Skip to main content
How India Became Democratic
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    How India Became Democratic
    • Online ISBN: 9781107705722
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

How India Became Democratic explores the greatest experiment in democratic human history. It tells the untold story of the preparation of the electoral roll on the basis of universal adult franchise in the world's largest democracy. Ornit Shani offers a new view of the institutionalisation of democracy in India, and of the way democracy captured the political imagination of its diverse peoples. Turning all adult Indians into voters against the backdrop of the partition of India and Pakistan, and in anticipation of the drawing up of a constitution, was a staggering task. Indians became voters before they were citizens - by the time the constitution came into force in 1950, the abstract notion of universal franchise and electoral democracy were already grounded. Drawing on rich archival materials, Shani shows how the Indian people were a driving force in the making of democratic citizenship as they struggled for their voting rights.


‘This is a subtle and impressive work of scholarship, which breaks new ground in the history of modern India. Using the rich, previously neglected, archive of the Election Commission, Ornit Shani documents how multi-party democracy based on adult franchise was established in a large, diverse, divided, and desperately poor country. The research is deep and thorough, the analysis robust and thought-provoking, the writing clear and often vivid. All those interested in modern India, as well as in the history of democratic practice more generally, would profit from a close reading of this book.'

Ramachandra Guha - author of India after Gandhi

‘Through a deep archival excavation of how the first electoral roll of independent India was prepared, Ornit Shani gives us an extraordinary account of the formation of the democratic imagination – of both citizens and state personnel. This is a fascinating, hitherto untold story of the building blocks of democratic citizenship at the founding moment of the republic.'

Niraja Gopal Jayal - Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi

‘Ornit Shani's terrific new history shows how Indians made their new democracy after 1947, from the national debates on which men and women should vote, to solving the many practical challenges on the ground. A landmark study.'

Steven Wilkinson - Yale University, Connecticut

‘This important book goes further than any other in explaining the origin of Indian democracy, how and why it works. Based on wide reading in history and political science, and firmly grounded in hitherto unexplored archival material, Ornit Shani shows that the high idealism about citizenship and democracy in independent India was made real by careful consultation and planning, from 1946 onwards, of a small group of administrative officers, constitutional lawyers and politicians. These framers of the new Indian constitution and the creation of the Indian Electoral Commission surely stand alongside the Founding Fathers of the United States of America in their brilliant practicality establishing a vibrant democratic system for the post-imperial era. Ornit Shani's book, therefore, is of interest not just to those who want to know about the Indian experience but for anyone seeking to understand the many and varied forms democracy takes in our contemporary world.'

Gordon Johnson - University of Cambridge

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
  • B. Shiva Rao Papers, Nehru Memorial Museum and Library.

  • All India Radio (AIR) Prasar Bharati Archive, New Delhi.

  • Centre of South Asian Studies Archives, Cambridge

  • Election Commission of India Record Room, Election Commission, New Delhi.

  • India Office Records, British Library, London.

  • Maharashtra State Archives, Mumbai.

  • National Archives of India, New Delhi.

  • Nehru Memorial and Museum Library, New Delhi.

Constituent Assembly Debates, Available at
Constituent Assembly of India, Interim Report of the Advisory Committee on the Subject of Fundamental Rights (presented on 29 April 1947 – date of Report, 23 April 1947), Reports of Committees (First Series) 1947 (from December 1946 to July 1947), New Delhi: The Manager, Government of India Press, 1947.
Constituent Assembly of India, North-East Frontier (Assam) Tribal and Excluded Areas Sub-Committee, Vol. II (Evidence) Part I (Lushai, North-Cachar, Garo, Mikir And Naga Hills), copy dated 19 December 1947.
Constituent Assembly of India, North-East Frontier (Assam) Tribal and Excluded Areas Sub-Committee, Vol. II (Evidence) Part II (Margherita, Sadiya Frontier Tract, Balipara Frontier Tract, Khasi and Jaintia Hills and General), copy dated 16 February 1948.
Constituent Assembly of India, Report of the Linguistic Provinces Commission. New Delhi: The Manager Government of India Press, 1948.
Constituent Assembly of India Advisory Committee Tribal and Excluded Areas, Pamphlet: ‘Excluded and Partially Excluded Areas’, Parts I & II (General Note and Appendices, Statements and Factual Memoranda of Provinces), Constituent Assembly, 26 February 1947.
Election Commission of India, Key Highlights of General Elections, 1951 to the First Lok Sabha, New Delhi: Election Commission of India, 1951.
Election Commission of India, Report on the First General Elections in India 1951–52, Vol. I, New Delhi: Government of India Press, 1955.
Election Commission of India, Report on the Second General Elections in India 1957, Vol. I, New Delhi: Government of India Press, 1959.
Election Commission of India, Report on the Third General Elections in India 1962, Vol. I, New Delhi: Government of India Press.
Election Commission of India, Statistical Report on General Elections 1967 to the Fourth Lok Sabha, New Delhi: Government of India Press, 1968.
Election Commission of India, Hand Book for Booth Level Officers, New Delhi, 2011.
Election Commission of India, Belief in the Ballot: 101 Human Stories from India Elections, Publication Division Ministry of Broadcasting and Information: Government of India, 2016.
Government of Assam, Home and Political Department, White Paper on Foreigners Issue, 22 May 2015.
Government of India Ministry of States, White Paper on Indian States, New Delhi: The Manager Government of India Press, July 1948.
Government of India Ministry of States, Report of the Indian States Finances Enquiry Committee 1948–49, Part I, New Delhi: Manager of Government of India Press, 1949.
Government of India Ministry of States, White Paper on Indian States, Delhi: The Manager Government of India Press, 1950.
Nehru Moti Lal, Report of the All Parties Conference (Together with a Summary of the Proceedings of the Conference Held at Lucknow), Allahabad: General Secretary, All India Congress Committee, August 1928.
Report of the Committee for the Drafting of a Model Constitution for the Indian States, New Delhi: Manager Government of India Press, 22 March 1949.
Report of the State Reorganisation Commission, New Delhi: Manager of Publications, 1955.
The Drafting Committee, Constituent Assembly of India, Draft Constitution of India, New Delhi: The Manager Government of India Press, 1948.
  • The Hindu

  • The Hindustan Times

  • The Times of India

Ackerman Bruce. ‘The Rise of World Constitutionalism’. Virginia Law Review 83 (1997): 771–97.
The New Separation of Powers’. Harvard Law Review 113, no. 3 (January 2000): 633725.
Ahuja Amit, and Chhibber Pradeep. ‘Why the Poor Vote in India: “If I Don't Vote, I am Dead to the State”’, Studies in Comparative International Development 47, no. 4 (2012): 389410.
Ahuja M. L. General Elections in India, Electoral Politics, Electoral Reforms and Political Parties. New Delhi: Icon Publishers, 2005.
Alam Javeed. Who Wants Democracy? New Delhi: Orient Longman, 2004.
Almond Ian. The Thought of Nirad C. Chaudhuri. Islam, Empire and Loss. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015.
Ambedkar , Bhimrao Ramji. Federation versus Freedom. Jullundur: Bheem Patrika Publications, 1977. Kale Memorial Lecture, Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics, Pune, 29 January 1939.
Ansari Sarah F. D. Life after Partition: Migration, Community and Strife in Sindh, 1947–1962. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Asif Manan Ahmed. ‘Half a Cheer for Democracy in Pakistan’.The New York Times, 20 March 2017.
Austin Granville. The Indian Constitution: Cornerstone of a Nation. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2006.
Bajpai Rochana. ‘The Conceptual Vocabularies of Secularism and Minority Rights in India’. Journal of Political Ideologies 7, no. 2 (June 2002): 179–97.
Bajpai Rochana. Debating Difference: Group Rights and Liberal Democracy in India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2011.
Banerjee D. N.Indian States and the Future Constitution of India’. The Indian Journal of Political Science 10, no. 1/2 (1949): 94100.
Banerjee Mukulika. Why Indian Votes? New Delhi: Routledge, 2014.
Baruah Sanjib. ‘“Ethnic” Conflict as State–Society Struggle: The Poetics and Politics of Assamese Micro-Nationalism’. Modern Asian Studies 28, no. 03 (1994): 649–71.
Baruah Sanjib. ‘Citizens and Denizens: Ethnicity, Homelands, and the Crisis of Displacement in North East India’. Journal of Refugee Studies 16, no. 1 (2003): 4466.
Baruah Sanjib. ‘Partition and the Politics of Citizenship in Assam’. In Butalia Urvashi (ed.), Partition: The Long Shadow. New Delhi: Zubaan, 2015: 78101.
Baxi Upendra. ‘The Little Done, the Vast Undone: Some Reflections on Reading Granville Austin’s The Indian Constitution’. Journal of the Indian Law Institute 9 (1967): 323430.
Bayly C. A. Empire and Information: Intelligence Gathering and Social Communication in India, 1780–1870. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
Bayly Susan. The New Cambridge History of India: Caste, Society and Politics in India from the Eighteenth Century to the Modern Age. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
Bell F. O.Parliamentary Elections in Indian Provinces’. Parliamentary Affairs 1, no. 2 (Spring 1948): 20–9.
Beverley Eric Lewis. Hyderabad, British India, and the World. Muslim Networks and Minor Sovereignty c. 1850–1950. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015.
Bhargava Rajeev, ed. Politics and Ethics of the Indian Constitution. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2008.
Bhargava Rajeev, ‘Introduction’. In Rajeev Bhargava (ed.), Politics and Ethics of the Indian Constitution. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2008: 1–42.
Boxall Peter. The Value of the Novel. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015.
Brautigan Richard. Revenge of the Lawn. Stories, 1962–1970. London: Pan Books (Picador), 1974.
Burra Arudra. ‘The Indian Civil Service and the Raj: 1919–1950’, 11 February 2007. SSRN: (accessed 25 June 2017).
Butalia Urvashi. The Other Side of Silence: Voices from the Partition of India. Delhi: Penguin Books, 1998.
Caracciolo Marco. The Experientiality of Narrative. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2014.
Chakrabarty Dipesh. Provincializing Europe: Postcolonial Thought and Historical Difference. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000.
Chakrabarty Dipesh, Majumdar Rochona, and Sartori Andrew, eds. From the Colonial to the Postcolonial. India and Pakistan in Transition. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2007.
Chandavarkar Rajnarayan. ‘Customs of Governance: Colonialism and Democracy in Twentieth Century India’. Modern Asian Studies 41, no. 3 (2007): 441–70.
Chatterjee Partha. The Nation and Its Fragments: Colonial and Postcolonial Histories, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1993.
Chatterjee Partha. The Politics of the Governed: Reflections on Popular Politics in Most of the World. New York; Chichester: Columbia University Press, 2004.
Chatterjee Partha. Empire and Nation: Selected Essays. New York: Columbia University Press, 2010.
Chatterji Joya. ‘Right or Charity? The Debate over Relief and Rehabilitation in West Bengal, 1947–50’. In Kaul Suvir (ed.) The Partitions of Memory: The Afterlife of the Division of India. Delhi: Permanent Black, 2001: 74110.
Chatterji Joya. The Spoils of Partition: Bengal and India: 1947–1967. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
Chatterji Joya. ‘South Asian Histories of Citizenship, 1946–1970’. The Historical Journal 55, no. 4 (December 2012): 1049–71.
Chaudhur Sujit. ‘A God-Sent Opportunity’, Seminar 510 (2002): 61–7.
Chiriyankandath James. ‘“Democracy” Under the Raj: Elections and Separate Representation in British India’, in Niraja Gopal Jayal (ed.), Democracy in India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2001: 5381.
Choudhary Valmiki, ed. Dr Rajendra Prasad: Correspondence and Select Documents, Vol. 11. New Delhi: Allied Publishers, 1988.
Choudhry Sujit, Khosla Madhav, and Mehta Pratap Bhanu. ‘Locating Indian Constitutionalism’. In Choudhry Sujit, Khosla Madhav, and Mehta Pratap Bhanu (eds), The Oxford Handbook of the Indian Constitution. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016: 113.
Choudhury G. W. Constitutional Development in Pakistan. London: Longmans, 1959.
Clarke Sir Geoffrey. The Post Office of India and Its Story. London: John Lane The Bodley Head, 1921.
Cody Francis. ‘Daily Wires and Daily Blossoms: Cultivating Regimes of Circulation in Tamil India’s Newspaper Revolution’. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 19, no. 2 (December 2009): 286309.
Cohn Bernard S.The Census, Social Structure and Objectification in South Asia’. In An Anthropologist among the Historians and Other Essays. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1987: 224–54.
Copland Ian. The Princes of India in the Endgame of Empire, 1917–1947. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
Coupland Reginald. The Indian Problem, 1833–1935: Report on the Constitutional Problem in India, Submitted to the Warden and Fellows of Nuffield College, Oxford. Part 1, London: Oxford University Press (Third Imprint), 1943.
Cover Robert M.Forward: Nomos and Narrative’ in ‘The Supreme Court, 1982 Term’. Harvard Law Review 97, no. 1 (November 1, 1983): 4–68.
Dahl Robert Alan. Democracy and Its Critics. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989.
Dahl Robert Alan. On Democracy. New Haven: Yale Nota Bene Book, 2000.
Dasgupta Sandipto. ‘“A Language Which Is Foreign to Us”: Continuities and Anxieties in the Making of the Indian Constitution’. Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 34, no. 2 (2014): 228–42.
Datta Antara. Refugees and Borders in South Asia: The Great Exodus of 1971. London: Routledge, 2012.
De Rohit. ‘Beyond the Social Contract’. Seminar, no. 615 (November 2010).
De Rohit. ‘Rebellion, Dacoity, and Equality: The Emergence of the Constitutional Field in Postcolonial India’. Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 34, no. 2 (1 January 2014): 260–78.
De Rohit. The People’s Constitution (1947–1964). Princeton: Princeton University Press, forthcoming.
Devi V. S., and Mendiratta S. K.. How India Votes: Election Laws, Practice and Procedure. Second Edition, S. K. Mendiratta. New Delhi: LexisNexis, 2017.
Dirks Nicholas B. Castes of Mind: Colonialism and the Making of Modern India. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001.
Doctor Geeta. ‘A Toast to Another Age’. The Hindu, 28 June 2014.
Doctor Vikram. ‘A Witness to the Birth of a Nation’. The Economic Times, 16 August 2011.
Eapen K. E. ‘Daily Newspapers in India: Their Status and Problems’. Journalism Quarterly XLIV (1967): 520–32.
Elangovan Arvind. ‘The Making of the Indian Constitution: A Case for a Non-Nationalist Approach’. History Compass 12, no. 1 (January 2014): 110.
Elangovan Arvind. ‘Provincial Autonomy, Sir Benegal Narsing Rau, and an Improbable Imagination of Constitutionalism in India, 1935–38’. Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 36, no. 1 (2016): 6682.
Elangovan Arvind. ‘“The Road Not Taken”. Sir Benegal Narsing Rau and the Indian Constitution’, in Sekhar Bandopadhyay (ed.), Decolonization and the Politics of Transition in South Asia. New Delhi: Orient Blackswan, 2016: 141–59.
Elangovan Arvind. A Constitutional Imagination of India: Sir Benegal Narsing Rau amidst the Retreat of liberal Idealism (1910–1950). Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Chicago, 2012.
Ernst Waltraud, and Pati Biswamoy, eds. India’s Princely States: People, Princes and Colonialism. London: Routledge, 2007.
Everett Jana Matson. Women and Social Change in India. New Delhi: Heritage, 1981.
Everett Jana Matson. ‘“All the Women Were Hindu and All the Muslims Were Men”: State, Identity Politics and Gender, 1917–1951’. Economic and Political Weekly 36, no. 23 (2001): 2071–80.
Ezrahi Yaron. Imagined Democracies: Necessary Political Fictions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.
Fisher Margaret W., and Bondurant John V. The Indian Experience with Democratic Elections. Vol. 3. Berkeley: University of California, 1956.
Forbes Geraldine Hancock. Women in Modern India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Foucault Michel. ‘Governmentality’. In Miller Peter, Gordon Colin, and Burchell Graham (eds), The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991: 87–104.
Furber Holden. ‘The Unification of India, 1947–1951’. Pacific Affairs 24, no. 4 (December 1951): 352–71.
Gadgil , D. R. (Dhananjaya Ramchandra) Federating India. Vol. 13. Poona: Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics, 1945.
Geuss Raymond. History and Illusion in Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
Gilmartin David. ‘A Magnificent Gift: Muslim Nationalism and the Election Process in Colonial Punjab’. Comparative Studies in Society and History 40, no. 3 (1998): 415–36.
Gilmartin David. ‘Election Law and the “People” in Colonial and Postcolonial India’. In Chakrabarty Dipesh, Majumdar Rochona, and Sartori Andrew (eds), From the Colonial to the Postcolonial. India and Pakistan in Transition. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2007: 5589.
Gilmartin David, and Moog Robert. ‘Introduction to “Election Law in India”’. Election Law Journal 11, no. 2, (2012): 136–48.
Gopal Jayal Niraja. Citizenship and Its Discontents: An India History. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 2013.
Goswami Manu. Producing India: From Colonial Economy to National Space. Chicago Studies in Practices of Meaning. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004.
Gould William. Bureaucracy, Community and Influence: Society and the State in India, 1930s–1960s. Routledge Studies in South Asian History. London: Routledge, 2011.
Gould William. ‘From Subjects to Citizens? Rationing, Refugees and the Publicity of Corruption over Independence in UP’. Modern Asian Studies 45, no. 1 (January 2011): 3356.
Gould William, Sherman Taylor C., and Ansari Sarah. ‘The Flux of the Matter: Loyalty, Corruption and the “Everyday State” in the Post-Partition Government Services of India and Pakistan c. 1946–1952’. Past and Present 219, no. 1 (1 May 2013): 237–79.
Grill Genese. The World as Metaphor in Robert Musil’s The Man Without Qualities: Possibility as Reality. New York: Camden House, 2012.
Groenhout Fiona. ‘The History of the Indian Princely States: Bringing the Puppets Back onto Centre Stage’. History Compass 4, no. 4 (2006): 629–44.
Guha Amalendu. Planter-Raj to Swaraj: Freedom Struggle and Electoral Politics in Assam 1826–1947. New Delhi: Indian Council of Historical Research, 1977.
Guha Ramachandra. ‘Democracy’s Biggest Gamble: India’s First Free Elections in 1952’. World Policy Journal 19, no. 1 (2002): 95103.
Guha Ramachandra. Savaging the Civilized: Verrier Elwin, His Tribals, and India. In The Ramachandra Guha Omnibus. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Guha Ramachandra. India after Gandhi: The History of the World’s Largest Democracy. 1st ed. London: Pan Macmillan, 2008 (first published 2007).
Guha Ramachandra. Democrats and Dissenters. New Delhi: Penguin Random House India, 2016.
Gupta Devyani. The Postal System of British India, c. 1830–1920. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Cambridge, 2016.
Guyot-Réchard Bérénice. Shadow States: India, China and the Himalayas 1910–1962. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017.
Hannah Matthew G. Governmentality and the Mastery of Territory in Nineteenth-Century America. Cambridge Studies in Historical Geography 32. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Hasan Zoya. Politics of Inclusion: Caste, Minorities and Affirmative Action. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2009.
Heller Patrick. ‘Degrees of Democracy: Some Comparative Lessons from India’. World Politics 52, no. 04 (July 2000): 484519.
Heller Patrick. ‘Making Citizens from Below and Above. The Prospects and Challenges of Decentralization in India’. In Ruparelia Sanjay, Reddy Sanjay, Harriss John, and Corbridge Stuart (eds), Understanding India’s New Political Economy. A Great Transformation? London: Routledge, 2011: 157–71.
Heller Patrick. ‘Democratic Deepening in India and South Africa’. Journal of Asian and African Studies 44, no. 1 (2009): 123–49.
Henkin David M. The Postal Age: The Emergence of Modern Communication in Nineteenth-Century America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006.
Hirschkop Ken. Mikhail Bakhtin: An Aesthetic for Democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.
India: An Enigmatic Future’. The Round Table: The Commonwealth Journal of International Affairs 38, no. 151 (1948): 690–5.
India: First Year of Freedom’. The Round Table 38, no. 152 (1948): 793–7.
Israel Milton. Communications and Power: Propaganda and the Press in the Indian Nationalist Struggle. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.
Jaffrelot Christophe. India’s Silent Revolution. The Rise of the Lower Castes in North India. London: Hurst & Company, 2003.
Jeffrey Robin, ed. People, Princes and Paramount Power. Society and Politics in the Indian Princely States. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1978.
Jeffrey Robin. ‘Culture of Daily Newspapers in India: How It’s Grown, What It Means’. Economic and Political Weekly 22, no. 14 (1987): 607–11.
Jeffrey Robin. ‘The “Kerala Model” and Portents for Indian Politics: Inferences from the First Universal-Suffrage Elections, Travancore, 1948’. Unpublished paper.
Kalpagam U. Rule by Numbers: Governmentality in Colonial India. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2014.
Kamran Tahir. ‘Early Phase of Electoral Politics in Pakistan: 1950s’. South Asian Studies 24, no. 2 (2009): 257–82.
Kamran Tahir. ‘Electoral Politics in Pakistan 1955–1969’. Pakistan Vision 10, no. 1 (2010): 8297.
Kaviraj Sudipta. ‘Democracy and Development in India’. In Bagchi Amiya Kumar (ed.), Democracy and Development. Proceedings of the IEA Conferences Held in Barcelona, Spain. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 1995: 92–137.
Kaviraj Sudipta. ‘A Critique of the Passive Revolution’. In Chatterjee Partha (ed.), State and Politics in India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1998: 4587.
Kaviraj Sudipta. The Imaginary Institution of India: Politics and Ideas. New York: Columbia University Press, 2010.
Kaviraj Sudipta. ‘The Empire of Democracy: Reading Indian Politics Through Tocqueville’. In Chatterjee Partha and Katznelson Ira (eds), Anxieties of Democracy: Tocquevillean Reflections on India and the United States. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2012: 2049.
Keane John. The Life and Death of Democracy. London: Simon & Schuster, 2009.
Kermode Frank. The Sense of an Ending. Studies in the Theory of Fiction. (The Mary Flexner Lectures, 1965.) New York: Oxford University Press, 1967.
Khan Yasmin. The Great Partition: The Making of India and Pakistan. New Delhi: Penguin Viking, 2007.
Khilnani Sunil. The Idea of India. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1997.
Khilnani Sunil. ‘Branding India’, Seminar, no. 533, 2004.
Khilnani Sunil. ‘Arguing Democracy: Intellectuals and Politics in Modern India’. Centre of the Advanced Study of India (CASI) Working Paper Series, University of Pennsylvania, 2009.
Khosla Madhav. The Indian Constitution. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2012.
Kogekar Sadanaud Vasudeo and Park Richard L., eds. Reports on the Indian General Elections, 1951–52. Bombay: Popular Book Depot, 1956.
Kohli Atul, ed. India’s Democracy: An Analysis of Changing State–Society Relations. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1988.
Kohli Atul, The Success of India’s Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
Kudaisya Gyanesh. ‘The Demographic Upheaval of Partition: Refugees and Agricultural Resettlement in India, 1947–67’. South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies 18, no. Special Issue (1995): 7394.
Kumar Chandra Bhushan. Imaging Arunachal Pradesh: The Indelible Ink of Democracy. Itangar: Chief Electoral Officer, Arunachal Pradesh, 2016.
Kumar Virendra. Committees and Commissions in India: 1947–1973. Vol. 1: 1947–54. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company, 2004.
Legg Stephen. ‘An International Anomaly? Sovereignty, the League of Nations and India’s Princely Geographies’. Journal of Historical Geography 43 (January 2014): 96110.
Legg Stephen. ‘Dyarchy: Democracy, Autocracy, and the Scalar Sovereignty of Interwar India’. Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 36, no. 1 (2016): 4465.
Lijphart Arend. Democracies: Patterns of Majoritarian and Consensus Government in Twenty-One Countries. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1984.
Lijphart Arend. ‘The Puzzle of Indian Democracy: A Consociational Interpretation’. American Political Science Review 90, no. 2 (June 1996): 258–68.
Lotus Magnolia (Manjula Padmanabhan). ‘My Dad’s Birth Centenary’, (accessed 29 June 2017).
Luthra P. N. Constitutional and Administrative Growth of the North-East Frontier Agency. Director of Information and Public Relations, NEFA (North-East Frontier Agency Administration), 1971.
Lyngdoh James Michael. Chronicle of an Impossible Election: The Election Commission and the 2002 Jammu and Kashmir Assembly Elections. New Delhi: Penguin Viking, 2004.
Maheshwari Shriram. The Census Administration under the Raj and After. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company, 1996.
Mann Michael. The Sources of Social Power, Vol. II. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
Manto Sadaat Hasan. ‘The New Constitution’. In Hasan Khalid (ed. and transl.), Bitter Fruit: The Very Best of Saadat Hasan Manto. New Delhi: Penguin Books, 2008: 206–15.
McMillan Alistair. Standing at the Margins: Representation and Electoral Reservation in India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Mehta Pratap Bhanu. The Burden of Democracy. Interrogating India. New Delhi: Penguin Books, 2003.
Mehta Pratap Bhanu. ‘What Is Constitutional Morality?’ Seminar, no. 615 (November 2010).
Mehta Uday S. Liberalism and Empire: A Study in Nineteenth-Century British Liberal Thought. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.
Mehta Uday S. ‘Indian Constitutionalism: The Articulation of a Political Vision’. In Dipesh Chakrabarty, Rochona Majumdar, and Andrew Sartori (eds), From the Colonial to the Postcolonial. India and Pakistan in Transition. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2007: 22–30.
Menon V. P. The Story of the Integration of the Indian States. New Delhi: Orient Longmans, 1961.
Misra Udayon. ‘Immigration and Identity Transformation in Assam’. Economic and Political Weekly 34, no. 21 (1999): 1264–71.
Mitchell W. J. T.Editor’s Note: On Narrative’. Critical Inquiry 7, no. 1 (1980): 14.
Mitra Subrata Kumar. The Puzzle of India’s Governance: Culture, Context and Comparative Theory. London: Routledge, 2006.
Morris-Jones W. H. ‘The India Elections’. The Economic Weekly, 28 June 1952.
Mukerjee S. N. ‘The Constitution of India – An Analysis’. The Hindustan Times. 26 January 1950, p. II.
Musil Robert. The Man Without Qualities. London: Picador, 1995.
Nair Janaki. Mysore Modern: Rethinking the Region under Princely Rule. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2011.
Narayan Uma. ‘The Constituent Assembly of India: Recollecting Contributions of Sir Benegal Narsing Rau, the Constitutional Adviser’. International Journal of Legal Information 44, no. 3 (2016): 225–34.
Newbigin Eleanor. The Hindu Family and the Emergence of Modern India. Law Citizenship and Community. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013.
Newbigin Eleanor, Shani Ornit, and Legg Stephen. ‘Introduction: Constitutionalism and the Evolution of Democracy in India’. Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 36, no. 1 (2016): 42–3.
Nigam Adiya. ‘A Text without Author: Locating Constituent Assembly as Event’. Economic and Political Weekly 39, no. 21 (May 22, 2004): 2107–13.
O’Donnell Guillermo A, Schmitter Philippe C, and Whitehead Laurence, eds. Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Comparative Perspectives. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991.
Pandey Gyanendra. ‘Mobilization in a Mass Movement: Congress “Propaganda” in the United Provinces (India) 1930–1934’. Modern Asian Studies 9, no. 2 (1975): 205–26.
Remembering Partition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
Park Richard L.Indian Democracy and the General Election’. Pacific Affairs 25, no. 2 (1952): 130–9.
Park Richard L.India’s General Elections’. Far Eastern Survey 21, no. 1 (9 January 1952): 18.
Parulekar N. B. ‘The Power of Your Vote’, The Hindustan Times (Sunday Magazine), 1 August 1948.
Pillai Sarath. ‘Fragmenting the Nation: Divisible Sovereignty and Travancore’s Quest for Federal Independence’. Law and History Review 34, no. 3 (2016): 743–82.
Prakash Gyan, Laffan Michael F., and Menon Nikhil, eds. The Postcolonial Moment in South and Southeast Asia. New York: Bloomsbury (forthcoming).
Radhakrishnan S.Democracy: A Habit of the Mind (Presidential Address at the Annual Session of Andhra Mahasabha, Madras, September 1938)’. In Education, Politics and War. Poona: The International Book Service, 1944.
Raghavan Srinath. War and Peace in Modern India. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.
Rajkumar Nagoji Vasudev. The Pilgrimage and After. The Story of How the Congress Fought and Won the General Elections. New Delhi: All India Congress Committee, 1952.
Ramusack Barbara N. Indian Princes and Their States. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
Ranadive Ramchandra Keshava. The Legal Rights of the Indian States and of Their Subjects or The Truth about the Indian States. Baroda: The Good Companions, 1950.
Rao Anupama. The Caste Question: Dalit and Politics in Modern India. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009.
Rao B. Shiva. The Framing of India’s Constitution: A Study, Vols. I–IV. Nasik: Government of India Press, 1968.
Rau B. N. Constitutional Precedents. New Delhi: The Government of India Press, 1947.
Rau B. N.The Constitution of the Union of Burma’, 23 Wash. L. Rev. & St. B. J., 288, (1948): 188300.
Rau B. N. India’s Constitution in the Making. Rao B. Shiva (ed.), Madras: Orient Longmans, 1960.
Rosanvallon Pierre. Democratic Legitimacy. Impartiality, Reflexivity, Proximity. Translated by Goldhammer Arthur. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011.
Roy Anupama. Mapping Citizenship in India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2010.
Roy Anupama. ‘Identifying Citizens: Electoral Rolls, the Right to Vote, and the Election Commission of India’. Election Law Journal 11, no. 2 (2012): 170–86.
Roy Haimanti. Partitioned Lives: Migrants, Refugees, Citizens in India and Pakistan. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2012.
Roy Srirupa. Beyond Belief: India and the Politics of Postcolonial Nationalism. Durham: Duke University Press, 2007.
Rudolph Susanne Hoeber, and Rudolph Lloyd I.. ‘New Dimensions of Indian Democracy’. Journal of Democracy 13, no. 1 (2002): 5267.
Rushdie Salman. Midnight’s Children. London: Vintage Books, 2006.
Sarkar Sumit. ‘Indian Democracy: The Historical Inheritance’. In Kohli Atul (ed.), The Success of India’s Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001: 2346.
Scott James C. Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998.
Sen Uditi. ‘Developing Terra Nullius: Colonialism, Nationalism and Indigeneity in the Andaman Islands’. Comparative Studies in Society and History 50, no. 4, 2017.
Shani Ornit. Communalism, Caste and Hindu Nationalism: The Violence in Gujarat. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
Shani Ornit. ‘Conceptions of Citizenship in India and the “Muslim Question”’. Modern Asian Studies 44, no. 1 (2010): 145–73.
Shani Ornit. ‘The Politics of Communalism and Caste’. In Clark-Decès Isabelle (ed.), A Companion to the Anthropology of India. Malden: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011: 297312.
Shani Ornit. ‘Making India’s Democracy Rewriting the Bureaucratic Colonial Imagination in the Preparation of the First Elections’. Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 36, no. 1 (2016): 83101.
Shani Ornit. ‘Embedding Democracy: The Social History of India’s First Elections’, forthcoming.
Sherman Taylor C. Muslim Belonging in Secular India. Negotiating Citizenship in Postcolonial Hyderabad. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015.
Sherman Taylor C., Gould William, and Ansari Sarah. ‘From Subjects to Citizens: Society and the Everyday State in India and Pakistan, 1947–1970’. Modern Asian Studies 45, no. 1 Special issue (January 2011): 16.
Shulman David Dean. More than Real. A History of the Imagination in South India. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2012.
Siegel Benjamin. ‘“Self-Help Which Ennobles a Nation”: Development, Citizenship and the Obligations of Eating in India’s Austerity Years’. Modern Asian Studies 50, no. 3 (2016): 9751018.
Singer Wendy. A Constituency Suitable for Ladies and Other Social Histories of Indian Elections. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2007.
Sinha Mrinalini. ‘Suffragism and Internationalism: The Enfranchisement of British and India Women under an Imperial State’. Indian Economic and Social History Review 36, no. 4 (1999): 461–84.
Sinha Mrinalini. Specters of Mother India: The Global Restructuring of an Empire. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2006.
Sinha Mrinalini. ‘Totaram Sanadhya’s Fiji Mein Mere Ekkis Varsh: A History of Empire and Nation in a Minor Key’. In Burton Antoinette and Hofmeyr Isabel (eds), Ten Books that Shaped the British Empire: Creating an Imperial Commons. Durham: Duke University Press, 2014: 168–89.
Stepan Alfred. ‘Federalism and Democracy: Beyond the U.S. Model’. Journal of Democracy 10, no. 4 (1999): 1934.
Stepan Alfred C., Linz Juan, and Yadav Yogendra. Crafting State-Nations. India and Other Multinational Democracies. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2011.
Stoler Ann Laura. Along the Archival Grain: Epistemic Anxieties and Colonial Common Sense. Princeton. NJ: Princeton University Press, 2009.
Suhrawardy Huseyn Shaheed. ‘Political Stability and Democracy in Pakistan’. Foreign Affairs 35, no. 3 (1957): 422–31.
Sundar Nandini. Subalterns and Sovereigns: An Anthropological History of Bastar, 1854–2006. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2007.
Sundar Nandini. The Burning Forest: India’s War in Bastar. New Delhi: Juggernaut, 2016.
Tagore Rabindranath. The Post Office (Daak Ghar). Translated by Mukerjea Devabrata. London: Macmillan, 1914.
Talbot Ian, and Singh Gurharpal. The Partition of India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Tejani Shabnum. Indian Secularism: A Social and Intellectual History, 1890–1950. Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 2008.
The Revolution of the Indian States’. The Round Table: The Commonwealth Journal of International Affairs 39, no. 153–6 (1948): 3643.
Tinker Irene Celeste. ‘Representation and Representative Government in the India Republic’, PhD thesis, University of London (June 1954).
Tinker Irene Celeste, and Walker Mil. ‘The First General Elections in India and Indonesia’. Far Eastern Survey 25, no. 7 (July 1956): 97110.
T. N. Z, and Z. M.The Indian General Elections’. The World Today 5, no. 8 (1952): 181–91.
Tudor Maya. The Promise of Power: The Origins of Democracy in India and Autocracy in Pakistan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013.
Varshney Ashutosh. ‘Why Democracy Survives’. Journal of Democracy 9, no. 3 (1998): 3650.
Battles Half Won. India’s Improbable Democracy. New Delhi: Penguin Viking, 2013.
Venkatachalapathy A. R.Reading Practices and Modes of Reading in Colonial Tamil Nadu’. Studies in History 10, no. 2 (1994): 273–90.
Washbrook David. ‘The Rhetoric of Democracy and Development in Late Colonial India’. In Bose Sugata and Jalal Ayesha (eds) Nationalism, Democracy and Development: State and Politics in India. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1997: 36–49.
Weiner Myron. Sons of the Soil: Migration and Ethnic Conflicts in India. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1978.
Weiner Myron. ‘The Political Demography of Assam’s Anti-Immigrant Movement’. Population and Development Review 9, no. 2 (June 1983): 279–92.
Weiner Myron. The Indian Paradox: Essays in Indian Politics. Varshney Ashutosh (ed.), New Delhi: Sage, 1989.
White Hayden. ‘Value of Narrativity in Representation of Reality’. Critical Inquiry 7, no. 1 (Autumn 1980): 527.
Widmalm Sten. ‘The Rise and Fall of Democracy in Jammu and Kashmir, 1975–1989’. In Basu Amrita and Kohli Atul (eds), Community Conflicts and the State in India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1998: 149–82.
Wilkinson Steven I. Army and Nation: The Military and Indian Democracy since Independence. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2015.
Williams P. Everyday Peace? Politics, Citizenship and Muslim Lives in India. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2015.
Zamindar Vazira Fazila-Yacoobali. The Long Partition and The Making of Modern South Asia: Refugees, Boundaries, Histories. New York: Columbia University Press, 2007.


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 28
Total number of PDF views: 401 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 940 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 24th November 2017 - 20th February 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.