Skip to main content
Gendering Legislative Behavior
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 8
  • Cited by
    This (lowercase (translateProductType product.productType)) has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Schwindt-Bayer, Leslie A. and Reyes-Housholder, Catherine 2017. Citizen responses to female executives: is it sex, novelty or both?. Politics, Groups, and Identities, Vol. 5, Issue. 3, p. 373.

    Spirou, Mary Eve 2017. The challenges of political representation: gender in a US State legislature. International Journal of Public Leadership, Vol. 13, Issue. 1, p. 13.

    Holman, Mirya R. 2017. Women in Local Government. State and Local Government Review, p. 0160323X1773260.

    Wojcik, Stefan and Mullenax, Shawnna 2017. Men Idle, Women Network: How Networks Help Female Legislators Succeed. Legislative Studies Quarterly,

    Hughes, Melanie M. Paxton, Pamela and Krook, Mona Lena 2017. Gender Quotas for Legislatures and Corporate Boards. Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 43, Issue. 1, p. 331.

    Taylor, Jeffrey A. Herrnson, Paul S. and Curry, James M. 2017. The Impact of District Magnitude on the Legislative Behavior of State Representatives. Political Research Quarterly, p. 106591291773517.

    Barnes, Tiffany D and Jang, Jinhyeok 2016. How the size of governing coalitions shape legislative behavior: A subnational analysis of Argentine legislative chambers, 1992–2009. International Area Studies Review, Vol. 19, Issue. 4, p. 301.

    GREENE, ZACHARY and O'BRIEN, DIANA Z. 2016. Diverse parties, diverse agendas? Female politicians and the parliamentary party's role in platform formation. European Journal of Political Research, Vol. 55, Issue. 3, p. 435.

  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    Gendering Legislative Behavior
    • Online ISBN: 9781316534281
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

In democracies, power is obtained via competition. Yet, as women gain access to parliaments in record numbers, worldwide collaboration appears to be on the rise. This is puzzling: why, if politicians can secure power through competition, would we observe collaboration in Congress? Using evidence from 200 interviews with politicians from Argentina and a novel dataset from 23 Argentine legislative chambers over an 18-year period, Gendering Legislative Behavior reexamines traditional notions of competitive democracy by evaluating patterns of collaboration among legislators. Although only the majority can secure power via competition, all legislators - particularly those who do not have power - can influence the policy-making process through collaboration. Tiffany D. Barnes argues that as women have limited access to formal and informal political power, they collaborate more than men to influence policy-making. Despite the benefits of collaboration, patterns of collaboration vary among women because different legislative contexts either facilitate or constrain women's collaboration.


'Essential reading for scholars in comparative politics, including those in the fields of Latin American studies, women and politics and legislative studies. While many studies focus on how women can achieve elective office, few examine women's strategies as legislators. This book develops a theory of the conditions under which legislative collaboration is most likely to occur, by focusing on women's legislative behavior. Drawing on both quantitative and qualitative data, Barnes expertly examines legislative collaboration in Argentina, the United States, Rwanda, Uruguay, and South Africa.'

Miki Caul Kittilson - Arizona State University

‘Barnes’s book provides a provocative challenge to traditional views of self-interested and partisan legislators. By showing that they are willing to collaborate across partisan divides, Barnes implies that (especially) female legislators can put policies above partisanship. This important theoretical contribution is backed up by an impressive set of interviews with subnational Argentine legislators and bill cosponsorship data which Barnes combines to tell a compelling story.’

Scott Morgenstern - University of Pittsburgh

‘Tiffany Barnes’s Gendering Legislative Behavior is an important theoretical and empirical contribution to the literatures on legislatures, women and politics, and democracy. Whereas most of the work on legislatures and democracy has emphasized interparty conflict, Barnes explores the conditions under which legislative collaboration across parties occurs. She highlights the relatively greater propensity of women legislators to engage in collaborative behavior. The book is very well researched and written.’

Scott Mainwaring - University of Notre Dame

‘Barnes proposes a nuanced theory for why women may legislate differently than men. She shows that legislators can be collaborative, women collaborate more than men, but parties can prevent women from collaborating unless they are willing to pay a potentially high cost in terms of their future political career.’

Michelle M. Taylor-Robinson - Texas A&M University

‘Tiffany Barnes documents in extraordinary detail what are the incentives of women legislators to cross the party line and collaborate with each other on the drafting and approval of legislation. In doing so, this book provides a blueprint for future research that explains legislative cooperation on gender, ethnicity, race, or religion dimensions, as they interact with partisan incentives in democratic politics. This is the best book on legislative politics and gender that I have read.’

Ernesto Calvo - University of Maryland

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
Alcañiz Isabella. Forthcoming. How Skills Shape International Cooperation: Environmental and Nuclear Networks in the Global South. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Alemán Eduardo. 2006. “Policy Gatekeepers in Latin American Legislatures.” Latin American Politics and Society 48: 125–155.
Alemán Eduardo. 2008. “Policy Positions in the Chilean Senate: An Analysis of Coauthorship and Roll Call Data.”Brazilian Political Science Review 2(2): 74–92.
Alemán Eduardo and Calvo Ernesto. 2010. “Unified Government, Bill Approval, and the Legislative Weight of the President.”Comparative Political Studies 43(4): 511–534.
Alemán Eduardo and Calvo Ernesto. 2013. “Explaining Policy Ties in the Argentine and Chilean Congress.” Political Studies 61(2): 356–377.
Alemán Eduardo, Calvo Ernesto, Jones Mark P., and Kaplan Noah. 2009. “Comparing Cosponsorship and Roll Call Ideal Points.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 34(1): 87–116.
Alexander Amy C. 2011. “Mayoral Selection and the Demand and Supply of Women Mayors.” The Journal of Women, Politics, and Policy 32(2): 114–135.
Alexander Amy C. 2012. “Change in Women's Descriptive Representation and the Belief in Women's Ability to Govern: A Virtuous Cycle.” Politics & Gender 8(4): 437–464.
Alexander Amy C. 2015. “Big Jumps in Women's Presence in Parliaments: Are these Sufficient for Improving Beliefs in Women's Ability to Govern?”Advancing Women in Leadership 35: 82–97.
Alexander Amy C., Inglehart Ronald, and Welzel Christian. 2012. “Measuring Effective Democracy: A Defense.” International Political Science Review 33(1): 41–62.
Alexander Amy C. and Welzel Christian. 2011a. “Measuring Effective Democracy: The Human Empowerment Approach.” Comparative Politics 43(3): 271–289.
Alexander Amy C. and Welzel Christian. 2011b. “How Robust Is Muslim Support for Patriarchal Values? A Cross National, Multilevel Study.” International Review of Sociology 21: 249–276.
Alexander Deborah and Andersen Kristi. 1993. “Gender as a Factor in the Attribution of Leadership Traits.” Political Research Quarterly 46(3): 527–545.
Alles Santiago. 2007. “¿Hacia la consolidación política? Cambios en la ‘Estructura de Oportunidades Electorales’ de las Mujeres en Argentina.” América Latina, hoy 47: 123–154.
Alles Santiago. 2008. “Efectos del Sistema Electoral sobre la Representación de Mujeres. Argumentos y Evidencia a partir del caso argentino (1983–2005).” Revista SAAP 3(2): 313–352.
Alles Santiago. 2009. “Elección de Mujeres, Sistema Electoral y Cuotas de Género en las Provincias Argentinas.” XXVIII International Congress, LASA, Río de Janeiro: June 11–14.
Alles Santiago. 2014. “Ideología Partidaria, Competencia Electoral y Elección de Legisladoras en cinco democracias latinoamericanas: Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Perú y Uruguay, 1980–2013.” América Latina, hoy 66: 69–94.
Altman David and Pérez-Liñán Anibal. 2002. “Assessing the Quality of Democracy: Freedom, Competitiveness and Participation in Eighteen Latin American Countries.” Democratization 9(2): 85–100.
Ames Barry. 1995. “Electoral Rules, Constituency Pressures, and Pork Barrel: Bases of Voting in the Brazilian Congress.” The Journal of Politics 57(2): 324–343.
Ames Barry. 2001. The Deadlock of Democracy in Brazil. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Anzia Sarah F. and Jackman Molly C.. 2013. “Legislative Organization and the Second Face of Power: Evidence from US State Legislatures.” The Journal of Politics 75(1): 210–224.
Archenti Nélida and Tula María Inés. 2008. “La Ley de Cuotas en La Argentina. Un Balance Sobre Lagros y Obstáculos.” In Mujeres Y Política en America Latina Sistemas Electorales y Cuotas de Género Nélida Archenti and María Inés Tula (eds.). Buenos Aires: Heliasta. pp. 31–54.
Archenti Nélida and Johnson Niki. 2006. “Engendering the Legislative Agenda with and without the Quota.” Sociologıa, Problemas e Práticas 52: 133–153.
Arnold Laura W. and King Barbara M.. 2002. “Women, Committees and Institutional Change in the Senate.” In Women: Transforming Congress. Rosenthal (ed.) Cindy Simon. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
Bækgaard Martin and Kjaer Ulrik. 2012. “The Gendered Division of Labor in Assignments to Political Committees: Discrimination or Self-Selection in Danish Local Politics?”Politics & Gender 8(4): 465–482.
Baldez Lisa. 2002. Why Women Protest: Women's Movements in Chile. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Baldez Lisa. 2003. “Women's Movements and Democratic Transition in Chile, Brazil, East Germany, and Poland.” Comparative Politics 35: 253–272.
Baldez Lisa. 2011. “The UN Convention to Eliminate All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW): A New Way to Measure Women's Interests.” Politics & Gender 7(3): 419–423.
Balla Steven J., Lawrence Eric D., Maltzman Forrest, and Sigelman Lee. 2002. “Partisanship, Blame Avoidance, and the Distribution of Legislative Pork.” American Journal of Political Science 46(3): 515–525.
Ballington Julie. 1999. The Participation of Women in South African's First Democratic Elections. Johannesburg: Electoral Institute of South Africa.
Bangi Patience. 2012. “RWANDA: 13 Years after the Genocide, Gender-based Violence Continues behind Closed Doors.” Make Every Woman Count Blog. Available at:
Barnes Tiffany D. 2012a. Gender Quotas and the Representation of Women: Empowerment, Decision-making, and Public Policy. Doctoral Dissertation, Department of Political Science, Rice University, Houston, Texas.
Barnes Tiffany D. 2012b. “Gender and Legislative Preferences: Evidence from the Argentine Provinces.” Politics & Gender 8(4): 483–507.
Barnes Tiffany D. 2014. “Women's Representation and Legislative Committee Appointments: The Case of the Argentine Provinces.” Revista Uruguaya de Ciencia Política 23(2): 135–163.
Barnes Tiffany D. and Beaulieu Emily. 2014. “Gender Stereotypes and Corruption: How Candidates Affect Perceptions of Election Fraud.” Politics & Gender 10(3): 365–391.
Barnes Tiffany D. and Beaulieu Emily. 2015. “Unpacking the Link between Female Politicians and Reduced Suspicions of Corruption.” Presented at the European Conference on Politics and Gender, Uppsala University, Sweden, June 11–13, 2015.
Barnes Tiffany D., Beaulieu Emily, and Krupnikov Yanna. 2015. “Engaging Women: Addressing the Gender Gap in Women's Networking and Productivity.” Working Paper.
Barnes Tiffany D., Branton Regina, and Cassese Erin C.. Forthcoming. “A Re-Examination of Women's Electoral Success in Open Seat Elections: The Conditioning Effect of Electoral Competition.” Journal of Women, Politics & Policy.
Barnes Tiffany D. and Burchard Stephanie M.. 2013. “‘Engendering’ Politics: The Impact of Descriptive Representation on Women's Political Engagement in Sub-Saharan Africa.” Comparative Political Studies 46(7): 767–790.
Barnes Tiffany D. and Córdova Abby. Forthcoming. “Making Space for Women: Explaining Citizen Support for Legislative Gender Quotas in Latin America.” The Journal of Politics.
Barnes Tiffany D. and Jones Mark P.. 2011. “Latin America” In Bauer Gretchen and Tremblay Manon (eds.). Women in Executives. New York: Routledge.
Barnes Tiffany D. and Jones Mark P.. 2015. “Women's Representation in the Argentine National and Subnational Governments.” Presented at Women and Leadership in Latin America Conference, Rice University, Houston, Texas, April 10, 2015.
Barnes Tiffany D. and O'Brien Diana Z.. 2015. “Defending the Realm: The Appointment of Female Defense Ministers Worldwide.” Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Science Association, San Francisco, California, September 3–6, 2015.
Barnes Tiffany D. and Schibber Constanza F.. 2015. “The Political Power of Female Legislators: Committee Appointments and Institutional Design.” Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Science Association, San Francisco, California, September 3–6, 2015.
Bassel Leah and Emejulu Akwugo. 2010. “Struggles for Institutional Space in France and the United Kingdom: Intersectionality and the Politics of Policy.” Politics & Gender 6(4): 517–544.
Bauer Gretchen and Britton Hannah E. (eds.). 2006. Women in African Parliaments. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Bauer Gretchen and Burnet Jennie E.. 2013. “Gender Quotas, Democracy, and Women's Representation in Africa: Some Insights from Democratic Botswana and Autocratic Rwanda.” Women's Studies International Forum 41(P2): 103–112.
Bauer Nichole, Harbirdge Laurel, and Krupnikov Yanna. 2015. “Who Is Punished? How Voters Evaluate Male and Female Legislators Who Do Not Compromise.” Working Paper.
Beaman Lori, Chattopadhyay Raghabendra, Duflo Esther, Pande Rohini, and Topalova Petia. 2009. “Powerful Women: Does Exposure Reduce Bias?”Quarterly Journal of Economics 124(4): 1497–1540.
Beckwith Karen. 2005. “A Common Language of Gender?”Politics & Gender 1(1): 128–137.
Beckwith Karen. 2007. “Numbers and Newness: The Descriptive and Substantive Representation of Women.” Canadian Journal of Political Science 40(1): 27–49.
Beckwith Karen. 2011. “Interests, Issues, and Preferences: Women's Interests and Epiphenomena of Activism.” Politics & Gender 7(3): 424–429.
Beckwith Karen. 2014. “Plotting the Path from One to the Other: Women's Interests and Political Representation.” In Escobar-Lemmon Maria C. and Taylor-Robinson (eds.) Michelle M.. Representation: The Case of Women. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 19–40.
Bernhard William and Sulkin Tracy. 2013. “Commitment and Consequences: Reneging on Cosponsorship Pledges in the US House.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 38(4): 461–487.
Binder Sarah A. 1999. “Dynamics of Legislative Gridlock, 1947–1996.” American Political Science Review 93(3): 519–533.
Bird Karen. 2003. Stalemate: Causes and Consequences of Legislative Gridlock. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Bird Karen. 2015. “The Dysfunctional Congress.” Annual Review of Political Science 18: 85–101.
Bird Karen. 2003. “Who Are the Women? Where Are the Women? And what Difference Can they Make? Effects of Gender Parity in French Municipal Elections.” French Politics 1(1): 5–38.
Bird Karen. 2014. “Ethnic Quotas and Ethnic Representation Worldwide.” International Political Science Review 35(55): 12–26.
Bloemraad Irene. 2013. “Accessing the Corridors of Power: Puzzles and Pathways to Understanding Minority Representation.” West European Politics 36(3): 652–670.
Bonder Gloria and Marcela Nari. 1995 “The 30 Percent Quota Law: A Turning Point for Women's Political Participation in Argentina. In Brill Alida (ed.). A Rising Public Voice: Women in Politics Worldwide. New York: The Feminist Press.
Boulding Carew. 2014. NGOs, Political Protest, and Civil Society. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Bowler Shaun, Farrell David M., and Katz Richard S.. 1999. “Party Cohesion, Party Discipline and Parliaments.” In Bowler Shaun, Farrell David M., and Katz Richard S. (eds.). Party Discipline and Parliamentary Government. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, pp. 3–22.
Boxer Barbara, Collins Susan, Feinstein Dianne, and Whitney Catherine. 2001. Nine and Counting: The Women of the Senate. New York: Harper Perennial.
Brady David W. and Volden Craig. 1998. Revolving Gridlock: Politics and Policy from Carter to Clinton. Boulder, CO: Westview.
Bratton Kathleen A. 2002. “The Effects of Legislative Diversity on Agenda-Setting: Evidence from Six State Legislatures.” American Politics Research 30(2): 115–142.
Bird Karen. 2005. “Critical Mass Theory Revisited: The Behavior and Success of Token Women in State Legislatures.” Politics & Gender 1(1): 97–125.
Bratton Kathleen A. and Haynie Kerry L.. 1999. “Agenda Setting and Legislative Success in State Legislatures: The Effects of Gender and Race.” Journal of Politics 61(3): 658–679.
Britton Hannah. 2002. “Coalition Building, Election Rules, and Party Politics: South African Women's Path to Parliament.” Africa Today 4(49): 33–68.
Britton Hannah. 2005. Women in the South African Parliament: From Resistance to Governance. Urbana-Champaign: University of Illinois Press.
Brown Alice, Donaghy Tahnya Barnett, Mackay Fiona, and Meehan Elizabeth. 2002. “Women and Constitutional Change in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.” Parliamentary Affairs 55(1): 71–84.
Brown Nadia. 2011. “Identity and the Legislative Decision Making Process: A Case Study of the Maryland State Legislature.” Ethnic Studies Review 34(1–2): 45–68.
Brown Nadia. 2013. “Employing Intersectionality: The Impact of Generation on Black Women Maryland State Legislators Views on Anti-domestic Violence Legislation.” The Journal of Race and Policy 9(1): 47–70.
Brown Nadia. 2014a. Sisters in the Statehouse: Black Women and Legislative Decision Making. New York: Oxford University Press.
Brown Nadia. 2014b. “Political Participation of Women of Color: An Intersectional Analysis.” Journal of Women, Politics & Policy 35(4): 315–348.
Brown Nadia and Banks Kira Hudson. 2014. “Black Women's Agenda Setting in the Maryland State Legislature.” Journal of African American Studies 18(2): 164–180.
Browne William. 1985. “Multiple Sponsorship and Bill Success in the U.S. State Legislatures.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 10(4): 483–488.
Browning Rufus P., Marshall Dale Rogers, and Tabb David H.. 1984. Protest Is not Enough: The Struggle of Blacks and Hispanics for Equality in Urban Politics. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Burchard Stephanie. 2015. Electoral Violence in Sub-Saharan Africa: Causes and Consequences. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Burgess Diana and Borgida Eugene. 1999. “Who Women Are, Who Women Should Be: Descriptive and Prescriptive Gender Stereotyping in Sex Discrimination.” Psychology, Public Policy, and Law 5(3): 665–692.
Burns Peter F. 2012. Electoral Politics is Not Enough: Racial and Ethnic Minorities and Urban Politics. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.
Burnet Jennie E. 2008. “Gender Balance and the Meanings of Women in Governance in Post-Genocide Rwanda.” African Affairs 107 (428): 361–386.
Burnet Jennie E. 2011. “Women Have Found Respect: Gender Quotas, Symbolic Representation and Female Empowerment in Rwanda.” Politics & Gender 7(3): 303–334.
Burnet Jennie E. 2012a. Genocide Lives in Us Women, Memory, and Silence in Rwanda. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
Burnet Jennie E. 2012b. “Women's Empowerment and Cultural Change in Rwanda.” In Franceschet Susan, Krook Mona Lena, and Piscopo Jennifer M. (eds.). The Impact of Gender Quotas. New York: Oxford University Press.
Burrell Barbara C. 1994. A Woman's Place Is in the House: Campaigns for Congress in the Feminist Era. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Bush Sarah. 2011. “International Politics and the Spread of Quotas for Women in Legislatures.” International Organization 65: 103–137.
Button James and Hedge David. 1996. “Legislative Life in the 1990s: A Comparison of Black and White State Legislators.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 21(2): 199–218.
Cain Bruce E., Ferejohn John A., and Fiorina Morris P.. 1987. The Personal Vote. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Calvo Ernesto. 2007. “The Responsive Legislature: Public Opinion and Law Making in a Highly Disciplined Legislature.” British Journal of Political Science 37(2): 263–280.
Burnet Jennie E. 2014. Legislative Success in Fragmented Congresses in Argentina: Plurality Cartels, Minority Presidents, and Lawmaking. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Calvo Ernesto and Escolar Marcelo. 2005. La Nueva Política de Partidos en La Argentina: Crisis Política, Realineamientos Partidarios y Reforma Electoral. Buenos Aires: Prometeo Libros.
Calvo Ernesto and Leiras Marcelo. 2012. “The Nationalization of Legislative Collaboration.” Revista Ibero-American de Estudios Legislativo 2: 2–19.
Calvo Ernesto and Murillo Maria Victoria. 2004. “Who Delivers? Partisan Clients in the Argentine Electoral Market.” American Journal of Political Science 48(4): 742–757.
Calvo Ernesto and Sagarzazu Iñaki. 2011. “Legislator Success in Committee: Gatekeeping Authority and the Loss of Majority Control.” American Journal of Political Science 55(1): 1–15.
Caminotti Mariana. 2009. En el Nombre de la Democracia. La Invención del Cupo Femenino y la Difusión Subnacional de las Cuotas en Argentina. Escuela de Política y Gobierno de la Universidad Nacional de San Martín, Tesis de Doctorado.
Campbell James. 1982. “Cosponsoring Legislation in the U.S. Congress.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 7: 415–422.
Canon David T. 1995. “Redistricting and the Congressional Black Caucus.” American Politics Research 23(2): 159–189.
Canon David T. 1999. Race, Redistricting, and Representation: The Unintended Consequences of Black Majority Districts. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Carey John. 1996. Term Limits and Legislative Representation. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Carey John. 2009. Legislative Voting and Accountability. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Carey John and Hix Simon. 2011. “The Electoral Sweet Spot: Low-Magnitude Proportional Electoral Systems.” American Journal of Political Science 55(2): 383–397.
Carey John and Shugart Matthew Soberg. 1995. “Incentives to Cultivate a Personal Vote: Rank Ordering of Electoral Formulas.” Electoral Studies 14(4): 417–439.
Carey John and Shugart Matthew Soberg. 1998. Executive Decree Authority. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Carlson Katie and Randell Shirley. 2013. “Gender and Development: Working with Men for Gender Equality in Rwanda.” Agenda 27(1): 114–125.
Carlson Margaret. 2012. “How the Senate's Women Maintain Bipartisanship and Civility.” Omaha World-Herald Bureau. March 4, 2012. Available at:
Carrió Elisa María. 2005. “Argentina: A New Look at the Challenges of Women's Participation in the Legislature.” Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers. Stockholm: IDEA.
Carroll Royce and Cox Gary W.. 2007. “The Logic of Gamson's Law: Pre-election Coalitions and Portfolio Allocations.” American Journal of Political Science 51(2): 300–313.
Carroll Royce and Cox Gary W.. 2012. “Shadowing Ministers Monitoring Partners in Coalition Governments.” Comparative Political Studies 45(2): 220–236.
Carroll Royce, Cox Gary W., and Pachón Mónica. 2006. “How Parties Create Electoral Democracy, Chapter 2.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 31(2): 153–174.
Carroll Royce and Kim Henry A.. 2010. “Party Government and the ‘Cohesive Power of Public Plunder.’” American Journal of Political Science 54(1): 34–44.
Carroll Susan. 2008. “Committee Assignments: Discrimination or Choice?” In Beth Reingold (ed.). Legislative Women: Getting Elected, Getting Ahead. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, pp. 135–156.
Cassese Erin C., Barnes Tiffany D., and Branton Regina. 2015. “Racializing Gender: Public Opinion at the Intersection.” Politics & Gender, 11(1): 1–26.
Castellanos Angela. 2006. “LATIN AMERICA: Women Lawmakers Find Strength in Unity.” Inter Press Service New Agency. Available at:
Caul Miki. 1999. “Women's Representation in Parliament: The Role of Political Parties.” Party Politics 5(1): 79–98.
Caul Miki. 2001. “Political Parties and Candidate Gender Policies: A Cross-National Study.” Journal of Politics 63(4): 1214–1229.
Celis Karen, Erzeel Silvia, Mügge Lisa, and Damstra Alyt. 2014. “Quotas and Intersectionality: Ethnicity and Gender in Candidate Selection.” International Political Science Review 35(55): 55–66.
Center for American Women and Politics (CAWP). 2013. “Women in State Legislative Leadership Positions 2013.” National Information Bank on Women in Public Office, Eagleton Institute of Politics, Rutgers University. New Brunswick, NJ: Center for American Women and Politics (CAWP). Available at:
Chama Mónica. 2001. Las Mujeres y el Poder. Buenos Aires: Ciudad Argentina.
Chappell Louis. 2006. “Comparing Political Institutions: Revealing the Gendered ‘Logic of Appropriateness.’”Politics & Gender 2(2): 223–235.
Chappell Louis. 2010. “Comparative Gender and Institutions: Directions for Research.”Perspectives on Politics 8(1): 183–189.
Cheibub José Antonio, Elkins Zachary, and Ginsburg Tom. 2011. “Latin American Presidentialism in Comparative and Historical Perspective.” Texas Law Review 89(7).
Cheibub José Antonio, Figueiredo Argelina, and Limongi Fernando. 2009. “Political Parties and Governors as Determinants of Legislative Behavior in Brazil's Chamber of Deputies, 1988–2006.” Latin American Politics and Society 51(1): 1–30.
Cheibub José Antonio, Gandhi Jennifer, and Vreeland James Raymond. 2010. “Democracy and Dictatorship Revisited.” Public Choice 143(1–2): 67–101.
Christensen Martin K. I. 2013. “Women Party Leaders.” Worldwide Guide to Women in Leadership. Available at:
Clark Jennifer Hayes, Osborn Tracy, Winburn Jon, and Wright Gerald C.. 2009. “Representation in U.S. Legislatures: The Acquisition and Analysis of U.S. State Legislative Roll Call Data.” State Politics and Policy Quarterly 9(3): 356–370.
Claveria Sílvia. 2014. “Still a ‘Male Business’?: Explaining Women's Presence in Executive Office.” West European Politics 37(5): 1156–1176.
Clucas Richard A. and Valdini Melody Ellis. 2015. The Character of Democracy: How Institutions Shape Politics. New York: Oxford University Press.
Collier David and Levitsky Steve. 1997. “Democracy with Adjectives: Conceptual Innovation in Comparative Research.” World Politics 49(3): 430–451.
Cox Gary W. 1987. “Electoral Equilibrium under Alternative Voting Institutions.” American Journal of Political Science 31(1): 82–108.
Cox Gary W. 1990. “Centripetal and Centrifugal Incentives in Electoral Systems.”American Journal of Political Science 34(4): 903–935.
Cox Gary W. 1997. Making Votes Count: Strategic Coordination in the World's Electoral Systems. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Cox Gary W. and McCubbins Mathew D.. 1993. Legislative Leviathan: Party Government in the House. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Cox Gary W. and McCubbins Mathew D.. 2005. Setting the Agenda: Responsible Party Government in the U.S. House of Representatives. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.
Crenshaw Kimberle. 1991. “Women of Color at the Center: Selections from the Third National Conference on Women of Color and the Law: Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence against Women of Color.” Stanford Law Review 43: 1241.
Crenshaw Kimberle. 1993. “Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctrine, Feminist Theory and Antiracist Politics.” In D. Kelly Weisburg (ed.). Feminist Legal Theory. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 383–395.
Crisp Brian, Escobar-Lemmon Maria C., Jones Bradford S., Jones Mark P., and Taylor-Robinson Michelle M.. 2004a. “Vote-Seeking Incentives and Legislative Representation in Six Presidential Democracies.” The Journal of Politics 66(3): 823–846.
Crisp Brian and Ingall Rachael E.. 2002. “Institutional Engineering and the Nature of Representation: Mapping the Effects of Electoral Reform in Colombia.” American Journal of Political Science 46(4): 733–748.
Crisp Brian, Kanthak Kristin, and Leijonhufvud Jenny. 2004. “The Reputations Legislators Build: With Whom Should Representatives Collaborate?”American Political Science Review 98(4): 703–716.
Crisp Brian F. and Schibber Constanza F.. 2014. “The Study of Legislatures in Latin America.” In Thomas Saalfeld, Kaare Strom, and Shane Martin (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of Legislative Studies. New York: Oxford University Press.
Crowther William E. and Matonyte Irmina. 2007. “Parliamentary Elites as a Democratic Thermometer: Estonia, Lithuania and Moldova Compared.” Communist and Post-Communist Studies 40(3): 281–299.
Dahl Robert. 1971. Polyarchy: Participation and Opposition. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Davidson Roger H. and Oleszek Walter J.. 2005. Congress and Its Members. 10th ed. Washington, DC: CQ Press.
Deal Jennifer J. and Stevenson Maura A.. 1998. “Perceptions of Female and Male Managers in the 1990s: Plus ça Change…”Sex Roles 38(3): 287–300.
De Luca Miguel de, Jones Mark P., and Tula Maria Ines. 2002. “Back Rooms or Ballot Boxes: Candidate Nomination in Argentina.” Comparative Political Studies 35(4): 413–436.
Delvin Claire and Elgie Robert. 2008. “The Effect of Increased Women's Representation in Parliament: The Case of Rwanda.” Parliamentary Affairs 61(2): 237–254.
Diekman Amanda B., Brown Elizabeth R., Johnston Amanda M., and Clark Emily K.. 2010. “Seeking Congruity between Goals and Roles: A New Look at Why Women Opt out of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Careers.” Psychological Science 21(8): 1051–1057.
Diekman Amanda B., Eagly Alice H., Mladinic Antonio, and Ferreira Maria Christina. 2005. “Dynamic Stereotypes about Women and Men in Latin America and the United States.” Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 36(2): 209–226.
Diekman Amanda B. and Schnider Monica C.. 2010. “A Social Role Theory Perspective on Gender Gaps in Political Attitudes.” Psychology of Women Quarterly 34(4): 486–497.
Dodson Debra. 2006. The Impact of Women in Congress. New York: Oxford University Press.
Dolan Kathleen and Ford Lynne E.. 1997. “Change and Continuity among Women State Legislators: Evidence from Three Decades.” Political Research Quarterly 50(1): 137–151.
Dovi Suzanne. 2002. “Preferable Descriptive Representatives: Will Just any Woman, Black or Latino Do?”The American Political Science Review 96(4): 729–743.
Downs Anthony. 1957. An Economic Theory of Democracy. New York: Harper and Row.
Driscoll Amanda and Krook Mona Lena. 2009. “Can there Be a Feminist Rational Choice Institutionalism?”Politics & Gender 5(2): 238–245.
Drysdale Walsh Shannon. 2008. “Engendering Justice: Constructing Institutions to Address Violence against Women.”Studies in Social Justice 2(1): 48–66.
Drysdale Walsh Shannon and Xydias Christina. 2014. “Women's Organizing and Intersectional Policy-Making in Comparative Perspective: Evidence from Guatemala and Germany.” Politics, Groups, and Identities 2(4): 549–572.
Duerst-Lahti Georgia. 2005. “Institutional Gendering: Theoretical Insights into the Environment of Women Officeholders.” In Sue Thomas and Clyde Wilcox (eds.). Women and Elective Office: Past, Present, and Future, 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press.
Duerst-Lahti Georgia and Kelly Rita Mea. 1995. Gender Power, Leadership, and Governance. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Duerst-Lahti Georgia, and Johnson Cathy M.. 1990 Gender and Style in Bureaucracy. Women and Politics 10(4): 67–120.
Duerst-Lahti Georgia. 1992. “Management Styles, Stereotypes, and Advantages.” In Women and Men of the States: Public Administrators at the State Level, edited by Mary E. Guy (ed.). Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.
Duverger Maurice. 1954. Political Parties. New York: Wiley.
Eagly Alice H. and Carli Linda L.. 2007. Through the Labyrinth: The Truth about how Women Become Leaders. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Eagly Alice H., Johannesen-Schmidt Mary C., and van Engen Marloes L.. 2003. “Transformational, Transactional, and Laissez-faire Leadership Styles: A Meta-analysis Comparing Women and Men.” Psychological Bulletin 129(4): 569–591.
Eagly Alice H. and Karau Steven J.. 2002. “Role Congruity Theory of Prejudice towards Female Leaders.” Psychological Review 109(3): 573.
Eagly Alice H., Wood Wendy, and Diekman Amanda B.. 2000 “Social Role Theory of Sex Differences and Similarities: A Current Appraisal.” In Eckes Thomas and Martin Hanns (eds.). The Developmental Social Psychology of Gender. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, pp. 123–174.
Eaton B. Curtis and Lipsey Richard G.. 1975. “The Principle of Minimum Differentiation Reconsidered: Some New Developments in the Theory of Spatial Competition.” The Review of Economic Studies 42(1): 27–49.
El Sol . 2012. “Quieren unificar cuatro proyectos de ley contra la trata en Mendoza.” El Sol, Mendoza. Dec. 17, 2012. Available at:
Escobar-Lemmon Maria C. and Taylor-Robinson Michelle M.. 2005. “Women Ministers in Latin American Government: When, Where, and Why?”American Journal of Political Science 49(4): 822–844.
Escobar-Lemmon Maria C. and Taylor-Robinson Michelle M.. 2009. “Getting to the Top: Career Paths of Latin American Female Cabinet Ministers.” Political Research Quarterly 62(4): 685–699.
Escobar-Lemmon Maria C. and Taylor-Robinson Michelle M.. 2014a. “Dilemmas in the Meaning and Measurement of Representation.” In Escobar-Lemmon Maria C. and Taylor-Robinson Michelle M. (eds.). Representation: The Case of Women. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 1–18.
Escobar-Lemmon Maria C. and Taylor-Robinson Michelle M.. 2014b. “Does Presence Produce Representation of Interests?” In Escobar-Lemmon Maria C. and Taylor-Robinson Michelle M. (eds.). Representation: The Case of Women. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 247–248.
Evans Diana. 1994. “Policy and Pork: The Use of Pork Barrel Projects to Build Policy Coalitions in the House of Representatives.” American Journal of Political Science 38(4): 894–917.
Evans Diana. 2004. Greasing the Wheels: The Use of Pork Barrel Projects to Build Majority Coalitions in Congress. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Fenno Richard F. 1978. Home Style: House Members in Their Districts. Boston, MA: Little, Brown.
Fenno Richard F. 2003. Going Home: Black Representatives and their Constituents. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Fernández Anderson Cora. 2011. The Impact of Social Movements on State Policy: Human Rights and Women Movements in Argentina, Chile and Uruguay. Doctoral Dissertation. South Bend, Indiana: University of Notre Dame.
Figueiredo Argelina Cheibub and Limongi Fernando. 2000. “Presidential Power, Legislative Organization, and Party Behavior in Brazil.” Comparative Politics 32(2): 151–170.
Fiorina Morris P. 1978. “Economic Retrospective Voting in American National Elections: A Micro-analysis.” American Journal of Political Science 22(2): 426–443.
Fiske Susan, Cuddy Amy J. C., and Glick Peter. 2007. “Universal Dimensions of Social Cognition: Warmth and Competence.” Trends in Cognitive Science 11(2): 77–83.
Folke Olle, Freidenall Lenita, and Rickne Johanna. 2015. “Gender Quotas and Ethnic Minority Representation: Swedish Evidence from a Longitudinal Mixed Methods Study.” Politics & Gender 11(2): 345–381.
Forret Monica L. and Dougherty Thomas W.. 2004. “Networking Behaviors and Career Outcomes: Differences for Men and Women?”Journal of Organizational Behavior 25(3): 419–437.
Foschi Martha, Sigerson Kristen, and Lebesis Marie. 1995. “The Relative Effects of Gender, Academic Record, and Decision Type.”Small Group Research 26(3): 328–352.
Fowler James H. 2006. “Connecting the Congress: A Study of Cosponsorship Networks.” Political Analysis 14: 456–487.
Fox Richard L. and Oxley Zoe M.. 2003. “Gender Stereotyping in State Executive Elections: Candidate Selection and Success.” Journal of Politics 65(3): 833–850.
Franceschet Susan 2011. “Gender Policy and State Architecture in Latin America.”Gender and Politics 7(2): 273–279.
Franceschet Susan and Piscopo Jennifer. 2008. “Gender Quotas and Women's Substantive Representation: Lessons from Argentina.” Gender and Politics 4(3): 393–425.
Franceschet Susan and Piscopo Jennifer. 2013. “Federalism, Decentralization, and Reproductive Rights in Argentina and Chile.” Publius: The Journal of Federalism 43(1): 129–150.
Franceschet Susan and Piscopo Jennifer. 2014. “Sustaining Gendered Practices? Power and Elite Networks in Argentina.” Comparative Political Studies 47(1): January 2014: 86–111.
Frankovich Kathleen A. 1977. “Sex and Voting in the U.S. House of Representatives, 1961–1975.” American Politics Quarterly 5: 315–331.
Franks Tim. 2014. “Has Julia Gillard's Anger Diminished?” British Broadcasting Corporation. Feb. 25, 2014. Available at:
Freedman Jane. 2002. “Women in the European Parliament.” Parliamentary Affairs 55(1): 179–188.
Frisch Scott A. and Kelly Sean Q.. 2003. “A Place at the Table: Women's Committee Requests and Women's Committee Assignments in the U.S. House.” Women & Politics 25(3): 1–26.
Funk Kendall D. 2015. “Gendered Governing? Women's Leadership Styles and Participatory Institutions in Brazil.” Political Research Quarterly 68(3): 564–578.
Kendall D. Funk and Taylor-Robinson Michelle M.. 2014. “Gender Balance in Committees and How It Impacts Participation: Evidence from Costa Rica's Legislative Assembly.”Revista Uruguaya de Ciencia Política 23(2): 111–134.
Gallagher Michael and Marsh Michael. 1987. Candidate Selection in Comparative Perspective. London: Sage.
Gelman Andrew and Hill Jennifer. 2007. Data Analysis Using Regression and Multilevel/Hierarchical Models. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Gerrity Jessica, Osborn Tracy, and Mendez Jeanette. 2007. “Women and Representation: A Different View of the District.” Politics & Gender 3(2): 179–200.
Gibson Edward. 2011. Boundary Control: Making and Unmaking Subnational Authoritarianism in Democratic Countries. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Gibson Edward L. and Calvo Ernesto. 2000. “Federalism and Low-Maintenance Constituencies: The Territorial Dimension of Economic Reform in Argentina.” Studies in Comparative International Development 35(5): 32–55.
Gilligan Carol. 1982. In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Ginwala Frene. 1991. “Women and the Elephant: The Need to Redress Gender Oppression.” In Susan Bazilli (ed.). Putting Women on the Agenda. Johannesburg: Raven.
Goetz Anne Marie and Hassim Shireen. 2002. “In and against the Party: Women and Constituency Building in Uganda and South Africa. In Razavi S. and Molyneux M. (eds.). Gender Justice, Development and Rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Goetz Anne Marie and Hassim Shireen (eds.). 2003. No Shortcuts to Power: African Women in Politics and Policy Making. New York: Zed Books.
Gogineni Roopa. 2013. “Rwandan Parliament's Female Majority Focuses on Equality.” Voice of America. Available at:
Gomez Jessica and Koppell Carla. 2008. “Advancing Women's Caucuses in Legislatures.” The Institute for Initiative Security. Available at:
González Diana. 2009. Producción Legislative en Materia de Equidad de Géneo y Generaciones Durante el Período Febrero 2005–Noviembre 2009. Montevideo, Cotidiano Mujer-UNIFEM-ICP.
Green Eric. 2012. “Women's Caucus Boosts Uruguayan Democracy.” Global Issues: Women in the World Today. Washington DC: United States Department of State Bureau of International Information Programs.
Grey Sandra. 2002. “Critical Mass and New Zealand Women MPs.” Parliamentary Affairs 55(1): 19–29.
Grofman Bernard and Davidson Chandler. 1992. Controversies in Minority Voting: The Voting Rights Act in Perspective. Washington, DC: Brookings Institute Press.
Hancock Ange-Marie. 2007a. “Intersectionality as Normative and Empirical Paradigm.” PS: Political Science & Politics 37(1): 41–45.
Hancock Ange-Marie. 2007b. “When Multiplication Doesn't Equal Quick Addition: Examining Intersectionality as a Research Paradigm.” Perspectives on Politics 5(1): 63–79.
Hancock Ange-Marie. 2014. “Intersectional Representation or Representing Intersectionality? Reshaping Empirical Analysis of Intersectionality.” In Escobar-Lemmon Maria C. and Taylor-Robinson Michelle M. (eds.). Representation: The Case of Women. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 41–57.
Hassim Shireen. 2003. “Representation, Participation, and Democratic Effectiveness: Feminist Challenges to Representative Democracy in South Africa.” In Anne Marie Goetz and Shireen Hassim (eds.). No Shortcuts to Power: African Women in Politics and Policy Making. New York: Zed Books.
Harris-Perry Melissa V. 2011. Sister Citizen: Shame, Stereotypes, and Black Women in America. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Harward Brian M. and Moffett Kenneth W.. 2010. “The Calculus of Cosponsorship in the US Senate.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 35(1): 117–143.
Hawkesworth Mary. 2003. “Congressional Enactments of Race-Gender: Toward a Theory of Raced-Gendered InstitutionsAmerican Political Science Review 97(4): 529–555.
Haynie Kerry Lee. 2001. African American Legislators in the American States. New York: Columbia University Press.
Heath Roseanna Michelle, Schwindt-Bayer Leslie A., and Taylor-Robinson Michelle M.. 2005. “Women on the Sidelines: Women's Representation on Committees in Latin American Legislatures.” American Journal of Political Science 49(2): 420–436.
Heilman Madeline E. and Okimoto Tyler G.. 2007. “Why Are Women Penalized for Success at Male Tasks?: The Implied Communality Deficit.” Journal of Applied Psychology 92(1): 81–92.
Sánchez Hernández and Isabel Ana. 2001. “Paraguay.” In Sáez Manuel Alcántara and Freidenberg Flavia (eds.) Partidos Pollíticos de América Latina: Cono Sur [Political Parties of Latin America: Southern Cone]. Salamanaca: Ediciones Universidad de Salamanaca, pp. 355–421.
Hicken Allen and Stoll Heather. 2011. “Presidents and Parties: How Presidential Elections Shape Coordination in Legislative Elections.” Comparative Political Studies 44(7): 854–883.
Hicken Allen and Stoll Heather. 2013. “Are All Presidents Created Equal? Presidential Powers and the Shadow of Presidential Elections.” Comparative Political Studies 46(3): 291–319.
Highton Benjamin and Rocca Michael. 2005. “Beyond the Roll-call Arena: The Determinants of Position Taking in Congress.” Political Research Quarterly 58: 303–316.
Hinojosa Magda. 2012. Selecting Women, Electing Women: Political Representation and Candidate Selection in Latin America. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
Holman Mirya R. 2013. “Sex and the City: Female Leaders and Spending on Social Welfare Programs in U.S. Municipalities.” Journal of Urban Affairs 36(4): 701–715.
Holman Mirya R. 2014. Women in Politics in the American City. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
Holman Mirya R. 2015. “Gender, Political Rhetoric, and Moral Metaphors in State of the City Addresses.” Urban Affairs Review. Online first.
Holman Mirya R., Merolla Jennifer, and Zechmeister Elizabeth. 2011. “Sex, Stereotypes, and Security: An Experimental Study of the Effect of Crises on Assessments of Gender and Leadership.” Journal of Women, Politics, and Policy 32(3): 173–192.
Holmsten Stephanie S., Moser Robert G., and Slosar Mary C.. 2010. “Do Ethnic Parties Exclude Women?Comparative Political Studies 43(10): 1179–1201.
Htun Mala. 2003. Sex and the State: Abortion, Divorce, and the Family under Latin American Dictatorships and Democracies. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Htun Mala. 2004. “Is Gender Like Ethnicity? The Political Representation of Identity Groups.”Perspectives on Politics 2(3): 439–458.
Htun Mala. 2014. “Political Inclusion and Representation of Afrodescendent Women in Latin America” In Escobar-Lemmon Maria C. and Taylor-Robinson Michelle M. (eds.). Representation: The Case of Women. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 118–137.
Htun Mala. 2015. Inclusion without Representation: Gender Quotas and Ethnic Reservations in Latin America. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Htun Mala N., and Jones Mark P.. 2002. Engendering the right to participate in decision-making: Electoral quotas and women's leadership in Latin America. In Gender and the politics of rights and democracy in Latin America, ed. Nikki Craske and Maxine Molyneaux, pp. 32–56. London: Palgrave.
Htun Mala, Lacalle Marina, and Micozzi Juan Pablo. 2013. “Does Women's Presence Change Legislative Behavior? Evidence from Argentina.” Journal of Politics in Latin America. 2(1): 95–125.
Htun Mala and Ossa Juan Pablo. 2013. “Political Inclusion of Marginalized Groups: Indigenous Reservations and Gender Parity in Bolivia.” Politics, Groups, and Identities 1(1): 4–25.
Htun Mala and Power Timothy J.. 2006. “Gender, Parties, and Support for Equal Rights in the Brazilian Congress.” Latin American Politics and Society 48(4): 83–104.
Htun Mala and Weldon Laural. 2012. “The Civic Origins of Progressive Policy Change: Combating Violence against Women in Global Perspective, 1975–2005.” American Political Science Review 106(3): 548–569.
Huddy Leonie and Terkildsen Nayda. 1993. “Gender Stereotypes and the Perception of Male and Female Candidates.” American Journal of Political Science 37: 119–147.
Hughes Melanie M. 2009. “Armed Conflict, International Linkages, and Women's Parliamentary Representation in Developing Nations.” Social Problems 56(1): 174–204.
Hughes Melanie M. 2011. “Intersectionality, Quotas, and Minority Women's Political Representation Worldwide.” American Political Science Review 105(3): 604–620.
Hughes Melanie M. 2013. “The Intersection of Gender and Minority Status in National Legislatures: The Minority Women Legislative Index.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 38(4): 489–516.
Hughes Melanie M., Krook Mona Lena, and Paxton Pamela. 2015. “Transnational Women's Activism and the Global Diffusion of Gender Quotas.” International Studies Quarterly 59(2): 357–372.
Huntington Samuel P. 1991. The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
Inter-Parliamentary Union. 2013. Women in National Parliaments. Available at:
International Parliamentary Union (IPU). 2015. Database on Women's Caucuses. Available at:
Jacobson Gary C. 2004. The Politics of Congressional Elections, 6th ed. New York: Pearson.
Johnson Joel W. and Wallack Jessica S.. 2010. Database of Electoral Systems and the Personal Vote. Available at:
Johnson Niki. 2005. La Política de la ausencia: las elecciones uruguayas 2004–2005 y la equidad de género. Montevideo: CNS Mujeres.
Johnson Niki, 2009. “The role of cross-party parliamentary women's benches in promoting women's substantive representation: the case of the Uruguayan Bancada Bicameral Femenina.” Presented at the European Conference on Politics and Gender Universitat Pompeu Fabre, Barcelona, 21–23 March 2013.
Johnson Niki, 2013a. “The role of Cross-party Parliamentary Women's Benches in Promoting Women's Substantive Representation: The Case of the Uruguayan Bancada Bicameral Femenina.” Paper prepared for presentation at the European Conference on Politics and Gender Universitat Pompeu Fabre, Barcelona, March 21–23, 2013.
Johnson Niki, 2013b. “Opening up the ‘Black Box’: Candidate Selection Procedures and Gender Representation in the 2009 Uruguayan Elections.” Paper prepared for presentation at the European Conference on Politics and Gender Universitat Pompeu Fabre, Barcelona, March 21–23, 2013.
Johnson Niki and Pérez Verónica. 2009 . Representación (S)Electiva: Una Mirada Feminista a las Elecciones Uruguayas. Montevideo: Contidiano Mujer.
Jones Mark P. 1995. Electoral Laws and the Survival of Presidential Democracies. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.
Jones Mark P. 1996. “Increasing Women's Representation Via Gender Quotas: The Argentine Ley de Cupos.” Women & Politics 6(4): 75–98.
Jones Mark P. 1997. “Legislator Gender and Legislator Policy Priorities in the Argentine Chamber of Deputies and the United States House of Representatives.” Policy Studies Journal 25(4): 613–629.
Jones Mark P. 1998. “Gender Quotas, Electoral Laws, and the Election of Women.” Comparative Political Studies 31(1): 3–21.
Jones Mark P. 2002. “Explaining the High Level of Party Discipline in the Argentine Congress.” In Scott Morgenstern and Benito Nacife (eds.). Legislative Politics in Latin America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Jones Mark P. 2008. “The Recruitment and Selection of Legislative Candidates in Argentina.” In Peter M. Siavelis and Scott Morgenstern (eds.). Pathways to Power: Political Recruitment and Candidate Selection in Latin America. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Jones Mark P. 2009. “Gender Quotas, Electoral Laws, and The Election of Women: Evidence from the Latin American Vanguard.” Comparative Political Studies 42(1): 56–81.
Jones Mark P.Sebastian Saiegh , Spiller Pablo T., and Tommasi Mariano. 2002Amateur Legislators – Professional Politicians: The Consequences of Party-Centered Electoral Rules in a Federal System.” American Journal of Political Science 46 (3): 656–669.
Jones Mark P., Alles Santiago, and Tchintian Carolina. 2012. “Cuotas de Género, Leyes Electorales y Elección de Legisladoras en América Latina.” Revista de Ciencia Política 32(2): 331–357.
Jones Mark P. and Hwang Wonjae. 2005a. “Party Government in Presidential Democracies: Extending Cartel Theory beyond the U.S. Congress.” American Journal of Political Science 49: 267–283.
Jones Mark P. and Hwang Wonjae. 2005b. “Provincial Party Bosses: Keystone of the Argentine Congress.” In Steven Levitsky and Murillo María Victoria (eds.). The Politics of Institutional Weaknesses: Argentine Democracy. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Jones Mark P., Sanguinetti Pablo, and Tommasi Mariano. 2000. “Politics, Institutions, and Fiscal Performance in a Federal System: An Analysis of the Argentine Provinces.” Journal of Development Economics 61(2): 305–333.
Julious Stephen A. 2004. “Sample sizes for clinical trials with Normal data.” Statistics in Medicine 23(12): 1921–1986.
Kanthak Kristin and Krause George A.. 2012. The Diversity Paradox: Political Parties, Legislatures, and the Organizational Foundations of Representation in America. Oxford University Press.
Karam Azza and Lovenduski Joni. 2005. “Women in Parliament: Making a Difference.” In Julie Ballington and Azza Karam (eds.). Women in Parliaments: Beyond Numbers. Stockholm: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance.
Karpowitz Christopher F. and Mendelberg Tali. 2014. The Silent Sex: Gender, Deliberation, and Institutions. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Kathlene Lyn. 1989. “Uncovering the Political Impacts of Gender: An Exploratory Study.” The Western Political Quarterly 42(2): 397–421.
Kathlene Lyn. 1994. “Power and Influence in State Legislative Policymaking: The Interactions of Gender and Position in Committee Hearing Debates.” American Political Science Review 88(3): 560–576.
Kathlene Lyn. 1995. “Position Power versus Gender Power: Who Holds the Floor.” In Duerst-Lahti Georgia and Kelly Rita Mae (eds.). Gender Power, Leadership, and Governance. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, pp. 167–194.
Kerevel Yann and Atkeson Lonna Rae. 2013. “Explaining the Marginalization of Women in Legislative Institutions.” Journal of Politics 74(4).
Kessler Daniel and Krehbiel Keith. 1996. “Dynamics of Cosponsorship.” The American Political Science Review 90(3): 555–566.
Kiewiet D. Roderick and McCubbins Mathew D.. 1991. The Logic of Delegation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Kim Eun Kyung. 2013. “Record Number of Women Senators Set Tone: ‘They're Able to Talk to Each Other.’” Today News. June 14, 2013. Available at:
King David and Matland Richard. 2003 “Sex and the Grand Old Party: An Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Candidate Sex on Support for a Republican Candidate.”American Politics Research 31(6): 595–612.
King Gary, Keohane Robert O., and Verba Sidney. 1994. Designing Social Inquiry: Scientific Inference in Qualitative Research. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
King Gary, Tomz Michael, and Wittenberg Jason. 2000. “Making the Most of Statistical Analyses: Improving Interpretation and Presentation.”American Journal of Political Science 44(2): 341–355.
Kirkland Justin H. 2011. “The Relational Determinants of Legislative Outcomes: Strong and Weak Ties between Legislators.” The Journal of Politics 73(3): 887–898.
Kirkland Justin H. 2012. “Multimember Districts’ Effect on Collaboration between US State Legislators.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 37(3): 329–353.
Kirkland Justin H. 2014. “Chamber Size Effects on the Collaborative Structure of Legislatures.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 39(2): 169–198.
Kirkland Justin H. and Williams R. Lucas. 2014. “Partisanship and Reciprocity in Cross-Chamber Legislative Interactions.” The Journal of Politics 76(3): 754–769.
Kittilson Miki Caul. 2005. “In Support of Gender Quotas: Setting New Standards, Bringing Visible Gains.” Politics & Gender 1(4): 638–645.
Kittilson Miki Caul. 2006. Challenging Parties, Changing Parliaments: Women and Elected Office in Contemporary Western Europe. Columbus: Ohio State University Press.
Kittilson Miki Caul. 2008. “Representing Women: The Adoption of Family Leave in Comparative Perspective.” Journal of Politics 70(2): 323–334.
Kittilson Miki Caul. 2011. “Women, Parties and Platforms in Post-industrial Democracies.” Party Politics 17(1): 66–90.
Kittilson Miki Caul and Schwindt-Bayer Leslie A.. 2012. The Gendered Effects of Electoral Institutions: Political Engagement and Participation. New York: Oxford University Press.
Koger Gregory. 2003. “Position-Taking and Cosponsorship in the U.S. House.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 28: 225–246.
Krehbiel Keith. 1995. “Cosponsors and Waffles from A to Z.” American Journal of Political Science 39: 906–923.
Krehbiel Keith. 1996. “Committee Power, Leadership, and the Median Voter: Evidence from the Smoking Ban.” Journal of Law, Economics, & Organization 12(1): 234–256.
Krehbiel Keith. 1998. Pivotal Politics. Chicago: University Chicago Press.
Krehbiel Keith, Shepsle Kenneth A., and Weingast Barry R.. 1987. “Why Are Congressional Committees Powerful?American Political Science Review 81(3): 929–945.
Krook Mona Lena. 2006. “Reforming Representation: The Diffusion of Candidate Gender Quotas Worldwide.” Politics & Gender 2(3): 303–327.
Krook Mona Lena. 2009. Quotas for Women in Politics: Gender and Candidate Selection Reform Worldwide. Oxford University Press: New York.
Krook Mona Lena. 2010. “Beyond Supply and Demand: A Feminist-Institutionalist Theory of Candidate Selection.” Political Research Quarterly 63(4): 707–720.
Krook Mona Lena. 2015. “Empowerment versus Backlash: Gender Quotas and Critical Mass Theory.” Politics Groups and Identities 3(1): 184–188.
Krook Mona Lena and Mackay Fiona. 2011. Gender, Politics and Institution: Towards a Feminist Institutionalism. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Krook Mona Lena and O'Brien Diana Z.. 2010. “The Politics of Group Representation: Quotas for Women and Minorities Worldwide.” Comparative Politics 42(3): 253–272.
Krook Mona Lena and O'Brien Diana Z.. 2012. “All the President's Men? The Numbers and Portfolio Allocations of Female Cabinet Ministers.” Journal of Politics 74(3): 840–855.
Krutz Glen. 2005. “Issues and Institutions: ‘Winnowing’ in the U.S. Congress.”American Journal of Political Science 49(2): 331–326.
Lang-Takac Esther and Osterweil Zahava. 1992. “Seperateness and Connectedness: Differences between the Genders.” Sex Roles 27(1): 277–289.
Langston Joy. 2008. “Legislative Recruitment in Mexico.” In Peter M. Siavelis and Scott Morgenstern (eds.). Pathways to Power: Political Recruitment and Candidate Selection in Latin America. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, pp. 143–164.
Larserud Stina and Taphorn Rita. 2007. Designing for Equality: Best-Fit, Medium-Fit, and Non-favourable Combinations of Electoral Systems and Gender Quotas. Stockholm: International IDEA.
Laver Michael. 1998. “Models of Government Formation.” Annual Review of Political Science 1(1): 1–25.
Laver Michael and Schofield Norman. 1990. Multiparty Government: The Politics of Coalition in Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Laver Michael and Shepsle Kenneth A.. 1996. Making and Breaking Governments: Cabinets and Legislatures in Parliamentary Democracies. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Leader Shelah G. 1977. “The Policy Impact of Elected Women Officials.” In Louis Maisel and Joseph Cooper (eds.). The Impact of the Electoral Process. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Lépinard Eléonore. 2013. “For Women Only? Gender Quotas and Intersectionality in France.” Politics & Gender 9(3): 276–298.
Lijphart Arend. 1971. “Comparative Politics and the Comparative Method.” American Political Science Review 65(3): 682–693.
Lijphart Arend. 1984. Democracies: Patterns of Majoritarian and Consensus Government in Twenty-One Countries. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Lijphart Arend. 2012. Patterns of Democracy: Government Forms and Performance in Thirty-Six Countries. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Linz Juan J. and de Miguel Amando. 1966. Within-Nation Differences and Comparisons: the Eight Spains. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Linz Juan J. and Valenzuela Arturo. 1993. The Failure of Presidential Democracy: The Case of Latin America. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Llanos Mariana and Schibber Constanza F.. 2008. “La participacion de la Presidencia y el Senado en el nombramiento del Poder Judicial (1983–2007).” Desarrollo Económico, 47(188): 607–637.
Lopreite Debora. 2012. “Travelling Ideas and Domestic Policy Change: The Transnational Politics of Reproductive Rights/Health in Argentina.” Global Social Policy 12(2): 109–128.
Lopreite Debora. 2014. “Explaining Policy Outcomes in Federal Contexts: The Politics of Reproductive Rights in Argentina and Mexico.” Bulletin of Latin American Research 33(4): 389–404.
Lovenduski Joni. 2005. Feminizing Politics. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
Lubertino María José. 1992. Cuota Minimo de Participación de Mujeres: El Debate en Argentina. Buenos Aires:Fundación Friedrich Ebert.
Lublin David. 1997. The Paradox of Representation: Racial Gerrymandering and Minority Interests in Congress. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Mackay Fiona. 2008. “‘Thick’ Conceptions of Substantive Representation: Women, Gender, and Political Institutions.” Representation 44(2): 125–140.
Mackay Fiona. 2011. “Conclusions: Towards a Feminist Institutionalism.” In Krook Mona Lena and Mackay Fiona (eds.). Gender, Politics, and Institutions: Towards a Feminist Institutionalism. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 181–196.
Mackay Fiona, Kenny Meryl, and Chappell Louise. 2010. “New Institutionalism through a Gender Lens: Towards a Feminist Institutionalism?”International Political Science Review 31(5): 573–588.
Mackay Fiona and Krook Mona Lena. 2011. “Introduction: Gender, Politics, and Institutions: Setting the Agenda.” In Krook Mona Lena and Mackay Fiona (eds.). Gender, Politics, and Institutions: Towards a Feminist Institutionalism. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 1–21.
Mainwaring Scott P. 1999. Rethinking Party Systems in the Third Wave of Democratization: The Case of Brazil. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Mainwaring Scott, Brinks Daniel, and Pérez-Liñán Anibal. 2001. “Classifying Political Regimes in Latin America.” Studies in Comparative International Development 36(1): 37–65.
Mainwaring Scott, Brinks Daniel, and Pérez-Liñán Anibal. 2007. “Classifying Political Regimes in Latin America, 1945–2004.” In Munck Gerardo L. (ed.). Regimes and Democracy in Latin America: Theories and Methods. New York: Oxford University Press.
Mainwaring Scott and Pérez-Liñán Anibal. 1997. “Party Discipline in the Brazilian Constitutional Congress.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 22(4): 453–483.
Mainwaring Scott and Pérez-Liñán Anibal. 2013. “Democratic Breakdown and Survival.” Journal of Democracy 24(2): 123–137.
Mainwaring Scott and Pérez-Liñán Anibal. 2014. Democracies and Dictatorships in Latin America: Emergence, Survival, and Fall. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Mainwaring Scott and Shugart Matthew S.. 1997. Presidentialism and Democracy in Latin America. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Mansbridge Jane. 1999. “Should Blacks Represent Blacks and Women Represent Women? A Contingent ‘Yes.’” Journal of Politics 61(3): 628–657.
Mansbridge Jane. 2005. “Quota Problems: Combating the Dangers of Essentialism.” Politics & Gender 1(4): 622–638.
Manuel Tiffany, Shefte Susan, and Swiss Deborah. 1999. Suiting Themselves: Women's Leadership Styles in Today's Workplace. Cambridge, MA: Radcliffe Public Policy Institute and the Boston Club.
March James G. and Olsen Johan P.. 2010. Rediscovering Institutions: The Organizational Bias of Institutions. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Marshall Monty G and Gurr Ted Robert. 2013. Polity IV Project: Political Regime Characteristics and Transitions, 1800–2013.
Martin Lanny W. and Stevenson Randolph T.. 2001. “Government Formation in Parliamentary Democracies.” American Journal of Political Science 45(1): 33–50.
Martin Lanny W. and Vanberg Georg. 2005. “Coalition Policymaking and Legislative Review.” American Political Science Review 99(1): 93–106.
Matland Richard E. 1993. “Institutional Variables Affecting Female Representation in National Legislatures: The Case of Norway.” Journal of Politics 55(3): 737–755.
Matland Richard E. 1994. “Putting Scandinavian Equality to the Test: An Experimental Evaluation of Gender Stereotyping of Political Candidates in a Sample of Norwegian Voters.” British Journal of Political Science 24(2): 273–292.
Matland Richard E. 1998. “Women's Representation in National Legislatures: Developed and Developing Countries.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 23(1): 109–125.
Matland Richard E. 2002. Enhancing Women's Political Participation: Legislative Recruitment and Electoral Systems. In Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers. Available at:
Matland Richard E. 2006. “Electoral Quotas: Frequency and Effectiveness.” In Dahlerup D. (ed.). Women, Quotas and Politics. New York: Routledge, pp. 275–292.
Matland Richard E. and Studlar Donley T.. 1998. “The Contagion of Women Candidates in Single-Member District and Proportional Representation Electoral Systems: Canada and Norway.” The Journal of Politics 58(3): 707–733.
Matland Richard E. and Taylor Michelle. 1997. “Electoral System Effects on Women's Representation Theoretical Arguments and Evidence from Costa Rica.” Comparative Political Studies 30(2): 186–210.
Mattei Laura R. Winsky. 1998. “Gender and Power in American Legislative Discourse.” The Journal of Politics 60 (2): 440–461.
Mattes Robert B. 2002. “South Africa: Democracy without the People?”Journal of Democracy 13(1): 22–36.
Mayhew David R. 1974. Congress: The Electoral Connection. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Mayhew David R. 2011. Partisan Balance. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
McAllister Ian. 2007. “The Personalization of Politics.” In Dalton Russell J. and Klingemann Hans-Dieter (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of Political Behavior. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 571–588.
McClain Paula D. 1993. Minority Group Influence: Agenda Setting, Formulation, and Public Policy. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
Meeker Barbara, F. and Weitzel-O'Neill Patricia A.. 1977. “Sex Roles and Interpersonal Behavior in Task-Oriented Groups.” American Sociological Review 42(1): 92–105.
Meintjes Sheila. 2001. “War and Post-war Shifts in Gender Relations.” In Meintjes Sheila, Turshen Meredeth, and Pillay Anu (eds.). The Aftermath: Women in Post-Conflict Transformation. Scottsville: University of KwaZulu-Natal Press.
Micozzi Juan Pablo. 2013. “Does Electoral Accountability Make a Difference? Direct Elections, Career Ambition and Legislative Performance in the Argentine Senate.” Journal of Politics 75(1): 137–149.
Micozzi Juan Pablo. 2014a. “Alliances for Progress? Multi-level Ambition and Patterns of Cosponsorship in the Argentine House.” Comparative Political Studies 47(12): 1187–1208.
Micozzi Juan Pablo. 2014b. “From House to Home: Linking Multi-level Ambition and Legislative Performance in Argentina.” Journal of Legislative Studies 20(3): 265–284.
Minta Michael and Brown Nadia. 2014. “Intersecting Interests: Gender, Race and Congressional Attention to Women's Issues.” Du Bois Review 1(2): 1–29.
Morgan Jana and Buice Melissa. 2013. “Latin American Attitudes toward Women in Politics: The Influence of Elite Cues, Female Advancement, and Individual Characteristics.” American Political Science Review 107 (4): 644–662.
Morgenstern Scott. 2001. “Organized Factions and Disorganized Parties: Electoral Incentives in Uruguay.” Party Politics 7(2): 235–256.
Morgenstern Scott. 2002. “Explaining Legislative Politics in Latin America.” In Scott Morgenstern and Benito Nacife (eds.). Legislative Politics in Latin America. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 413–445.
Morin Rich. 2013. “The Most (and least) Culturally Diverse Countries in the World.” Pew Research Center. Available at:
Morton Joseph. 2013. “Deb Fischer, Female Senators Hope for Bipartisan Efforts.”Omaha World-Herald Bureau. Jan. 13, 2013. Available at:
Miller Patrice M., Danaher Dorothy L. and Forbes David. 1986. “Sex-Related Strategies for Coping with Interpersonal Conflict in Children Aged Five and Seven.” Developmental Psychology 22(4): 543–548.
Müller Wolfgang. 2000. “Political Parties in Parliamentary Democracies: Making Delegation and Accountability Work.” European Journal of Political Research 31(3): 309–333.
Murray Rainbow. 2010. “Second among Unequals: A Study of Whether France's ‘Quota Women’ Are Up to the Job.” Politics & Gender 6(1): 93–118.
Nelson Albert J. 1991. Emerging Influentials in State Legislatures: Women, Blacks, and Hispanics. New York: Praeger.
Nielson Daniel L. and Shugart Matthew Soberg. 1999. “Constitutional Change in Colombia Policy Adjustment through Institutional Reform.” Comparative Political Studies 32(3): 313–341.
Norris Jean M. and Wylie Anne M.. 1995. “Gender Stereotyping of the Managerial Role among Students in Canada and the United States.” Group and Organization Management 20(2): 167–182.
Norris Pippa. 2004. Electoral Engineering: Voting Rules and Political Behavior. New York: Cambridge University Press.
North Douglass C. 1990. Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Norton Noelle H. 2002. “Transforming Policy from the Inside.” In Cindy Simon Rosenthal (ed.). Women Transforming Congress. Vol. 4. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press.
O'Brien Cheryl. 2013. Beyond the National: Transnational Influences on (Subnational) State Policy Responsiveness to an International Norm on Violence against Women. Doctoral Dissertation, Department of Political Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana.
O'Brien Diana Z. 2012a. “Gender and Select Committee Elections in the British House of Commons.” Politics & Gender 8(2): 178–204.
O'Brien Diana Z. 2012b. “Quotas and Qualifications in Uganda.” In Franceschet Susan, Krook Mona Lena, and Piscopo Jennifer M. (eds.). The Impact of Quotas on Women's Descriptive, Substantive, and Symbolic Representation. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 57–71.
O'Brien Diana Z. 2015 . “Rising to the Top: Gender, Political Performance, and Party Leadership in Advanced Articles Industrial Democracies.” American Journal of Political Science 59(4): 1022–1039.
O'Brien Diana Z., Mendez Matthew, Peterson Jordan Carr, and Shin Jihyun. 2015. “Letting Down the Ladder or Shutting the Door: Female Prime Ministers, Party Leaders, and Cabinet Ministers.” Politics & Gender 11(4): 689–717.
O'Brien Diana and Shomer Yael. 2013. “Legislators’ Motivations, Institutional Arrangements, and Changes in Partisan Affiliation: A Cross-National Analysis of Party Switching.”Legislative Studies Quarterly 38(1): 111–141.
O'Brien Diana and Rickne Johanna. Forthcoming. “Gender Quotas and Women's Access to Leadership Posts.” American Political Science Review 110(1).
Orey Byron D'Andrá, Smooth Wendy, Adams Kimberly S., and Harris-Clark Kisha. 2007. “Race and gender matter: Refining models of legislative policy making in state legislatures.” Journal of Women, Politics & Policy 28(3-4): 97–119.
Osborn Tracy. 2012. How Women Represent Women: Political Parties, Gender, and Representation in the State Legislatures. New York: Oxford University Press.
Osborn Tracy and Mendez Jeanette. 2010. “Speaking as Women: Women and the Use of Floor Speeches in Congress.” Journal of Women, Politics and Policy 31(1): 1–21.
Palmer Barbara and Simon Dennis. 2005. “When Women Run Against Women: The Hidden Influence of Female Incumbents in Elections to the U.S. House of Representatives, 1956–2002.” Politics & Gender 1(1): 39–63.
Palmer Barbara and Simon Dennis. 2006. Breaking the Political Glass Ceiling: Women and Congressional Elections. New York: Taylor & Francis.
Pansardi Pamela, and Vercesi Michelangelo. Forthcoming. “Party Gate-keeping and Women's Appointment to Parliamentary Committees: Evidence from the Italian Case.” Parliamentary Affairs.
Patty John W., Schibber Constanza F., Penn Elizabeth Maggie, and Crisp Brian F.. 2015. “Valence, Elections, & Legislative Institutions.” Presented at the annual meeting of the American Science Association, San Francisco, California, September 3–6, 2015.
Paxton Pamela, Green Jennifer, and Hughes Melanie. 2008. Women in Parliament, 1945–2003: Cross-National Dataset. ICPSR24340-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2008-12-22. doi:10.3886/ICPSR24340.v1.
Paxton Pamela, Hughes Melanie M., and Green Jennifer. 2006. “The International Women's Movement and Women's Political Representation, 1893–2003.” American Sociological Review 71(6): 898–920.
Paxton Pamela, Hughes Melanie M., and Painter Matthew II. 2010. “Growth in Women's Political Representation: A Longitudinal Exploration of Democracy, Electoral System and Gender Quotas.” European Journal of Political Research 49: 25–52.
Payne Mark, Zovatto Daniel, and Díaz Mercedes Mateo. 2007. Democracies in Development – Politics and Reform in Latin America. Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank.
Pearson Elizabeth. 2008. “Demonstrating Legislative Leadership: The Introduction of Rwanda's Gender-Based Violence Bill.”The Initiative for Inclusive Security. Available at:
Pereira Carlos and Melo Marcus André. 2012. “The Surprising Success of Multiparty Presidentialism.” Journal of Democracy 23(3): 156–170.
Phillips Anne. 1995. The Politics of Presence. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Piscopo Jennifer M. 2011. “Rethinking Descriptive Representation: Rendering Women in Legislative Debates.” Parliamentary Affairs 11(3): 1–25.
Powley Elizabeth. 2014a. “Female Leadership and Sexual Health Policy in Argentina.” Latin American Research Review 49(1): 104–127.
Powley Elizabeth. 2014b. “Inclusive Institutions versus Feminist Advocacy: Women's Legislative Committees and Caucuses in Latin America.” World Congress of the International Political Science Association, Montreal, 2014.
Poguntke Thomas and Webb Paul D.. 2005. The Presidentialization of Politics: A Comparative Study of Modern Democracies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Poole Keith T. and Rosenthal Howard. 2001. “D-Nominate after 10 Years: A Comparative Update to Congress: A Political-Economic History of Roll-Call Voting.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 16(1): 5–29.
Powell Gary N. and Butterfield D. Anthony. 1989. “The ‘Good Manager’: Did Androgyny Fare Better in the 1980s?”Group and Organization Studies 14(2): 216–233.
Powley Elizabeth. 2003. Strengthening Governance: The Role of Women in Rwanda's Transition. Washington: Hunt Alternatives Fund. Available at:
Powley Elizabeth. 2005. “Rwanda: Women Hold Up Half the Parliament.” International IDEA, pp. 154–163. Retrieved from
Powley Elizabeth and Pearson Elizabeth. 2007. “Gender Is Society: Inclusive Lawmaking in Rwanda's Parliament.”Critical Half: Bi-annual Journal of Women for Women International 5(1): 15–20.
Preuhs Robert R. 2006. “The Conditional Effects of Minority Descriptive Representation: Black Legislators and Policy Influence in the American States.” Journal of Politics 68(3): 585–599.
Propp Kathleen. 1995. “An Experimental Examination of Biological Sex as a Status Cue in Decision Making Groups and Its Influence on Information Use.” Small Group Research 26(4): 451–474.
Protsyk Oleh. 2010. “Promoting Inclusive Parliaments: The Representation of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples in Parliament.” Inter-Parliamentary Union and United Nations Development Programme: New York.
Rabe-Hesketh Sophia and Skrondal Anders. 2005. Multilevel and Longitudinal Modeling Using Stata. College Station, TX: Stata Press.
Reingold Beth. 2000. Representing Women: Sex, Gender, and Legislative Behavior in Arizona and California. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Reingold Beth and Smith Adrienne R.. 2012. “Welfare Policymaking and Intersections of Race, Ethnicity, and Gender in U.S. State Legislatures.” American Journal of Political Science 56(1): 131–147.
Reingold Beth and Swers Michele. 2011. “An Endogenous Approach to Women's Interests: When Interests Are Interesting in and of Themselves.” Politics & Gender 7(3): 429–435.
Retamero-Garcia Rocio and López-Zafra Esther. 2009. “Causal Attributions about Feminine and Leadership Roles: A Cross-Cultural Comparison.” Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 40(3): 492–509.
Reynolds Andrew. 2005. “Reserved Seats in National Legislatures: A Research Note.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 30(2): 301–310.
Ridgeway Cecilia L. 1982. “Status in Groups: The Importance of Motivation.” American Sociological Review 47(1): 76–88.
Ridgeway Cecilia L. 2001. “Gender, Status, and Leadership.” Journal of Social Issues 57(4): 637–655.
Riker William H. 1962. The Theory of Political Coalitions. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Rocca Michael S. and Sanchez Gabriel. 2008. “The Effect of Race and Ethnicity on Bill Sponsorship and Cosponsorship in Congress.” American Politics Research 36: 130–152.
Rocca Michael S, Sanchez Gabriel, and Morin Jason. 2011. “The Institutional Mobility of Minorities in Congress.” Political Research Quarterly 64 (4): 897–909.
Rodriguez Victoria E. 2003. Women in Contemporary Mexican Politics. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Rosenthal Cindy Simon. 1998. When Women Lead. New York: Oxford University Press.
Ross Karen. 2002. “Women's Place in ‘Male’ Space: Gender and Effect in Parliamentary Contexts.” Parliamentary Affairs 55(2002): 189–201.
Samules David. 1999. “Incentives to Cultivate a Party Vote in Candidate-centric Electoral Systems.” Comparative Political Studies 32(4): 487–518.
Samules David. 2002a. “Progressive Ambition, Federalism, and Pork-Barreling in Brazil.” In Scott Morgenstern and Benito Nacife (eds.). Legislative Politics in Latin America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Samules David. 2002b. “Pork Barreling Is Not Credit Claiming or Advertising: Campaign Finance and the Sources of the Personal Vote in Brazil.” The Journal of Politics 64(3): 845–863.
Samules David. 2003. Ambition, Federalism, and Legislative Politics in Brazil. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Sapiro Virginia. 1983. The Political Integration of Women. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Sapiro Virginia. 1991. “Gender Politics, Gendered Politics: The State of the Field.” In Political Science, Looking to the Future, ed. William Crotty. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.
Sawer Marian. 2000. “Parliamentary Representation of Women: From Discourses of Justice to Strategies of Accountability.” International Political Science Review 21(4): 361–381.
Schein Virginia E. 1973. “The Relationship between Sex Role Stereotypes and Requisite Management Characteristics.” Journal of Applied Psychology 57(2): 95–100.
Schein Virginia E. 1975. “Relationships between Sex Role Stereotypes and Requisite Management Characteristics among Female Managers.” Journal of Applied Psychology 60(3): 340–344.
Schein Virginia E. and Mueller Ruediger. 1992. “Sex-Role Stereotyping and Requisite Management Characteristics: A Cross-cultural Look.” Journal of Organizational Behavior 13(5): 439–447.
Schein Virginia E., Mueller Ruediger, Lituchy Terry, and Liu Jiang. 1996. “Think Manager – Think Male: A Global Phenomenon?”Journal of Organizational Behavior 17(1): 33–41.
Schibber Constanza F. 2012. “Vetos e Insistencias como mecanismos de negociación entre el Ejecutivo y el Legislativo.” In Ana Mara Mustapic, Alejandro Bonvecchi, and Javier Zelaznik (eds.). Los legisladores en el Congreso Argentina. Practicas y Estrategias. Buenos Aires: Instituto Torcuato Di Tella.
Schneider Monica C., Holman Mirya R., Diekman Amanda B., and McAndrew Thomas. Forthcoming. “Power, Conflict, and Community: How Gendered Views of Political Power Influence Women's Political Ambition.” Political Psychology.
Schumpeter Joseph. 1942. Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing.
Schwartz Helle. 2004. Women's Representation in the Rwandan Parliament – An Analysis of Variations in the Representation of Women's Interests Caused by Gender and Quota. Gothenberg, Sweden: Gothenburg University, p. 71.
Schwindt-Bayer Leslie A. 2006. “Still Supermadres? Gender and the Policy Priorities of Latin American Legislators.”American Journal of Political Science 50(3): 570–585.
Schwindt-Bayer Leslie A. 2009. “Making Quotas Work: The Effect of Gender Quota Laws on the Election of Women.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 34(1): 5–28.
Schwindt-Bayer Leslie A. 2010. Political Power and Women's Representation in Latin America. New York: Oxford University Press.
Schwindt-Bayer Leslie A. and Taylor-Robinson Michelle M.. 2011. “The Meaning and Measurement of Women's Interests: Introduction.” Politics & Gender 7(3): 417–418.
Shackelford Susan, Wood Windy, and Worchel Stephen. 1996. “Behavioral Styles and the Influence of Women in Mixed-sex Groups.” Social Psychology Quarterly 59: 284–293.
Shepsle Kenneth A. 1978. The Giant Jigsaw Puzzle: Democratic Committee Assignments in the Modern House. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Shepsle Kenneth A., van Houweling Robert P., Abrams Samuel J., and Hanson Peter C.. 2009. “The Senate Electoral Cycle and Bicameral Appropriations Politics.” American Journal of Political Science 53(2): 343–359.
Shepsle Kenneth A. and Weingast Barry R.. 1994. “Positive Theories of Congressional Institutions.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 19(2): 149–179.
Shugart Matthew Soberg. 2001. “‘Extreme’ Electoral Systems and the Appeal of the Mixed-Member Alternative.” In Matthew Soberg Shugart and Martin P. Wattenberg (eds.). Mixed Member Electoral Systems: The Best of Both Worlds?New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 25–53.
Shugart Matthew Soberg and Carey John M.. 1992. Presidents and Assemblies: Constitutional Design and Electoral Dynamics. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Shugart Matthew Soberg, Valdini Melody Ellis, and Suominen Kati. 2005. “Looking for Locals: Voter Information Demands and Personal Vote-Earning Attributes of Legislators under Proportional Representation.” American Journal of Political Science 49(2): 437–449.
Silveira Silvana. 2010. Women Join Forces in the Parliamentary Trenches. Inter Press Service July 1, 2010. URL:
Simien Evelyn M. and Hancock Ange-Marie. 2011. “Mini-Symposium: Intersectionality Research.” Political Research Quarterly 64(1): 185–186.
Sinclair Barbara. 1988. “The Distribution of Committee Positions in the U.S. Senate: Explaining Institutional Change.” American Journal of Political Science. 32(2): 276–301.
Smith Adrienne R. 2014. “Cities Where Women Rule: Female Political Incorporation and the Al- location of Community Development Block Grant Funding.” Politics & Gender 10(3): 313–340.
Smooth Wendy. 2011. “Standing for Women? Which Women? The Substantive Representation of Women's Interest and the Research Imperative of Intersectionality.” Politics & Gender 7(3): 436–441.
Snyder Richard. 2001. “Scaling Down: The Subnational Comparative Method.” Studies in Comparative International Development 36(1): 93–110.
Steinhauer Jennifer. 2013. “Once Few, Women Hold More Power in Senate.”New York Times. March 21, 2013. Available at:
Streb Matthew J. and Frederick Brian. 2009. “Conditions for Competition in Low-Information Judicial Elections: The Case of Intermediate Appellate Court Elections.” Political Research Quarterly 62(3): 523–537.
Strolovitch Dara Z. 2007. Affirmative Advocacy: Race, Class and Gender in Interest Group Politics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Swers Michele L. 1998. “Are Women More Likely to Vote for Women's Issue Bills than Their Male Colleagues?”Legislative Studies Quarterly 23(3): 435–448.
Swers Michele L. 2002. The Difference Women Make. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Swers Michele L. 2005. “Connecting Descriptive and Substantive Representation: An Analysis of Sex Differences in Cosponsorship Activity.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 30(3): 407–433.
Swers Michele L. 2013. Women in the Club: Gender and Policy Making in the Senate. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Tam Cho Wendy K. and Fowler James H.. 2010. “Legislative Success in a Small World: Social Network Analysis and the Dynamics of Congressional Legislation.” The Journal of Politics 72(1): 124–135.
Tan Netina. 2014. “Ethnic Quotas and Unintended Effects on Women's Political Representation in Singapore.” International Political Science Review 35(55): 55–66.
Tate Katherine. 2003. Black Faces in the Mirror: African Americans and Their Representatives in the U.S. Congress. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Taylor Michelle M. 1992. “Formal versus Informal Incentive Structures and Legislator Behavior: Evidence from Costa Rica.” The Journal of Politics 54(4): 1053–1071.
Taylor-Robinson Michelle M. 2010. Do the Poor Count? Democratic Institutions and Accountability in the Context of Poverty. University Park: Pennsylvania State Press.
Taylor-Robinson Michelle M. and Heath Roseanna Michelle. 2003. “Do Women Legislators Have Different Policy Priorities than Their Male Colleagues?”Women & Politics 24(4): 77–101.
Thames Frank C. and Williams Margaret S.. 2013. Contagious Representation: Women's Political Representation in Democracies around the World. New York: New York University Press.
Theriault Sean. 2005. Power of the People: Congressional Competition, Public Attention, and Voter Retribution. Columbus: Ohio State University Press.
Thomas Sue and Welch Susan. 1991. “The Impact of Gender on Activities and Priorities of State Legislators.” Western Political Quarterly 44(2): 445–456.
Thomas Sue. 1994. How Women Legislate. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Thomas-Hunt Melissa C. and Phillips Katherine W.. 2004. “When What You Know Is Not Enough: Expertise and Gender Dynamics in Task Groups.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 30(12): 1585–1598.
Tilly Louise A. and Gurin Patricia. 1992. Women, Politics and Change. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Timberlake Sharon. 2005. “Social Capital and Gender in the Workplace.” Journal of Management and Development 24(1): 34–33.
Tinker Irene. 2004. “Quotas for Women in Elected Legislatures: Do They Really Empower Women?”Women's Studies International Forum 27: 531–546.
Towns Ann. 2003. “Understanding the Effects of Larger Ratios of Women in National Legislatures: Proportions and Gender Differentiation in Sweden and Norway.” Women & Politics 25(1): 1–29.
Tremblay Manon and Pelletier Réjean. 2000. “More Feminists or More Women? Descriptive and Substantive Representation of Women in the 1997 Canadian Federal Elections.” International Political Science Review 21(4): 381–405.
Tripp Aili Mari. 2000. “Rethinking Differences: Comparative Perspectives from Africa.” Signs 25(3): 649–675.
Valdini Melody Ellis. 2006. “Uganda: Agents of Change for Women's Advancement?” In Gretchen Bauer and Hannah Britton (eds.). Women in African Parliaments. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Tripp Aili Mari and Kang Alice. 2008. “The Global Impact of Quotas on the Fast Track to Increased Female Legislative Representation.”Comparative Political Studies 41(3): 338–361.
United Nations Development Program. 2012. Rwanda: Women Helping Lead Country's Transformation. Available at:
Valdini Melody Ellis. 2012. “A Deterrent to Diversity: The Conditional Effect of Electoral Rules on the Nomination of Women Candidates.” Electoral Studies 31(4): 740–749.
Valdini Melody Ellis. 2013. “Electoral Institutions and the Manifestation of Bias: The Effect of the Personal Vote on the Representation of Women.” Gender and Politics 9(1): 76–92.
Vickers Jill. 2011. “Gender and State Architectures: The Impact of Governance Structures on Women's Politics.” Politics & Gender 7(2): 273–279.
Vincent Louise. 2004. “Quotas: Changing the Way Things Look without Changing the Way Things Are.” Journal of Legislative Studies 10(1): 71–96.
Volden Craig, Wiseman Alan, and Wittmer Dana. 2013. “When Are Women More Effective Lawmakers than Men?”American Journal of Political Science 57(2): 326–341.
Vos Suzanne. 1999. “Women in Parliament: A Personal Perspective.” In Sonja Boezak (ed.). Redefining Politics: South African Women and Democracy. Johannesburg: CGE.
Wängnerud Lena. 2015. The Principles of Gender-Sensitive Parliaments. New York: Routledge.
Wallace Sophia J. 2014. “Representing Latinos Examining Descriptive and Substantive Representation in Congress.” Political Research Quarterly 67(4): 917–929.
Wawro Gregory. 2001. Legislative Entrepreneurship in the U.S. House of Representatives. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Waylen Georgina. 2007. Engendering Transitions: Women's Mobilization, Institutions, and Gender Outcomes. New York: Oxford University Press.
Weaver R. Kent. 1986. “The Politics of Blame Avoidance.”Journal of Public Policy 6(4): 371–398.
Weingast Barry. 1989. “Floor Behavior in the U.S. Congress: Committee Power under the Open Rule.” American Political Science Review 83(3): 795–815.
Weisman Jonathan and Jennifer Steinhauer. 2013. “Senate Women Lead in Efforts to Find Accord.” The New York Times. October 14, 2013. URL:
Weldon Laurel. 2002. “Beyond Bodies: Institutional Sources of Representation for Women in Democratic Policymaking.” Journal of Political 64(4): 1153–1174.
Weldon Laurel. 2006. “The Structure of Intersectionality: A Comparative Politics of Gender.” Politics & Gender: 2(2): 235–248.
Weldon Laurel. 2011. When Protest Makes Policy: How Social Movements Represent Disadvantaged Groups. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
White Ismail K., Philpot Tasha S., Wylie Kristin, and McGowan Ernest B.. 2007. “Feeling the Pain of My People: Hurricane Katrina, Racial Inequality, and the Psyche of Black America.” Journal of Black Studies 37(4): 523–538.
White Ismail K., Philpot Tasha S., Wylie Kristin, and McGowan Ernest B.. 2010. “Feeling Different: Racial Group–Based Emotional Response to Political Events.” In Tasha S. Philpot and Ismail K. White (eds.). African-American Political Psychology: Identity, Opinion, and Action in the Post–Civil Rights Era. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Wilber Roxane. 2011. “Lessons from Rwanda: How Women Transform Governance.” Solutions 2(2): 1–8. Available at:
Wilde, Annett and Amanda B. Diekman. 2005. “Cross-cultural Similarities and Differences in Dynamic Stereotypes: A Comparison Between Germany and the United States.”Psychology of Women Quarterly 29(2): 188–196.
Williams Melissa S. 1998. Voice, Trust, and Memory: Marginalized Groups and the Failings of Liberal Representation. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Wilson Rick K. and Young Cheryl D.. 1997. “Cosponsorship in the United States Congress.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 22(1): 24–43.
Winckler Edwin A. 1999. “Electoral Equilibria in Taiwan.” In Grofman Bernard, Sung-Chull Lee, Winckler Edwin A., and Woodall Brian (eds.).Elections in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan under the Single Non-transferable Vote: The Comparative Study of an Embedded Institution. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, pp. 266–286.
Wolbrecht Christina. 2002. “Female Legislators and the Women's Rights Agenda: From Feminine Mystique to Feminist Era.” In Cindy Simon Rosenthal (ed.). Women Transforming Congress. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, pp 170–197.
Wright Gerald C. and Birkhead Nathaniel. 2014. “The Macro Sort of the State Electorates.” Political Research Quarterly 67(2): 426–439.
Wylie Kristin N. 2015a. “Strong Women, Weak Parties, and Critical Actors in Brazil's Crisis of Representation.” Presented at the European Conference on Politics and Gender, Uppsala University, Sweden, June 11–13, 2015.
Wylie Kristin N. 2015b. “Electoral Rules, Party Support, and Women's Unexpected Successes in Elections to the Brazilian Senate.” Presented at the annual meeting of the Latin American Studies Association, San Juan, Puerto Rico, May 27–30, 2015.
Wylie Kristin N. and dos Santos Pedro. Forthcoming. “A Law on Paper Only: Electoral Rules, Parties, and the Persistent Underrepresentation of Women in Brazilian Legislatures.” Politics & Gender.
Wylie Kristin N.Marcelino Daniel, and Santos Pedro dos. 2015. “Extreme Nonviable Candidates and the Dynamics of Legislative Elections in Brazil.” Presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, San Francisco, California, September 3–6, 2015.
Yoder Janice D. 2001. “Making Leadership Work More Effectively for Women.” Journal of Social Issues 57(4): 815–828.
Young Iris Marion. 1990. Justice and the Politics of Difference. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Zetterberg Pär. 2008. “The Down Side of Gender Quotas? Institutional Constraints on Women in the Mexican State Legislatures.” Parliamentary Affairs 61(3): 442–460.


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 228 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 491 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 23rd January 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.