Skip to main content
×
×
Home
The Historical Roots of Corruption

Book description

Why does corruption persist over long periods of time? Why is it so difficult to eliminate? Suggesting that corruption is deeply rooted in the underlying social and historical political structures of a country, Uslaner observes that there is a powerful statistical relationship between levels of mass education in 1870 and corruption levels in 2010 across 78 countries. He argues that an early introduction of universal education is shown to be linked to levels of economic equality and to efforts to increase state capacity. Societies with more equal education gave citizens more opportunities and power for opposing corruption, whilst the need for increased state capacity was a strong motivation for the introduction of universal education in many countries. Evidence for this argument is presented from statistical models, case studies from Northern and Southern Europe, Asia, Africa, Latin America, the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, as well as a discussions of how some countries escaped the 'trap' of corruption.

Reviews

‘In advancing his pioneering writing on corruption, Eric M. Uslaner shows how legacies matter, especially the bequests of education.  Combining a comparative historical analysis of schooling at all levels in the late nineteenth century with an appraisal of today's levels of corruption, his innovative book elegantly identifies state and market mechanisms that connect then to now, and pinpoints pathways out of historical traps.'

Ira I. Katznelson - Ruggles Professor of Political Science and History, Columbia University

‘Eric M. Uslaner's account of corruption belongs to the most thoughtful in theory, the most convincing in eloquence and the most conclusive in terms of the breadth and depth of its empirical evidence. Excelling on so many different levels in the key domain of ‘good governance' is a unique achievement.'

Christian Welzel - Leuphana Universität Lüneburg, Germany

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send
    ×

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
×
Abad, Leticia Arroyo and Lindert, Peter H.. 2015. “Fiscal Redistribution in Latin America since the Nineteenth Century.” Unpublished paper, University of California, Davis.
Acemoglu, Daron, Johnson, Simon, and Robinson, James A.. 2001. “The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Empirical Investigation,” American Economic Review, 91:13691401.
Acemoglu, Daron, Johnson, Simon, and Robinson, James A.. 2002. “Reversal of Fortune: Geography and Institutions in the Making of the Modern World Income Distribution,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 117:12311294.
Acemoglu, Daron, Johnson, Simon, and Robinson, James A.. 2003. “An African Success Story: Botswana’ in Rodrik, Dani (ed.), In Search of Prosperity: Analytical Narratives on Economic Growth. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Acemoglu, Daron and Robinson, James A.. 2012. Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity and Poverty. New York: Crown Business.
Acharya, Poromesh. 1995. “Bengali ‘Bhadralok’ and Educational Development in 19th Century Bengal,” Economic and Political Weekly (April 1):670673, available at www.jstor.org/stable/4402564.
Akcomak, I., Semih, Dinand Webbink and Weel, Bas ter. 2015. “Why Did the Netherlands Develop So Early? The Legacy of the Brethren of the Common Life,” Economic Journal, DOI: 10.1111.
Adams, Don. 1960. “Problems of Reconstruction in Korean Education,” Comparative Education Review, 3:2732.
Adserà, Alícia, Boix, Carles, and Payne, Mark. 2003. “Are You Being Served? Political Accountability and Quality of Government,” The Journal of Law, Economics, & Organization 19:445490.
Aghion, Phillipe, Persson, Torsten, and Rouzet, Dorothee. 2012. “Education and Military Rivalry.” Unpublished paper, Harvard University available at http://scholar.harvard.edu/aghion/publications/education-and-military-rivalry.
Aissa, Djamila and Djfari, Yasmina. 2011. “The Role of Colonial Education in Retrospect: The Gold Coast Case in the Era of Imperialism,” at http://research.uni-leipzig.de/eniugh/congress/fileadmin/eniugh2011/dokumente/Mechanisms-of-British-Imperial-Aissat_and_Djafri-2011-04-15.pdf.
Al Rashedi, Major Musallam M. 2004–2005. The UAE National Security Strategy in the 21st Century, Future Warfare Paper. United States Marine Corps School of Advance Warfighting, Marine Corps University, at www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a508432.pdf.
Altbach, Philip G. and Umakoshi, Toru. 2004. Asian Universities: Historical Perspectives and Contemporary Challenges. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Anderson, Ronald S. 1975. Education in Japan: A Century of Modern Development. Washington: US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, available at www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/recordDetail?accno=ED131057.
Angeles, Luis and Neanidis, Kyriakos C.. 2014. “The Persistent Effect of Colonialism on Corruption,” Economica, doi: 10.1111/ecca.12123.
Ansell, Ben, and Lindvall, Johannes. 2013. “The Political Origins of Primary Education Systems,” American Political Science Review, 107:505522.
Anuik, Jonathan. n.d. “Forming Civilization at Red River: 19th-Century Missionary Education of Metis and First Nations Children,” at http://iportal.usask.ca/docs/Prairie%20Forum/Forming%20Civilization%20at%20Red%20River%20(v31no1_2006_pg1-15).pdf.
Aristotle, . 1962. The Politics of Aristotle. Edited and translated by Barker, Ernest. New York: Oxford University Press.
Arocena, Rodrigo and Sutz, Judith. 2008. “Uruguay: Higher Education, National System of Innovation and Economic Development in a Small Peripheral Country.” Lund University Research Policy Institute, available at www.fpi.lu.se/_media/en/research/UniDev_DP_Uruguay.pdf.
Arriba, Ana and Moreno, Luis. 2002. “Spain: Poverty, Social Exclusion and ‘Safety Nets’,” European Project FIPOSC (‘Fighting Poverty and Social Exclusion in Southern Europe: Dilemmas of Organization and Implementation’) Programme ‘Improving the Human Research Potential and Socio-economic Knowledge Base’, Research Directorate General, European Commission, HPSE-CT-2001–60020, at http://digital.csic.es/bitstream/10261/1508/1/dt-0210.pdf.
Asagba, Joseph O. 2005. The Untold Story of a Nigerian Royal Family: The Urhorobo Ruling Clan of Okpe Kingdom 1500–2000. Lincoln, NE: Iuniverse, Inc.
Balch, Thomas Willing. 1909. “French Colonization in North Africa,” American Political Science Review, 3:539551.
Baldwin, Kate. 2015. “Missionaries and Democracy: Inferences about Mechanisms from a WWI-Era Shock.” Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, San Francisco, September 3–6.
Bandle, Oskar, Elmevik, Lennart, and Widmark, Gun. 2002. The Nordic Languages: An International Handbook of the History of the North Germanic Languages. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
Baten, Joerg and van Zanden, Jan Luiten. 2008. “Book Production and the Onset of Modern Economic Growth,” Journal of Economic Growth, 13:217235.
Bauer, Michal, Blattman, Christopher, Chytilová, Julie, Henrich, Joseph, Miguel, Edward, and Mitts, Tamar. 2016. “Can War Foster Cooperation?” National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper 22312, at www.nber.org/papers/w22312.
Bechert, Insa, and Quandt, Markus. 2009. ISSP Data Report: Attitudes towards the Role of Government. Bonn: GESIS. Liebniz-Institute für Sozialwissenschaften. Working Paper 2009:2.
Becker, Sascha O. and Woessmann, Ludger. 2009. “Was Weber Wrong? A Human Capital Theory of Protestant Economic History,”Quarterly Journal of Economics, 124:531596.
Benavot, Aaron and Riddle, Phyllis. 1988. “The Expansion of Primary Education, 1870–1940: Trends and Issues,” Sociology of Education, 61:191210.
Benedictus, Brian. 2014. “Bhutan and the Great Power Tussle,” The Diplomat, at http://thediplomat.com/2014/08/bhutan-and-the-great-power-tussle/.
Bennich-Björkman, Li. n.d. State Formation and Democratic Consolidation in the Baltic States: a Political Perspective on the EU Membership, at www.snee.org/filer/papers/25.pdf.
Bennich-Björkman, Li and Likiæ-Brboriæ, Branka. 2012. “Successful But Different: Deliberative Identity and the Consensus-Driven Transition to Capitalism in Estonia and Slovenia,” Journal of Baltic Studies, 43:4773, DOI: 10.1080/01629778.2011.639148.
Bhutan Ministry of Education. 2012. “National Education Policy,” at www.gnhc.gov.bt/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/NEP-2012-21st-March.pdf.
Bledsoe, Caroline. 1992. “The Cultural Transformation of Western Education in Sierra Leone,” Africa: Journal of the International African Institute, 62:182202.
Boix, Carles. 2008. “Civil Wars and Guerrilla Warfare in the Contemporary World: Toward a Joint Theory of Motivations and Opportunities.” In Kalyvas, Stathis, Shapiro, Ian and Masoud, Tarek, eds.., Order, Conflict and Violence. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Boli, John. 1989. New Citizens for a New Society: The Institutional Origins of Mass Schooling in Sweden. Oxford: Pergamon.
Bologna, Jamie. 2015. “Executive Influence over Reported Corruption Convictions: Are Conviction Rates a Biased Measure of State Level Corruption?” at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2662208.
Boppart, Timo, Falkinger, Josef and Grossmann, Volker. 2014. “Protestantism and Education: Reading (The Bible) and Other Skills,” Economic Inquiry, 52:874895.
Booth, Michael. 2014. The Almost Nearly Perfect People. New York: Picador.
Borgen Project, n.d. “Education in Brunei,” at http://borgenproject.org/education-brunei/.
Botero, Juan, Ponce, Alejandro, and Shleifer, Andrei. 2012. “Education and the Quality of Government.” NBER Working Paper, available at www/nber.org/papers/w18119.
Botticini, Maristella and Eckstein, Zvi. 2005. “Jewish Occupational Selection: Education, Restrictions, or Minorities?,” Journal of Economic History, 65:127.
Bowles, Samuel and Gintis, Herbert. 1976. Schooling in Capitalist America. New York: Basic Books.
Boylan, Richard T. and Long, Cheryl X.. 2003. “Measuring Public Corruption in the American States: A Survey of State House Reporters,” State Politics & Policy Quarterly, 3:420438.
Bragues, George. 2012. “Portugal's Plight: The Role of Social Democracy,” The Independent Review, 16:325349, at www.independent.org/pdf/tir/tir_16_03_1_bragues.pdf.
Browne, Matthew. 2014. “Italy's New ‘Bulldozer’ Prime Minister,” at www.americanprogress.org/issues/security/report/2014/03/26/86400/italys-new-bulldozer-prime-minister/ (March 26).
Brunetti, Aymo and Weder, Beatrice, 2003. “A Free Press is Bad for Corruption,” Journal of Public Economics, 87:18011829.
Buenker, John D. 1998. The History of Wisconsin: The Progressive Era, 1893–1914. Volume 4. Madison: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, at http://ir.uiowa.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=10328&context=annals-of-iowa.
Bulgarian Properties. 2008. “History of Bulgarian Education,” available at http://bulgarianproperties.info/history-of-bulgarian-education/.
Buquet, Daniel and Piñeiro, Rafael. 2014. “Corruption and Government Improvement in Uruguay.” Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Washington, DC, at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2479528.
Campbell, Craig. 2014. “Free, Compulsory and Secular Education Acts Australia, 1850–1910,” Dictionary of Educational History in Australia and New Zealand (DEHANZ), February 28. Available http://dehanz.net.auat http://dehanz.net.au/entries/free-compulsory-secular-education-acts/.
Campos, Jose Edgardo and Root, Hilton L.. 1996. The Key to the Asian Miracle: Making Shared Growth Credible. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.
Carstesen, Kai and Gundlach, Erich. 2006. “The Primacy of Institutions Reconsidered: Direct Income Effects of Malaria Prevalence,” World Bank Economic Review, 20:309333.
Canadian Encyclopedia. n.d. a. “History of Education,” at www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/history-of-education/.
Canadian Encyclopedia. n.d. b. “Property Law,” at www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/property-law/.
Charron, Nicholas. 2015. “Do Corruption Measures Have a Perception Problem? Assessing the Relationship Between Experiences and Perceptions of Corruption among Citizens and Experts,” European Political Science Review, DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1755773914000447.
Charron, Nicholas, Lapuente, Victor, and Rothstein, Bo. 2013. Quality of Government and Corruption from a European Perspective. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
Charton, Albert. 1970. “The Social Function of Education in French West Africa.” in Mumford, W. Bryant in consultation with Orde-Brown, Major G. St. J., eds, Africans Learn to Be French. New York: Negro Universities Press.
Chaudhary, Latika. 2007. “An Economic History of Education in Colonial India,” at http://economics.ucr.edu/seminars_colloquia/2007/political_economy_development/LatikaChaudhary5-6-07.pdf.
Chaudhary, Latika. 2012. “Chapter 10: Caste, Colonialism and Schooling: Education in British India,” at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2087140.
Chavez, Rebecca Bill. 2003. “The Construction of the Rule of Law in Argentina: A Tale of Two Provinces,” Comparative Politics, 35:417437.
Cherkasov, Aleksander. 2011. “All Russian Primary Education (1894–1917): Developmental Milestones,” Social Evolution and History, 10:138149, at www.socionauki.ru/journal/files/seh/2011_2/138-149.pdf.
Cinnirella, Francesco and Hornung, Erik. 2011. “Landownership Concentration and the Expansion of Education,” at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1939848.
Cizakca, Murat. n.d. “Economic Dimensions of Foundations in the Ottoman Era,” in Aydin, Davut, Carkoglu, Ali, Cizakca, Murat, and Goksen, Afatos, Philanthropy in Turkey: Citizens, Foundations, and the Pursuit of Social Justice. Istanbul: TUSEV (Third Sector Foundation of Turkey), at www.tusev.org.tr/usrfiles/files/economic_dimensions_of_foundations_in_the_ottoman_era.pdf.
Clair, Matthew, Henry, Peter Blair, and Hlatshwayo, Sandile. 2013. “Two Tales of Entrepreneurship: Barbados, Jamaica, and the 1973 Oil Price Shock,” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 157:3257, at https://amphilsoc.org/sites/default/files/proceedings/1570103.pdf.
Clark, Martin. 1984. Modern Italy 1971–1982. London: Longman.
Cochrane, Paul. 2016. “Revealed: Secret Details of Turkey's New Military Pact with Qatar,” at www.middleeasteye.net/news/turkey-qatar-military-agreement-940298365.
Comin, Diego, Easterly, William, and Gong, Erick. 2010. “Was the Wealth of Nations Determined in 1000 BC?,” American Ecnomic Journal: Macroeconomics, 2:6597.
Commager, Henry Steele. 1950. The American Mind. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Coppedge, Michael, Gerring, John, Lindberg, Staffan I., Skaaning, Svend-Erik, Teorell, Jan, Altman, David, Bernhard, Michael, Fish, M. Steven, Glynn, Adam, Hicken, Allen, Knutsen, Carl Henrik, Marquardt, Kyle, McMann, Kelly, Miri, Farhad, Paxton, Pamela, Pemstein, Daniel, Staton, Jeffrey, Tzelgov, Eitan, Wang, Yi-ting, and Zimmerman, Brigitte. 2015. “V-Dem [Country-Year/Country-Date] Dataset v5.” Varieties of Democracy (V-Dem) Project, at www.v-dem.net/en/data/.
Cornwell, Elmer E. Jr. 1964. “Bosses, Machines, and Ethnic Groups,” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 353:2739.
Cremin, Lawrence A. 1976. Traditions of American Education. New York: Basic Books.
Cremin, Lawrence A. 1980. American Education: The National Experience 1783–1876. New York: Harper and Row.
Cruz, Cesi and Keefer, Philip. 2010. “Programmatic Political Parties and Public Sector Reform,” at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1642962.
Cumming, Alan and Cumming, Ian. 1977. “New Zealand's Education Act of 1877(1),” Paedagogica Historica, 17:305314.
Cummings, William K. 1980. Education and Equality in Japan. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Dahlström, Carl, Lindvall, Johannes, and Rothstein, Bo. 2013. “Corruption, Bureaucratic Failure and Social Policy Priorities.” Political Studies 61:523542.
Dahlström, Carl, Lapuente, Victor, and Teorell, Jan. 2012. “The Merit of Meritocratization: Politics, Bureaucracy, and the Institutional Deterrents of Corruption,” Political Research Quarterly xx(x):113.
Darden, Keith. 2013. Resisting Occupation: Mass Literacy and the Creation of Durable National Loyalties. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Davis, John A. 2015. “A Tale of Two Italys? The ‘Southern Question’ Past and Present.” In Jones, Erik and Pasquino, Gianfranco (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Italian Politics, Oxford Handbooks Online, DOI: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199669745.013.5.
Deininger, Klaus and Squire, Lyn. 1996. “A New Data Set: Measuring Economic Income Inequality,” World Bank Economic Review, 10:565592.
Della Porta, D. and Vannucci, A.. 1999. Corrupt Exchanges. New York: Aldine.
Dincer, Oguzhan and Johnston, Michael. 2015. “Measuring Illegal and Legal Corruption in American States: Some Results from the Edmond J. Safra Center for Ethics Corruption in America Survey,” Edmond J. Safra Working Papers, No. 58, at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2579300.
Di Scala, Spencer M. 2004. Italy: From Revolution to Republic 1700 to the Present. Boulder: Westview Press.
Dittmar, Jeremiah and Seabold, Skipper. 2015 “Media, Markets and Institutional Change: Evidence from the Protestant Reformation,” Centre for Economic Performance Discussion Paper 1367, at http://cep.lse.ac.uk/pubs/download/dp1367.pdf.
Dittmar, Jeremiah and Meisenzahl, Ralf R.. 2016. “State Capacity and Public Goods: Institutional Change, Human Capital and Growth in Early Modern Germany,” Centre for Economic Performance Discussion Paper 1418, at http://cep.lse.ac.uk/pubs/download/dp1418.pdf.
Dittmar, Jeremiah and Seabold, Skipper. 2015 “Media, Markets and Institutional Change: Evidence from the Protestant Reformation,” Centre for Economic Performance Discussion Paper 1367, at http://cep.lse.ac.uk/pubs/download/dp1367.pdf.
Domke, Joan. 2011. Education, Fascism, and the Catholic Church in Franco's Spain. Dissertations. Paper 104. http://ecommons.luc.edu/luc_diss/104, Loyola University of Chicago.
Donadio, Rachel and Alderman, Liz. 2012. “For Greece, Oligarchs Are Obstacle to Recovery,” New York Times (December 5): A6, A14 available at www.nytimes.com/2012/12/06/world/europe/oligarchs-play-a-role-in-greeces-economic-troubles.html?_r=0.
Dore, R.P. 1964. “Education: Japan.” In Ward, Robert E. and Rustow, Dankwart A., eds., Political Modernization in Japan and Turkey. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Dreier, Peter. 2012. “Why Has Milwaukee Forgotten Victor Berger?” (July 6) at www.huffingtonpost.com/peter-dreier/why-has-milwaukee-forgott_b_1491463.html.
Dutta, Indranil and Mishra, Ajit. 2013. “Does Inequality Foster Corruption?,” Journal of Public Economic Theory, 15:602619.
Easterlin, Richard A. 1981. “Why Isn't the Whole World Developed?,” Journal of Economic History, 41:119.
Easterly, William and Levine, Ross. 2012. “The European Origins of Economic Development,” at www.nyudri.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/European-Origins-Development-Nov2013.pdf.
Education, Annual Report of the United States Commissioner of Education; 1918–1956, U.S.
Office of Education, Biennial Survey of Education in the United States, Statistics of State School Systems, various issues; 1958–1996, U.S. Department of Education, Digest of Education Statistics 1997.
Education Bulgaria. ND, at http://countrystudies.us/bulgaria/30.htm.
Embassy of the United Arab Emirates, Cultural Division. n.d. “Education in UAE: K-12 Education,” at http://uaecd.org/k-12-education.
Engerman, Stanley L. and Sokoloff, Kenneth L.. 2012. Economic Development in the Americas Since 1500. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Engerman, Stanley L. and Sokoloff, Kenneth L.. “Factor Endowments, Inequality, and Paths of Development Among New World Economies,” National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 9259, at www.nber.org/papers/w9259.
Engerman, Stanley L. and Sokoloff, Kenneth L.. n.d. “The Long-Term Persistence of Inequality in the Americas Since European Colonization.” Unpublished paper.
Espuelas, Sergio. 2014. “The Inequality Trap. A Comparative Analysis of Social Spending Between 1880 and 1930,” Economic History Review, doi: 10.1111/1468–0289.12062.
Estonia Public Broadcasting. 2013. “Estonia Scores High Marks in PISA Education Tests,” December 3, at http://news.err.ee/v/news/politics/education/ab06c831-b8b0-4e00-8c38-48a9f1a806ba/estonia-scores-high-marks-in-pisa-education-tests.
Evans, Sterling. 1999. The Green Republic: A Conservation History of Costa Rica. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Färdigh, Mathias A. 2013. What's the use of a free media? the role of media in curbing corruption and promoting quality of government (Diss). Göteborg: Department of Journalism Media and Communication University of Gothenburg.
Fehr, Ernst and Fischbacher, Urs. 2005. “The Economics of Strong Reciprocity.” Pp. 151193 in Moral Sentiments and Material Interests: The Foundations for Cooperation in Economic Life, edited by Gintis, H., Bowles, S., Boyd, R., and Fehr, E.. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Fenton, John H. 1966. Midwest Politics. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.
Ferguson, Niall. 2011. Civilization: The West and the Rest. London: Allen Lane.
Fernandez, Michael and Seng, Loh Kah. 2008. “The Left-Wing Trade Unions in Singapore, 1945–1970.” In Barr, Michael D. and Trocki, Carl A., eds., Paths Not Taken: Political Pluralism in Post-War Singapore. Singapore: NUS Press.
Ferris, Lindsay. 2014. “Snap Shot Georgia: From Closed-door Corruption to Open Data,” at https://sunlightfoundation.com/blog/2014/09/03/snap-shot-georgia-from-closed-door-corruption-to-open-data/.
Fisman, Raymond and Gatti, Roberta 2002. “Decentralization and Corruption: Evidence Across Countries,” Journal of Public Economics, 83:325345. Washington, DC: The World Bank.
Fitchen, Edward D. 1974. “Primary Education in Colonial Cuba: Spanish Tool for Retaining ‘La Isla Siempre Leal?’”, Caribbean Studies, 14:105120.
Flecha (Garcia), Consuela. 2011. “Education in Spain: Close-up of Its History in the 20th Century,” Analytical Reports in International Education, 4:1742, at www.researchgate.net/publication/266890862_Education_in_Spain_Close-up_of_Its_History_in_the_20th_Century.
Flere, Sergej with Lakota, Adnreja Barle, Bezenšek, Jana, and Lavriè, Miran. 2004. “Educational Equity and Inequity in Slovenia: Country Analytical Report,” at www.oecd.org/education/school/38692842.pdf.
Foldvari, Péter and van Leeuwen, Bas, 2011. “Should Less Inequality in Education Lead to a More Equal Income Distribution?,” Education Economics, 19:537554.
Folk School Alliance. ND. “A Brief History of Folk Schools,” at www.peopleseducation.org/a-brief-history-of-folk-schools/.
Folke, Olle, Hirano, Shigeo, and Snyder, James M. Jr. 2011 “Patronage and Elections in U.S. States,” American Political Science Review. 105567105585.
Fragoudaki, A. 2015. Education and Social Reproduction in Post-War Greece, at www.athenssocialatlas.gr/en/article/postwareducation/.
Frankel, Jeffrey A. 2010. “The Natural Resource Curse: A Survey.” National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 15836, at www.nber.org/papers/w15836.pdf.
Frankema, Ewout. 2009. “The Expansion of Mass Education in Twentieth Century Latin America: A Global Comparative Perspective,” Revista de Historia Económica, 27:359396.
Frankema, Ewout. 2010. “The Colonial Roots of Land Inequality: Geography, Factor Endowments, or Institutions?” Economic History Review, 63:418451.
Frankema, Ewout. 2011. “Colonial Taxation and Government Spending in British Africa, 1880–1940: Maximizing Revenue or Minimizing Effort?,” Explorations in Economic History, 48:136149.
Frey, Frederick W. 1964. “Education: Turkey.” In Ward, Robert E. and Rustow, Dankwart A., eds., Political Modernization in Japan and Turkey. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Frisk Jensen, Mette. 2008. Korruption og embedsetik: Danske embedsmænds korruption i perioden 1800 til 1886 (Diss.). Aalborg: Aalborg Universitet.
Fukuyama, Francis. 2004. State-Building: Governance and World Order in the Twenty-First Century. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Gabriè, Ales. “The Education System in Slovenia in the 20th Century,” DR,16:723, at http://dk.fdv.uni-lj.si/dr/dr32-33gabric.PDF.
Galor, Oded, Moav, Omer, Vollrath, Dietrich. 2009. “Inequality in Landownership, the Emergence of Human-Capital Promoting Institutions, and the Great Divergence,” Review of Economic Studies (76):143179.
Gambetta, Diego. 1993. The Italian Mafia: The Business of Private Protection. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Gambetta, Diego. 2002. “Corruption: An Analytical Map.” In Kotkin, Stephen and Sajo, Andras, eds., Political Corruption in Transition: A Skeptic's Handbook. Budapest: CEU Press.
Garrouste, Christelle. 2010. “100 Years of Educational Reforms in Europe: A Contextual Database,” European Commission Joint Research Centre, at http://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/bitstream/JRC57357/reqno_jrc57357.pdf.
Gelman, Jorge. 2013. “Economic Inequalities in Nineteenth-Century Argentina,” Journal of European Economic History, 42:4886.
Gillard, Derek. 2011. “Education in England: A Brief History,” at http://www.educationengland.org.uk/history/.
Glaeser, Edward L. and Goldin, Claudia. 2006. “Corruption and Reform: Introduction.” In Glaeser, Edward L. and Goldin, Claudia, eds., Corruption and Reform: Lessons from America's Economic History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Glaeser, Edward, La Porta, Rafael, Lopez-De-Silanes, Florencio and Shleifer, Andrei. 2004. “Do Institutions Cause Growth?,” Journal of Economic Growth, 9:271303.
Glaeser, Edward, Ponzetto, Giacomo A.M., and Shleifer, Andrei. 2007. “Why Does Democracy Need Education?,” Journal of Economic Growth, 12:7799.
Glaeser, Edward L., Scheinkman, Jose, and Shleifer, Andrei. 2003. “The Injustice of Inequality,” Journal of Monetary Economics, 50:199222.
Glaeser, Edward L. and Ward, Bryce A.. 2006. “Myths and Realities of American Political Geography.” Harvard Institute of Economic Research Discussion Paper 2100 at http://post.economics.harvard.edu/hier/2006papers/2006list.html.
Go, Su and Lindert, Peter. 2010. “The Uneven Rise of American Public Schools to 1850,” Journal of Economic History, 70:126.
Göbel, Christian. 2015. “Anticorruption in Taiwan: Process Tracing Report,” at http://ancorage-net.org/content/documents/pdp07-01.pdf.
Goldin, Claudia. 2006. “School Enrollment Rates, by Sex and Race: 1850–1994.” In Carter, Susan B., Gartner, Scott Sigmund, Haines, Michael R, Olmstead, Alan L., Sutch, Richard, and Wright, Gavin, eds., Historical Statistics of the United States, Millennial Edition Online. New York: Cambridge University Press, at http://hsus.cambridge.org/HSUSWeb/toc/showChapter.do?id=Bc.
Goldin, Claudia and Katz, Lawrence F.. 1999. “Human Capital and Social Capital: The Rise of Secondary Schooling in America, I910–1940,” Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 29:683723.
Goldin, Claudia and Katz, Lawrence F.. 2008. The Race between Education and Technology. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.
Graff, H. J. (1987) The Labyrinths of Literacy. Reflections on Literacy Past and Present. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
Grant, Oliver. 2005, Migration and Inequality in Germany 1870–1913. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Gray, Richard. 1986. “Christianity.” In Roberts, Andrew, ed., The Colonial Moment in Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Green, Andy. 1990. Education and State Formation: The Rise of Education Systems in England, France and the USA. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Griera, Mar. 2007. “The Education Battle: The Role of the Catholic Church in the Spanish Education System” in Grace, Gerald and Joseph O'Keefe, S.J. eds.: International Handbook of Catholic Education. Berlin: Springer.
Grimes, Marcia and Wangnerud, Lena. 2010. “Curbing Corruption Through Social Welfare Reform? The Effects of Mexico's Conditional Cash Transfer Program on Good Government,” American Review of Public Administration, 40:671690.
Guiliano, Paola, and Nunn, Nathan. 2013. “The Transmission of Democracy: From the Village to the Nation-State,” American Economic Review, 103 (3):8692.
Gylfason, Thorvaldur and Zoega, Gylfi. 2002. “Inequality and Economic Growth: Do Natural Resources Matter?” CESifo Working Paper, No. 712, at http://hdl.handle.net/10419/75958.
Hald, Ernhard. 1857. “On National Education in Denmark.” Presented to the National Statistical Society, at http://books.google.com/books/about/On_National_Education_in_Denmark.html?id=WUnocQAACAAJ.
Hamoudi, Amar and Sachs, Jeffrey D.. 1999. “The Changing Global Distribution of Malaria: A Review.” CID Working Paper 2, at https://www.hks.harvard.edu/centers/cid/publications/faculty-working-papers/cid-working-paper no. 2.
Hanson, E. Mark. 1988. “Education, Dictatorship, and Democracy in Spain: An Analysis of Administrative Reform,” at http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED301929.pdf.
Hay, Simon I., Guerra, Carlos A., Tatem, Andrew J., Noor, Abdisalan M., and Snow, Robert W.. 2004. “The Global Distribution and Population at Risk of Malaria: Past, Present, and Future,” Lancet Infectious Diseases, 4:327336, at doi: 10.1016/S1473–3099(04)01043–6.
Hega, Gunther M. 2011. “The Political Functions of Education in Deeply-Divided Countries: Coming Together Apart: The Case of Switzerland.” In Hanf, Theodor (ed.): The Political Function of Education in Deeply Divided Countries, Series on Ethnicity, Religion and Democracy. Baden Baden, Germany: Nomos Verlag, at http://homepages.wmich.edu/~hega/The%20Political%20Functions%20of%20Education%20in%20Switzerland.pdf.
Heggoy, Alf Andrew. 1973. “Education in French Algeria: An Essay on Cultural Conflict,” Comparative Education Review, 17:180197.
Heldring, Leander and Robinson, James A.. 2012. “Colonialism and Economic Development in Africa,” National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 18566, www.nber.org/papers/w18566.
Hibbs, Douglas A. Jr. and Olsson, Ola. 2004. “Geography, Biogeography, and Why Some Countries Are Rich and Others Poor,” PNAS, 101 (March 9):37153720, at www.pnas.org_cgi_doi_10.1073_pnas.0305531101.
Hoffman, Nancy and Schwartz, Robert. 2015. Gold Standard: The Swiss Vocational Education and Training System, at www.ncee.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/SWISSVETMarch11.pdf.
Howe, Frederic C. 1912. Wisconsin: An Experiment in Democracy. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
Huber, Evelyne and Stephens, John D.. 2005. “Successful Social Policy Regimes? Political Economy, Politics, and the Structure of Social Policy in Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, and Costa Rica,” Conference on Democratic Governability Kellogg Institute, University of Notre Dame, October 7–8, 2005, at https://kellogg.nd.edu/faculty/research/pdfs/huber.pdf.
Huillery, Elise. 2014. “The Black Man's Burden: The Cost of Colonization of French West Africa,” Journal of Economic History, 74:138.
Hyll-Larsen, Peter. 2013. “Free or Fee: Corruption in Primary School Admissions.” In Transparency International, Global Corruption Report: Education. Oxon, UK, Routledge.
Ignacio, Jose and Hamilton, Garcia. 2005. “Historical Reflections on the Splendor and Decline of Argentina,” Cato Journal, 25:521540.
Ihm, Chon Sum. 1995South Korea.” In Morris, Paul and Sweeting, Anthony, eds., Education .and Development in East Asia. New York: Garland.
Iyer, Lakshmi. 2010. “Direct Versus Indirect Colonial Rule in India,” Review of Economics and Statistics, 92:693713.
Jing, Su. 2007. “Corruption by Design? A Comparative Study of Singapore, Hong Kong, and Mainland China.” Crawford School of Economics and Government, Australian National University, at http://ancorage-net.org/content/documents/pdp07-01.pdf.
Johansson, Egil. 2009. “The History of Literacy in Sweden.” In Graff, Harvey J., Mackinnon, Alison, Sandin, Bergt, and Winchester, Ian, eds., Understanding Literacy in its Historical Contexts. Socio-cultural history and the legacy of Egil Johansson. Lund, Sweden: Nordic Academic Press.
Johnston, Michael. 2015. Corruption Contention and Reform. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Josephson, Matthew. 1938. The Politicos. New York: Harcourt, Brace, and World.
Kaestle, Carl F. and Vinovskis, Maris A.. 1980. Education and Social Change in Nineteenth-Century Massachusetts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kalniņ š, Valts. 2015. “Process-Tracing Case Study Report on Estonia,” German Institute of Global and Area Studies, at www.againstcorruption.eu/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/D3-Estonia_Kalni%C5%86%C5%A1.pdf.
Kaufmann, Daniel, Kraay, Aart, and Mastruzzi, Massimo. 2007. “Growth and Governance: A Reply,” Journal of Politics, 69:555562.
Keefe, Patrick Rodden. 2015. “Corruption and Revolt,” www.newyorker.com/magazine/2015/01/19/corruption-revolt.
Key, V.O. Jr. 1936. The Techniques of Political Graft in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Libraries.
Kilicap, Sevinc Sevda. 2009. Exploring Politics of Philanthropy. Unpublished thesis, Master of International Studies in Philanthropy, University of Bologna.
Kim, Gwang-Jo. 2002. “Education Policies and Reform in South Korea.” In Africa Region, The World Bank, Secondary Education in Africa: Strategies for Renewal, available at http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTAFRREGTOPEDUCATION/Resources/444659-1220976732806/Secondary_Education_Strategies_renewal.pdf.
Kim, Sunwoong and Lee, Ju-Ho. 2003. “The Secondary School Equalization Policy in South Korea.” Unpublished paper, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.
Kirby, David G. 2006. A Concise History of Finland. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Kramer, Andrew E. 2016. “Spooked by Russia, Tiny Estonia Trains a Nation of Insurgents,” New York Times (October 31), at www.nytimes.com/2016/11/01/world/europe/spooked-by-russia-tiny-estonia-trains-a-nation-of-insurgents.html.
Krauss, Clifford. 1998. “The Welfare State Is Alive, if Besieged, in Uruguay,” New York Times, (May 3), at www.nytimes.com/1998/05/03/world/the-welfare-state-is-alive-if-besieged-in-uruguay.html.
Kumlin, Staffan and Rothstein, Bo. 2010. “Questioning the New Liberal Dilemma: Immigrants, Social Networks and Institutional Fairness,” Comparative Politics, 41:6387.
Knudsen, Tim. 1995. Dansk statsbygning. 1. København: Jurist-og Økonomforbundets Forlag.
Kupatadze, Alexander. 2012. “Explaining Georgia's Anti-Corruption Drive,” European Security, 21:1636.
Kupatadze, Alexander. 2015. “Georgia: Breaking Out of a Vicious Cycle?” at www.againstcorruption.eu/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/D3-Georgia_Kupatadze.pdf.
Kuran, Timur. 2014. “Institutional Roots of Authoritarian Rule in the Middle East: Civic Legacies of the Islamic Waqf.” Economic Research Initiatives at Duke Working Paper 171 available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=2449569.
Kuran, Timur. 2013. “The Political Consequences of Islam's Economic Legacy,” Philosophy and Social Criticism, 39:395405.
Kuran, Timur. 2001. “The Provision of Public Goods under Islamic Law: Origins, Impact, and Limitations of the Waqf System,” Law and Society Review, 35:841898.
Lambsdorff, Johann Graf. 2005. “The Methodology of the 2005 Corruption Perceptions Index.” Transparency International and the University of Passau (Germany), at ww1.transparency.org/cpi/2005/dnld/methodology.pdf.
Lee, Philip. 2003. “Had LKY Not Been Tough Then,” Straits Times (Singapore), September 20:27.
Lee, Rance P.L. 1981. “The Folklore of Corruption in Hong Kong,” Asian Survey, 21:355368.
Leite, Carlos and Weidmann, Jens. 1999. “Does Mother Nature Corrupt? Natural Resources, Corruption, and Economic Growth?,” Washington: International Monetary Fund Working Paper WP, at www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/1999/wp9985.pdf.
Lindmark, D. 2009Universalism in the Swedish History of Literacy,” In Graff, Harvey J., Mackinnon, Alison, Sandin, Bergt, and Winchester, Ian, eds., Understanding Literacy in its Historical Contexts. Socio-cultural history and the legacy of Egil Johansson. Lund, Sweden: Nordic Academic Press.
Lijphart, Arend. 1968. The Politics of Accommodation. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Lindert, Peter. 2004. Growing Public: Social Spending and Economic Growth Since the Eighteenth Century, 2 vols. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Lindert, Peter. 2008. “Kenneth Sokoloff on Inequality in the Americas.” In Costa, Dora L. and Lamoreaux, Naomi R., eds., Understanding Long-Run Economic Growth: Geography, Institutions, and the Knowledge Economy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Lindert, Peter H. and Williamson, Jeffrey G.. 2011. “American Incomes Before and after the Revolution.” National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 17211, available at www.nber.org/papers/w17211.
Lipset, Seymour Martin. 1959. “Some Social Requisites of Democracy: Economic Development and Political Legitimacy,” American Political Science Review, 53:69105.
Lipset, Seymour Martin. 1996. American Exceptionalism: A Double-Edged Sword. New York: W.W. Norton
Lo, Jack M.K. 2001. “Controlling Corruption in Hong Kong: From Colony to Special Administrative Region,” Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 9:2128.
Look4. N .d. “1877 Education Made Compulsory and Free,” at http://schools.look4.net.nz/history/new_zealand/time_line2/free_education.
Loving, Katherine (ed.), “The Wisconsin Idea: The Vision that Made Wisconsin Famous,” available at www.ls.wisc.edu/documents/wi-idea-history-intro-summary-essay.pdf.
Maddison, Angus. 1971. “The Economic and Social Impact of Colonial Rule in India.” In Maddison, Angus, Class Structure and Economic Growth: India & Pakistan since the Moghuls, available at www.ggdc.net/maddison/articles/moghul_3.pdf.
Maddison, Angus. 2003. The World Economy: Historical Statistics. Paris: OECD, at www.oecd.org/dev/asia-pacific/developmentcentrestudiestheworldeconomy-historicalstatistics.htm.
Majid, Harun Abdul. 2007. Rebellion in Brunei: The 1962 Revolt, Imperialism, Confrontation and Oil. London: I.B. Tauris and Company, at https://tengkudhaniiqbal.files.wordpress.com/2014/11/abdul-harun-majid-rebellion-in-brunei-the-1962-revolt-imperialism-confrontation-and-oil-2007.pdf.
Malinowski, Bronislaw. 1943. “The Pan-African Problem of Culture Contact,” American Journal of Sociology, 48:649665.
Management Systems International. 2005. Causes of the Rose Revolution: Lessons for Democracy Assistance. Prepared for the USAID Workshop on Democratic Breakthroughs in Serbia, Georgia, and Ukraine, at http://csis.org/files/media/csis/pubs/ci.causesroserevolution.03.05.pdf.
Manion, Melanie. 2004. “Lessons for Mainland China from Anti-Corruption Reform in Hong Kong,” The China Review, 4:8197.
Mantena, Rama Sundari. 2010. “Imperial Ideology and the Uses of Rome in Discourses on Britain's Indian Empire.” In Bradley, Mark, ed., Classics and Imperialism in the British Empire. Oxford: Oxford University Press, available at http://ramamantena.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/rama-mantena-contribution-to-classics-and-imperialism-volume1.pdf.
Massey, Douglas S. 2007. Categorically Unequal: The American Stratification System. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Mathien, Julie. 2001. Children, Families, and Institutions on Late 19th and Early 20th Century Ontario. M.A. Thesis, Department of Theory and Policy Studies, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education of the University of Toronto, at https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/bitstream/1807/15580/1/MQ58891.pdf.
Mauro, Paolo 1998. “Corruption and the Composition of Government Expenditure,” Journal of Public Economics, 69:263279.
Mauro, Paolo. 2002. “The Effects of Corruption on Growth and Public Expenditure.” In Heidenheimer, Arnold and Johnston, Michael, eds. Political Corruption, third ed. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
Mayhew, David R. 1986. Placing Parties in American Politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
McCord, Gordon C. and Sachs, Jeffrey D.. 2013. “Development, Structure, and Transformation: Some Evidence on Comparative Economic Growth.” National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 19512, at www.nber.org/papers/w19512.
McCarthy, Charles. 1912. The Wisconsin Idea. New York: Macmillan.
McCreadie, Marion. 2006. “The Evolution of Education in Australia,” History Australia, at www.historyaustralia.org.au/ifhaa/schools/evelutio.htm.
Meier, Kenneth J. and Holbrook, Thomas M.. 1992. “‘I Seen My Opportunities and I Took ‘Em:’ Political Corruption in the United States.” Journal of Politics 54 (February):135155.
Meinander, Henrik and Geddes, Tom. 2011. A History of Finland. London: Hurst.
Menes, Rebecca. 2006. “Limiting the Reach of the Grabbing Hand. Graft and Growth in American Cities, 1880 to 1930,” In Glaeser, Edward L. and Goldin, Claudia, eds., Corruption and Reform: Lessons from America's Economic History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, available at www.nber.org/chapters/c9978.pdf.
Merton, Robert K. 1968. Social Theory and Social Structure, enlarged edition. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
Meyer, John W., Ramirez, Francisco O., and Soysal, Yasemin Nuhoglu. 1992. “World Expansion of Mass Education, 1870–1980,” Sociology of Education, 65:128149.
Ministry of Education and Culture (Hungary). 2008. Education in Hungary: Past, Present, and Future, An Overview. Available at www.nefmi.gov.hu/letolt/english/education_in_hungary_080805.pdf.
Morrison, Christian and Murtin, Fabrice. 2009. “The Century of Education,” Journal of Human Capital, 3:142, available at www.fabricemurtin.com.
Mpka, M. N.d. “Overview of Educational Development: Pre-colonial to Present Day,” available at http://onlinenigeria.com/education/?blurb=534.
Mungiu-Pippidi, Alina. 2015. The Quest for Good Governance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mungiu-Pippidi, Alina. 2011. “Contextual Choices in Fighting Corruption: Lessons Learned.” Hertie School of Governance: Report commissioned by the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation, Berlin.
Mungiu-Pippidi, Alina. 2006. “Corruption: Diagnosis and Treatment,” Journal of Democracy, 17:8699.
Murdoch, John.…The Women of India and What Can Be Done for Them. 2nd ed. Madras: The Christian Vernacular Education Society, 1891. Nineteenth Century Collections Online. Web. 19 Sept. 2013, at http://tinyurl.galegroup.com/tinyurl/8yZw0.
Murtin, Fabrice. n.d. “On the Demographic Transition,” available at www.fabricemurtin.com.
Murtin, Fabrice and Wacziarg, Romain. 2010. “The Demographic Transition 1870–2000,” available at www.fabricemurtin.com.
National Commission. 1972. “Compulsory Education in New Zealand,” at http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0000/000010/001035eo.pdf.
New Zealand Legislation. 1988. “Protection of Personal and Property Rights Act 1988,” at www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/1988/0004/latest/DLM126528.html.
New Zealand Parliament Hansard. 2005. “New Zealand Bill of Rights (Private Property Rights) Amendment Bill – First Reading,” at www.parliament.nz/en-nz/pb/debates/debates/47HansD_20050511_00001261/new-zealand-bill-of-rights-private-property-rights-amendment.
North, Douglas C. 1990. Institutions, Institutional Change, and Economic Performance. New York: Cambridge University Press.
North, Douglass, Wallis, John Joseph, and Weingast, Barry R., eds. 2009. Violence and Social Orders: A Conceptual Framework for Interpreting Recorded History. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Novais, Andréa. 2012. “Types of Corruption in Brazil,” at http://thebrazilbusiness.com/article/types-of-corruption-in-brazil.
Nugent, Jeffrey B. and Robinson, James A.. 2010. “Are Factor Endowments Fate?,” Revista de Historia Económica /Journal of Iberian and Latin American Economic History, 28:4582.
Nunes, Ana Bela. “Education and Economic Growth in Portugal: A Simple Regression Approach,” at www.repository.utl.pt/bitstream/10400.5/1013/1/EDUCATION%20AND%20ECONOMIC%20GROWTH.pdf.
Nunn, Nathan. 2007. “Slavery, Inequality, and Economic Development: An Examination of the Engerman–Sokoloff Hypothesis,” at http://scholar.harvard.edu/files/nunn/files/domestic_slavery.pdf.
Nunn, Nathan and Wantchekon, Leonard. 2011. “The Slave Trade and the Origins of Mistrust in Africa,” American Economic Review, 101 (December):32213252.
OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development). 1999. Denmark, at www.oecd.org/edu/innovation-education/1908360.pdf.
OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development). 2006. Mauritius, at www.oecd.org/dev/36741476.pdf.
OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development). 2013. Country Note: Education at a Glance 2013 Estonia, at www.oecd.org/edu/Estonia_EAG2013%20Country%20Note.pdf.
OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development). 2014. “Education Policy Outlook: Portugal,” atwww.oecd.org/edu/EDUCATION%20POLICY%20OUTLOOK_PORTUGAL_EN.pdf.
Okano, Kaori and Tsuchiya, Motonori. 1999. Education in Contemporary Japan: Inequality and Diversity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Olken, Benjamin A. and Pande, Rohini. 2012. “Corruption in Developing Countries,” Annual Review of Economics, 4:479505.
Olson, Mancur. 1993. “Dictatorship, Democracy, and Development,” American Political Science Review, 87:567576.
Olsson, Ola and Hibbs, Douglas A. Jr. 2005. “Biogeography and Long-run Economic Development,” European Economic Review, 49:909938.
Oslo Times. n.d. “History of Education in Norway,” at http://theoslotimes.com/article/history-of-education-in-norway.
Owsiak, Stanislaw. 2003. “The Ethics of Tax Collection,” Finance and Common Good, 13/14:6577.
Pahud de Motranges, Rene. ND. “Religion and the Secular State in Switzerland,” at www.iclrs.org/content/blurb/files/Switzerland.1.pdf.
Palma, Nuno and Reis, Jaoime. 2012. “A Tale of Two Regimes: Educational Achievement and Institutions in Portugal, 1910–1950,” at www.lse.ac.uk/economicHistory/seminars/ModernAndComparative/papers2011-12/A-tale-of-two-regimes.pdf.
Papava, Vladimer. 2006. “The Political Economy of Georgia's Rose Revolution,” East European Democratization, 657667.
Pereirinha, Jose. 1995. “Poverty and Social Exclusion in Portugal: A General Overview of Situations, Processes, and Policies,” Druzhoslovne Rezprave, 11:169182, at www3.mruni.eu/ojs/social-work/article/view/1900/1717.
Persson, Torsten, Tabellini, Guido, and Trebbi, Francesco. 2003. “Electoral Rules and Corruption,” Journal of the European Economic Association, 1:958989.
Peterson, Brenton D. 2016. “Kikuyu or Kenyan? Government Service Provision and the Salience of Ethnic Identities,” at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2773896.
Pingtjin, Thum. 2013. “The Fundamental Issue is Anti-Colonialism, Not Merger: Singapore's ‘Progressive Left’, Operation Coldstore, and the Creation of Malaysia,” Asia Research Institute Working Paper Series No. 211, at www.ari.nus.edu.sg/wps/wps13_211.pdf.
Premo, Bianca. 2005. Children of the Father King: Youth, Authority, and Legal Minority in Colonial Lima. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
Putnam, Robert. 1993. Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Putterman, Louis. 2008. “Agriculture, Diffusion, and Development: Ripple Effects of the Neolithic Revolution,” Economica, 75:729748.
Quah, Jon S.T. 2001. “Singapore: Meritocratic City-State.” In Funston, John, ed., Government and Politics in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asia Studies.
Quah, Jon S.T. 2013. “Curbing Corruption and Enhancing Trust in Government.” In Liu, Jianhong, Hebenton, Bill, and Jou, Susyan, eds., Handbook of Asian Criminology. New York: Springer.
Radio Australia. 2012. “Brunei – 50 years Under Emergency Rule,” at www.radioaustralia.net.au/international/radio/program/connect-asia/brunei-50-years-under-emergency-rule/1060346.
Ramirez, Francisco O. and Boli, John 1987. “The Political Construction of Mass Schooling: European Origins and Worldwide Institutionalization,” Sociology of Education, 60:217.
Rankin, Monica. 2012. The History of Costa Rica. Santa Barbara. CA: Grenwood Press.
Robertson, Claire C. 1977. “The Nature and Effects of Differential Access to Education in Ga Society,” Africa: Journal of the International African Institute, 47:208219.
Rolwing, Kevin F. 1997. “Spanish Education Reshaped by Political Changes, Economic Realities,” World Education News and Reviews, 10:1923, at www.wes.org/ewenr/02july/piaddition.pdf.
Romero, Simon. 2016. “How Web of Corruption Ensnared Brazil,” New York Times (April 4):A1, A6.
Rothstein, Bo. 2017. “The Relevance of Comparative Politics.” In Caramani, Daniele, ed., Comparative Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Rothstein, Bo. 2015. “The Moral, Economic, and Political Logic of the Swedish Welfare State.” In Pierre, Jon, ed., The Oxford Handbook of Swedish Politics, 6986. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Rothstein, Bo. 2011. The Quality of Government: Corruption, Social Trust and Inequality in a Comparative Perspective. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Rothstein, Bo. 2005. Social Traps and the Problem of Trust. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rothstein, Bo, Samanni, Marcus, and Teorell, Jan. 2012. “Explaining the Welfare State: Power Resources vs. the Quality of Government,” European Political Science Review, 4 (1):128. doi: 10.1017/s1755773911000051.
Rothstein, Bo and Teorell, Jan. 2015. “Getting to Sweden, Part II: Breaking with Corruption in the Nineteenth Century.” Scandinavian Political Studies, 38(3):238254
Rothstein, Bo and Teorell, Jan. 2012. “Defining and Measuring Quality of Government.” Pp. 626 in Good Government: The Relevance of Political Science, edited by Holmberg, S. and Rothstein, B.. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Rothstein, Bo and Uslaner, Eric M.. 2005. “All for All: Equality, Corruption, and Social Trust,” World Politics, 58:4172.
Rueschemeyer, Dietrich, Stephens, Evelyne Huber, and Stephens, John D.. 1992. Capitalist Development and Democracy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Ruhil, Anirudh V.S. and Camoes, Pedro J.. 2003. “What Lies Beneath: The Political Roots of State Merit Systems,” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 13:2742.
Sachs, Jeffrey D. 2012. “Reply to Acemoglu and Robinson's Response to My Book Review,” at http://jeffsachs.org/2012/12/reply-to-acemoglu-and-robinsons-response-to-my-book-review/.
Sachs, Jeffrey D. and Malaney, Pia. “The Economic and Social Burden of Malaria,” Nature, 415 (February 7):680685.
Sachs, Jeffrey D. and Warner, Andrew M.. 1997. “Natural Resource Abundance and Economic Growth,” Center for International Development, Harvard University, at www.cid.harvard.edu/ciddata/warner_files/natresf5.pdf.
Saez, Emmanuel and Zucman, Gabriel. 2014. “Wealth Inequality in the United States Since 1913: Evidence from Capitalized Income Tax Data,” National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper, at www.nber.org/papers/w20625.
Sahlberg, Pasi. 2007. “Education Policies for Raising Student Learning: the Finnish Approach,” Journal of Education Policy, 22:147171.
Sahlberg, Pasi. 2011. “The Professional Educator: Lessons from Finland,” American Educator (Summer):3438.
Sainsbury, Maree. 2003. Moral Rights and Their Application in Australia. Leichhardt, NSW: Federation Press.
Salvatore, Fillippo. 2011. “History of Italy (From 1945 to the present): Part 4 of 4,” at: www.panoramitalia.com/en/arts-culture/history/history-italy-1945-present/385/#sthash.UWaiwaU0.dpuf.
Schilling, Heinz. 1983. “The Reformation in the Hanseatic Cities,” The Sixteenth Century Journal, 14:443456.
Schwartzman, Simon. 2003. “The Challenges of Education in Brazil,” available at www.drclas.harvard.edu/files/Simon-Schwartzman-Challenges-of-Education-in-Brazil.pdf.
Scott, James C. 1972. Comparative Political Corruption. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Sen, Amartya. 2011. “Quality of Life: India vs. China.” New York Review of Books LVIII(2011:25):4447.
Shepherd, Jessica. 2010. “World Education Rankings: Which Country Does Best at Reading, Maths and Science?,” at www.theguardian.com/news/datablog/2010/dec/07/world-education-rankings-maths-science-reading.
Slade, Gavin. 2012. “Georgia's War on Crime: Creating Security in a Post-Revolutionary Context,” European Security, 21:3756.
Smith, D.M. 1997. Modern Italy. A Political History. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Sokoloff, Kenneth L. and Engerman, Stanley L.. 2002. “Factor Endowments, Inequality, and Paths of Development among New World Economies,” National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 9259, at www.nber.org/papers/w9259.
Sokoloff, Kenneth L. and Engerman, Stanley L.. 2000. “History Lessons: Institutions, Factor Endowments, and Paths of Development in the New World,’ Journal of Economic Perspectives, 14:217232.
Solt, Frederick. 2009. “Standardizing the World Income Inequality Database,” Social Science Quarterly, 90:231242.
Sombart, Werner. 1976. Why Is There No Socialism in the United States? White Plains: M.E. Sharpe.
Spain Exchange Country Guide. ND. “Religious Beliefs in Belgium,” at www.studycountry.com/guide/BE-religion.htm.
Spolaore, Enrico and Wacziarg, Romain. 2013. “Long-Term Barriers to Economic Development,” National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 19361 www.nber.org/papers/w19361.
Steffens, Lincoln. 1931. The Autobiography of Lincoln Steffens. New York: Literary Guild.
Stenquist, Bjarne. 2009. Den vita segerns svarta skugga: Finland och inbördeskriget 1918. Stockholm: Atlantis.
“Story: Country Schooling.” n.d. www.teara.govt.nz/en/country-schooling/page-1.
Strauss, Gerald. 1988. “The Social Function of Schools in the Lutheran Reformation in Germany,” History of Education Quarterly, 28:191206.
Sustainable Governance Indicators. 2014. “Portugal,” at www.sgi-network.org/2014/Portugal/Social_Policies.
Svallfors, Stefan. 2013. “Government Quality, Egalitarianism, and Attitudes to Taxes and Social Spending: a European Comparison,” European Political Science Review, 5:363380.
Szyliowicz, Joseph S. 1969. “Education and Political Development in Turkey, Egypt, and Iran,” Comparative Education Review, 13:150166.
Taylor, Mark Zachary. 2016. The Politics of Innovation. New York: Oxford University Press.
Ting, Michael M., Snyder, James M. Jr., Hirano, Shigeo, and Folke, Olle. 2013. “Elections and Reform: The Adoption of Civil Service Systems in the U.S. States,” Journal of Theoretical Politics, 25:365387.
Tingsten, Herbert. 1969. Gud och fosterlandet: studier i hundra års skolpropaganda. Stockholm: Norstedt.
Teorell, Jan, and Rothstein, Bo. 2015. “Getting to Sweden, Part I: War and Malfeasance, 1720–1850,” Scandinavian Political Studies 38(3):217237.
Treisman, Daniel. 2007. “What Have We Learned About the Causes of Corruption from Ten Years of Cross-National Empirical Research?,” Annual Review of Political Science, 10:211244 DOI: 10.1146/annurev.polisci.10.081205.095418
UNESCO. 2006. World Data on Education: Barbados, 6th edition, at www.ibe.unesco.org/sites/default/files/Barbados.pdf.
UNESCO. 2008. World Data on Education: Mauritius, 6th edition, at www.ibe.unesco.org/Countries/WDE/2006/SUB-SAHARAN_AFRICA/Mauritius/Mauritius.pdf.
University of Chicago Chronicle. 1997. “New Look at Evolution of Education,” 16 (June 12), at http://chronicle.uchicago.edu/970612/education.shtml.
Uslaner, Eric M. 2002. The Moral Foundations of Trust. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Uslaner, Eric M. 2006. “Tax Evasion, Trust, and the Strong Arm of the Law.” In Hayoz, Nicholas and Hug, Simon, eds., Trust, Institutions, and State Capacities: A Comparative Study. Bern: Peter Lang AG, available at www.bsos.umd.edu/gvpt/uslaner/uslanerstgallen.pdf.
Uslaner, Eric M. 2008. Corruption, Inequality, and the Rule of Law. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Uslaner, Eric M. and Brown, Mitchell. 2005. “Inequality, Trust, and Civic Engagement,” American Politics Research, 33:868894.
Vanhanen, Tatu. 1997. Prospects of Democracy: A Study of 172 Countries. London: Routledge.
Zandem, Van, Luiten, Jan, Baten, Joerg, Foldvari, Peter, and van Leeuwen, Bas. 2011. “The Changing Shape of Global Inequality 1820–2000: Exploring a New Dataset,” Center for Global Economic History, University of Utrecht, at www.cgeh.nl/working-paper-series/.
van de Walle, Francine. 1980. “Education and the Demographic Transition in Switzerland,” Population and Development Review, 63:463472.
Vick, Malcolm. 1992. “Community, State and the Provision of Schools in Mid-Nineteenth Century Australia,” Australian Historical Studies, 25:51.
Voigtländer, Nico and Voth, Hans-Joachim. 2011. “Persecution Perpetuated: The Medieval Origins of Anti-Semitic Violence in Nazi Germany.” National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper 17113, Cambridge, MA.
Volansky, Ami. 2007. “The Israeli Education System,” prepared for the International Encyclopedia of Education, at www.tau.ac.il/~danib/israel/SNR2009-Education(English).pdf.
Wallis, John Joseph. 2006. “The Concept of Systemic Corruption in American History.” In Glaeser, Edward L. and Goldin, Claudia, eds., Corruption and Reform: Lessons from America's Economic History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Walker, Francis A. Superintendent of Census. 1872. The Statistics of the Population of the United States. Washington: Government Printing Office.
Wängnerud, Lena. 2012. “Why Women Are Less Corrupt than Men.” Pp. 212232 in Good Government: The Relevance of Political Science, edited by Holmberg, S. and Rothstein, B.. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Weber, Eugen. 1976. Peasants into Frenchmen: The Modernization of Rural France 1870–1914. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Welzel, Christian. 2013. Freedom Rising. New York: Cambridge University Press.
West, Edwin. 1996. “The Spread of Education Before Compulsion: Britain and America in the Nineteenth Century,” at https://fee.org/articles/the-spread-of-education-before-compulsion-britain-and-america-in-the-nineteenth-century/.
Wiebe, Robert H. 1967. The Search for Order. New York: Hill and Wang.
Wietzke, Frank-Borge. In press. “Long-term Consequences of Colonial Institutions and Human Capital Investments: Sub-national Evidence from Madagascar,” World Development.
Williamson, Jeffrey G. 2010. “Five Centuries of Latin American Income Inequality,” Revista de Historia Económica /Journal of Iberian and Latin American Economic History, 28:227252.
Williamson, Jeffrey G. 2015. “Latin American Inequality: Colonial Origins, Commodity Booms, or a Missed 20th Century Leveling?” National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 20915, available at www.nber.org/papers/w20915.
Witte, Els, Craeybeckx, Jan, and Meynen, Alain. 2009. Political History of Belgium: From 1830 Onwards. Brussels, Belgium: ASP-Academic and Scientific Publishers.
Wolfinger, Raymond E. 1972. “Why Political Machines Have Not Withered Away and Other Revisionist Thoughts,” Journal of Politics, 34:365398.
Woodberry, Robert D. 2012. “The Missionary Roots of Liberal Democracy,” American Political Science Review, 106:244274.
World Economic Forum. 2014. The Global Competitiveness Report 2013–2014, at http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GlobalCompetitivenessReport_2013-14.pdf.
Wright, Gavin. 2003. “Slavery and American Agricultural History,” Agricultural History, 77:527552.
Ylikangas, Heikki. 1995. Vägen till Tammerfors. striden mellan röda och vita i finska inbördeskriget 1918. Stockholm: Atlantis.
You, Jong-sung. 2005. A Comparative Study of Income Inequality, Corruption, and Social Trust: How Inequality and Corruption Reinforce Each Other and Erode Social Trust, Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation (draft), Department of Government, Harvard University.
You, Jong-sung. 2008. “Inequality and Corruption: The Role of Land Reform in Korea, Taiwan, and the Philippines.” Presented at the Annual Conference of the Association for Asian Studies, Atlanta, April, available at http://irps.ucsd.edu/assets/001/503066.pdf.
You, Jong-sung. 2013. “The Origins of the Developmental State in South Korea: A Reexamination of the Park Chung-hee Myth.” Presented at the Annual Meeting of the International Studies Association, San Francisco, CA, April.
You, Jong-sung. 2015. Democracy, Inequality, and Corruption. New York: Cambridge University Press.
You, Jong-sung. n.d. “1nequality and Corruption: The Role of Land Reform in Korea, Taiwan, and the Philippines.” Unpublished paper, University of California–San\sDiego, available at http://irps.ucsd.edu/assets/001/503066.pdf.
You, Jong-sung and Khagram, Sanjeev. 2005. “A Comparative Study of Inequality and Corruption,” American Sociological Review, 70:136157.
Young, Cristobal. 2009. “Religion and Economic Growth in Western Europe: 1500–2000,” at http://web.stanford.edu/~cy10/public/Religion_and_Economic%20Growth_Western_Europe.pdf.
Yu, Wenxuan. 2015. “Anti-Corruption Strategies in Singapore: Demystifying the Singapore Model.” In Zhang, Yahong and Lavena, Cecilia, eds., Government Anti-Corruption Strategies: A Cross-Cultural Perspective. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Zanganeh, Lila Azam. 2013. “Has the Great Library of Timbuktu Been Lost?,” The New Yorker (January 29) available at www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/has-the-great-library-of-timbuktu-been-lost.
Ziegler, Rolf. 1998. “Trust and the Reliability of Expectations,” Rationality and Society, 10:427450.

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between #date#. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed