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Gregorian Chant
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Book description

What is Gregorian chant, and where does it come from? What purpose does it serve, and how did it take on the form and features which make it instantly recognizable? Designed to guide students through this key topic, this book answers these questions and many more. David Hiley describes the church services in which chant is performed, takes the reader through the church year, explains what Latin texts were used, and, taking Worcester Cathedral as an example, describes the buildings in which it was sung. The history of chant is traced from its beginnings in the early centuries of Christianity, through the Middle Ages, the revisions in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and the restoration in the nineteenth and twentieth. Using numerous music examples, the book shows how chants are made and how they were notated. An indispensable guide for all those interested in the fascinating world of Gregorian chant.


'The clarity of prose and organization are to be emulated and Hiley's welcoming style allows the reader to feel at home with some of the most challenging concepts in musicology … Maintaining the highest standards of both scholarship and writing, it is easy to imagine this book's becoming an indispensable classic for general readers.'

James Vincent Maiello Source: Notes: Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association

‘… comprehensive, written in a deliberately engaging and accessible manner, and invokes the typical twentieth-century priorities, such as the distinction between 'sacred' and 'secular', 'The Church' viewed as a more or less monolithic entity, the 'evolution' of monastic groups, 'forms' and 'styles', and the notion of 'repertory'.’

Nancy van Deusen Source: Studies in Medieval and Renaissance Teaching

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Arlt, Wulf, and Rankin, Susan, ed., Stiftsbibliothek Sankt Gallen. Codices 484 & 381: I Kommentar; II Codex Sangallensis 484; III Codex Sangallensis 381 (Winterthur: Amadeus, 1996)
Das Graduale von Santa Cecilia in Trastevere (Cod. Bodmer 74), ed. Lütolf, Max, 2 vols. (Cologny-Geneva: Fondation Martin Bodmer, 1987)
Hildegard von Bingen, Symphonia harmoniae caelestium revelationum. Dendermonde, St.-Pieters & Paulusabdij, Ms. Cod. 9, ed. Poucke, Peter, Facsimile Series I/A.8 (Peer: Alamire, 1991); Hildegard von Bingen. Lieder. Faksimile. Riesencodex (Hs. 2) der Hessischen Landesbibliothek Wiesbaden fol. 466–481v, ed. Lorenz Welker, commentary by Michael Klaper (Wiesbaden: Reichert, 1998)
Paléographie musicale: Les principaux manuscrits de chant grégorien, ambrosien, mozarabe, gallican [premier série, deuxième série] (Solesmes: Abbaye-Saint-Pierre, vol. 1 of Paléographie musicale (Solesmes), facsimile of MS St Gall 339–; vols. I/18–20 Berne: Lang, 1969–83)
I/1 (Solesmes, 1889) – Le Codex 339 de la Bibliothèque de Saint-Gall (Xe siècle): Antiphonale missarum sancti Gregorii
I/2 (Solesmes, 1891) – Le Répons-graduel Justus ut palma, réproduit en fac-similé d'après plus de deux cents antiphonaires manuscrits du IXe au XVIIe siècle
I/3 (Solesmes, 1892) – Le Répons-graduel Justus ut palma: Deuxième partie
I/4 (Solesmes, 1894) – Le Codex 121 de la Bibliothèque d'Einsiedeln (IXe–XIe siècle): Antiphonale missarum sancti Gregorii
I/5 (Solesmes, 1896) – Antiphonarium Ambrosianum du Musée Britannique (XIIe siècle), Codex Additional 34209
I/6 (Solesmes, 1900) – Antiphonarium Ambrosianum du Musée Britannique (XIIe siècle), Codex Additional 34209: Transcription
I/7 (Solesmes, 1901) – Antiphonarium tonale missarum, XIe siècle: Codex H. 159 de la Bibliothèque de l'École de Médecine de Montpellier
I/8 (Solesmes, 1901–5) – Antiphonarium tonale missarum, XIe siècle: Codex H. 159 de la Bibliothèque de l'École de Médicine de Montpellier. Phototypies
I/9 (Solesmes, 1906) – Antiphonaire monastique, XIIe siècle: Codex 601 de la Bibliothèque Capitulaire de Lucques
I/10 (Solesmes, 1909) – Antiphonale missarum sancti Gregorii, IXe–Xe siècle: Codex 239 de la Bibliothèque de Laon
I/11 (Solesmes, 1912) – Antiphonale missarum sancti Gregorii, Xe siècle: Codex 47 de la Bibliothèque de Chartres
I/12 (Solesmes, 1922) – Antiphonaire monastique, XIIIe siècle: Codex F. 160 de la Bibliothèque de la Cathédrale de Worcester
I/13 (Solesmes, 1925) – Le Codex 903 de la Bibliothèque Nationale de Paris (XIe siècle): Graduel de Saint-Yrieix
I/14 (Solesmes, 1931) – Le Codex 10673 de la Bibliothèque Vaticane fonds latin (XIe siècle): Graduel Bénéventain
I/15 (Solesmes, 1937–57) – Le Codex VI. 34 de la Bibliothèque Capitulaire de Bénévent (XIe–XIIe siècle): Graduel de Bénévent avec prosaire et tropaire
I/16 (Solesmes, 1955) – Le Manuscrit du Mont-Renaud, Xe siècle: Graduel et antiphonaire de Noyon
I/17 (Solesmes, 1958) – Fragments des manuscrits de Chartres, réproduction phototypique: Présentation par le Chanoine Yves Delaporte
I/18 (Berne, 1969) – Le Codex 123 de la Bibliothèque Angelica de Rome (XIe siècle): Graduel et tropaire de Bologne
I/19 (Berne, 1974) – Le Manuscrit 807, Universitätsbibliothek Graz (XIIe siècle): Graduel de Klosterneuburg
I/20 (Berne, 1983) – Le Manuscrit VI-33, Archivio Arcivescovile Benevento: Missel de Bénévent (début du XIe siècle)
I/21 (Solesmes, 1992) – Thomas Forrest Kelly: Les témoins manuscrits du chant Bénéventain
II/1 (Solesmes, 1900) – Antiphonaire de l'office monastique transcrit par Hartker: MSS. Saint-Gall 390–391 (980–1011)
II/2 (Solesmes, 1924) – Cantatorium, IXe siècle: N° 359 de la Bibliothèque de Saint-Gall
Salisbury (Sarum) chant books in facsimile
Antiphonale Sarisburiense: A Reproduction in Facsimile of a Manuscript of the Thirteenth Century, ed. Frere, Walter Howard (London: Plainsong & Mediaeval Music Society, 1901–24)
Graduale Sarisburiense: A Reproduction in Facsimile of a Manuscript of the Thirteenth Century, with a Dissertation and Historical Index Illustrating its Development from the Gregorian Antiphonale missarum, ed. Frere, Walter Howard (London: Quaritch,1894)
Processionale ad usum Sarum (London: Richard Pynson, 1502) (facsimile, Clarabricken: Boethius, 1980)
York chant books in facsimile
Lambeth Palace Sion College MS. L1. The Noted Breviary of York (Olim Sion College ms Arc.L.40.2/L.1), ed. Hughes, Andrew (Ottawa: Institute of Mediaeval Music, 2000)
Oxford Bodleian Library MS. Lat. liturg. b. 5, ed. Hiley, David (Ottawa: Institute of Mediaeval Music, 1995)
Oxford, Bodleian Library MS. e Mus. 126 (The York Processional), ed. Hiley, David (Ottawa: Institute of Mediaeval Music, 1998)
Editions of music
Vatican and Solesmes books for use in church
Antiphonale monasticum pro diurnis horis (Tournai: Desclée, 1934)
Antiphonale sacrosanctae Romanae ecclesiae (Rome: Typis Polyglottis Vaticanis, 1912)
Graduale sacrosanctae Romanae ecclesiae (Rome: Desclée, Graduale Romanum with restored chant)
Graduale Romanum…restitutum et editum Pauli VI (Solesmes: Abbaye Saint-Pierre, 1974)
Graduale triplex, ed. Billecocq, Marie-Claire and Fischer, Rupert (Solesmes: Abbaye Saint-Pierre, 1979)
Liber antiphonarius pro diurnis horis, I: De tempore [Antiphonale monasticum I] (Solesmes: Abbaye Saint-Pierre, 2005)
Liber hymnarius cum invitatoriis & aliquibus responsoriis (Solesmes: Abbaye Saint-Pierre, 1983)
Liber responsorialis pro festis I. classis et communi sanctorum juxta ritum monasticum (Solesmes: Abbaye Saint-Pierre, 1894)
Liber usualis missae et officii pro dominicis et festis I. vel II. classis (Tournai: Declée, 1921)
Processionale monasticum ad usum congregationis gallicae ordinis Sancti Benedicti (Solesmes: Abbaye Saint-Pierre, 1893)
Psalterium monasticum (Solesmes: Abbaye Saint-Pierre, 1981)
Other editions
Arlt, Wulf, Ein Festoffizium des Mittelalters aus Beauvais in seiner liturgischen und musikalischen Bedeutung, 2 vols. (Cologne: Arno Volk, 1970)
Bailey, Terence, The Ambrosian Alleluias (Englefield Green: Plainsong & Mediaeval Music Society, 1983)
Bailey, Terence, The Ambrosian Cantus (Ottawa: Institute of Mediaeval Music, 1987)
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Bailey, Terence, and Merkley, Paul, The Antiphons of the Ambrosian Office (Ottawa: Institute of Mediaeval Music, 1989)
Beneventanum Troporum Corpus, ed. Boe, John and Planchart, Alejandro, Recent Researches in the Music of the Middle Ages and Early Renaissance 16–26 (Madison: A-R Editions, 1989–96)
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Hansen, Finn Egeland, H 159 Montpellier (Copenhagen: Dan Fog, 1974)
Hildegard von Bingen. Lieder, ed. Barth, Pudentiana, Ritscher, Immaculata and Schmidt-Görg, Joseph (Salzburg: O. Müller, 1969); Symphonia armonie celestium revelationum, ed. Marianne Richert Pfau, 8 vols. (Bryn Mawr: Hildegard Pub. Co., 1997–8)
Monumenta monodica medii aevi (Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1956–) – includes the following editions:
MMMA 1 (1956): Hymnen I. Die mittelalterlichen Hymnenmelodien des Abendlandes, ed. Stäblein, Bruno, reprint 1995 with extra appendix
MMMA 2 (1970): Bruno Stäblein (introduction) and Margareta Landwehr-Melnicki (edition), Die Gesänge des altrömischen Graduale Vat. lat. 5319
MMMA 3 (1970): Introitus-Tropen I. Das Repertoire der südfranzösische Tropare des 10. und 11. Jahrhunderts, ed. Weiss, Günther
MMMA 5 (1999): Antiphonen, ed. Dobszay, László and Szendrei, Janka
MMMA 7 (1968): Alleluia-Melodien I, bis 1100, ed. Schlager, Karlheinz
MMMA 8 (1987): Alleluia-Melodien II, ab 1100, ed. Schlager, Karlheinz
MMMA 13 (2001): Das Repertoire der normanno-sizilischen Tropare I: Die Sequenzen, ed. Hiley, David
MMMA 19 (2006): Melodien zum Ite missa est und ihre Tropen, ed. Eifrig, William F. and Pfisterer, Andreas
MMMA Subsidia 1 (1995): Andreas, HaugTroparia tardiva. Repertorium später Tropenquellen aus dem deutschsprachigen Raum
Nocturnale Romanum: Antiphonale Sacrosancte Romanae Ecclesiae pro nocturnis horis. Editio princeps, ed. Sandhofe, Holger Peter (Heidelberg: Hartker, 2002)
Andrieu, Michel, Les Ordines Romani du haut moyen âge, 5 vols. (Louvain: Spicilegium Sacrum Lovaniense, 1931–61)
Apel, Willi, Gregorian Chant (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1958)
Atkinson, Charles M., ‘De Accentibus Toni Oritur Nota Quae Dicitur Neuma: Prosodic Accents, the Accent Theory, and the Paleofrankish Script’, in Essays on Medieval Music in Honor of David G. Hughes, ed. Boone, Graeme M. (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1995), 17–42
Atkinson, Charles M., The Critical Nexus: Tone-System, Mode, and Notation in Early Medieval Music (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009)
Bailey, Terence, The Processions of Sarum and the Western Church (Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1971)
Bailey, Terence, Commemoratio brevis de tonis et psalmis modulandis: Introduction, Critical Edition, Translation (Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 1979)
Bailey, Terence, ‘Ambrosian Chant’, NG2
Baker, Nigel, and Holt, Richard, Urban Growth and the Medieval Church: Gloucester and Worcester (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004)
Bergeron, Katherine, Decadent Enchantments: The Revival of Gregorian Chant at Solesmes (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998)
Bower, Calvin M., ‘The Transmission of Ancient Music Theory into the Middle Ages’, in The Cambridge History of Western Music Theory, ed. Christensen, Thomas(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), 136–67
Bradshaw, Paul, Early Christian Worship: A Basic Introduction to Ideas and Practice (London: SPCK, 1996)
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Cardine, Eugène, Gregorian Semiology (Solesmes: Abbaye Saint-Pierre, 1982) [trans. from the original Italian edn of 1968]
Carruthers, Mary, A Book of Memory (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990)
Cohen, David E., ‘Notes, Scales, and Modes in the Earlier Middle Ages’, in The Cambridge History of Western Music Theory, ed. Christensen, Thomas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), 307–63
Combe, Pierre, The Restoration of Gregorian Chant: Solesmes and the Vatican Edition (Washington: Catholic University of America, 2003) [trans. from the original French edn of 1969]
Corbin, Solange, Die Neumen, Palaeographie der Musik 1/3 (Cologne: Arno Volk, 1977)
Crocker, Richard L., The Early Medieval Sequence (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977)
Crocker, Richard L., An Introduction to Gregorian Chant (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000)
Crocker, Richard L., and Hiley, David, eds., The Early Middle Ages to 1300, New Oxford History of Music 2 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989)
The Cambridge History of Western Music Theory, ed. Christensen, Thomas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002)
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Engberg, Gudrun, ‘Ekphonetic Notation’, NG2
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Grier, James, The Musical World of a Medieval Monk. Adémar de Chabannes in Eleventh-century Aquitaine (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006)
Hannick, Christian, and Dolidze, Dali, ‘Georgia, II. Orthodox Church Music’, NG2
Harper, John, The Forms and Orders of Western Liturgy from the Tenth to the Eighteenth Century: A Historical Introduction and Guide for Students and Musicians (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991)
Harrison, Frank Ll., Music in Medieval Britain (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1958; 2nd edn 1963)
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Hesbert, René-Jean, Antiphonale missarum sextuplex (Brussels: Vromant, 1935; rpt. Rome: Herder, 1967)
Hesbert, René-Jean, Corpus antiphonalium officii, 6 vols. (Rome: Herder, 1963–79)
Hiley, David, Western Plainchant: A Handbook (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993)
Hornby, Emma, Gregorian and Old Roman Eighth-Mode Tracts. A Case Study in the Transmission of Western Chant (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2002)
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Huglo, Michel, Les Livres de chant liturgique, Typologie des sources du Moyen Âge occidental 52 (Turnhout: Brepols, 1988)
Huglo, Michel, Les Manuscrits du Processional, Répertoire internationale des sources musicales B/XIV/1–2 (Munich: Henle, 1999 and 2004)
Huglo, Michel, ‘Gallican Chant’, NG2
Huglo, Michel, and Cullin, Olivier, ‘Gallikanischer Gesang’, MGG2
Jeffery, Peter, ‘Jerusalem and Rome (and Constantinople): The Musical Heritage of Two Great Cities in the Formation of the Medieval Chant Traditions’, in International Musicological Society Study Group Cantus Planus. Papers Read at the Fourth Meeting, Pécs, Hungary, 3–8 September 1990, ed. Dobszay, László, Papp, Ágnes and Sebő, Ferenc (Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Musicology, 1992), 163–74
Jeffery, Peter, ‘Oktoechos’, NG2
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Karp, Theodore, An Introduction to the Post-Tridentine Mass Proper, Part I: Text, Part II: Music Examples; CD: Selected Post-Tridentine Chants, performed by the Schola Antiqua of Chicago, directed by Calvin Bower, Musicological Studies and Documents 54 (Middleton: American Institute of Musicology, 2005)
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Levy, Kenneth, and Troelsgård, Christian, ‘Byzantine Rite, Music of the’, NG2
Levy, Kenneth, and Troelsgård, Christian, ‘Divine Liturgy (Byzantine)’, NG2
Maloy, Rebecca, Inside the Offertory (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2009)
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Robertson-Wilson, Marian, ‘Coptic Church Music’, NG2
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Rankin, Susan K., ‘Carolingian Music’, in Carolingian Culture: Emulation and Innovation, ed. McKitterick, Rosamund (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), 274–316
Rankin, Susan K., The Winchester Troper, Early English Church Music 50 (London: Stainer and Bell, 2007)
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Shelemay, Kay Kaufman, ‘Ethiopia, II. Orthodox Church Music’, NG2
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