Skip to main content Accessibility help
Grassroots Activism and the Evolution of Transitional Justice
  • Cited by 25
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the print book

Book description

The families of the disappeared have long struggled to uncover the truth about their missing relatives. In so doing, their mobilization has shaped central transitional justice norms and institutions, as this ground-breaking work demonstrates. Kovras combines a new global database with the systematic analysis of four challenging case studies - Lebanon, Cyprus, South Africa and Chile - each representative of a different approach to transitional justice. These studies reveal how variations in transitional justice policies addressing the disappeared occur: explaining why victims' groups in some countries are caught in silence, while others bring perpetrators to account. Conceiving of transitional justice as a dynamic process, Kovras traces the different phases of truth recovery in post-transitional societies, giving substance not only to the 'why' but also the 'when' and 'how' of this kind of campaign against impunity. This book is essential reading for all those interested in the development of transitional justice and human rights.

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Save to Kindle
  • Save to Dropbox
  • Save to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.



Abel, R. (2015). Politics by Other Means: Law in the Struggle against Apartheid, 1980–1994. London: Routledge.
Adler, E. & Haas, P. M. (1992). “Conclusion: Epistemic Communities, World Order, and the Creation of a Reflective Research Program,” International Organization, 46(1), 367390.
AFDD (1997). “20 años de historia de la Agrupación de Familiares de Detenidos Desaparecidos de Chile. Un camino de imágenes … que revelan y se rebelan contra una historia no contada,” Santiago: Chile.
Africa News (2005). “ ‘Vlakplaas Victims’ Relatives Gather to Mark ‘Day of the Disappeared’,” Africa News, September 1, 2005.
Africa News (2007). “South Africa: Final Rest for Struggle Victims Identified in Graves,” Africa News, May 10, 2007.
Africa News (2013). “Dignity for 12 Families,” Africa News, March 25, 2013.
Aguilar, M. (2002). “The Disappeared and the Mesa de Diálogo in Chile 1999–2001: Searching for Those Who Never Grew Old,” Bulletin of Latin American Research, 21(3), 413424.
Aguilar, P. (2008). “Transitional or Post-Transitional Justice? Recent Developments in the Spanish Case,” South European Society and Politics, 13(4), 417433.
Aguilar, P. (2009). “The Timing and the Scope of Reparation, Truth and Justice Measures: A Comparison of the Spanish, Argentinian and Chilean Cases,” in Building a Future on Peace and Justice. Ambos, K., Large, J. & Wierda, M. (Eds.), Berlin: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp.503529.
Akhavan, P. (2005). “The Lord’s Resistance Army Case: Uganda’s Submission of the First State Referral to the International Criminal Court,” The American Journal of International Law, 99(2), 403421.
Al-Hasan, J. (2012). “Decree for Missing Persons Nearly Finalized, Justice Minister Says,” The Daily Star, August 30, 2012.
Alfonsín, R. (1993). “‘Never Again’ in Argentina,” Journal of Democracy, 4(1), 1519.
Alitheia (1999). “Ταπεινά συγγνώμη ζήτησε χθές η Πολιτεία απο τους συγγνείς νεκρών,” November 7, p.1.
Amnesty International (1977). Report of an Amnesty International Mission to Argentina. London: Amnesty International.
Amnesty International (1997). “Lebanon: Human Rights Developments and Violations,” Index Number: MDE 18/019/1997, October 8, 1997, also available at: (last accessed: January 10, 2014).
Amnesty International (2011). Lebanon: Never Forgotten: Lebanon’s Missing People, Index Number MDE 18/001/2011, April 14, 2011, also available at: (last accessed: January 9, 2014).
Anastasiou, H. (2008). The Broken Olive Branch. Nationalism, Ethnic Conflict and the Quest for Peace in Cyprus. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.
Andreas, P. & Greenhill, K. (2011). “Introduction: The Politics of Numbers,” in Sex, Drugs, and Body Counts: The Politics of Numbers in Global Crime and Conflict. Andreas, P. & Greenhill, K. (Eds.), Ithaca: Cornell University Press, pp.122.
Araguete-Toribio, Z. (2015). “Negotiating Identity: Reburial and Commemoration of the Civil War Dead in Southwestern Spain.” Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 1(2), 520.
Arditti, R. (1999). Searching for Life: The Grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo and the Disappeared Children of Argentina. San Francisco: University of California Press.
Arditti, R. (2002). “The Grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo and the Struggle against Impunity in Argentina,” Meridians, 3(1), 1941.
Aronson, J. (2010). “The Strengths and Limitations of South Africa’s Search for Apartheid-Era Missing Persons,” The International Journal of Transitional Justice, 5, 262281.
Aronson, J. (2012). “Humanitarian DNA Identification in Post-Apartheid South Africa,” in Genetics and the Unsettled Past. Wailoo, K., Nelson, A. & Lee, C. (Eds.), New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, pp.295312.
Arthur, P. (2009). “How ‘Transitions’ Reshaped Human Rights: A Conceptual History of Transitional Justice,” Human Rights Quarterly, 31(2), 321367.
Asmal, K. (2000). “Truth, Reconciliation and Justice: The South African Experience in Perspective,” The Modern Law Review, 63(1), 124.
Autesserre, S. (2010). The Trouble with the Congo: Local Violence and the Failure of International Peacebuilding. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Backer, D. (2004). The Human Face of Justice. Victims’ Responses to South African Truth and Reconciliation Process, Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Michigan.
Backer, D. (2009). “Cross-national Comparative Analysis,” in Assessing the Impact of Transitional Justice: Challenges for Empirical Research. Van der Merwe, H., Baxter, V. & Chapman, A. (Eds.), Washington: United States Institute of Peace Press, pp.2390.
Baines, E. (2010). “Spirits and Social Reconstruction after Mass Violence: Rethinking Transitional Justice,” African Affairs, 109(436), 409430.
Bakiner, O. (2010). “From Denial to Reluctant Dialogue: The Chilean Military’s Confrontation with Human Rights (1990–2006),” International Journal of Transitional Justice, 4(1), 4766.
Ballesteros, E. P. (1995). La memoria y el olvido: detenidos desaparecidos en Chile. Santiago: Ediciones Orígenes.
Barak, O. (2007). “‘Don’t Mention the War?’ The Politics of Remembrance and Forgetfulness in Postwar Lebanon,” Middle East Journal, 61(1), 4970.
Beissinger, M. R. (2002). Nationalist Mobilization and the Collapse of the Soviet State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bell, C. (2008). On the Law of Peace: Peace Agreements and the Lex Pacificatoria. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ben-Naftali, O. & Gleichgevitch, S. (2000). “Missing in Legal Action: Lebanese Hostages in Israel,” Harvard International Law Journal, 41(1), 185252.
Benford, R. (1993). “Frame Disputes within the Nuclear Disarmament Movement,” Social Forces, 71(3), 677701.
Benford, R. (1997). “An Insider’s Critique of the Social Movement Framing Perspective,” Sociological Inquiry, 67(4), 409430.
Benford, R. & Snow, D. (2000). “Framing Processes and Social Movements: An Overview and Assessment,” Annual Review of Sociology, 26, 611639.
Berat, L. & Shain, Y. (1995). “Retribution or Truth-Telling in South Africa? Legacies of the Transitional Phase,” Law and Social Inquiry, 20(1), 163189.
Bermeo, N. (1992). “Democracy and the Lessons of Dictatorship,” Comparative Politics, 273291.
Bernardi, P. & Fondebrider, L. (2007). “Forensic Archaeology and the Scientific Documentation of Human Rights Violations: An Argentinian Example from the Early 1980s,” in Forensic Archaeology and Human Rights Violations. Ferllini, R. (Ed.), Springfield: Charles C Thomas Publisher, pp.205232.
Berti, B. (2011). “Peace vs. Justice in Lebanon: The Domestic and Regional Implications of the UN Special Tribunal,” Strategic Assessment, 13(4), 101111.
Biazzini, N. (2013). “El Tribunal Oral Federal 5 de Capital Federal juzga a 66 imputados,” Infojus Noticias, November 20, 2013, also available at: (last accessed: March 19, 2015).
Biggar, N. (Ed.) (2003). Burying the Past: Making Peace and Doing Justice after Civil Conflict. Washington: Georgetown University Press.
Biko, N. (2000). “Amnesty and Denial,” in Looking Back Reaching Forward. Reflections on the TRC of South Africa. Villa-Vicencio, C. & Verwoerd, W. (Eds.), London: Zed Books, pp.193198.
Binford, L. (1996). The El Mozote Massacre: Anthropology and Human Rights. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
Blaauw, M. & Lähteenmäki, V. (2002). “Denial and Silence or Acknowledgment and Disclosure,” International Review of the Red Cross, 84(848), 767784.
Blau, S. & Skinner, M. (2005). “The Use of Forensic Archaeology in the Investigation of Human Rights Abuse: Unearthing the Past in East Timor,” The International Journal of Human Rights, 9(4), 449463.
Bonner, M. (2005). “Defining Rights in Democratization: The Argentine Government and Human Rights Organizations, 1983–2003,” Latin American Politics and Society, 47(4), 5576.
Boraine, A. (2000). A Country Unmasked inside South Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bosco, F. (2004). “Human Rights Politics and Scaled Performances of Memory: Conflicts among the Madres de Plaza de Mayo in Argentina,” Social & Cultural Geography, 5(3), 381402.
Bosco, F. (2006). “The Madres de Plaza de Mayo and Three Decades of Human Rights’ Activism: Embeddedness, Emotions, and Social Movements,” Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 96(2), 342365.
Boss, P. (2006). Loss, Trauma, and Resilience. Therapeutic Work with Ambiguous Loss. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
Boss, P. G. (2002). “Ambiguous Loss: Working with Families of the Missing,” Family Process, 41(1), 14.
Bouris, E. (2007). Complex Political Victims. Virginia: Kumarian Press.
Breen-Smyth, M. (2007). Truth Recovery and Justice after Conflict: Managing Violent Pasts. London: Routledge.
Brewer, J. D. (2010). Peace Processes: A Sociological Approach. Cambridge: Polity.
Brouneus, K. (2008). “Truth-Telling as Talking Cure? Insecurity and Retraumatization in the Rwandan Gacaca Courts,” Security Dialogue, 39, 5576.
Brysk, A. (1994). “The Politics of Measurement: The Contested Count of the Disappeared in Argentina,” Human Rights Quarterly, 16(4), 676692.
Brysk, A. (2013). Speaking Rights to Power: Constructing Political Will. Oxford University Press.
Buergenthal, T. (1994). “United Nations Truth Commission for El Salvador,” The Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, 27, 497.
Burgis-Kasthala, M. (2013). “Defining Justice during Transition? International and Domestic Contestations over the Special Tribunal for Lebanon,” International Journal of Transitional Justice, 7, 497517.
Bustamante, J. & Ruderer, S. (2009). Patio 29. Tras la Cruz de Fierro. Santiago: Ocholibros Editores.
Byrns, K. (2009). “Protestors Demand Right to Know Fate of Missing Relatives,” The Daily Star, May 14, 2009.
Cardenas, S. (2010). Conflict and Compliance: State Responses to International Human Rights Pressure. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Castro, J. L. G., Beristain, C. M. & Rovira, D. P. (2000). “Rituals, Social Sharing, Silence, Emotions and Collective Memory Claims in the Case of the Guatemalan Genocide,” Psicothema, 12(1), 117130.
Chapman, A. R. & Ball, P. (2001). “The Truth of Truth Commissions: Comparative Lessons from Haiti, South Africa, and Guatemala,” Human Rights Quarterly, 23(1), 143.
Charalambous, L. (2004). “Does the President Have Memory Problems?” Cyprus Mail, September 12, 2004.
Cingranelli, D. & Richards, D. (1999). “Respect for Human Rights after the End of the Cold War,” Journal of Peace Research, 36(5), 511534.
Cingranelli, D., Richards, D. & Clay, C. (2014). “The CIRI Human Rights Dataset,” Version, 2014.04.14, available at: (last accessed: July 3, 2016).
Citroni, G. & Scovazzi, T. (2009). “Recent Developments in International Law to Combat Enforced Disappearances,” Revista Internacional de Direito e Cidadania, 3, 89111.
Clark, A. M. (2010). Diplomacy of Conscience: Amnesty International and Changing Human Rights Norms. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Clark, A. M. & Sikkink, K. (2013). “Information Effects and Human Rights Data: Is the Good News about Increased Human Rights Information Bad News for Human Rights Measures?Human Rights Quarterly, 35(3), 539568.
CMP, Committee on Missing Persons (2016). Fact Sheet, November 2016, also available at: (last accessed: November 28, 2016).
Cobban, H. (2006). “International Courts,” Foreign Policy, 153, 2228.
Coelho-Filho, P. (2012). “Truth Commission in Brazil: Individualizing Amnesty, Revealing the Truth,” The Yale Review of International Studies, also available at: (last accessed: November 28, 2016).
Collier, D. (1993). “The Comparative Method,” in Political Science: The State of Discipline II. Finifter, A. (Ed.), Washington: American Political Science Association.
Collier, D. & Mahoney, J. (1996). “Insights and Pitfalls: Selection Bias in Qualitative Research,” World Politics, 49(01), 5691.
Collins, C. (2006). “Grounding Global Justice: International Networks and Domestic Human Rights Accountability in Chile and El Salvador,” Journal of Latin American Studies, 38(04), 711738.
Collins, C. (2010). “Human Rights Trials in Chile during and after the ‘Pinochet Years’,” International Journal of Transitional Justice, 4(1), 6786.
Collins, C. (2011). Post-transitional Justice: Human Rights Trials in Chile and El Salvador. Philadelphia: Penn State Press.
Collins, C. (2015). Lawyers and Transition in Chile. Policy Brief: Lawyers, Conflict and Transition Project, March 2015, Queen’s University, Belfast, also available at: (last accessed: July 6, 2016).
Collins, C., Balardini, L. & Burt, J. M. (2012). “Mapping Perpetrator Prosecutions in Latin America,” International Journal of Transitional Justice, 7(1), 828.
Congram, D. (2013). “Deposition and Dispersal of Human Remains as a Result of Criminal Acts: Homo Sapiens Sapiens as a Taphonomic Agent,” in Manual of Forensic Taphonomy. Pokines, J. & Symes, S. (Eds.), New York: CRC Press, pp.249285.
Congram, D. & Sterenberg, J. (2009). “Grave Challenges in Iraq,” in Handbook of Forensic Anthropology and Archeology. Blau, S. & Ubelaker, D. (Eds.), New York: Routledge, pp.441453.
Cordner, S. & McKelvie, H. (2002). “Developing Standards in International Forensic Work to Identify Missing Persons,” Revue Internationale de la Croix-Rouge/International Review of the Red Cross, 84(848), 867884.
Corm, G. (1994). “The War System: Militia Hegemony and Reestablishment of the State,” in Peace for Lebanon? From War to Reconstruction. Collings, D. (Ed.), Boulder: Lynne Rienner, pp.215230.
Correa, P. & Foxcroft, D. (2013). “The On-going Case: Getting Around Amnesty Laws by Seeking Justice for the Disappeared. O contorno da lei da anistia na busca de justiça: uma comparação das abordagens no Brasil e no Chile sobre os desaparecidos,” Relações Internacionais no Mundo Atual, 1(17), 7484.
Council of Europe (2003). Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, CM/inf(2003a)14, November 26, 2003.
Council of Europe (2004). Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, Interim Report DH(2004)4/1, November 26, 2004.
Council of Europe (2005). Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, Interim Resolution ResDH, “Concerning the Judgment of the European Court of Human Rights of 10 May 2001 in the Case of Cyprus against Turkey,” June 7, 2005.
Crenzel, E. (2008). “Argentina’s National Commission on the Disappearance of Persons: Contributions to Transitional Justice,” International Journal of Transitional Justice, 2(2), 173191.
Crenzel, E. (2011). “Between the Voices of the State and the Human Rights Movement: Never Again and the Memories of the Disappeared in Argentina,” Journal of Social History, 44(4), 10631076.
Crettol, M. & De La Rosa, A. M. (2006). “The Missing and Transitional Justice: The Right to Know and the Fight against Impunity,” International Review of the Red Cross, 88(862), 355362.
Crossland, Z. (2009). “Of Clues and Signs: The Dead Body and Its Evidential Traces,” American Anthropologist, 111(1), 6980.
Crossland, Z. (2013). “Evidential Regimes of Forensic Archaeology”. Annual Review of Anthropology, 42, 121137.
Dalby, D. (2014). “No Bail for Former I.R.A. Member Charged in ‘72 Killing’,” New York Times, March 22, 2014, also available at: (last accessed: November 28, 2016).
Dancy, G., Francesca, L., Bridget, M., Leigh, A. P., Gabriel, P. & Kathryn, S. (2014). “The Transitional Justice Research Collaborative: Bridging the Qualitative-Quantitative Divide With New Data,” also available at: (last accessed: July 3, 2016).
Dancy, G., Kim, H. & Wiebelhaus-Brahm, E. (2010). “The Turn to Truth: Trends in Truth Commission Experimentation,” Journal of Human Rights, 9(1), 4564.
Danforth, L. M. & Tsiaras, A. (1982). The Death Rituals of Rural Greece. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Davies, T. (2014). NGOs: A New History of Transnational Civil Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
De Brito, A. (2001). “Truth, Justice, Memory and Democratization in the Southern Cone,” in The Politics of Memory. Transitional Justice in Democratizing Societies. De Brito, A., Aguilar, P. & Gonzalez-Enriquez, C. (Eds.), Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp.119160.
De Brito, A. (2003). “Passion, Constraint, Law and Fortuna. The Human Rights Challenge to Chilean Democracy,” in Burying the Past. Making Peace and Doing Justice after Civil Conflict. Biggar, N. (Ed.), Washington: Georgetown University Press, pp.177208.
De Kock, R. (2013). “I Want My Hasbund’s Remains so I Can Die in Peace,” The Herald, May 8, 2013.
De Rivaz, C. (2013). “Over 5000 Bodies Exhumed in Colombia since 2007,” Colombia Reports, also available at: (last accessed: November 28, 2016).
De Ycaza, C. & Schabas, W. (2011). “‘Transitional Justice and the African Experience’, Forum: Transitional Justice: The Quest for Theory to Inform Policy,” International Studies Review, 13(1), 564570.
Dempster, L. (2016). “The Republican Movement, ‘Disappearing’ and Framing the Past in Northern Ireland,” International Journal of Transitional Justice, 20(2), 250271.
Dhumi Ëres, M. (2011). “Investigate Civil War Missing: Amnesty,” The Daily Star, April 15, 2011.
Diana, T. (1997). Disappearing Acts: Spectacles of Gender and Nationalism in Argentina’s “Dirty War.” Durham: Duke University Press.
Dorfman, A. (1997). “Last Chance for Redemption in Chile,” The Guardian, September 17, 1997, p.17.
Dorfman, A. (2000). “The General is Hoist on His Own Petard: Victory against Impunity for the Chilean Dictator Belongs to the Disappeared and their Families,” Observer, December 3, 2000, p.31.
Drawdy, S. & Katzmarzyk, C. (2016) “The Missing Files: The Experience of the International Committee of the Red Cross,” in Missing Persons: Multidisciplinary Perspective on the Disappeared. Congram, D. (Ed.), Toronto: Canadian Scholar’s Press.
Drousiotis, M. (2000). 1,619 Ενοχές – Τα λαθη, τα Ψέμματα και οι Σκοπιμότητες. Nicosia: Alfadi.
Druliolle, V. (2013). “HIJOS and the Spectacular Denunciation of Impunity: The Struggle for Memory, Truth, and Justice and the (re-) Construction of Democracy in Argentina,” Journal of Human Rights, 12(2), 259276.
Dugan, E. (2011). “CSI South Africa: Apartheid’s Last Murder Mystery,” Independent, January 16, 2011.
EAAF (1998). “Chile: A Mission to Assist the Identification Unit of the Chilean Medical Legal Institute Establish a Bank of Blood Samples from Relatives of Disappeared Chilean Citizens,” Argentine Forensic Anthropology Team Annual Report, p.19, also available at: (last accessed: April 13, 2015).
EAAF (2006). “South Africa: Annual Country Report,” Argentine Forensic Anthropology Team, also available at: (last accessed: April 13, 2015).
EAAF (2007a). “Chile,” Argentine Forensic Anthropology Team Annual Report, pp.117, also available at: (last accessed: April 13, 2015).
EAAF (2007b). “Annual Report,” Special Section the Right to Truth, pp.102109, also available at: (last accessed: April 13, 2015).
Eckstein, H. (1975). “Case Study and Theory in Political Science,” in Handbook of Political Science. Greenstein, F. & Polsby, N. (Eds.), Vol. 7, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, pp. 79128.
Edkins, J. (2011). Missing: Persons and Politics. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Egan, L. (2002). “DNA Helps Chileans Put Names to Long-lost Bodies,” Reuters News Agency, February 27, 2002, p.10.
El-Hokayem, E. & McGovern, E. (2008). Towards a More Secure and Stable Lebanon: Prospects for Security Sector Reform. Washington: The Henry L. Stimson Center, also available at: (last accessed: January 9, 2014).
Elkin, M. (2008). “María Barragán Succeeds in Getting Adoptive Parents Jailed,” The Times, April 5, 2008, (last accessed: November 28, 2016).
Elster, J. (2004). Closing the Books: Transitional Justice in Historical Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ensalaco, M. (2000). Chile under Pinochet: Recovering the Truth. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Fearon, J. & Laitin, D. (2003). “Ethnicity, Insurgency, and Civil War,” American Political Science Review, 97(01), 7590.
Femenía, N. & Gil, C. (1987). “Argentina’s Mothers of Plaza de Mayo: The Mourning Process from Junta to Democracy,” Feminist Studies, 13(1), 918.
Ferllini, R. (2007). Forensic Archaeology and Human Rights Violations. Springfield: Charles C Thomas Publisher.
Ferrándiz, F. (2009). “Fosas comunes, paisajes del terror,” Revista de Dialectología y Tradiciones populares, 64(1), 6194.
Ferrándiz, F. & Robben, A. (2015). “Introduction: The Ethnography of Exhumations,” Necropolitics. Mass Graves and Exhumations in the Age of Human Rights. Ferrándiz, F. & Robben, A. (Eds.), Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, pp.140.
Finnemore, M. (1993). “International Organizations as Teachers of Norms: The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization and Science Policy,” International Organization, 47(04), 565597.
Fisher, J. (1989). Mothers of the Disappeared. Boston: South End Press.
Fondebrider, L. (2002). “Reflections on the Scientific Documentation of Human Rights Violations,” International Review of the Red Cross, 84(848), 885891.
Forsythe, D. (2011). “Human Rights and Mass Atrocities: Revisiting Transitional Justice,” International Studies Review, 13(1), 8595.
Frankl, V. E. (1985). Man’s Search for Meaning. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Franklin, J. (1999). “Chilean Lawyers Using New Human Rights Strategy,” The Globe and Mail, August 12, 1999.
Freeman, M. (2006). Truth Commissions and Procedural Fairness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Freeman, M. (2009). Necessary Evils: Amnesties and the Search for Justice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Frouville, O. (forthcoming 2017). “The Committee on Enforced Disappearances,” in The United Nations and Human Rights: A Critical Appraisal. Alston, N. & Megret, F. (Eds.), 2nd edition, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Frulli, M. (2014). “Nino Cassese and the Early Stages in the Fight against Enforced Disappearances,” Journal of International Criminal Justice, 12(4), 805808.
Fullard, M. & Rousseau, N. (2001). “Truth-telling, Identities, and Power in South Africa and Guatemala,” in Identities in Transition Challenges for Transitional Justice in Divided Societies. Arthur, P. (Ed.), New York: Cambridge University Press, pp.5486.
Galtung, J. (1996). Peace by Peaceful Means: Peace and Conflict, Development and Civilization. London: Sage.
Gamson, W. & Meyer, D. (1996). “Framing Political Opportunity,” in Comparative Perspectives on Social Movements. Political Opportunities, Mobilizing Structures and Cultural Framing. McAdam, D., McCarthy, J. & Zald, M. (Eds.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.259270.
García, S., Pérez-Sales, P. & Fernández-Liria, A. (2010). “Exhumation Processes in Fourteen Countries in Latin America,” Journal for Social Action in Counseling and Psychology, 2(2), 48.
Garibian, S. (2014). “Ghosts Also Die Resisting Disappearance through the ‘Right to the Truth’ and the Juicios por la Verdad in Argentina.” Journal of International Criminal Justice, 12(3), 515538.
Gates, S., Binningsbo, H. & Lie, T. (2007). “Post-conflict Justice and Sustainable Peace,” World Bank Policy Research Working Paper (4191).
Geddes, B., Wright, J. & Frantz, E. (2014). “Autocratic Breakdown and Regime Transitions: A New Data Set,” Perspectives on Politics, 12(02), 313331.
George, A. & Bennett, A. (2005). Case Studies and Theory Development in the Social Sciences. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Gerring, J. (2004). “What Is a Case Study and What Is It Good for?American Political Science Review, 98(2), 341354.
Gerring, J. & Seawright, J. (2007). “Techniques for Choosing Cases,” in Case Study Research: Principles and Practices. Gerring, J. (Ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.86150.
Ghattas, F. (2000). “Lebanese Government Declares 17,000 War Missing Dead,” Associated Press, July 26, 2007.
Ghosn, F. & Khoury, A. (2011). “Lebanon after the Civil War: Peace or the Illusion of Peace?The Middle East Journal, 65(3), 381397.
Gibson, J. (2004). Overcoming Apartheid. Can Truth Reconcile a Divided Nation? New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Gibson, J. (2006). “The Contributions of Truth to Reconciliation: Lessons from South Africa,” Journal of Conflict Resolution, 50(3), 409432.
Goffman, E. (1974). Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of the Experience. New York: Harper Colophon.
Goni, U. (2014). “Argentina’s Campaigning Grandmother Finds Grandson Born to Death Camp Mother,” The Guardian, August 6, 2014, also available at: (last accessed: March 19, 2015).
Graybill, L. (2002). Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa. Miracle or Model? Boulder, London: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Gready, P. & Robins, S. (2014). “From Transitional to Transformative Justice: A New Agenda for Practice,” International Journal of Transitional Justice, 8(3), 339361.
Grenfell, D. (2015). “Of Time and History: The Dead of War, Memory and the National Imaginary in Timor-Leste,” Communication, Politics & Culture, 48(3), 16.
Grigoriadis, I. (2009). The Trials of Europeanization. Turkish Political Culture and the European Union. Basingstoke: Palgrave.
Guelke, A. (1999). South Africa in Transition. The Misunderstood Miracle. London: I.B. Tauris.
Guelke, A. (2000). “South Africa’s Morality Tale for Our Time.” Review of International Studies, 26(2), 303309.
Guelke, A. (2007). “Commentary: Truth, Reconciliation and Political Accommodation,” Irish Political Studies, 22(3), 363366.
Guest, I. (1990). Behind the Disappearances: Argentina’s Dirty War against Human Rights and the United Nations. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Gurney, K. & Johnson, S. (2008). “Digging Up Dirt: A Forensic Team is Tracking Down South Africa’s Disappeared – and Reopening Some Very Cold Cases,” Newsweek, 151(15).
Haas, P. M. (1989). “Do Regimes Matter? Epistemic Communities and Mediterranean Pollution Control,” International Organization, 43(03), 377403.
Haas, P. M. (1992). “Introduction: Epistemic Communities and International Policy Coordination,” International Organization, 46(01), 135.
Hadjipavlou, M. (2007). “The ‘Crossings’ as Part of Citizens’ Reconciliation Efforts in Cyprus?Innovation, 20(1), 5373.
Hafner-Burton, E. & Ron, J. (2009). “Seeing Double,” World Politics, 61(02), 360401.
Haglund, W. (2001). “Archaeology and Forensic Death Investigations,” Historical Archaeology, 35(1), 2634.
Haglund, W., Connor, M. & Douglas, S. (2001). “The Archaeology of Contemporary Mass Graves,” Historical Archaeology, 35(1), 5769.
Hanson, I. (2008). “Forensic Archaeology: Approaches to International Investigations,” in Forensic Approaches to Death, Disaster and Abuse. Oxenham, M. (Ed.), Bowen Hills: Australian Academic Press, pp.1728.
Haugbolle, S. (2010). War and Memory in Lebanon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hayner, P. (1994). “Fifteen Truth Commissions – 1974 to 1994: A Comparative Study,” Human Rights Quarterly, 16(4), 597655.
Hayner, P. (2002). Unspeakable Truths. Facing the Challenges of Truth Commissions. London: Routledge.
Hayner, P. (2011). Unspeakable Truths: Transitional Justice and the Challenge of Truth Commissions, 2nd edition. New York: Routledge.
Heraclides, A. (2011). “The Cyprus Gordian Knot: An Intractable Ethnic Conflict,” Nationalism and Ethnic Politics, 17(2), 117139.
Herrera, Y. M. & Kapur, D. (2007). “Improving Data Quality: Actors, Incentives, and Capabilities,” Political Analysis, 15(4), 365386.
Hilbink, L. (2007). Judges beyond Politics in Democracy and Dictatorship: Lessons from Chile. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hirsch, M. (2007). “Agents of Truth and Justice: Truth Commissions and the Transitional Justice Epistemic Community,” in Rethinking Ethical Foreign Policy: Pitfalls, Possibilities and Paradoxes. Chandler, D. & Heins, V. (Eds.), London: Routledge, pp.184205.
Hirsch, M. (2009). And the Truth Shall Make You Free: The International Norm of Truth-seeking. Doctoral dissertation, Tel Aviv University.
Hoffmeister, F. (2002). “Cyprus v. Turkey App. No. 25781/94,” The American Journal of International Law, 96(2), 445452.
House of Representatives (1979) “Human Rights and the Phenomenon of Disappearances: Hearings before the Subcommittee on International Organizations of the Committee on Foreign Affairs,” House of Representatives, Ninety-sixth Congress, first session, September 20, 25, and October 18, 1979.
Human Rights Watch (1997). “Syria/Lebanon an Alliance Beyond the Law. Enforced Disappearances in Lebanon,” May 1997 vol. 9, no. 3, also available at: (last accessed: January 10, 2014).
Human Rights Watch (2001). “Reluctant Partner: The Argentine Government’s Failure to Back Trials of Human Rights Violators,” Special Report, December 2001, also available at: (last accessed: April 13, 2015).
Human Rights Watch (2008). “Breaking the Grip? Obstacles to Justice for Paramilitary Mafias in Colombia,” October 2008, also available at: (last accessed: November 28, 2016).
Human Rights Watch (2013). “Lebanon: Tit-for-tat Border Kidnappings: Civilians Describe Experiences; Meager Government Response,” also available at: (last accessed: January 10, 2014).
Huneeus, A., Couso, J. & Sieder, R. (2010). “Cultures of Legality: Judicialization and Political Activism in Latin America,” Studies in Law and Society, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, June, pp.324.
Huntington, S. (1993). The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century, Vol. 4. Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press.
ICMP (2014). Bosnia and Herzegovina. Missing Persons Form the Armed Conflicts of the 1990s: A Stocktaking. Sarajevo: International Commission on Missing Persons.
ICRC (2003). “ICRC Report: The Missing and their families,” Geneva, International Committee of the Red Cross, also available at: (last accessed: December 8, 2016).
ICRC (2009). “Missing People, DNA Analysis and Identification of Human Remains. A Guide to Best Practice in Armed Conflicts and Other Situations of Armed Violence, Second Edition 2009,” Geneva, also available at: (last accessed: July 5, 2016).
ICRC (2013). “The Families of People Missing in Connection with the Armed Conflict That Have Occurred in Lebanon Since 1975. An Assessment of Their Needs,” June 2013, also available at: (last accessed: January 10, 2013).
Ignatieff, M. (1998). The Warrior’s Honor: Ethnic War and the Modern Conscience. New York: Holt Paperbacks.
Interamerican Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) (1985). Annual Report of the IACHR 1985–6, OEA/er.L./V/II/Doc8, 193.
Interamerican Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) (2011). “Annual Report of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights in Colombia,” also available at: (last accessed: November 24, 2016).
International Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) (2014). The Right to Truth in the Americas, OEA/Ser.L/V/II.152, 13 August 2014.
International Center for Transitional Justice (2013). “Lebanon’s Legacy of Political Violence. A Mapping of Serious Violations of International Human Rights and Humanitarian Law in Lebanon, 1975–2008,” September 2013, also available at: (last accessed: January 10, 2014).
Jaquemet, I. (2009). “Fighting Amnesia: Ways to Uncover the Truth about Lebanon’s Missing,” International Journal of Transitional Justice, 1, 6990.
Jarroud, M. (2012). “Families of ‘Disappeared’ and Forensic Institute on Good Terms Again,” Inter Press Service, September 4, 2012, also available at: (last accessed: November 28, 2016).
Jelin, E. (1994). “The Politics of Memory: The Human Rights Movements and the Construction of Democracy in Argentina,” Latin American Perspectives, 21(2), 3858.
Joseph, J. (1997). Cyprus: Ethnic Conflict and International Politics: From Independence to the Threshold of the European Union. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Joyce, C. & Stover, E. (1992). Witnesses from the Grave: The Stories Bones Tell. London: Little, Brown, 4553.
Juhl, K. (2005). The Contribution by (Forensic) Archaeologists to Human Rights Investigations of Mass Graves. Stavanger, Norway: Museum of Archaeology.
Juliá, S. (1999). “De ‘guerra contra el invasor’ a ‘guerra fratricida.’ ” Víctimas de la guerra civil, pp.1154.
Kalyvas, S. (2006). The Logic of Violence in Civil War. Cambridge Studies in Comparative Politics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kaminski, M., Nalepa, M. & O’Neill, B. (2006). “Normative and Strategic Aspects of Transitional Justice,” Journal of Conflict Resolution, 50(3), 295302.
Kasimatis, P. (1997). Αγνοούμενοι – Άκρως απόρρητο – Τα δεκατρία περιστέρια, Athens: Livanis.
Keck, M. & Sikkink, K. (1998). “Activists beyond Borders,” Advocacy Networks in International Politics. Vol. 6, Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Kelman, H. (1999). “Building a Sustainable Peace: The Limits of Pragmatism in the Israeli-Palestinian Negotiations,” Peace and Conflict: Journal of Political Psychology, 5(2), 101115.
Ker-Lindsay, J. (2011). The Cyprus Problem: What Everyone Needs to Know. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ker-Lindsay, J. & Hubert, F. (2008). The Government and Politics of Cyprus. Oxford: Peter Lang.
Khalaf, S. (2002). Civil and Uncivil Violence in Lebanon: A History of the Internationalization of Communal Conflict. New York: Columbia University Press.
Khulumani (2010). Khulumani Apartheid Reparation Database: Report on Cases of the Disappeared, July 31, 2010, Johannesburg, also available at: (last accessed: July 6, 2016).
Kim, H. J. (2012). “Structural Determinants of Human Rights Prosecutions after Democratic Transition,” Journal of Peace Research, 49(2), 305320.
Kim, H. J. & Sikkink, K. (2010). “Explaining the Deterrence Effect of Human Rights. Prosecutions for Transitional Countries,” International Studies Quarterly, 54(4), 939963.
Klandermans, B. (1997). The Social Psychology of Protest. Oxford: Blackwell.
Knudsen, A. (2005). Precarious Peacebuilding: Post-war Lebanon, 1990–2005, Chr. Michelsen Institute, CMI Working Paper n. 12, also available at: (last accessed: January 9, 2014).
Korff, D. (2006). “The Right to Life: A Guide to the Implementation of Article 2 of the European Convention on Human Rights,” Council of Europe-Human Rights Handbook, 8, also available at: (last accessed: November 28, 2016).
Kovras, I. (2012). “De-linkage Processes and Grassroots Movements in Transitional Justice,” Cooperation and Conflict, 47(1), 88105.
Kovras, I. (2013) “Explaining Prolonged Silences in Transitional Justice: The Disappeared in Cyprus and Spain,” Comparative Political Studies, 46, 730756.
Kovras, I. (2014). Truth Recovery and Transitional Justice: Deferring Human Rights. London: Routledge.
Kovras, I. & Loizides, N. (2011). “Delaying Truth Recovery for Missing Persons,” Nations and Nationalism, 17(3), 520539.
Krause, W. C. (2004). “The Role and Example of Chilean and Argentinian Mothers in Democratisation,” Development in Practice, 14(3), 366380.
Kriesi, H. (1995a). “The Political Opportunity Structure of New Social Movements: Its Impact on their Mobilization,” in The Politics of Social Protest: Comparative Perspectives on States and Social Movements. Jenkins, G. & Klandermans, B. (Eds.), Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, pp.167198.
Kriesi, H. (1995b). New Social Movements in Western Europe: A Comparative Analysis, Vol. 5. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Kubheka, A. (2013). “Closure as MK Operative Is Exhumed,” Daily News, April 10, 2013, p.2.
Kyriakou, N. (2012). An Affront to the Conscience of Humanity: Enforced Disappearance in International Human Rights Law. Doctoral dissertation, European University Institute.
Kyriakou, N. (2014). “An Affront to the Conscience of Humanity: Enforced Disappearances in the Case Law of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights,” Interamerican and European Human Rights Journal, 4(1), 1738.
Lacina, B., Gleditsch, P. & Russett, B. (2006). “The Declining Risk of Death in Battle,” International Studies Quarterly, 50(3), 673680.
Lafontaine, F. (2005). “No Amnesty or Statute of Limitation for Enforced Disappearances: The Sandoval Case before the Supreme Court of Chile,” Journal of International Criminal Justice, 3, 467.
Lakha, K. (2012). “A Day in the Life of the MPTT,” Quest, 8, 1617.
Lambourne, W. (2000). “Post-Conflict Peacebuilding,” Security Dialogue, 31, 357.
Landsman, S. (1997). “Alternative Responses to Serious Human Rights Abuses: Of Prosecutions and Truth Commissions,” Law and Contemporary Problems, 59(4), 8192.
Landman, T. & Carvalho, E. (2009). Measuring Human Rights. New York: Routledge.
Lange, M. (2011). Educations in Ethnic Violence: Identity, Educational Bubbles, and Resource Mobilization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Laqueur, T. W. (2015). The Work of the Dead: A Cultural History of Mortal Remains. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Latin American Herald Tribune (2014). “More Than 3,000 Militia Victims Exhumed in Colombia,” Latin American Herald Tribune, February 7, 2014, also available at: (last accessed: November 28, 2016).
Lawther, C. (2014). Truth, Denial and Transition: Northern Ireland and the Contested Past. Transitional Justice Series, London: Routledge.
Lebanese Center for Human Rights. (2008). “Report: Lebanon Enforced Disappearances and Incommunicado Detentions,” Beirut, February 21, 2008, also available at: (last accessed: January 10, 2014).
Lederach, J. P. (2005). The Moral Imagination: The Art and Soul of Building Peace, Vol. 3. New York: Oxford University Press.
Leebaw, B. (2011). Judging State-Sponsored Violence, Imagining Political Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lessa, F. (2012). “Barriers to Justice: The Ley de Caducidad and Impunity in Uruguay,” in Amnesty in the Age of Human Rights Accountability. Comparative and International Perspectives. Franscesca, Lessa & Leigh, Payne (Eds.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 123151.
Lieberman, E. (2005). “Nested Analysis as a Mixed-Method Strategy for Comparative Research,” American Political Science Review, 99(03), 435452.
Lieberman, E. (2010). “Bridging the Qualitative-Quantitative Divide: Best Practices in the Development of Historically Oriented Replication Databases,” Annual Review of Political Science, 13, 3759.
Linz, J. & Stepan, A. (1996). Problems of Democratic Transition and Consolidation: Southern Europe, South America, and Post-communist Europe. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Lobar, S. L., Youngblut, J. M. & Brooten, D. (2006). “Cross-cultural Beliefs, Ceremonies, and Rituals Surrounding Death of a Loved One,” Pediatric Nursing, 32(1), 44.
Loizides, N. (2016). Designing Peace: Cyprus and Institutional Innovations in Divided Societies. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
London, A. J., Parker, L. S. & Aronson, J. D. (2013). “DNA Identification after Conflict or Disaster,” Science, 341(6151), 11781179.
Lundy, P. & McGovern, M. (2008). “Whose Justice? Rethinking Transitional Justice from the Bottom Up,” Journal of Law and Society, 35(2), 265292.
Lutz, E. & Reiger, C. (2009). Prosecuting Heads of State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lutz, E. & Sikkink, K. (2001). “Justice Cascade: The Evolution and Impact of Foreign Human Rights Trials in Latin America,” The Chicago Journal of International Law, 2, 1.
Maalouf, L. (2009). “Enforced Disappearances in Lebanon: A Nation’s Unyielding Legacy,” Report prepared for the ACT for the Disappeared, Beirut, July 2009, also available at: (last accessed: January 10, 2014).
Maalouf, L. & Maalouf, R. C. (2015). “Forensic Archaeology in Lebanon. Forensic Archaeology: A Global Perspective,” in Forensic Archaeology: A Global Perspective. Márquez-Grant, N. & Janaway, R. (Eds.), New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, pp.293299.
Mahoney, J. (2004). “Comparative-Historical Methodology,” Annual Review of Sociology, 30, 81101.
Mahoney, J. (2000). “Path Dependence in Historical Sociology,” Theory and Society, 29(4), 507548.
Mai’a K, D. C. (2013). “Rethinking Epistemic Communities Twenty Years Later,” Review of International Studies, 39(01), 137160.
Makdisi, S. & Richard, S. (2005). “The Lebanese Civil War, 1975–1990,” Understanding Civil War Evidence and Analysis, Vol. 2: Europe, Central Asia and Other Regions. Paul, Collier and Nicholas, Sambanis (Eds.), Washington: World Bank Publications, pp.5986.
Malin, A. (1994). “Mother Who Won’t Disappear,” Human Rights Quarterly, 16(1), 187213.
Mallinder, L. (2008). Amnesty, Human Rights and Political Transitions: Bridging the Peace and Justice Divide. London: Hart Publishing.
Mallinder, L. (2009). “The Ongoing Quest for Truth and Justice: Enacting and Annulling Argentina’s Amnesty Laws,” also available at SSRN 1531759. (Last accessed: November 28, 2016).
Mallinder, L. & O’Rourke, C. (2016). “Databases of Transitional Justice Mechanisms and Contexts: Comparing Research Purposes and Design,” International Journal of Transitional Justice, 10(3), 492512.
Manning, C. (2002). “Conflict Management and Elite Habituation in Postwar Democracy: The Case of Mozambique,” Comparative Politics, 35(1), 6384.
Mansfield, E. & Snyder, J. (2005). Electing to Fight. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Martin, J., van Wijk, C., Hans-Arendse, C. & Makhaba, L. (2013). “Missing in Action: The Significance of Bodies in African Bereavement Rituals,” Psychology in Society, 44, 4263.
McAdam, D. (1999). Political Process and the Development of Black Insurgency, 1930–1970. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
McAdam, D., Tarrow, S. & Tilly, C. (2001). Dynamics of Contention. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
McAdam, D., Tarrow, S. & Tilly, C. (2009). “Comparative Perspectives on Contentious Politics,” Comparative Politics: Rationality, Culture, and Structure. Lichbach, M. & Zuckerman, A. (Eds.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.260290.
McCormick, J. & Mitchell, N. (1997). “Human Rights Violations, Umbrella Concepts, and Empirical Analysis,” World Politics, 49(04), 510525.
McCrory, S. (2007). “The International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance,” Human Rights Law Review, 7(3), 545566.
McCrudden, C. (2000). “Common Law of Human Rights? Transnational Judicial Conversations on Constitutional Rights,” Oxford Journal of Legal Studies, 20(4), 499532.
McDonald, H. (2007). “Churches Plea to IRA over ‘Disappeared’,” The Observer, January 7.
McEvoy, K. & McGregor, L. (Eds.) (2008). Transitional Justice from Below: Grassroots Activism and the Struggle for Change. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.
McEvoy, K. & Mallinder, L. (2012). “Amnesties in Transition: Punishment, Restoration, and the Governance of Mercy,” Journal of Law and Society, 39(3), 410440.
McNally, R. J. (2003). “Psychological Mechanisms in Acute Response to Trauma,” Biological Psychiatry, 53(9), 779788.
McSherry, P. (2002). “Tracking the Origins of a State Terror Network: Operation Condor,” Latin American Perspectives, 29(1), 3860.
Mecellem, J. G. (2016). “Human Rights Trials in an Era of Democratic Stagnation: The Case of Turkey.” Law & Social Inquiry (early view: Doi: 10.1111/lsi.12260).
Meguerditchian, V. (2012). “Relatives of Missing Propose Draft Law,” The Daily Star, February 25, 2012.
Mendeloff, D. (2009). “Trauma and Vengeance: Assessing the Psychological and Emotional Effects of Post-Conflict Justice,” Human Rights Quarterly, 31(3), 592623.
Méndez, J. (2001). “National Reconciliation, Transnational Justice, and the International Criminal Court,” Ethics and International Affairs, 15(1), 2544.
Méndez, J. (2011). Taking a Stand. The Evolution of Human Rights. Basingstoke: Palgrave.
Méndez, J. & Vivanco, J. (1990). “Disappearances and the Inter-American Court: Reflections on a Litigation Experience,” Hamline Law Review, 13, 507.
Meyer, D. (2004). “Protest and Political Opportunities,” Annual Review of Sociology, 30, 125145.
Minow, M. (1999). Between Vengeance and Forgiveness: Facing History after Genocide and Mass Violence. London: New Beacon.
Minow, M. (2002). “Breaking the Cycles of Hatred,” in Breaking the Cycles of Hatred: Memory, Law and Repair. Minow, M. (Ed.), Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp.1675.
Moon, C. (2008). Narrating Political Reconciliation: South Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Maryland: Lexington Books.
Moon, C. (2013). “Interpreters of the Dead Forensic Knowledge, Human Remains and the Politics of the Past,” Social & Legal Studies, 22(2), 149169.
Moon, C. (2016) “Forensic Humanitarianism and the Human Rights of the Dead,” International Social Science Journal. Doi: 10.1111/issj.12071, also available at: (last accessed: Novemebr 28, 2016).
Moreno, F. (1999). “La represión en la posguerra,” in Víctimas de la guerra civil. Juliá, Santos, Solé, Josep M., Vilarroya, Joan & Casanova, Franc y Julián (Eds.), Madrid: Temas de hoy, pp.277406.
Moyn, S. (2010). The Last Utopia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Mrad, E. (2011). “Some Legal and Political Factors Affecting the Civil Society and Democratization in Lebanon,” International Journal of Civil Society Law, IX(II), 125.
Müftüler-Baç, M. (2005). “Turkey’s Political Reforms and the Impact of the European Union,” South European Society and Politics, 10(1), 1731.
Munck, G. L. & Verkuilen, J. (2002). “Conceptualizing and Measuring Democracy Evaluating Alternative Indices,” Comparative Political Studies, 35(1), 534.
Nadelmann, E. (1990). “Global Prohibition Regimes: The Evolution of Norms in International Society,” International Organization, 44(04), 479526.
Naqvi, Y. (2006). “The Right to the Truth in International Law: Fact or Fiction?International Review of the Red Cross, 88(862), 245273.
Navarro, M. (1989). “The Personal is Political: Las Madres de Plaza de Mayo,” Power and Popular Protest: Latin American Social Movements, Susan, Eckstein (Ed.), Berkeley: University of California Press, pp.241258.
Nelsen, A. (2009). “Chile Compiles DNA to Identify Remains of ‘Disappeared’,” Reuters, November 2, 2009.
Nesiah, V. (2002). “Overcoming Tensions between Family and Judicial Procedures,” Revue Internationale de la Croix-Rouge/International Review of the Red Cross, 84(848), 823844.
Nettelfield, L. J. (2010). Courting Democracy in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Nettelfield, L. J. & Wagner, S. (2013). Srebrenica in the Aftermath of Genocide. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Newman, E. (2002). “‘Transitional Justice’: The Impact of Transnational Norms and the UN,” in Recovering from Civil Conflict: Reconciliation, Peace and Development, Newman, E. & Schnl, A. (Eds.), London: Frank Cass, pp.3152.
Newman, E. (2004). “The ‘New Wars’ Debate: A Historical Perspective Is Needed,” Security Dialogue, 35(2), 173189.
Nkadimeng, T. (2013) “My Sister’s Heart,” December 26, 2013,, available at: (last accessed: July 6, 2016).
Nolen, S. (2007). “What’s Bred in the Bones,” The Globe and Mail, October 20, 2007, p.F1.
Nosiglia, J. (2007). Botín de guerra. Buenos Aires: Cooperativa Tierra Fértil.
Ocampo, L. (1999). “Beyond Punishment: Justice in the Wake of Massive Crimes in Argentina,” Journal of International Affairs, 52(2), 669.
O’Donnel, G., Schmitter, P. & Whitehead, L. (1986). Transitions from Authoritarian Rule, Vols. I–IV. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Olsen, T., Payne, L. & Reiter, A. (2010). “The Justice Balance: When Transitional Justice Improves Human Rights and Democracy,” Human Rights Quarterly, 32(4), 9801007.
Orentlicher, D. (1991). “Settling Accounts: The Duty to Prosecute Human Rights Violations of a Prior Regime,” Yale Law Journal, 100(8), 25372615.
Osiel, M. (1986). “The Making of Human Rights Policy in Argentina: The Impact of Ideas and Interests on a Legal Conflict,” Journal of Latin American Studies, 18(01), 135180.
Papadakis, Y. (1993). “The Politics of Memory and Forgetting,” Journal of Mediterranean Studies, 3(1), 139154.
Parashos, A. (2009). “Μαρτυρας Δολοφονίας Αιχμαλώτων’, Καθημερινή,” August 11, 2009, p.3.
Paroutis, S. (1999). “Υποθεση Αγνοουμενων:Ανοίγουν οι Τάφοι των «Αγνώστων»,” Πολίτης, June 3, 1999, p.5.
Patrick, R. (1976). Political Geography and the Cyprus Conflict. 1963–1971. Waterloo: Department of Geography, University of Waterloo.
Paul, A. (2010). Katyn: Stalin’s Massacre and the Triumph of Truth. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press.
Penchaszadeh, V. (2011). “Forced Disappearance and Suppression of Identity of Children in Argentina: Experiences in Genetic Identification,” in Racial Identities, Genetic Ancestry, and Health in South America: Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, and Uruguay. Gibbon, S., Santos, R. & Monica, Sans. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, pp.213243.
Penchaszadeh, V. (2015). “Ethical, Legal and Social Issues in Restoring Genetic Identity after Forced Disappearance and Suppression of Identity in Argentina,” Journal of Community Genetics, 6(3), 17.
Pérez-Sales, P., Durán-Pérez, T. & Herzfeld, R. B. (2000). “Long-term Psychosocial Consequences in First-degree Relatives of People Detained-Disappeared or Executed for Political Reasons in Chile. A Study in Mapuce and Non-Mapuce Persons,” Psicothema, 12(Suplemento), 109116.
Pierson, P. (2000). “Increasing Returns, Path Dependence, and the Study of Politics,” American Political Science Review, 94(02), 251267.
Pierson, P. (2004). Politics in Time: History, Institutions, and Social Analysis. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Poe, S., Carey, S. & Vazquez, T. (2001). “How are these Pictures Different? A Quantitative Comparison of the US State Department and Amnesty International Human Rights Reports, 1976–1995,” Human Rights Quarterly, 23(3), 650677.
Popkin, M. & Roht-Arriaza, N. (1995). “Truth as Justice: Investigatory Commissions in Latin America,” Law & Social Inquiry, 20(1)(Winter), 79116.
Quinn, J. (2007). “Social Reconstruction in Uganda: The Role of Customary Mechanisms in Transitional Justice,” Human Rights Review, 8(4), 389407.
Quinn, J. & Freeman, M. (2003). “Lessons Learned: Practical Lessons Gleaned from Inside the Truth Commissions of Guatemala and South Africa,” Human Rights Quarterly, 25(4), 11171149.
Quirk, G. J. & Casco, L. (1994). “Stress Disorders of Families of the Disappeared: A Controlled Study in Honduras,” Social Science & Medicine, 39(12), 16751679.
Ramos, H., Ron, J. & Thoms, O. (2007). “Shaping the Northern Media’s Human Rights Coverage, 1986–2000,” Journal of Peace Research, 44(4), 385406.
Requa, M. (2012). “A Human Rights Triumph? Dictatorship-Era Crimes and the Chilean Supreme Court,” Human Rights Law Review, 12(1), 79106.
Richmond, O. (2011). Liberal Peace Transitions: Between Statebuilding and Peacebuilding. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Risse, T. & Sikkink, K. (1999). “The Socialization of International Human Rights Norms into Domestic Practices: An Introduction,” in The Power of Human Rights: International Norms and Domestic Change. Risse, T., Ropp, S. & Sikkink, K. (Eds.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.138.
Robben, A. (2000). “State Terror in the Netherworld: Disappearance and Reburial in Argentina,” in Death Squad: The Anthropology of State Terror. Sluka, J. (Ed.), Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Robben, A. (2005a). Political Violence and Trauma in Argentina. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Robben, A. (2005b). “How Traumatized Societies Remember: The Aftermath of Argentina’s Dirty War,” Cultural Critique, 59(1), 120164.
Robben, A. (2014). “Massive Violent Death and Contested National Mourning in Post-Authoritarian Chile and Argentina: A Sociocultural Application of the Dual Process Model,” Death Studies, 38(5), 335345.
Robben, A. (2015) “Exhumations, Territoriality, and Necropolitics in Chile and Argentina,” in Necropolitics. Mass Graves and Exhumations in the Age of Human Rights. Ferrándiz, F. & Robben, A. (Eds.), Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, pp. 5375.
Robins, S. (2011). “Towards Victim-centred Transitional Justice: Understanding the Needs of Families of the Disappeared in Post-conflict Nepal,” International Journal of Transitional Justice, 5(1), 7598.
Robins, S. (2013). Families of the Missing. A Test for Contemporary Approaches to Transitional Justice. New York: Routledge.
Robinson, J. & Acemoglou, D. (2012). Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty. New York: Crown Business.
Roht-Arriaza, N. (2005). The Pinochet Effect: Transnational Justice in the Age of Human Rights. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Roht-Arriaza, N. (2009). “The Multiple Prosecutions of Augusto Pinochet,” in Prosecuting Heads of State. Lutz, E. & Reiger, C. (Eds.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.7794.
Roht-Arriaza, N. & Mariezcurrena, J. (2006). Transitional Justice in the Twenty-First Century: Beyond Truth versus Justice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rohter, L. (2006). “Shinning a Light into the Abyss of Chile’s Dictatorship,” New York Times, February 25, 2006, p.4.
Ron, J. (1997). “Varying Methods of State Violence,” International Organization, 51(02), 275300.
Ron, J., Ramos, H. & Rodgers, K. (2005). “Transnational Information Politics: NGO Human Rights Reporting, 1986–2000,” International Studies Quarterly, 49(3), 557588.
Ropp, S. & Sikkink, K. (1999) “International Norms and Domestic Politics in Chile and Guatemala,” in The Power of Human Rights: International Norms and Domestic Change. Risse, T., Ropp, S. & Sikkink, K. (Eds.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.172204.
Rosenblatt, A. (2015). Last Rights: Forensic Science, Human Rights, and the Politics of Mass Graves. California: Stanford University Press.
Ross, F. C. (2003). Bearing Witness: Women and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission in South Africa. Virginia: Pluto Press.
Rousseau, N. (2009). “The Farm, the River and the Picnic Spot: Topographies of Terror,” African Studies, 68( 3), 351369.
Rousseau, N. (2015). “Identification, Politics, Disciplines: Missing Persons and Colonial Skeletons in South Africa,” in Human Remains and Identification: Mass Violence, Genocide and the “Forensic Turn.” Anstett, É. & Dreyfus, J. M. (Eds.), Oxford University Press, pp.175202.
Rowayheb, M. G. & Ouaiss, M. (2015). “The Committee of the Parents of the Missing and Disappeared: 30 Years of Struggle and Protest,” Middle Eastern Studies, 51(6), 10101026.
Salama, C. (1992). Tumbas anónimas: informe sobre la identificación de restos de víctimas de la represión ilegal. Buenos Aires: Equipo Argentino de Anthropologia Forense, Catalogos Editora.
Sandal, N. (2011). “Religious Actors as Epistemic Communities in Conflict Transformation: The Cases of South Africa and Northern Ireland,” Review of International Studies, 37(3), 929949.
Sanford, V. (2003). Buried Secrets: Truth and Human Rights in Guatemala. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Sant Cassia, P. (2005). Bodies of Evidence. Burial, Memory and the Recovery of Missing Persons in Cyprus. Oxford: Berghahn Books.
Sant Cassia, P. (2006). “Guarding Each Other’s Dead, Mourning One’s Own: The Problem of Missing Persons and Missing Pasts in Cyprus,” South European, Society & Politics, 11(1), 111128.
Sarkin, J. (2004). Carrots and Sticks: The TRC and the South African Amnesty Process. Cambridge: Intersentia.
Sarkin, J. (2015). “Dealing with Enforced Disappearances in South Africa (With a Focus on the Nokuthula Simelane Case) and Around the World. The Need to Ensure Progress on the Rights to Truth, Justice and Reparations in Practice,” Speculum Juris Volume, 29(PART 1), 2048.
Scovazzi, T. & Citroni, G. (2007). The Struggle against Enforced Disappearance and the 2007 UN Convention. Leiden: Martinus Nihoff Publishers.
Seekings, J. & Nattrass, N. (2008). Class, Race, and Inequality in South Africa. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Sewell, W. (1996). “Three Temporalities: Toward an Eventful Sociology,” in The Historic Turn in the Human Sciences. McDonald, T. J. (Ed.), Anne Arbor: University of Michigan Press, pp.245280.
Shadid, A. (2006). “Mothers Press Issues of War That Lebanese Want to Forget; Loved Ones Still Missing From Years of Conflict,” Washington Post Foreign Service, A Section; A01, January 21, 2006.
Shelton, D. (1980). “International Enforcement of Human Rights: Effectiveness and Alternatives,” Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of American Society of International Law, 74(April 17–19, April 1980), 616.
Sikkink, K. (2004). Mixed Signals, US Human Rights Policy and Latin America. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Sikkink, K. (2008). “From Pariah State to Global Protagonist: Argentina and the Struggle for International Human Rights,” Latin America Politics and Society, 50(1), 129.
Sikkink, K. (2011). The Justice Cascade: How Human Rights Prosecutions Are Changing World Politics (The Norton Series in World Politics). London: WW Norton & Company.
Sikkink, K. & Walling, C. (2007). “The Impact of Human Rights Trials in Latin America,” Journal of Peace Research, 44(4), 427445.
Skaar, E. (2011). Judicial Independence and Human Rights in Latin America: Violations, Politics, and Prosecution. Berlin: Springer.
Skinner, M. (2007). “Hapless in Afghanistan: Forensic Archaeology in a Political Maelstrom,” in Forensic Archaeology and Human Rights Violations. Ferllini, R. (Ed.), Springfield: Charles C Thomas Publisher, pp.233265.
Smith, D. (2015). “South African Death Squad Leader Eugene de Kock to be Freed from Jail,” The Guardian, January 30, 2015.
Snow, C. & Bihurriet, M. J. (1992). “An Epidemiology of Homicide: Ningún Nombre Burials in the Province of Buenos Aires from 1970 to 1984,” Human Rights and Statistics: Getting the Record Straight. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania press, pp.328363.
Snow, C. C., Stover, E. & Hannibal, K. (1989). “Scientists as Detectives-Investigating Human-Rights,” Technology Review, 92(2), 42.
Snow, D. A. & Benford, R. D. (1992). “Master Frames and Cycles of Protest,” in Frontiers in Social Movement Theory, Morris, A. D. (Ed.), New Haven: Yale University Press, pp.133155.
Snow, D. A., Rochford, E. B. Jr, Worden, S. K. & Benford, R. D. (1986). “Frame Alignment Processes, Micromobilization, and Movement Participation,” American Sociological Review, 51(4), 464481.
Solomonidou, A. (2010). “Ξενοφών Καλλής: Ποτέ Ξανά Αγνοούμενοι – Ποτέ Ξανά Πόλεμος,” Fileleftheros, August 29, 2010, p.10.
Sperling, L., Klieman, G. & Ap, L. (2008). “Political Changes Influence Forensic Science in Colombia,” Forensic Magazine, August 1, 2008, also available at: (last accessed: November 28, 2016).
Sriram, L. (2012). “The Special Tribunal for Lebanon, Promoting Justice or Prolonging Conflict?” Conciliation Resources, also available at: (last accessed: January 9, 2014).
Sriram, C. L. (2004). Confronting Past Human Rights Violations: Justice vs. Peace in Times of Transition. London: Frank Cass.
Stefanovic, D., Loizides, N., & Psaltis, C. (2016). “Attitudes of Victims towards Transitional Justice: The Case of Cyprus,” Conference paper, “Referendums and Peace Processes,” October 26 & 27, 2016, Nicosia, Cyprus.
Stover, E. (1985). “Scientists Aid Search for Argentina’s ‘Desaparecidos’,” Science, 230(4721), 5657.
Stover, E. & Shigekane, R. (2004). “Exhumation of Mass Graves: Balancing Legal and Humanitarian Needs,” in My Neighbor, My Enemy: Justice and Community in the Aftermath of Mass Atrocity. Stover, E. & Weinstein, H. M. (Eds.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.85104.
Stover, E., Sissons, M., Pham, P. & Vinck, P. (2008). “Justice on Hold: Accountability and Social Reconstruction in Iraq,” International Review of the Red Cross, 90(869), 528.
Subotic, J. (2009). Hijacked Justice: Dealing with the Past in the Balkans. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Tarrow, S. (1998). Power in Movement. Social Movements and Contentious Politics, 2nd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tarrow, S. & Tilly, C. (2007). “Contentious Politics and Social Movements,” The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp.435460.
Tay, N. (2013). “Bodies Exhumed in ANC ‘Murder’ Case Linked to Winnie Mandela,” Independent, March12, 2013.
Tayler, W. (2001). “Background to the Elaboration of the Draft International Convention on the Protection of All Persons from Forced Disappearance,” Review-International Commission of Jurists, 62, 6372.
Thelen, K. (2000). “Timing and Temporality in the Analysis of Institutional Evolution and Change,” Studies in American Political Development, 14(01), 101108.
Theodoulou, G. (2009). “Ανοίγουν οι γνωστοί ομαδικοί τάφοι αγνώστων,” Αλήθεια, February 2, 2009, p.13.
Thomas, G. (2011). Contesting Legitimacy in Chile: Familial Ideals, Citizenship, and Political Struggle 1970–1990. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Thoms, O., James, R. & Roland, P. (2010). “State-level Effects of Transitional Justice: What Do We Know?International Journal of Transitional Justice, 4(3), 329354.
Tidball-Binz, M. (2006). “Forensic Investigations into the Missing,” in Forensic Anthropology and Medicine. Schmitt, A., Cunha, E. & Pinheiro, J., New York: Humana Press, pp.383407.
Tilly, C. (1984). Big Structures, Large Processes, Huge Comparisons. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Tilly, C. (1995). Popular Contention in Great Britain, 1758–1834. London: Routledge.
Torrens, J. (1999). “The Many Faces of Amnesty,” America, July 17–24, 181(2), 1217.
TRC Report. (2003). Truth and Reconciliation Commission of South Africa Report, released on March 21, 2003, also available at: (last accessed: November 28, 2016).
Tremlett, G. (2008). “Spanish Judge Orders Poet García Lorca’s Grave to be Opened,” The Guardian, October 16, 2008, also available at: (last accessed: November 28, 2016).
UDP (2009). “Perceptions of Human Rights in the National Public Opinion Survey,” Santiago Chile: University Diego Portales, also available at: (last accessed: November 28, 2016).
UDP (2013). “Truth, Justice and Memory for Dictatorship-Era Human Rights Violations, 40 Years after the Military Coup,” Annual Report of the Center for Human Rights of the University Diego Portales, also available at: (last accessed: November 28, 2016).
UNFICYP (2007). “The UN in Cyprus: An Inter-communal Survey of Public Opinion by UNFICYP,” available at: (last accessed: September 20, 2011).
United Nations (1981). “General Assembly Resolution,” A/RES/34/164, December 16, 1981.
United Nations (2006). “Rule of Law Tools for Post-conflict States: Truth Commissions,” HR/PUB/06/1, also available at: (last accessed: November 28, 2016).
United Nations (2010). “Report of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights on the Situation of Human Rights in Colombia,” A/HRC/13/72, March 4, 2010.
United Nations (2015). “Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Promotion of Truth, Justice, Reparation and Guarantees of Non-Recurrence, Pablo de Greiff,” A/.HRC/30/42, September 7, 2015.
UNWGEID (2013). “Report of the Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances: Mission to Chile,” A/HRC/22/45, January 29, 2013.
Urbsaitis, B. M. (2009). Wounded Healers & Reconciliation Fatigue: The Search for Social Justice & Sustainable Development in South Africa. VDM: Verlag.
Vallejo-Nájera, J. A. (1937). Eugenesia de la Hispanidad y Regeneración de la Raza. Madrid: Editorial Española.
Varas, C. G. & Leiva, M. I. (2012). “Managing Commingled Remains from Mass Graves: Considerations, Implications and Recommendations from a Human Rights Case in Chile,” Forensic Science International, 219(1), 1924.
Varney, H. & Sarkin, J. (1997). “Failing to Pierce the Hit Squad Veil: An Analysis of the Malan Trial,” South African Journal of Criminal Justice, 10, 141161.
Verbitsky, H. (2005). Confessions of an Argentine Dirty Warrior: A Firsthand Account of Atrocity. New York: The New Press.
Vibhute, K. (2008). “The 2007 International Convention against Enforced Disappearance: Some Reflections,” Mizan Law Review, 2(2), 281310.
Vinjamuri, L. (2010). “Deterrence, Democracy, and the Pursuit of International Justice,” Ethics & International Affairs, 24(2), 191211.
Vinjamuri, L. & Snyder, J. (2004). “Advocacy and Scholarship in the Study of International War Crime Tribunals and Transitional Justice,” Annual Review of Political Science, 7, 345362.
Wagner, S. (2008). To Know Where He Lies: DNA Technology and the Search for Srebrenica’s Missing. Oakland: University of California Press.
Wagner, S. & Kešetović, R. (2016). “Absent Bodies, Absent Knowledge: Forensic Work of Identifying Srebrenica’s Missing and the Social Experiences of Families,” Missing Persons: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on the Disappeared. Congram, D. (Ed.), Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press, pp. 4260.
Walsh, F. (2007). “Traumatic Loss and Major Disasters: Strengthening Family and Community Resilience,” Family Process, 46(2), 207227.
Wiebelhaus-Brahm, E. (2010). Truth Commissions and Transitional Societies. The Impact on Human Rights and Democracy. New York: Routledge.
Wierda, M., Nassar, H. & Maalouf, L. (2007). “Early Reflections on Local Perceptions, Legitimacy and Legacy of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon,” Journal of International Criminal Justice, 5, 10651081.
Wilde, A. (1999). “Irruptions of Memory: Expressive Politics in Chile’s Transition to Democracy,” Journal of Latin American Studies, 31, 473500.
Wilson, R. (2001). The Politics of Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa: Legitimizing the Post-Apartheid State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wood, R. M. & Mark, G. (2010). “The Political Terror Scale (PTS): A Re-introduction and a Comparison to CIRI,” Human Rights Quarterly, 32(2), 367400.
Yakinthou, C. (2008). “The Quiet Deflation of Den Xehno? Changes in the Greek–Cypriot Communal Narrative on the Missing Persons in Cyprus,” Cyprus Review, 20(1), 1533.
Yakinthou, C. (2015). “Living with the Shadows of the Past the Impact of Disappearance on Wives of the Missing in Lebanon,” International Center for Transitional Justice, March 2015.
Young, M. (2000). “The Sneer of Memory: Lebanon’s Disappeared and Postwar Culture,” Middle East Report, 217, 4245.
Young, D. (2014). “Jean McConville Murder Arrest Based on Boston Tape,” Irish Independent, March 22, 2014, also available at: (last accessed: November 28, 2016).
Zalaquett, J. (1991). “Balancing Ethical Imperatives and Political Constraints: The Dilemma of New Democracies Confronting Past Human Rights Violations,” Hastings Law Journal, 43, 14251438.
Zalaquett, J. (1990). “Confronting Human Rights Violations Committed by Former Governments: Applicable Principles and Political Constraints,” Hamline Law. Review, 13, 623.
Zanocco, G. (2002). “ ‘Concealed’ Report Emerges on Victims’ Remains,” Inter-Press Service, August 22, 2002.