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How India Became Democratic
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How India Became Democratic explores the greatest experiment in democratic human history. It tells the untold story of the preparation of the electoral roll on the basis of universal adult franchise in the world's largest democracy. Ornit Shani offers a new view of the institutionalisation of democracy in India, and of the way democracy captured the political imagination of its diverse peoples. Turning all adult Indians into voters against the backdrop of the partition of India and Pakistan, and in anticipation of the drawing up of a constitution, was a staggering task. Indians became voters before they were citizens - by the time the constitution came into force in 1950, the abstract notion of universal franchise and electoral democracy were already grounded. Drawing on rich archival materials, Shani shows how the Indian people were a driving force in the making of democratic citizenship as they struggled for their voting rights.


Advance praise:‘This is a subtle and impressive work of scholarship, which breaks new ground in the history of modern India. Using the rich, previously neglected, archive of the Election Commission, Ornit Shani documents how multi-party democracy based on adult franchise was established in a large, diverse, divided, and desperately poor country. The research is deep and thorough, the analysis robust and thought-provoking, the writing clear and often vivid. All those interested in modern India, as well as in the history of democratic practice more generally, would profit from a close reading of this book.'

Ramachandra Guha - author of India after Gandhi

Advance praise:‘Through a deep archival excavation of how the first electoral roll of independent India was prepared, Ornit Shani gives us an extraordinary account of the formation of the democratic imagination – of both citizens and state personnel. This is a fascinating, hitherto untold story of the building blocks of democratic citizenship at the founding moment of the republic.'

Niraja Gopal Jayal - Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi

Advance praise:‘Ornit Shani's terrific new history shows how Indians made their new democracy after 1947, from the national debates on which men and women should vote, to solving the many practical challenges on the ground. A landmark study.'

Steven Wilkinson - Yale University, Connecticut

Advance praise:‘This important book goes further than any other in explaining the origin of Indian democracy, how and why it works. Based on wide reading in history and political science, and firmly grounded in hitherto unexplored archival material, Ornit Shani shows that the high idealism about citizenship and democracy in independent India was made real by careful consultation and planning, from 1946 onwards, of a small group of administrative officers, constitutional lawyers and politicians. These framers of the new Indian constitution and the creation of the Indian Electoral Commission surely stand alongside the Founding Fathers of the United States of America in their brilliant practicality establishing a vibrant democratic system for the post-imperial era. Ornit Shani's book, therefore, is of interest not just to those who want to know about the Indian experience but for anyone seeking to understand the many and varied forms democracy takes in our contemporary world.'

Gordon Johnson - University of Cambridge

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