, Mahir, and Royer, Patrick Yves. 2001. West African Challenge to Empire: Culture and History in the Volta-Bani Anti-Colonial War. Athens: Ohio University Press.
Sayad, Abdelmalek. 2004. The Suffering of the Immigrant. Translated by Macey, David. Cambridge, UK; Malden, MA: Polity Press.
Schaub, Jean-Frédéric. 2008. l’Histoire Coloniale en question. Annales: Histoire, Sciences Sociales 63, 3: 625–46.
Scheele, Judith. 2012. Smugglers and Saints of the Sahara: Regional Connectivity in the Twentieth Century. New York:Cambridge University Press.
Schmidt, Elizabeth. 2005. Mobilizing the Masses: Gender, Ethnicity, and Class in the Nationalist Movement in Guinea, 1939–1958. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Schmidt, Elizabeth. 2007a. Cold War and Decolonization in Guinea. Athens: Ohio University Press.
Schmidt, Elizabeth. 2007b. Cold War in Guinea: The Rassemblement Démocratique Africain and the struggle over Communism, 1950–1958. Journal of African History 48, 1: 95–122.
Schumaker, Lynn. 2001. Africanizing Anthropology: Fieldwork, Networks, and the Making of Cultural Knowledge in Central Africa. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Seeseman, Rüdiger. 2000a. The History of the Tijaniyya and the Issue of tarbiya in the History of Darfur. In Tijâniyya: Une confrérie musulmane à la conquête de l’Afrique, edited by Triaud, J.-L. and Robinson, David, 393–437. Paris: Karthala.
Seeseman, Rüdiger. 2000b. The Writings of the Sudanese Tijani Shaykh Ibrahim Sidi (1949–1999) with Notes on the Writings of his Grandfather, Shaykh Muhammad Salma (d. 1918) and his Brother, Shaykh Muhammad al-Ghali (b. ca. 1947). Sudanic Africa 11: 107–24.
Seeseman, Rüdiger. 2011. The Divine Flood: Ibrahim Niasse and the Roots of a Twentieth-Century Sufi Revival. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Sene, Ibra. 2004. Colonisation française et exploitation de la main-d’œuvre carcérale au Sénégal: De l’emploi des détenus des camps pénaux sur les chantiers des travaux routiers, (1927–1940). French Colonial History 5: 155–74.
Sheets, Hal, and Morris, William. 1974. Disaster in the Desert: Failures of International Relief in the West African Drought. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
Shepard, Todd. 2006. The Invention of Decolonization: The Algerian War and the Remaking of France. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Shereikis, Rebecca. 2001. From Law to Custom: The Shifting Legal Status of Muslim originaires in Kayes and Medine, 1903–1913. Journal of African History 42, 2: 261–84.
Shivji, Issa. 1989. The Concept of Human Rights in Africa. London: CODESRIA.
Sibeud, Emmanuelle. 2007. Du postcolonialisme au questionnement postcolonial: pour un transfert critique. Revue d’Histoire Moderne et Contémporaine 54, 4: 142–55.
Sibeud, Emmanuelle., ed. 2011. Décolonisation et Sciences Humaines, Special issue of Revue d’Histoire des Sciences Humaines 24, 1.
Sidibe, Modibo Halassi. 2007. Fily Dabo Sissoko, un grand sage africain. Bamako: n.p.
Silberman, Leo. 1958–59. Democracy in the Sudan. Parliamentary Affairs 12, 3: 349–76.
Siméant, Johanna. 1998. La Cause des sans-papiers. Paris: Presses de Science Po.
Simonis, François. 1993. Des Français en Afrique – les ‘Européens’ de la région de Ségou, 1890–1962. Ph.D., 2 vols. University Paris-VIII.
Simonis, François. 1995. le Drame de Sakoïba, magistrats et autorités politiques à Ségou (Mali) à la veille de l’indépendance. Droit et Cultures 30, 2: 231–41.
Simonis, François., ed. 2005. Le Commandant en tournée: Une administration au contact des populations en Afrique Noire coloniale. Paris: Seli Arslan.
Simpson, Bradley S. 2013. Self-determination, Human Rights, and the End of Empire in the 1970s. Humanity 4, 2: 239–60.
Sissako, Abderrahmane. 2006. Bamako. 118 min.: Archipel 33, Chinguitty Films, Mali.
Skinner, Elliot P. 1989. The Mossi of Burkina Faso: Chiefs, Politicians and Soldiers. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.
Smith, Etienne. 2010. Des arts de faire société: Parentés à plaisanteries et constructions identitaires en Afrique de l’Ouest (Sénégal). Ph.D., Institut d’Etudes Politiques de Paris.
Smouts, M.-C. 2007. Postcolonial Studies dans le débat français. Paris: Presses de Sciences Po.
Snyder, Frank Gregory. 1965. One-Party Government in Mali: Transition Toward Control. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Soares, Benjamin F. 2005a. Islam in Mali in the Neo-liberal Era. African Affairs 105, 418: 77–95.
Soares, Benjamin F. 2005b. Islam and the Prayer Economy: History and Authority in a Malian Town. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Somerville, Carolyn Marie. 1986. Drought and Aid in the Sahel: A Decade of Development Cooperation. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Somia, 1965. Dépistage des candidats à l’embauche des travailleurs de l’Afrique noire dans le département de Seine. In Approche des problèmes de la migration noire en France, Special issue of Hommes et migrations: 129.
Sow, Abdoulaye-Sékou. 2008. L’état démocratique républicain: la problématique de sa construction au Mali. Brinon-sur-Sauldre (France): Grandvaux.
Sow, Alioune. 2010. Nervous Confessions: Military memoirs and national reconciliation in Mali. Cahiers d’études africaines 197: 69–93.
Spear, Thomas. 2003. Neo-traditionalism and the Limits of Invention in British Colonial Africa. Journal of African History 44, 1: 3–28.
Spire, Alexis. 2005. Etrangers à la carte: l’Administration de l’immigration en France (1945–1975). Paris: Grasset.
Spire, Alexis. 2008. Accueillir ou reconduire. Enquête sur les guichets de l’immigration. Paris: Raisons d’agir.
Staudinger, Paul. 1990. In the Heart of the Hausa States. Translated by Moody, Johanna. 2 vols. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Center for International Studies.
Sterling, Claire. 1974. Making of a sub-Saharan wasteland. Atlantic Monthly May: 98–105.
Stora, Benjamin. 2007. Un besoin d’histoire. In Postcolonial Studies dans le débat français, edited by Smouts, M.-C., 293–97. Paris: Presses de Sciences Po.
Stovall, Tyler. 2001. From Red Belt to Black Belt: Race, class, and urban marginality in twentieth-century Paris. l’Esprit Créateur 42, 3: 9–23.
Straker, Jay. 2009. Youth, Nationalism, and the Guinean Revolution. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Suret-Canale, Jean. 1988a. The End of the Chieftaincy in Guinea. In Essays on African History: From the Slave Trade to Neo-Colonialism. Translated by Hurst, Christopher, 148–78. London: Hurst.
Suret-Canale, Jean. 1988b. An Unrecognised Pioneer of the Democratic and National Movement in Africa: Louis Hunkanrin (1887–1964). In Essays in African History: From the Slave Trade to Neocolonialism. Translated by Hurst, Christopher, 196–219. London: Hurst.
Suret-Canale, Jean. 1994. Les Groupes d’études communistes (G.E.C.) en Afrique Noire. Paris: l’Harmattan.
Taithe, Bertrand. 2004. Reinventing (French) Universalism: Religion, humanitarianism and the ‘French doctors.’Modern and Contemporary France 12, 2: 147–58.
Thierry, Perret. 2005. Médias et démocratie au Mali. Politique Africaine 97: 18–32.
Thomas, Dominic. 2006. Black France: Colonialism, Immigration, and Transnationalism. Bloomington: Indiana.
Thompson, Virginia, and Adloff, Richard. 1957. French West Africa. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Thompson, Virginia, and Adloff, Richard. 1981. Conflict in Chad. Berkeley, CA: Institute of International Studies.
Ticktin, Mariam. 2011. Casualties of Care: Immigration and the Politics of Humanitarianism in France. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Tidjani Alou, Antoinette. 2010. Ancestors from the East, Spirits from the West: Surviving and reconfiguring the exogenous violence of global encounters in the Sahel. Journal des Africanistes 80, 1–2: 75–92.
Tilley, Helen. 2011. Africa as a Living Laboratory: Empire, Development, and the Problem of Scientific Knowledge, 1870–1950. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Timera, Mahamet. 1996. Les Soninké en France: d’une histoire à l’autre. Paris: Karthala.
Torpey, John. 2000. The Invention of the Passport: Surveillance, Citizenship, and the State. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press.
Touré, Abderhamane Baba and Bamba, Kadari. 2002. La Contribution du Parti Malien du Travail (PMT) à l’instauration de la démocratie pluraliste au Mali. Bamako, Jamana.
Toure, Ahmed Sekou. 1978. Des Droits des peuples aux droits de l’homme (à S. E. Mr. Valéry Giscard d’Estaing). Conakry: n.p.
Traoré, Aminata Dramane. 1999. l’Etau: l’Afrique dans un monde sans frontières. Arles: Actes Sud.
Traoré, Aminata Dramane. 2002. Le Viol de l’imaginaire. Paris: Fayard.
Traoré, Amadou Seydou. 2008. Le Salaire des libérateurs du Mali. Bamako: La Ruche à livres.
Traoré, Amadou Seydou. 2010. la Mort de Fily Dabo Sissoko et de ses compagnons: Une des pages sombres de notre histoire nationale dont il faut tirer les leçons. Bamako: la Ruche à livres.
Trench, Richard. 1978. Forbidden Sands: A Search in the Sahara. London: J. Murray.
Tshimanga, Charles, Gondola, Didier, and Bloom, Peter J., eds. 2009. Frenchness and the African Diaspora: Identity and Uprising in Contemporary France. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Umar, Muhammad S. 2006. Islam and Colonialism: Intellectual Responses of Muslims of Northern Nigeria to British Colonial Rule. Leiden: Brill.
Union générale des travailleurs sénégalais en France [UGTSF]. 1970. Le livre des travailleurs africains en France. Paris: F. Maspero.
Union Soudanaise-RDA [U.S.-R.D.A]. 1962. 2’ Seminaire de l’Union Soudanaise-R.D.A. Bamako: n.p.
Van Beusekom, Monica. 2008. Individualism, Community, and Cooperatives in the Development Thinking of the Union Soudanaise-RDA, 1946–1960. African Studies Review 51, 2: 1–25.
Van de Walle, Nicolas. 2001. African Economies and the Politics of Permanent Crisis, 1979–1999. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Van Walraven, Klaas. 2013. The Yearning for Relief: A History of the Sawaba Movement in Niger. Leiden: Brill.
Watts, Michael. 1983. Silent Violence: Food, Famine, & Peasantry in Northern Nigeria. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Weil, Patrick. 2002. Qu’est-ce qu’un Français? Histoire de la nationalité française depuis la Révolution. Paris: Grasset.
Weil, Patrick, and Dufoix, Stéphane, eds. 2005. L’esclavage, la colonisation, et après … : France, Etats-Unis, Grande-Bretagne. Paris: Presses universitaires de France.
Westad, Odd Arne. 2005. The Global Cold War: Third World Interventions and the Making of Our Times. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Wibaux, Fernand. 1992. Témoignage de Fernand Wibaux, Ambassadeur de France. In Afrique noire franҫaise: l’heure des indépendances, edited by Ageron, Charles-Robert and Michel, Marc, 457–62. Paris: CNRS.
Wihtol de Wenden, Catherine. 1994. The French Debate: Legal and political instruments to promote integration. In European Migration in the Late 20th Century: Historical Patterns, Actual Trends, and Social Implications, edited by Fassman, Heinz and Münz, Rainer, 67–80. Laxenburg, Austria: Edward Elgar.
Wilder, Gary. 2005. The French Imperial Nation-State: Negritude & Colonial Humanism between the Two World Wars. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Willis, Justin. 2007. ‘A Model of its Kind’: Representation and performance in the Sudan self-government election of 1953. Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 35, 3: 485–502.
Willis, Justin, and Battahani, Atta el. 2010. ‘We Changed the Laws’: Electoral practice and malpractice in Sudan since 1953. African Affairs 109, 435: 191–212.
Winders, Bill. 2009. The Politics of Food Supply: U.S. Agricultural Policy in the World Economy. New Haven, CT: Yale.
Winders, James A. 2006. Paris Africain: Rythms of the African Diaspora. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.
Wingate, Reginald. 1909. Memorandum from Lieutenant-General Sir R. Wingate to Sir Eldon Gorst on the Finances, Administration and Condition of the Sudan for 1908. Cairo: n.p.
Wise, Christopher. 2001. The Desert Shore: Literatures of the Sahel. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Works, John A. 1976. Pilgrims in a Strange Land: Hausa Communities in Chad. New York: Columbia University Press.
Young, Crawford. 1994. The African Colonial State in Comparative Perspective. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Zatzépine, Alexandre. 1975. l’Evolution du droit de la nationalité des républiques francophones d’Afrique et de Madagascar. Penant: Revue de droit des pays d’Afrique 84, 748–49: 147–210, 346–80.
Zobel, Clemens. 1996. Les génies du Koma: Identités locales, logiques religieuses et enjeux socio-politiques dans les monts Manding du Mali. Cahiers d’études africaines 36, 2: 625–59.
Zolberg, Aristide R. 1966. Creating Political Order: The Party-States of West Africa. Chicago: Rand McNally.
Zolberg, Aristide R. 1967. The Political Use of Economic Planning in Mali. In Economic Nationalism in Old and New States, edited by Johnson, Harry G., 98–123. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.