Skip to main content Accessibility help
Independent Politics
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 24
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Bauer, Nichole M. 2018. The Effects of Partisan Trespassing Strategies Across Candidate Sex. Political Behavior,

    Klar, Samara Krupnikov, Yanna and Ryan, John Barry 2018. Affective Polarization or Partisan Disdain?. Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. 82, Issue. 2, p. 379.

    Intawan, Chanita and Nicholson, Stephen P. 2018. My Trust in Government Is Implicit: Automatic Trust in Government and System Support. The Journal of Politics, Vol. 80, Issue. 2, p. 601.

    Holman, Mirya R. and Lay, J. Celeste 2018. They See Dead People (Voting): Correcting Misperceptions about Voter Fraud in the 2016 U.S. Presidential Election. Journal of Political Marketing, p. 1.

    Eckhouse, Laurel 2018. White riot: race, institutions, and the 2016 U.S. election. Politics, Groups, and Identities, p. 1.

    Cooper, Christopher A. 2018. Not Just for Oprah Anymore: Incorporating Book Clubs into Political Science Classes. Journal of Political Science Education, p. 1.

    Hmielowski, Jay D. Kim, Sungsu Hutchens, Myiah J. and Beam, Michael A. 2018. Engaged or Disengaged? Examining the Relationship Between Electoral Ambivalence and Indicators of Political Engagement in the 2012 U.S. Election. Atlantic Journal of Communication, Vol. 26, Issue. 1, p. 32.

    Dunn, Kris and Thornton, Judd R 2018. Vote intent and beliefs about democracy in the United States. Party Politics, Vol. 24, Issue. 4, p. 455.

    Adida, Claire L. Lo, Adeline and Platas, Melina R. 2018. Perspective taking can promote short-term inclusionary behavior toward Syrian refugees. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 115, Issue. 38, p. 9521.

    Santucci, Jack 2018. Maine ranked-choice voting as a case of electoral-system change. Representation, Vol. 54, Issue. 3, p. 297.

    Curry, James M. 2018. Congressional Processes and Public Approval of New Laws. Political Research Quarterly, p. 106591291881986.

    Christensen, Julian Dahlmann, Casper Mondrup Mathiasen, Asbjørn Hovgaard Moynihan, Donald P and Petersen, Niels Bjørn Grund 2018. How Do Elected Officials Evaluate Performance? Goal Preferences, Governance Preferences, and the Process of Goal Reprioritization. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, Vol. 28, Issue. 2, p. 197.

    Groenendyk, Eric 2018. Competing Motives in a Polarized Electorate: Political Responsiveness, Identity Defensiveness, and the Rise of Partisan Antipathy. Political Psychology, Vol. 39, Issue. , p. 159.

    Paler, Laura Marshall, Leslie and Atallah, Sami 2018. The Social Costs of Public Political Participation: Evidence from a Petition Experiment in Lebanon. The Journal of Politics, Vol. 80, Issue. 4, p. 1405.

    Settle, Jaime E. 2018. Frenemies.

    Anson, Ian G. 2018. Partisanship, Political Knowledge, and the Dunning-Kruger Effect. Political Psychology, Vol. 39, Issue. 5, p. 1173.

    Goggin, Stephen N. and Theodoridis, Alexander G. 2017. Disputed Ownership: Parties, Issues, and Traits in the Minds of Voters. Political Behavior, Vol. 39, Issue. 3, p. 675.

    Gelman, Andrew and Azari, Julia 2017. 19 Things We Learned from the 2016 Election. Statistics and Public Policy, Vol. 4, Issue. 1, p. 1.

    Caverley, Jonathan D. and Krupnikov, Yanna 2017. Aiming at Doves. Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 61, Issue. 7, p. 1482.

    Bougher, Lori D. 2017. The Correlates of Discord: Identity, Issue Alignment, and Political Hostility in Polarized America. Political Behavior, Vol. 39, Issue. 3, p. 731.


Book description

The number of independent voters in America increases each year, yet they remain misunderstood by both media and academics. Media describe independents as pivotal for electoral outcomes. Political scientists conclude that independents are merely 'undercover partisans': people who secretly hold partisan beliefs and are thus politically inconsequential. Both the pundits and the political scientists are wrong, argue the authors. They show that many Americans are becoming embarrassed of their political party. They deny to pollsters, party activists, friends, and even themselves, their true partisanship, instead choosing to go 'undercover' as independents. Independent Politics demonstrates that people intentionally mask their partisan preferences in social situations. Most importantly, breaking with decades of previous research, it argues that independents are highly politically consequential. The same motivations that lead people to identify as independent also diminish their willingness to engage in the types of political action that sustain the grassroots movements of American politics.


‘Despite being aware of the existence of closeted partisans for quite some time, we know next to nothing about them: who they are, what motivates them to go undercover, the political and psychological conditions that increase their numbers, and how this affects American democracy. In Independent Politics, Klar and Krupnikov provide a fascinating and timely analysis of the psychological underpinnings of closeted partisanship. Using a combination of clever experiments and observational studies, the authors convincingly demonstrate that political disagreement leads many Americans - in particular those who are strongly attuned to social norms - to take a dim view of political parties, partisanship, and partisans. The political consequences of their analysis for democratic citizenship and political representation are far-reaching.'

Howard Lavine - University of Minnesota

‘The political science literature contains numerous claims about independents, most of which rest on a very thin bed of evidence. This book tells us as much about today's independents as the extant literature combined. It is a must-read for anyone interested in American public opinion and elections.'

Morris Fiorina - Stanford University, California

‘Klar and Krupnikov show, through a series of clever experiments, that although independents may vote like partisans, their disdain for parties leads them to go ‘undercover', and avoid all manner of expressive political behaviors. Independent Politics is a fascinating read that makes a significant contribution to the subfields of political participation and political psychology. It will drive scholars to think about the decision to identify as independent in heretofore unrecognized ways.'

Joanne Miller - University of Minnesota

‘Klar and Krupnikov show that avoiding partisanship is a meaningful decision that has important implications for civic engagement. Using a variety of convincing tests, Independent Politics is a major work that will undoubtedly shape future research on partisan politics in the United States.'

Stephen P. Nicholson - University of California, Merced

'… an excellent book. It lays out clearly a compelling theory and several key expectations, which are then tested with a series of clever experiments as well as observational evidence from the American National Election Studies … I should also add that while I highly recommend Independent Politics to scholars of public opinion and elections - and expect it will show up on graduate syllabi for such courses - I can also imagine it being used in an upper-division undergraduate course, given its lively and accessible language.'

Judd Thornton Source: Public Opinion Quarterly

'The central finding of this book is that many independents identify as such because of concerns regarding how they will be perceived by others. In the minds of these voters, parties are increasingly seen as negative and embarrassing. To avoid being tainted with the stigma of partisanship, more and more voters are choosing to identify as independent. The book closes with a bracing examination of the possible implications of this development for American representative democracy … Highly recommended. Upper-division undergraduates through faculty.'

M.D. Brewer Source: Choice

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
Aarts, Henk, and Dijksterhuis, Ap (2003). “The Silence of the Library: Environment, Situational Norm and Social Behavior.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 84(1): 18–28.
Abramowitz, Alan I. (2010). The Disappearing Center: Engaged Citizens, Polarization and American Democracy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Abrams, Samuel J., and Fiorina, Morris P. (2014). “Are Leaning Independents Just Deluded or Dishonest Weak Partisans?” Working Paper. Sarah Lawrence College and Stanford University.
Abramson, Paul R., Aldrich, John H., and Rohde, David W. (1983). Change and Continuity in the 1980 Elections. (Rev. ed). Washington: C.Q. Press.
Achen, Christopher H. (1992). “Breaking the Iron Triangle: Social Psychology, Demographic Variables and Linear Regress in Voting Research.” Political Behavior 14(3): 195–211.
Achen, Christopher H. (2002). “Parental Socialization and Rational Party Identification.” Political Behavior 24(2): 141–170.
Ahn, T. K., Huckfeldt, Robert, Mayer, Alexander K., and Ryan, John Barry (2013). “Expertise and Bias in Political Communication Networks.” American Journal of Political Science 57(2): 357–373.
Aldrich, John H. (1995). Why Parties? The Origin and Transformation of Party Politics in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
American Political Science Association Committee on Political Parties (1950). “Toward a More Responsible Two-Party System: A Report.” Supplement to the American Political Science Review 44(3), Part 2.
Ansolabehere, Stephen, and Iyengar, Shanto (1995). Going Negative: How Attack Ads Shrink and Polarize the Electorate. New York: Free Press.
Arceneaux, Kevin (2012). “Cognitive Biases and the Strength of Political Arguments.” American Journal of Political Science 56(2): 271–285.
Bailey, Michael, Hopkins, Daniel J., and Rogers, Todd (2014). “Unresponsive and Unpersuaded: The Unintended Consequences of Voter Persuasion Efforts” (May 26, 2014). Available at SSRN:
Bakshy, Eytan, Messing, Solomon, and Adamic, Lada (2015). “Exposure to Ideologically Diverse News and Opinion on Facebook.” Science 348: 1130–1132.
Banning, James H. (1996). “Bumper Sticker Ethnography: Another Way to View the Campus Ecology.” The Campus Ecologist 14(3): 1–4.
Barabas, Jason, and Jerit, Jennifer (2010). “Are Survey Experiments Externally Valid?” American Political Science Review 104(2): 226–242.
Bartels, Larry (2002). “Beyond the Running Tally: Partisan Bias in Political Perceptions.” Political Behavior 24(2): 117–150.
Bashir, Nadia, Lockwood, Penelope, Chasteen, Alison L., Nadolny, Daniel, and Noyes, Indra (2013). “The Ironic Impact of Activists: Negative Stereotypes Reduce Social Change Influence.” European Journal of Social Psychology 43(7): 614–626.
Baumeister, Roy F., Bratslavsky, Ellen, Finkenauer, Catrin, and Vohs, Kathleen (2001). “Bad Is Stronger than Good.” Review of General Psychology 5(4): 323.
Beck, Paul Allen (1977). “Partisan Dealignment in the Postwar South.” American Political Science Review 71(2): 477–496.
Beck, Paul Allen (2002). “Encouraging Defection: The Role of Personal Discussion Networks in Partisan Desertions to the Opposition Party and Perot Votes in 1992.” Political Behavior 24(4): 309–338.
Beck, Paul Allen, Dalton, Russell, Greene, Steven and Huckfeldt, Robert (2002). “The Social Calculus of Voting: Interpersonal, Media and Organizational Influences on Presidential Choices.” American Political Science Review 96(1): 57–73.
Beck, Paul Allen, and Jennings, M. Kent (1975). “Parents as ‘Middlepersons’ in Political Socialization.” The Journal of Politics 37(1): 83–107.
Beck, Paul Allen, and Jennings, M. Kent (1979). “Political Periods and Political Participation.” American Political Science Review 73(3): 737–750.
Belli, Robert F., Traugott, Michael, Young, Margaret, and McGonagle, Katherine A. (1999). “Reducing Vote Overreporting in Surveys: Social Desirability, Memory Failure, and Source Monitoring.” Public Opinion Quarterly 63(1): 90–108.
Berelson, Bernard R., Lazarsfeld, Paul F., and McPhee, William N. (1954). Voting: A Study of Opinion Formation in a Presidential Election. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Berinsky, Adam J. (1999). “The Two Faces of Public Opinion.” American Journal of Political Science 43(4): 1209–1230.
Berinsky, Adam J. (2002). “Political Context and the Survey Response: The Dynamics of Racial Policy Opinion.” The Journal of Politics 64(2): 567–584.
Berinsky, Adam (2004). “Can We Talk: Self-Presentation and the Survey Response.” Political Psychology 25(4): 643–659.
Berinsky, Adam J., Huber, Gregory A., and Lenz, Gabriel S. (2012). “Evaluating Online Labor Markets for Experimental Research:'s Mechanical Turk.” Political Analysis 20(3): 351–368.
Berinsky, Adam J., and Lavine, Howard (2012). “Self-Monitoring and Political Attitudes.” Improving Public Opinion Surveys: Interdisciplinary Innovation and the American National Election Studies (Aldrich, John and McGraw, Kathleen M., eds.), Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 27–45.
Berinsky, Adam, Margolis, Michelle, and Sances, Michael W. (2014). “Separating the Shirkers from the Workers? Making Sure Respondents Pay Attention on Self-Administered Surveys.” American Journal of Political Science 58(3): 739–753.
Berrens, Robert P., Bohara, Alok, Jenkins-Smith, Hank, Silva, Carol, and Weimer, David L. (2003). “The Advent of Internet Surveys for Political Research: A Comparison of Telephone and Internet Samples.” Political Analysis 11(1): 1–22.
Binder, Sarah (1999). “The Dynamics of Legislative Gridlock.” American Political Science Review 93(3): 519–533.
Bishop, Bill (2008). The Big Sort: Why The Clustering of Like-Minded America Is Tearing Us Apart. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
Bishop, George, Meadow, Robert G, and Jackson-Beeck, Marilyn (1978). The Presidential Debates: Media, Electoral and Policy Perspectives. New York: Praeger
Blais, Andre, and Rubenson, Daniel (2013). “The Source of Turnout Decline: New Values or New Contexts?” Comparative Political Studies 46(1): 95–117.
Bond, Robert M., Fariss, Christopher J., Jones, Jason J., Kramer, Adam D. I., Marlow, Cameron, Settle, Jaimie E., and Fowler, James H. (2012). “A 61-Million-Person Experiment in Social Influence and Political Mobilization.” Nature 489: 295–298.
Boydstun, Amber (2013). Making the News: Politics, the Media and Agenda Setting. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Brader, Ted (2006). Campaigning for Hearts and Minds: How Emotional Appeals in Political Ads Work. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Brader, Ted, Valentino, Nicholas, and Suhay, Elizabeth (2008). “What Triggers Public Opposition to Immigration? Anxiety, Group Cues, and Immigration Threat.” American Journal of Political Science 52(4): 959–978.
Briggs, Stephen R., Cheek, Jonathan M., and Buss, Arnold H (1980). “An Analysis of the Self-Monitoring Scale.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 38(4): 679.
Brooks, Deborah Jordan (2011). “Testing the Double Standard for Candidate Emotionality: Voter Reactions to the Tears and Anger of Female and Male Politicians.” Journal of Politics 73(2): 597–615.
Brown, Jonathon D., and Gallagher, Frances M. (1992). “Coming to Terms with Failure: Private Self-Enhancement and Public Self-Effacement.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 28(1): 3–22.
Brown, Jonathon D., Collins, Rebecca L., and Schmidt, Greg W. (1988). “Self-Esteem and Direct Versus Indirect Forms of Self-Enhancement.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 55(3): 445–453.
Bryce, James. (1921). Modern Democracies, Vol. 1. New York: Macmillian.
Burden, Barry C., Canon, David T., Mayer, Kenneth R., and Moynihan, Donald P. (2014). “Election Laws, Mobilization, and Turnout: The Unanticipated Consequences of Election Reform.” American Journal of Political Science 58(1): 95–109.
Butler, Daniel M., and Powell, Eleanor Neff (2013). “Understanding the Party Brand: Experimental Evidence on the Role of Valence.” The Journal of Politics 76(2): 492–505.
Cacioppo, John T, Petty, Richard E., Feinstein, Jeffrey A., and Blair, W.Jarvis, G. (1996) “Dispositional Differences in Cognitive Motivation: The Life and Times of Individuals Varying in Need for Cognition.” Psychological Bulletin 119(2) 197–253.
Campbell, Angus, Converse, Philip E., Miller, Warren E., and Stokes, Donald E. (1960). The American Voter. Chicago: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Campbell, Bruce A. (1979). The American Electorate: Attitudes and Action. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Campbell, David E. (2004). “Acts of Faith: Churches and Political Engagement.” Political Behavior 26(2): 155–179
Carmines, Edward G., Gerrity, Jessica C., and Wagner, Michael W. (2008). “Did the Media Do It? The Influence of News Coverage on the 2006 Congressional Elections.” Fault Lines: Why the Republicans Lost Congress (Mondak, Jeffery and Mitchell, Dona-Gene, eds.) New York: Routledge, 22–41.
Carson, Jamie, Koger, Gregory, Lebo, Matthew, and Young, Everett (2010). “The Electoral Costs of Party Loyalty in Congress.” American Journal of Political Science 54(3): 598–616.
Carter, Travis J., Ferguson, Melissa J., and Hassin, Ran R. (2011). “A Single Exposure to the American Flag Shifts Support toward Republicanism up to 8 Months Later.” Psychological Science 22(8): 1011–1018.
Cialdini, Robert B., and Goldstein, Noah J. (2004). “Social Influence: Compliance and Conformity.” Annual Review of Psychology 55: 591–621.
Cohen, Jacob (1988). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.
Craig, Stephen C., Niemi, Richard G, and Silver, Glenn E (1990). “Political Efficacy and Trust: A Report on the NES Pilot Study Items.” Political Behavior 12(3): 289–314.
Darr, Joshua, and Levendusky, Matthew S (2014). “Relying on the Ground Game: The Placement and Effect of Campaign Field Offices.” American Politics Research 42(3): 529–548.
Dennis, Jack (1988). “Political Independence in America, Part I: On Being an Independent Partisan Supporter.” British Journal of Political Science 18(1): 77–109.
Dennis, Jack (1992). “Political Independence in America, Part III: In Search of Closet PartisansPolitical Behavior 14(3): 261–296.
Doherty, David (2013). “To Whom Do People Think Representatives Should Respond: Their District or the Country?” Public Opinion Quarterly 77(1): 237–255.
Dowling, Conor M., and Wichowsky, Amber (2015). “Attacks without Consequence? Candidates, Parties, Groups, and the Changing Face of Negative Advertising.” American Journal of Political Science 59(1): 19–36.
Dropp, Kyle, Jackman, Molly C., and Jackman, Saul (2013). “The Affordable Care Act: An Experiment in Federalism?” Brookings Institution Research Paper.
Druckman, James N. (2004). “Priming the Vote: Campaign Effects in a US Senate Election.” Political Psychology 25(4): 577–594.
Druckman, James N., Green, Don P., Kuklinski, Jim H., and Lupia, Arthur (eds.) (2011). Cambridge Handbook of Experimental Political Science. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Druckman, James N., and Kam, Cindy D. (2011). “Students as Experimental Participants: A Defense of the ‘Narrow Data Base’.” In Cambridge Handbook of Experimental Political Science (Druckman, James, Green, Don P., Kuklinski, Jim H., and Lupia, Arthur, eds.) New York: Cambridge University Press, 41–57.
Druckman, James N and Leeper, Thomas J. (2012) “Learning More from Political Communication Experiments: Pretreatment and Its Effects.” American Journal of Political Science 56(4) 875–896.
Effron, Daniel A., Cameron, Jessica S., and Monin, Benoit (2009). “Endorsing Obama Licenses Favoring Whites.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 45(3): 590–593.
Elving, Ronald D. (1995). Conflict and Compromise: How Congress Makes the Law. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Enos, Ryan D., and Hersh, Eitan D. (2015). “Party Activists as Campaign Advertisers.” American Political Science Review 109(2): 252–278.
Eveland, William P., and Hutchens, Myiah J. (2013). “The Role of Conversation in Developing Accurate Poliftical Perceptions: A Multilevel Social Network Approach.” Human Communication Research 39(4): 422–444.
Faucheux, Ron (ed.) (2003). Winning Elections: Political Campaign Management, Strategy, and Tactics. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Feldman, Stanley, and Conover, Pamela J. (1983). “Candidates, Issues and Voters: The Role of Inference in Political Perception.” The Journal of Politics 45(4): 810–839.
Feldman, Stanley, and Huddy, Leonie (2005). “Racial Resentment and White Opposition to Race-Conscious Programs: Principles or Prejudice?”American Journal of Political Science 49(1): 168–183.
Fiorina, Morris P., (1981). Retrospective Voting in American National Elections. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Fiorina, Morris P. (2012). “If I Could Hold a Seminar for Political Journalists…The Forum 10(4): 2–10.
Fiorina, Morris P., Abrams, Samuel A., and Pope, Jeremy C. (2005). Culture War? The Myth of a Polarized America. New York: Pearson Longman.
Fiorina, Morris P., Abrams, Samuel A. and Pope, Jeremy C. (2008) “Polarization in the American Public: Misconceptions and Misreadings. ” Journal of Politics 70(2): 556–560.
Fowler, James, and Kam, Cindy (2007). “Beyond the Self: Social Identity, Altruism, and Political Participation.” The Journal of Politics 69(3): 813–827.
Fowler, James (2006). “Altruism and Turnout.” The Journal of Politics 68(3): 674–683.
Fowler, Tim, and Hagar, Doug (2013). “‘Liking’ Your Union: Unions and New Social Media during Election Campaigns.” Labor Studies Journal 38(3): 201–228.
Franklin, Charles H. (1984). “Issue Preferences, Socialization, and the Evolution of Party Identification.” American Journal of Political Science 28(3): 459–478.
Franklin, Mark N. (2004). Voter Turnout and the Dynamics of Electoral Competition in Established Democracies since 1945. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Gangestad, Steven W, and Snyder, Mark (2000). “Self-Monitoring: Appraisal and Reappraisal.” Psychological Bulletin 126(4): 530–555.
Gans, Herbert J. (1979). Deciding What's News: A Study of CBS Evening News, NBC Nightly News, Newsweek, and Time. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.
Geer, John (1991). “Do Open-Ended Questions Measure ‘Salient’ Issues?” Public Opinion Quarterly 55(3): 358–368.
Gerber, Alan S., and Green, Donald P. (2000). “The Effects of Canvassing, Telephone Calls, and Direct Mail on Voter Turnout: A Field Experiment.” American Political Science Review 94(3): 653–663.
Gilens, Martin, Sniderman, Paul M., and Kuklinski, James H. (1998). “Affirmative Action and the Politics of Realignment.” British Journal of Political Science 28(1): 159–183.
Goffman, Erving (1959). The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. New York: Anchor Books.
Goffman, Erving (1967). Interaction Ritual: Essays on Face-to-Face Behavior. New York: Anchor Books.
Goldstein, Noah J, Cialdini, Robert B., and Griskevicius, Vladas (2008). “A Room with a Viewpoint: Using Social Norms to Motivate Environmental Conservation in Hotels.” Journal of Consumer Research 35(3): 472–482.
Green, Donald P (1988). “On the Dimensionality of Public Sentiment toward Partisan and Ideological GroupsAmerican Journal of Political Science 32(3): 758–780.
Green, Donald P., and Gerber, Alan S. (2008). Get Out the Vote: How to Increase Voter Turnout, Second Edition. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Green, Donald P., Gerber, Alan S., and Nickerson, David W. (2003). “Getting Out the Vote in Local Elections: Results from Six Door-to-Door Canvassing Experiments.” The Journal of Politics 65(4): 1083–1096.
Green, Donald, Palmquist, Bradley, and Schickler, Eric (2002). Partisan Hearts and Minds: Political Parties and the Social Identities of Voters. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Groenendyk, Eric (2013). Competing Motives in the Partisan Mind: How Loyalty and Responsiveness Shape Party Identification and Democracy. New York: Oxford University Press.
Großer, Jens, and Palfrey, Thomas R. (2014). “Candidate Entry and Political Polarization: An Antimedian Voter Theorem.” American Journal of Political Science 58(1): 127–158.
Gutmann, Amy, and Thompson, Dennis (2010). The Spirit of Compromise: Why Governing Demands It and Campaigning Undermines It. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Hajnal, Zoltan, and Lee, Taeku (2010). Why Americans Don't Join the Party: Race, Immigration and the Failure (of Political Parties) to Engage the Electorate. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Harbridge, Laurel (2015). Is Bipartisanship Dead? Policy Agreement and Agenda-Setting in the House of Representatives. New York: Cambridge University Press
Harbridge, Laurel, and Malhotra, Neil (2011). “Electoral Incentives and Partisan Conflict in Congress: Evidence from Survey Experiments.” American Journal of Political Science 55(3): 494–510.
Harbridge, Laurel, Malhotra, Neil, and Harrison, Brian F. (2014). “Public Preferences for Bipartisanship in the Policymaking Process.” Legislative Quarterly 39(3): 327–355.
Hardy, Bruce, and Jamieson, Kathleen Hall (2005). “Can a Poll Affect Perception of Candidate Traits?” Public Opinion Quarterly 69(5): 725–743.
Heerwig, Jennifer A., and McCabe, Brian J. (2009). “Education and Social Desirability Bias: The Case of a Black Presidential Candidate.” Social Science Quarterly 90(3): 674–686.
Hendry, David J., Jackson, Robert A., and Mondak, Jeffery J. (2008). “Abramoff, Email, and the Mistreated Mistress.” Fault Lines: Why the Republicans Lost Congress (Mondak, Jeffery and Mitchell, Dona-Gene, eds.) New York: Routledge Press, 84–110.
Hersh, Eitan D., and Schaffner, Brian F. (2013). “Targeted Campaign Appeals and the Value of Ambiguity.” The Journal of Politics 75(2): 520–534.
Hibbing, John R., and Theiss-Morse, Elizabeth (1995). Congress as Public Enemy: Public Attitudes toward American Political Institutions. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hibbing, John R., and Theiss-Morse, Elizabeth (2002). Stealth Democracy. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hillygus, D. Sunshine, and Jackman, Simon (2003). “Voter Decision Making in Election 2000: Campaign Effects, Partisan Activation, and the Clinton Legacy.” American Journal of Political Science 47(4): 583–596.
Hirano, Shigeo and Snyder, James M. (2007) “The Decline of Third-Party Voting in the United StatesJournal of Politics 69(1): 1–16.
Holbrook, Allyson L., and Krosnick, Jon A (2010). “Social Desirability Bias in Voter Turnout Reports Tests Using the Item Count Technique.” Public Opinion Quarterly 74(1): 37–67.
Holbrook, Allyson L., Green, Melanie C., and Krosnick, Jon A. (2003). “Telephone Versus Face-to-Face Interviewing of National Probability Samples with Long Questionnaires: Comparisons of Respondent Satisficing and Social Desirability Response Bias.” Public Opinion Quarterly 67(1): 79–125.
Holtgraves, Thomas (1992). “The Linguistic Realization of Face Management: Implications for Language Production and Comprehension, Person Perception, and Cross-Cultural Communication.” Social Psychological Quarterly 55(2): 141–159.
Hoskinson, Kevin (2001). “Ray Bradbury's Cold War Novels.” Ray Bradbury (Bloom, Harold, ed.). Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers, 125–140.
Hosmer, David W., and Lemeshow, Stanley (2000). Applied Logistic Regression. New York: Wiley.
Huber, Gregory A., and Paris, Celia (2013). “Assessing the Programmatic Equivalence Assumption in Question Wording Experiments: Understanding Why Americans Like Assistance to the Poor More Than Welfare.” Public Opinion Quarterly 77(1): 385–397.
Huckfeldt, Robert, Johnson, Paul E., and Sprague, John D. (2004). Political Disagreement: The Survival of Diverse Opinions within Communication Networks. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Huckfeldt, Robert, and Sprague, John D. (1987). “Networks in Context: The Social Flow of Political Information.” American Political Science Review 81(4): 1197–1216.
Huckfeldt, Robert, and Sprague, John D. (1991). “Discussant Effects on Vote Choice: Intimacy, Structure, and Interdependence.” The Journal of Politics 53(1): 122–158.
Huckfeldt, Robert, and Sprague, John D. (1992). “Political Parties and Electoral Mobilization: Political Structure, Social Structure, and the Party Canvass.” American Political Science Review 86(1): 70–86.
Huckfeldt, Robert, and Sprague, John D. (1995). Citizens, Parties, and Social Communication: Information and Influence in an Election Campaign. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Huddy, Leonie, Billig, Joshua, Bracciodieta, John, Hoeffler, Lois, Moynihan, Patrick, and Pugliani, Pat (1997). “The Effects of Interviewer Gender on the Survey Response.” Political Behavior 19(3): 197–220.
Huddy, Leonie, Mason, Lilliana, and Aarøe, Lene (2015). “Expressive Partisanship: Campaign Involvement, Political Emotion, and Partisan Identity.” American Political Science Review 109(1): 1–17.
Hur, Misun, Nasar, Jack L., and Chun, Bumseok (2010). “Neighborhood Satisfaction, Physical and Perceived Naturalness and Openness.” Journal of Environmental Psychology 30(1): 52–59.
Iyengar, Shanto (2005). “Speaking of Values: The Framing of American Politics.” The Forum 3(3): Article 7.
Iyengar, Shanto, Sood, Gourav, and Lelkes, Yptach (2012). “Affect, Not Ideology: A Social Identity Perspective on Polarization.” Public Opinion Quarterly 76(3): 405–431.
Iyengar, Shanto, and Westwood, Sean J. (2014). “Fear and Loathing across Party Lines: New Evidence on Group Polarization.” American Journal of Political Science 59(3): 690–707.
Jackman, Simon, and Sniderman, Paul M. (2006). “The Limits of Deliberative Discussion: A Model of Everyday Political Arguments.” The Journal of Politics 68(2): 272–283.
Jackman, Simon, and Vavreck, Lynn (2009). The 2007–8 Cooperative Campaign Analysis Project. Palo Alto, CA: Polimetrix.
Jacobson, Gary C. (2009). “The Effects of the George W. Bush Presidency on Partisan Attitudes.” Presidential Studies Quarterly 39(2): 172–209.
Kane, Emily, and Macaulay, Laura J (1993). “Interviewer Gender and Gender Attitudes.” Public Opinion Quarterly 57(1): 1–28.
Katz, Elihu (1957). “The Two-Step Flow of Communication: An Up-to-Date Report on an Hypothesis.” Public Opinion Quarterly 21(1): 61–78.
Katz, Elihu, and Lazarsfeld, Paul. F (1955). Personal Influence: The Part Played by People in the Flow of Mass Communications. New York: The Free Press.
Katz, Richard (1979). “The Dimensionality of Party Identification: Cross-National Perspectives.” Comparative Politics 11(2): 147–164.
Keeter, Scott, Zukin, Cliff, Andolina, Moly, and Jenkins, Krista (2002). “Improving the Measurement of Political Participation.” Presented at the Annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association. Chicago (April 25–28, 2002).
Keith, Bruce E., Magleby, David B., Nelson, Candice J., Orr, Elizabeth, Westlye, Mark C., and Wolfinger, Raymond E. (1992). The Myth of the Independent Voter. London: University of California Press
Killian, Linda (2012). The Swing Vote: The Untapped Power of Independents. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Kinder, Donald R., Peters, Mark D., Abelson, Robert P., and Fiske, Susan T. (1980). “Presidential Prototypes.” Political Behavior 2(4): 315–337.
Klar, Samara (2014a). “Partisanship in a Social Setting.” American Journal of Political Science 58(3): 687–704.
Klar, Samara (2014b). “Identity Importance and Political Engagement among American Independents.” Political Psychology 35(4): 577–591.
Klar, Samara (2014c). “A Multidimensional Study of Ideological Preferences and Priorities among the American Public.” Public Opinion Quarterly 78 (Special Issue): 344–359.
Klein, Richard A., Ratliff, Kate, Vianello, Michelangelo, Adams, Reginald B., Bahník, Stepan, Bernstein, Michael J,…Nosek, Brian A. (2014). “Investigating Variation in Replicability: A “Many Labs” Replication Project.” Social Psychology 45(3): 142–152.
Konda, Thomas M., and Sigelman, Lee (1987). “Public Evaluations of the American Parties, 1952–1984.” The Journal of Politics 49(3): 814–829.
Kraus, Sidney (2000). Televised Presidential Debates and Public Policy (2nd ed.). Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Kriner, Douglas L., and Shen, Francis X. (2012). “How Citizens Respond to Combat Casualties: The Differential Impact of Local Casualties on Support for the War in Afghanistan.” Public Opinion Quarterly 76(4): 761–770.
Krupnikov, Yanna (2011). “When Does Negativity Demobilize? Tracing the Conditional Effect of Negative Campaigning on Turnout.” American Journal of Political Science 55(4): 797–813.
Krupnikov, Yanna, and Levine, Adam Seth (2010). “Measuring People's Willingness to Engage in Political Action.” Sourcebook for Political Communication Research: Methods, Measures, and Analytical Techniques. (Bucy, Eric P. and Holbert, Lance, eds.). New York: Routledge149–164.
Krupnikov, Yanna, and Levine, Adam Seth (2014). “Cross-Sample Comparisons and External Validity.” Journal of Experimental Political Science 1(1): 59–80.
Krupnikov, Yanna (2014). “How Negativity Can Increase and Decrease Voter Turnout: The Effect of Timing.” Political Communication 31(3): 446–466.
Krysan, Maria (1998). “Privacy and the Expression of White Racial Attitudes: A Comparison across Three Contexts.” Public Opinion Quarterly 62(4): 506–544.
Kuklinski, James H., Cobb, Michael D., and Gilens, Martin (1997). “Racial Attitudes and the ‘New South’.” The Journal of Politics 59(2): 323–349.
Ladd, Everett Carll (1985). “On Mandates, Realignments, and the 1984 Presidential Election.” Political Science Quarterly 100(1): 1–25.
Laband, David N., Pandit, Ram, Sophocleus, John P., and Laband, Anne M. (2009). “Patriotism, Pigskins, and Politics: an Empirical Examination of Expressive Behavior and Voting.” Public Choice 138(1–2): 97–108.
Lavine, Howard, and Snyder, Mark (1996). “Cognitive Processing and the Functional Matching Effect in Persuasion: The Mediating Role of Subjective Perceptions of Message Quality.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 32(6): 580–604.
Layman, Geoffrey, Carsey, Thomas M., and Horowitz, Juliana Menasce (2006). “Party Polarization in American Politics: Characteristics, Causes, and Consequences.”Annual Review of Political Science 9: 83–110
Lazarsfeld, Paul F., Berelson, Bernard, and Gaudet, Hazel (1948). The People's Choice. New York: Columbia University Press.
Lazer, David, Rubineau, Brian, Chetkovich, Carol, Katz, Nancy, and Neblo, Michael (2010). “The Coevolution of Networks and Political Attitudes.” Political Communication 27(3): 248–274.
Lee, Frances (2009). Beyond Ideology: Politics, Principles and Partisanship in the US Senate. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Leeper, Thomas J., and Mullinix, Kevin J. (2014). “To Whom, and With What Effect? Parallel Experiments on Framing.” Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association. Washington, DC (August 28–August 31, 2014).
Leighley, Jan E., and Nagler, Jonathan (2013). Who Votes Now? Demographics, Issues, Inequality, and Turnout in the United States. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Levendusky, Matthew (2009). Partisan Sort: How Liberals Became Democrats and Conservatives Became Republicans. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Lippa, Richard (1978). “Expressive Control, Expressive Consistency, and the Correspondence between Expressive Behavior and Personality.” Journal of Personality 46(3): 438–461.
Lippmann, Walter (1922). Public Opinion. New York: Harcourt, Brace, and Co.
Lodge, Milton, and Taber, Charles (2013). The Rationalizing Voter. New York. Cambridge University Press.
Long, J. Scott (1997). Regression Models for Categorical and Limited Dependent Variables. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Press.
Lupia, Arthur, and McCubbins, Mathew D. (1998). The Democratic Dilemma: Can Citizens Learn What They Need to Know. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Luskin, Robert C., McIver, James P., and Carmines, Edward G. (1989). “Issues and the Transmission of Partisanship.” American Journal of Political Science 33(2): 440–458.
Magleby, David B., Nelson, Candice J., and Westlye, M. C. (2011). “The Myth of the Independent Voter Revisited.” Facing the Challenge of Democracy: Explorations in the Analysis of Public Opinion and Political Participation (Sniderman, Paul and Highton, Benjamin, eds.). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 238–263.
Makse, Todd, and Sokhey, Anand E. (2014). “The Displaying of Yard Signs as a Form of Political Participation.” Political Behavior 36(1): 189–213.
Masket, Seth (2009). No Middle Ground: How Informal Party Organizations Control Nominations and Polarize Legislatures. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Mason, Lilliana (2014). “I Disrespectfully Agree: The Differential Effects of Partisan Sorting on Social and Issue Polarization.” American Journal of Political Science 59(1): 128–145.
Mattes, Kyle, and Redlawsk, David P. (2014). The Positive Case for Negative Campaigning. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
McClendon, Gwyneth H. (2014). “Social Esteem and Participation in Contentious Politics: A Field Experiment at an LGBT Pride Rally.” American Journal of Political Science 58(2): 279–290.
McDermott, Rose (2011). “Internal and External Validity.” Cambridge Handbook of Experimental Political Science (Druckman, James, Green, Don P., Kuklinski, Jim H., and Lupia, Arthur, eds.). New York: Cambridge University Press, 27–40.
McDonald, Michael P., and Popkin, Samuel L. (2001). “The Myth of the Vanishing Voter.” American Political Science Review 95(4): 963–974.
Mendelberg, Tali (2001). The Race Card. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Messing, Solomon, Franco, Annie, Wilkins, Arjun, Cable, Dustin, and Warshauer, Matthew (2014). “Campaign Rhetoric and Style on Facebook in the 2014 U.S. Midterms.” Facebook Research Note. October 10, 2014:
Middleton, Joel A., and Green, Donald P. (2008). “Do Community-Based Mobilization Campaigns Work Even in Battleground States? Evaluating the Effectiveness of MoveOn's 2004 Outreach Campaign.” Quarterly Journal of Political Science 3(1): 63–82.
Miller, Warren E., and Shanks, J. Merrill (1997). The New American Voter. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Monson, J. Quin (2004). “Get on Television versus Get on the Van: G.O.T.V. and the Ground War in 2002.” The Last Hurrah? Soft Money and Issue Advocacy in the 2002 Congressional Elections (Magleby, David B. and Monson, J. Quin, eds.) Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 90–116.
Mullinix, Kevin J., Druckman, James N., and Freese, Jeremy (2014). “The Generalizability of Survey Experiments.” Institute for Policy Research, Northwestern University, Working Paper.
Mutz, Diana C. (2002). “The Consequences of Cross-Cutting Networks for Political Participation.” American Journal of Political Science 46(4): 838–855.
Mutz, Diana, and Reeves, Byron (2005). “The New Videomalaise: Effects of Televised Incivility on Political Trust.” American Political Science Review 99(1): 1–15.
Nall, Clayton, and Mummolo, Jonathan (2014). “Why Partisans Don't Sort: How Quality Concerns Trump Americans’ Desire for Like-Minded Neighbors.” Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association. Chicago (April 3–6, 2014).
Nicholson, Stephen P., and Segura, Gary M. (2012). “Who's the Party of the People? Economic Populism and the U.S. Public's Beliefs about Political Parties.” Political Behavior 34(2): 369–389.
Niemi, Richard, and Jennings, M. Kent (1991). “Issues and Inheritance in the Formation of Party Identification.” American Journal of Political Science 35(4): 970–988.
Norpoth, Helmut (1987). “Under Way and Here to Stay: Party Realignment in the 1980s?” Public Opinion Quarterly 51(3): 376–391.
Oltmanns, Thomas F., Gleason, Marci E. J., Klonsky, E. David, and Turkheimer, Eric (2005). “Meta-Perception for Pathological Personality Traits: Do We Know When Others Think That We Are Difficult?” Consciousness and Cognition 14(4): 739–751.
Oosterhof, Nikolaas, and Todorov, Alexander (2009). “Shared Perceptual Basis of Emotional Expressions and Trustworthiness: Impressions from Faces.” Emotion 9(1): 128–133
Paivio, Allan, and Csapo, Kalman (1971). “Short-Term Sequential Memory for Pictures and Words.” Psychonomic Science 24(2): 50–51.
Panagopoulos, Costas (2009). “Partisan and Nonpartisan Message Content and Voter Mobilization: Field Experimental Evidence.” Political Research Quarterly 62(1): 70–76.
Petersen, Michael B., and Aarøe, Lene (2013). “Politics in the Mind's Eye: Imagination as a Link between Social and Political Cognition.” American Political Science Review 107(2): 275–293.
Pomper, Gerald (1976). “Impacts on the Political System.” American Electoral Behavior: Change and Stability. (Kirkpatric, Samuel, ed) Beverly Hills: Sage Publications. 137–143.
Pope, Jeremy C. (2012). “Voting vs. Thinking: Unified Partisan Voting Does Not Imply Unified Partisan Beliefs.” The Forum 10(3): Article 5.
Price, Vincent, Cappella, Joseph N., and Nir, Lilach (2002). “Argument Repertoire as a Reliable and Valid Measure of Opinion Quality: Electronic Dialogue during Campaign 2000.” Political Communication 19(1): 73–93.
Prior, Markus (2012). “Who Watches Presidential Debates? Measurement Problems in Campaign Effects Research.” Public Opinion Quarterly 76(2): 350–363.
Prior, Markus (2014). “Visual Political Knowledge: A Different Road to Competence?” The Journal of Politics 76(1): 41–57.
Pronin, Emily (2009). “The Introspection Illusion” Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 41 (Zanna, Mark, ed.). Burlington. VT: Elsevier Press, 1–67.
Ranney, Austin (ed.) (1979). The Past and Future of Presidential Debates. Washington DC: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research.
Reeves, Keith (1997). Voting Hopes or Fears? White Voters, Black Candidates, and Racial Politics in America. New York: Oxford University Press.
Rivers, Douglas (2006). “Sample Matching: Representative Sampling from Internet Panels.” Polimetrix White Paper Series.
Rodriguez-Bailon, Rosa, Moya, Miguel, and Yzerbyt, Vincent (2000). “Why Do Superiors Attend to Negative Stereotypic Information about Their Subordinates? Effects of Power Legitimacy on Social Perception.” European Journal of Social Psychology 30: 651–671.
Rolfe, Meredith (2012). Voter Turnout: A Social Theory of Political Participation. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Rosenstone, Steven, and Hansen, John M. (1993). Mobilization, Participation, and Democracy in America. New York: MacMillan.
Rowatt, Wade C., Cunninghan, Michael, and Druen, Perri B. (1998). “Deception to Get a Date.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 24(11): 1228–1242.
Roy, Robin E., Weibust, Kristin S., and Miller, Carol T. (2007). “Effects of Stereotypes about Feminists on Feminist Self-Identification.” Psychology of Women Quarterly 31(2): 146–156.
Ryan, John Barry (2013). “An Experimental Study of Persuasive Communication.” Political Communication 30(1): 100–116
Sanders, David, Clarke, Harold D., and Stewart, Marianne (2007). “Does Mode Matter for Modeling Political Choice? Evidence from the 2005 British Election Study.” Political Analysis 15(3): 257–285.
Saramäki, Jari, Leicht, E. A., López, Eduardo, Roberts, Sam, Reed-Tsochas, Felix, and Dunbar, Robin (2014). “Persistence of Social Signatures in Human Communication.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111(3): 942–947.
Schattschneider, E. E. (1942). Party Government: American Government in Action. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Scheufele, Dietram A. (2002). “Examining Differential Gains from Mass Media and Their Implications for Participatory Behavior.” Communication Research 29(1): 46–65.
Schlenker, Barry R., and Weigold, Michael F. (1989). “Goals and the Self-Identification Process: Constructing Desired Identities.” Goal Concepts in Personality and Social Psychology (Pervin, , ed.) Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 243–290.
Schlenker, Barry R., and Weigold, Michael F. (1992). “Interpersonal Processes Involving Impression Regulation and Management.” Annual Review of Psychology 43: 133–168.
Sears, David O. (1969). “Political Behavior.” Handbook of Social Psychology, Vol. 5, Second Edition (Lindzey, and Aronson, , eds.) Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 315–458.
Sears, David O. (1986) “College Sophomores in the Laboratory: Influences of a Narrow Databse on Psychology's View of Human NatureJournal of Personality and Social Psychology 51(3) 515–530.
Settle, Jaime, Bond, Robert M., Coviello, Lorenzo, Farriss, Christopher J., Fowler, James H. and Jones, Jason J. (forthcoming) “From Posting to Voting: The Effects of Political Competition on Online Political Engagement.” Political Science Research and Methods. FirstView Article.
Shadish, William R., Cook, Thomas D., and Campbell, Donald T. (2001). Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs for Generalized Causal Inference. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Shaffer, Leigh S. (1983). “Toward Pepitone's Vision of a Normative Social Psychology: What Is a Social Norm?” Journal of Mind and Behavior 4(2): 275–293.
Shaw, Daron (2004). “Erratum for ‘The Methods behind the Madness: Presidential Electoral College Strategies, 1989–1999.’The Journal of Politics 66(2): 611–615.
Shea, Daniel M., and Burton, Michael John (2006). Campaign Craft: The Strategies, Tactics, and Art of Political Campaign Management, 3rd edition. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Sinclair, Betsy (2012). The Social Citizen: Peer Networks and Political Behavior. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Sinclair, Betsy, McConnell, Margaret, and Michelson, Melissa R. (2013). “Local Canvassing: The Efficacy of Grassroots Voter Mobilization.” Political Communication 30(1): 42–57.
Sirgy, M. Joseph, and Cornwell, Terri (2002). “How Neighborhood Features Affect Quality of Life.” Social Indicators Research 59(1): 79–114.
Smidt, Corwin D. (2014). “Dynamics in Partisanship during American Presidential Campaigns.” Public Opinion Quarterly 78(S1): 303–329.
Smith, Aaron, and Rainie, Lee (2008). “The Internet and the 2008 Election.” Pew Internet and American Life Project.
Sniderman, Paul M., and Carmines, Edward G. (1997). “Reaching Beyond Race.” PS: Political Science & Politics 30(3): 466–471.
Snyder, Mark (1974). “Self-Monitoring of Expressive Behavior.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 30(4): 526–537.
Snyder, Mark (1979). “Cognitive, Behavioral, and Interpersonal Consequences of Self-Monitoring.” Advances in the Study of Communication and Affect: Perception of Emotion in Self and Others (Pliner, Patricia, Blankstein, Kirk, and Spiegel, Irwin M., eds.) New York: Plenum Press, 181–202.
Snyder, Mark (1987). Public Appearances, Private Realities: The Psychology of Self-Monitoring. New York: W.H. Freeman/Henry Holt & Co.
Snyder, Mark, Gangestad, Steve, and Simpson, Jeffry A. (1983). “Choosing Friends as Activity Partners: The Role of Self-Monitoring.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 45(5): 1061–1072.
Snyder, Mark and Simpson, Jeffry A. (1984). “Self-Monitoring and Dating Relationships.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 47(6): 1281–1291.
Stieglitz, Stefan, Brockmann, Tobias, and Dang-Xuan, Ling (2012). “Usage of Social Media for Political Communication.” Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems 2012 Proceedings. Paper 22.
Stimson, James A. (1990). “A Macro Theory of Information Flow.” Information and Democratic Processes (Kuklinski, James and Ferejohn, John, eds.) Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press, 345–368.
Stimson, James A. (1993). “The Myth of the Independent Voter (Review).” American Political Science Review 87(2): 494–495.
Strahan, Erin J., Wilson, Anne E., Cressman, Kate E., and Buote, Vanessa (2006). “Comparing to Perfection: How Cultural Norms for Appearance Affect Social Comparisons and Self-Image.” Body Image 3(3): 211–227.
Streb, Matthew J., Burrell, Barbara, Frederick, Brian, and Genovese, Michael A. (2008). “Social Desirability Effects and Support for a Female American President.” Public Opinion Quarterly 72(1): 76–89.
Tamas, Bernard, and Hindman, Matthew Dean (2014). “Ballot Access Laws and the Decline of American Third-Parties.” Election Law Journal: Rules, Politics, and Policy 13(2): 260–276.
Taber, Charles S., and Lodge, Milton (2006). “Motivated Skepticism in the Evaluation of Political Beliefs.” American Journal of Political Science 50(3): 755–769.
Terkildsen, Nayda (1993). “When White Voters Evaluate Black Candidates: The Processing Implications of Candidate Skin Color, Prejudice, and Self-Monitoring.” American Journal of Political Science 37(4): 1032–1053.
Valentino, Nicholas A., Hutchings, Vincent L., and White, Ismail K. (2002). “Cues that Matter: How Political Ads Prime Racial Attitudes during Campaigns.” American Political Science Review 96(1): 75–90.
Vavreck, Lynn (2007). “The Exaggerated Effects of Advertising on Turnout: The Dangers of Self-Reports.” Quarterly Journal of Political Science 2(4): 287–305.
Verba, Sidney, Schlozman, Kay. L., and Brady, Henry (1995). Voice and Equality: Civic Voluntarism in American Politics. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Wallack, Grace, and Hudak, John (2014). “How Much Did Your Vote Cost? Spending Per Voter in the 2014 Senate Races” FixGov Blog, Brookings Institute.
Walsh, Katherine Cramer (2004). Talking about Politics: Informal Groups and Social Identity in American Life. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Wattenberg, Martin P. (1986). The Decline of American Political Parties: 1952–1954. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Weber, Christopher, and Federico, Christopher (2013). “Moral Foundations and Heterogeneity in Ideological Preferences.” Political Psychology 34(1): 107–126.
Weber, Christopher, Lavine, Howard, Huddy, Leonie, and Federico, Christopher (2014). “Placing Racial Stereotypes in Context: Social Desirability and the Politics of Racial Hostility.” American Journal of Political Science 58(1): 63–78.
Weisberg, Herbert F. (1980). “A Multidimensional Conceptualization of Party Identification.” Political Behavior 2(1): 33–60.
Weisberg, Herbert (1993). “The Myth of the Independent Voter. By Bruce E. Keith; David B. Magleby; Candice J. Nelson; Elizabeth Orr; Mark C. Westlye; Raymond E. Wolfinger (Review).” Public Opinion Quarterly 57(3): 428–430.
Wolfinger, Raymond E. (1995). “The Promising Adolescence of Campaign Surveys.” Campaigns and Elections American Style (Thurber, James A. and Nelson, Candice J., eds.) Boulder, CO: Westview, 181–191.
Wolfinger, Raymond E. and Rosenstone, Steven J. (1980). Who Votes? New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Zaccaro, Stephen J., Foti, Roseanne, and Kenny, David A. (1991). “Self-Monitoring and Trait-Based Variance in Leadership: An Investigation of Leader Flexibility across Multiple Group Situations.” Journal of Applied Psychology 76(2): 308–315.
Zaller, John (ed.) (1992). The Nature and Origins of Mass Opinion. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Zaller, John, and Feldman, Stanley (1992). “A Simple Theory of the Survey Response: Answering Questions versus Revealing Preferences.” American Journal of Political Science 36(3): 579–616.
Zhang, Weiwu, Johnson, Thomas J., Seltzer, Trent, and Bichard, Shannon L. (2010). “The Revolution Will Be Networked: The Influence of Social Network Sites on Political Attitudes and Behaviors.” Social Science Computer Review 28(1): 75–92.
Zimbardo, Philip G. (2007). The Lucifer Effect: Understanding How Good People Turn Evil. New York: Random House.


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between #date#. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed